... center of the field of vision. Macular degeneration results from a partial breakdown of the insulating layer ... of blood vessels behind the retina. Macular degeneration results in the loss of central vision only.
... happens when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. Your gradually lose your central vision. A common early symptom is that straight lines appear crooked. Regular comprehensive eye exams can detect macular degeneration before the disease causes vision loss. Treatment can ...
Macular degeneration is a disease of the retina that affects the macula in the back of the eye. ... see fine details. There are two types of macular degeneration, dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is more ...
... developing macular degeneration. Include fish in your diet. Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fish, may ... macular degeneration. Nuts, such as walnuts, also contain omega-3 fatty acids. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...
Chalifoux, L. M.
This article presents information on macular degeneration for professionals helping persons with this disease adjust to their visual loss. It covers types of macular degeneration, the etiology of the disease, and its treatment. Also considered are psychosocial problems and other difficulties that persons with age-related macular degeneration face.…
... has a hereditary component. Researchers have identified several genes related to developing the condition. Smoking. Smoking cigarettes or being regularly exposed to smoke significantly increases your risk of macular degeneration. Obesity. Research indicates that being obese increases the chance ...
Klein, Michael L.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Francis, Peter J.; Lindblad, Anne S.; Chew, Emily Y.; Hamon, Sara C.; Ott, Jurg
Purpose To determine if genotype is associated with rate of growth of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective analysis of participants in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants 114 eyes of 114 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Fundus photographs from AREDS participants with GA from whom a DNA specimen had been obtained and serial photographs had been taken over a minimum of 2 years were evaluated for progression as determined by change in cumulative area of GA. All fundus photographs were scanned, digitized, and centrally graded longitudinally for area of GA. The relationship of GA progression with previously identified genetic variants associated with AMD was assessed. Main Outcome Measures Genotype frequencies and change in cumulative area of GA. Results The mean growth rate of geographic atrophy for the 114 eyes was 1.79 mm2/year (range= 0.17–4.76 mm2/year). No association between growth rate and genotype was present for variants in the CFH, C2, C3, APOE, and TLR3genes. For the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10490924 in LOC387715/ARMS2, there was a significant association of GA growth rate, both adjusted and unadjusted for initial lesion size, with the homozygous risk genotype as compared to the homozygous non-risk genotype (unadjusted p-value = 0.002; Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.014) and for allelic association(Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.011). Analyses of other measures of geographic atrophy progression (progression to central GA from extrafoveal GA and development of bilateral GA in those initially with unilateral GA) showed no statistically significant association between progression and the LOC387715/ARMS2/HTRA1 genotype. Conclusion GA growth rates calculated from digitized serial fundus photographs showed no association with variants in the CFH, C2, C3, APOE, and TLR3 genes. There was a nominally statistically significant association
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases
Altschwager, Pablo; Ambrosio, Lucia; Swanson, Emily A.; Moskowitz, Anne; Fulton, Anne B.
In this paper we review three common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and genetic testing. Early diagnosis promotes optimal management. While there is currently no definitive cure for these conditions, therapeutic modalities under investigation include pharmacologic treatment, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation. PMID:28941524
Altschwager, Pablo; Ambrosio, Lucia; Swanson, Emily A; Moskowitz, Anne; Fulton, Anne B
In this article, we review the following 3 common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography imaging, and genetic testing. Early diagnosis promotes optimal management. Although there is currently no definitive cure for these conditions, therapeutic modalities under investigation include pharmacologic treatment, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alvarez, S L; King-Smith, P E; Bhargava, S K
Spectral sensitivities were measured in 18 normal eyes, 9 eyes in patients with senile macular degeneration, 4 patients with Stargardt's juvenile macular degeneration (JMD), and 2 patients without conclusive signs--that is, genetic or morphological abnormalities--to indicate the cause of loss of central vision. Spectral sensitivity, testing for which included measurements on white, yellow, purple, and blue backgrounds, is here used as an aid in differential diagnosis for cases of macular degeneration. PMID:6871142
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...
Kitakawa, Takaaki; Hayashi, Takaaki; Tsuzuranuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Akiko; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi
We investigated differences in color discrimination between the fellow eye and the affected eye successfully treated for unilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a 69-year-old male patient with protanopia. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.2 in the right eye (RE) and 0.2 in the left eye (LE). Fundus and angiographic findings showed classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to AMD in the LE. BCVA of the LE improved to 0.4, and CNV resolved by 15 months after initiating combined anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and photodynamic therapies. After CNV closure, the Farnsworth dichotomous was performed, showing confusion patterns of the protan axis in either eye. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test showed a total error score of 520 in the LE, much higher than the score of 348 in the RE. Complete genotypes of the long-wavelength-sensitive (L-) cone and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M-) cone opsin genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction, revealing that the patient had a single 5' L-M 3' hybrid gene (encoding an M-cone opsin), with this genotype responsible for protanopia (the L-cone opsin gene was non-functional), instead of the L-cone and M-cone opsin gene arrays. Poorer color vision discrimination in the LE than the RE remained present despite closure of CNV. The presence and type of congenital color vision defect can be confirmed using molecular genetic testing even if complications of acquired retinal diseases such as AMD are identified.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Querques, Giuseppe; Avellis, Fernando Onofrio; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Souied, Eric H
Clinical question: Is there any new knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Results: We now understand better the biochemical and pathological pathways involved in the genesis of AMD. Treatment of exudative AMD is based on intravitreal injection of new antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs for which there does not yet exist a unique recognized strategy of administration. No therapies are actually available for atrophic AMD, despite some experimental new pharmacological approaches. Implementation: strategy of administration, safety of intravitreal injection PMID:21654887
Stasiukonyte, Neringa; Liutkeviciene, Rasa; Vilkeviciute, Alvita; Banevicius, Mantas; Kriauciuniene, Loresa
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in elderly individuals in developed countries. The etiology and pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration have not been elucidated yet. Knowing that the main pathological change of age-related macular degeneration is formation of drusen containing about 40% of lipids, there have been attempts to find associations between age-related macular degeneration and genes controlling lipid metabolism. To determine the frequency of CYP2C19 (G681A) Rs4244285 and CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 genotypes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. The study enrolled 150 patients with early age-related macular degeneration and 296 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The genotyping of Rs4244285 and Rs762551 was carried out by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/C genotype was more frequently detected in patients with age-related macular degeneration than in the control group (32.7% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.011) and was associated with an increased risk of developing early age-related macular degeneration (OR = 1.759, 95% CI: 1.133-2.729; p = 0.012). The CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/A genotype was more frequently documented in the control group compared with patients with age-related macular degeneration (46.3% vs. 30.7%, p = 0.002) and was associated with a decreased risk of having age-related macular degeneration (OR = 0.580. 95% CI: 0.362-0.929, p = 0.023) in the co-dominant model. The study showed that the CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/C genotype was associated with an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration.
Morrison, Margaux A.; Magalhaes, Tiago R.; Ramke, Jacqueline; Smith, Silvia E.; Ennis, Sean; Simpson, Claire L.; Portas, Laura; Murgia, Federico; Ahn, Jeeyun; Dardenne, Caitlin; Mayne, Katie; Robinson, Rosann; Morgan, Denise J.; Brian, Garry; Lee, Lucy; Woo, Se J.; Zacharaki, Fani; Tsironi, Evangelia E.; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.; Park, Kyu H.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Stambolian, Dwight; DeAngelis, Margaret M.
We observed that the third leading cause of blindness in the world, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), occurs at a very low documented frequency in a population-based cohort from Timor-Leste. Thus, we determined a complete catalog of the ancestry of the Timorese by analysis of whole exome chip data and haplogroup analysis of SNP genotypes determined by sequencing the Hypervariable I and II regions of the mitochondrial genome and 17 genotyped YSTR markers obtained from 535 individuals. We genotyped 20 previously reported AMD-associated SNPs in the Timorese to examine their allele frequencies compared to and between previously documented AMD cohorts of varying ethnicities. For those without AMD (average age > 55 years), genotype and allele frequencies were similar for most SNPs with a few exceptions. The major risk allele of HTRA1 rs11200638 (10q26) was at a significantly higher frequency in the Timorese, as well as 3 of the 5 protective CFH (1q32) SNPs (rs800292, rs2284664, and rs12066959). Additionally, the most commonly associated AMD-risk SNP, CFH rs1061170 (Y402H), was also seen at a much lower frequency in the Korean and Timorese populations than in the assessed Caucasian populations (C ~7 vs. ~40%, respectively). The difference in allele frequencies between the Timorese population and the other genotyped populations, along with the haplogroup analysis, also highlight the genetic diversity of the Timorese. Specifically, the most common ancestry groupings were Oceanic (Melanesian and Papuan) and Eastern Asian (specifically Han Chinese). The low prevalence of AMD in the Timorese population (2 of 535 randomly selected participants) may be due to the enrichment of protective alleles in this population at the 1q32 locus. PMID:26217379
Cheung, Lily K; Eaton, Angie
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after age 50 years. It is a multifactorial disease involving a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, metabolic, and functional factors. Besides smoking, hypertension, obesity, and certain dietary habits, a growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and the immune system may play a key role in the development of the disease. AMD may progress from the early form to the intermediate form and then to the advanced form, where two subtypes exist: the nonneovascular (dry) type and the neovascular (wet) type. The results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study have shown that for the nonneovascular type of AMD, supplementation with high-dose antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene) and zinc is recommended for those with the intermediate form of AMD in one or both eyes or with advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in one eye. As for the neovascular type of the advanced AMD, the current standard of therapy is intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. In addition, lifestyle and dietary modifications including improved physical activity, reduced daily sodium intake, and reduced intake of solid fats, added sugars, cholesterol, and refined grain foods are recommended. To date, no study has demonstrated that AMD can be cured or effectively prevented. Clearly, more research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology as well as to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Geerlings, M J; Volokhina, E B; de Jong, E K; van de Kar, N; Pauper, M; Hoyng, C B; van den Heuvel, L P; den Hollander, A I
Genetic alterations in the complement system have been linked to a variety of diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We performed sequence analysis of the complement genes CFH, CFI, and C3 in 866 aHUS/C3G and 697 AMD patients. In total we identified 505 low frequency alleles, representing 121 unique variants, of which 51 are novel. CFH contained the largest number of unique low frequency variants (n=64; 53%), followed by C3 (n=32; 26%) and CFI (n=25; 21%). A substantial number of variants were found in both patients groups (n=48; 40%), while 41 (34%) variants were found only in aHUS/C3G and 32 (26%) variants were AMD-specific. Genotype-phenotype correlations between the disease groups identified a higher frequency of protein-altering alleles in SCR20 of Factor H (FH), and in the serine protease domain of Factor I (FI) in aHUS/C3G patients. In AMD a higher frequency of protein-altering alleles was observed in SCR3, SCR5 and SCR7 of FH, the SRCR domain of FI, and in the MG3 domain of C3. In conclusion, we observed a substantial overlap of variants between aHUS/C3G and AMD, however, there is a distinct clustering of variants within specific domains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Francis, Peter James
Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a complex etiology arising from genetic and environmental influences. This past decade have seen several genes associated with the disease. Variants in five genes have been confirmed to play a major role. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether genes influence treatment response to ranibizumab for neovascular AMD. The hypothesis was that an individual’s genetic variation will determine treatment response. Methods The study was a two-site prospective open-label observational study of patients newly diagnosed with exudative (neovascular) AMD receiving intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. Treatment-naïve patients were enrolled at presentation and received monthly “as needed” therapy. Clinical data was collected monthly and DNA extracted. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina (San Diego, California) 660-Quad single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Regression analyses were performed to identify SNPs associated with treatment-response end points. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled. No serious adverse events were recorded. The primary outcome measure was change in ETDRS visual acuity at 12 months. A SNP in the CFH gene was found to be associated with less improvement in visual acuity while receiving ranibizumab therapy. The C3 gene, among others, was associated with reduced thickening and improved retinal architecture. VEGFA, FLT1, and CFH were associated with requiring fewer ranibizumab injections over the 12-month study. Conclusions This study is one of the first prospective pharmacogenetic study of intravitreal ranibizumab. Although preliminary, the results identify a number of putative genetic variants, which will be further examined by replication and functional studies to elucidate the complete pharmacogenetic architecture of therapy for AMD. PMID:22253485
Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…
Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.
This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…
Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979
Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P; Gelfand, Bradley D
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population.
Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D
Purpose: Although important progress has been made in understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), management of the disease continues to be a challenge. AMD research has led to a widening of available treatment options and improved prognostic perspectives. This essay reviews these treatment options. Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Current treatments to preserve vision in patients with non-exudative AMD include antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementations. Exudative AMD is currently most often treated monthly with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. However, investigators are beginning to experiment with combination therapy and surgical approaches in an attempt to limit the number of treatment and reduce the financial burden on the health care system. Conclusion: By better understanding the basis and pathogenesis of AMD, newer therapies will continue to be developed that target specific pathways in patients with AMD, with the hoped for outcome of better management of the disease and improved visual acuity. PMID:19668560
Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula. PMID:20862519
Singh, Niharika; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Muralidharan, Vinata; Roy, Rupak; V, Jayprakash; Raman, Rajiv
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compromises quality of life. However, the available therapeutic options are limited. This has led to the identification of modifiable risk factors to prevent the development or alter the natural course and prognosis of AMD. The identification and modification of risk factors has the potential for greater public health impact on reducing morbidity from AMD. Likewise, identifying the imaging clues and genetic clues could serve as a guide to recognizing the propensity for progression to severe and end stages of the disease. Several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, have been made for interventions that could delay the progression of AMD. Of these, pharmacological interventions have shown promising results. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 and 2 have shown the beneficial role of antioxidants in a selected group of patients. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
Wong, Ian Yat Hin; Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula.
Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of central blindness in elderly population of the western world. The pathogenesis of this disease, likely multifactorial, is not well known, although a number of theories have been put forward, including oxidative stress, genetic interactions, hemodynamic imbalance, immune and inflammatory processes. The understanding of age-related macular degeneration pathogenesis will give rise to new approaches in prevention and treatment of the early and late stages of both atrophic and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Lana, Tamires Prates; da Silva Costa, Sueli Matilde; Ananina, Galina; Hirata, Fábio Endo; Rim, Priscila Hae Hyun; Medina, Flávio MacCord; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; de Melo, Mônica Barbosa
Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease that can lead to vision impairment in older individuals. Although the etiology of age-related macular degeneration remains unknown, risk factors include age, ethnicity, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and genetic factors. Two main loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies, on chromosomes 1 and 10. Among the variants located at the 10q26 region, rs11200638, located at the HTRA1 gene promoter, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration in several populations and is considered the main polymorphism. We conducted a replication case-control study to analyze the frequency and participation of rs11200638 in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration in a sample of patients and controls from the State of São Paulo, Brazil, through polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion. The frequency of the A allele was 57.60% in patients with age-related macular degeneration and 36.45% in controls (p value < 1e-07), representing a 2.369-fold higher risk factor for the disease. Both the AA and AG genotypes were observed more frequently in the age-related macular degeneration group compared to the control group (p = 1.21 e-07 and 0.0357, respectively). No statistically significant results were observed after stratification in dry versus wet types or advanced versus non-advanced forms. To our knowledge, this is the first time the association between rs11200638 and overall age-related macular degeneration has been reported in South America.
Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos
Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of
Mendez, Carlos A Medina; Ehlers, Justis P
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe irreversible vision loss in patients over the age of 50 years in the developed world. Neovascular AMD (NVAMD) is responsible for 90% of the cases with severe visual loss. In the last decade, the treatment paradigm for NVAMD has been transformed by the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Despite the excellent results of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, frequent injections remain a necessity for most patients. The burden of these frequent visits as well as the cumulative risks of indefinite intravitreal injections demand continued pursuit of more enduring therapy that provides similar functional results. Radiotherapy has been studied for two decades as a potential therapy for NVAMD. Because of its antiangiogenic properties, radiation therapy remains a promising potential adjunctive resource for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to NVAMD. This review considers the past, present and future of radiation as a treatment or combination treatment of NVAMD. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444
Wright, Charles B.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of irreversible blindness in the industrially developed world, can present years before a patient begins to lose vision. For most of these patients, AMD never progresses past its early stages to the advanced forms that are principally responsible for the vast majority of vision loss. Advanced AMD can manifest as either an advanced avascular form known as geographic atrophy (GA) marked by regional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death or as an advanced form known as neovascular AMD marked by the intrusion of fragile new blood vessels into the normally avascular retina. Physicians have several therapeutic interventions available to combat neovascular AMD, but GA has no approved effective therapies as of yet. In this chapter, we will discuss the current strategies for limiting dry AMD in patients. We will also discuss previous attempts at pharmacological intervention that were tested in a clinical setting and consider reasons why these putative therapeutics did not perform successfully in large-scale trials. Despite the number of unsuccessful past trials, new pharmacological interventions may succeed. These future therapies may aid millions of AMD patients worldwide. PMID:27900609
Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries (Congdon 2003). Recent epidemiologic, genetic and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and/or progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 9), MEDLINE (January 1950 to September 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to September 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 16 September 2011. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria. Two Italian speaking colleagues extracted data. One author entered data. We did not perform a meta-analysis because only one completed RCT was identified. Main results Two studies met the selection criteria. One trial reported insufficient details to assess the risk of bias; the other trial is ongoing. Of the completed trial, the
Liu, Tingting; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Schuchard, Ronald A; Glielmi, Christopher B; Hu, Xiaoping; He, Sheng; Legge, Gordon E
Activity in regions of the visual cortex corresponding to central scotomas in subjects with macular degeneration (MD) is considered evidence for functional reorganization in the brain. Three unresolved issues related to cortical activity in subjects with MD were addressed: Is the cortical response to stimuli presented to the preferred retinal locus (PRL) different from other retinal loci at the same eccentricity? What effect does the role of age of onset and etiology of MD have on cortical responses? How do functional responses in an MD subject's visual cortex vary for task and stimulus conditions? Eight MD subjects-four with age-related onset (AMD) and four with juvenile onset (JMD)-and two age-matched normal vision controls, participated in three testing conditions while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). First, subjects viewed a small stimulus presented at the PRL compared with a non-PRL control location to investigate the role of the PRL. Second, they viewed a full-field flickering checkerboard compared with a small stimulus in the original fovea to investigate brain activation with passive viewing. Third, they performed a one-back task with scene images to investigate brain activation with active viewing. A small stimulus at the PRL generated more extensive cortical activation than at a non-PRL location, but neither yielded activation in the foveal cortical projection. Both passive and active viewing of full-field stimuli left a silent zone at the posterior pole of the occipital cortex, implying a lack of complete cortical reorganization. The silent zone was smaller in the task requiring active viewing compared with the task requiring passive viewing, especially in JMD subjects. The PRL for MD subjects has more extensive cortical representation than a retinal region with matched eccentricity. There is evidence for incomplete functional reorganization of early visual cortex in both JMD and AMD. Functional reorganization is more prominent
Maniglia, Marcello; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Soler, Vincent; Trotter, Yves
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a visual disease that affects elderly population. It entails a progressive loss of central vision whose consequences are dramatic for the patient’s quality of life. Current rehabilitation programs are restricted to technical aids based on visual devices. They only temporarily improve specific visual functions such as reading skills. Considering the rapid increase of the aging population worldwide, it is crucial to intensify clinical research on AMD in order to develop simple and efficient methods that improve the patient’s visual performances in many different contexts. One very promising approach to face this challenge is based on perceptual learning (PL). Through intensive practice, PL can induce neural plasticity in sensory cortices and result in long-lasting enhancements for various perceptual tasks in both normal and visually impaired populations. A growing number of studies showed how appropriate PL protocols improve visual functions in visual disorders, namely amblyopia, presbyopia or myopia. In order to successfully apply these approaches to more severe conditions such as AMD, numerous challenges have to be overcome. Indeed, the overall elderly age of patients and the reduced cortical surface that is devoted to peripheral vision potentially limit neural plasticity in this population. In addition, ocular fixation becomes much less stable because patients have to rely on peripheral fixation spots outside the scotoma whose size keeps on evolving. The aim of this review article is to discuss the recent literature on this topic and to offer a unified approach for developing new rehabilitation programs of AMD using PL. We argue that with an appropriate experimental and training protocol that is adapted to each patient needs, PL can offer fascinating opportunities for the development of simple, non-expensive rehabilitation approaches a large spectrum of visual functions in AMD patients. PMID:28082876
... it on the Line Hollywood Hero Focuses on Macular Degeneration Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... going strong at 91, and speaking out on macular degeneration for the National Eye Institute. Photo courtesy of ...
Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping
Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Cheung, Sing-Hang; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Glielmi, Christopher B.; Hu, Xiaoping; He, Sheng; Legge, Gordon E.
Purpose. Activity in regions of the visual cortex corresponding to central scotomas in subjects with macular degeneration (MD) is considered evidence for functional reorganization in the brain. Three unresolved issues related to cortical activity in subjects with MD were addressed: Is the cortical response to stimuli presented to the preferred retinal locus (PRL) different from other retinal loci at the same eccentricity? What effect does the role of age of onset and etiology of MD have on cortical responses? How do functional responses in an MD subject's visual cortex vary for task and stimulus conditions? Methods. Eight MD subjects—four with age-related onset (AMD) and four with juvenile onset (JMD)—and two age-matched normal vision controls, participated in three testing conditions while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). First, subjects viewed a small stimulus presented at the PRL compared with a non-PRL control location to investigate the role of the PRL. Second, they viewed a full-field flickering checkerboard compared with a small stimulus in the original fovea to investigate brain activation with passive viewing. Third, they performed a one-back task with scene images to investigate brain activation with active viewing. Results. A small stimulus at the PRL generated more extensive cortical activation than at a non-PRL location, but neither yielded activation in the foveal cortical projection. Both passive and active viewing of full-field stimuli left a silent zone at the posterior pole of the occipital cortex, implying a lack of complete cortical reorganization. The silent zone was smaller in the task requiring active viewing compared with the task requiring passive viewing, especially in JMD subjects. Conclusions. The PRL for MD subjects has more extensive cortical representation than a retinal region with matched eccentricity. There is evidence for incomplete functional reorganization of early visual cortex in both JMD and AMD
Stefánsson, Einar; Geirsdóttir, Asbjörg; Sigurdsson, Haraldur
Ischemia and hypoxia have been implicated in the pathophysiology of age related macular degeneration (AMD). This has mostly been based on studies on choroidal perfusion, which is not the only contributor to retinal hypoxia found in AMD eyes. Other features of AMD may also interfere with retinal oxygen metabolism including confluent drusen, serous or hemorrhagic retinal detachment, retinal edema and vitreoretinal adhesion. Each of these features contributes to retinal hypoxia: the drusen and retinal elevation by increasing the distance between the choriocapillaris and retina; vitreoretinal adhesion by reducing diffusion and convection of oxygen towards and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) away from hypoxic retinal areas. Hypoxia-inducible-factor is known to exist in subretinal neovascularization and hypoxia is the main stimulus for the production of VEGF. Each feature may not by itself create enough hypoxia and VEGF accumulation to stimulate wet AMD, but they may combine to do so. Choroidal ischemia in AMD has been demonstrated by many researchers, using different technologies. Choroidal ischemia obviously decreases oxygen delivery to the outer retina. Confluent drusen, thickening of Bruch's membrane and any detachment of retina or retinal pigment epithelium, increases the distance between the choriocapillaris and the retina and thereby reduces the oxygen flux from the choroid to the outer retina according to Fick's law of diffusion. Retinal elevation and choroidal ischemia may combine forces to reduce choroidal oxygen delivery to the outer retina, produce retinal hypoxia. Hypoxia leads to production of VEGF leading to neovascularization and tissue edema. A vicious cycle may develop, where VEGF production increases effusion, retinal detachment and edema, further increasing hypoxia and VEGF production. Adhesion of the viscous posterior vitreous cortex to the retina maintains a barrier to diffusion and convection currents in the vitreous cavity according to
Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the
Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the included studies. Two RCTs with 144 total participants met the selection criteria
Cuevas, P; Outeiriño, L A; Angulo, J; Giménez-Gallego, G
The authors present anatomical and functional evidences of dry age-macular degeneration improvement, after intravitreal treatment with dobesilate. Main outcomes measures were normalisation of retinal structure and function, assessed by optical coherence tomography, fundus-monitored microperimetry, electrophysiology and visual acuity. The effect might be related to the normalisation of the outer retinal architecture. PMID:22729337
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50% of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation...
Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…
Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.
This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…
Arabi, Punal M., Dr; Krishna, Nanditha; Ashwini, V.; Prathibha, H. M.
Age-related Macular Degeneration is the most leading retinal disease in the recent years. Macular degeneration occurs when the central portion of the retina, called macula deteriorates. As the deterioration occurs with the age, it is commonly referred as Age-related Macular Degeneration. This disease can be visualized by several imaging modalities such as Fundus imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique and many other. Optical Coherence Tomography is the widely used technique for screening the Age-related Macular Degeneration disease, because it has an ability to detect the very minute changes in the retina. The Healthy and AMD affected OCT images are classified by extracting the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) layer of the images using the image processing technique. The extracted layer is sampled, the no. of white pixels in each of the sample is counted and the mean value of the no. of pixels is calculated. The average mean value is calculated for both the Healthy and the AMD affected images and a threshold value is fixed and a decision rule is framed to classify the images of interest. The proposed method showed an accuracy of 75%.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...
Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco
To evaluate the rate of adherence to prescribed nutritional supplementation in patients affected by age-related macular degeneration, in an Italian tertiary referral tertiary center. Patients with age-related macular degeneration, age-related eye disease study Categories 3 and 4, were recruited and underwent an 11-item questionnaire. The study included a total of 193 patients meeting the age-related eye disease study nutritional supplementation criteria (174 patients with age-related eye disease study Category 4 and 19 with Category 3). Seventy-seven (40%) were taking oral supplementation, 70 of whom (90%) 1 tablet/day. Oral supplementation was recommended by the personal ophthalmologist in 85 patients (44%), including all those currently receiving it. Eight patients of 85 (9.4%) rejected supplementation despite it being recommended, mostly because they were already taking other medicines. Ninety-four patients (48%) claimed they had not received any information from their ophthalmologist. Our data reveal that Italian patients with age-related eye disease study Categories 3 and 4 have a low adherence to nutritional supplementation. In 65% of cases, patients were not adequately informed by their ophthalmologist of the potential benefits of oral supplementation for age-related macular degeneration; indeed, 108 patients (56%) were not even aware such nutritional treatments are available. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the importance of giving advice to persons with age-related macular degeneration regarding the benefits of oral supplements.
Palkovits, Stefan; Seidel, Gerald; Pertl, Laura; Malle, Eva M; Hausberger, Silke; Makk, Johanna; Singer, Christoph; Osterholt, Julia; Herzog, Sereina A; Haas, Anton; Weger, Martin
To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness in treatment naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. After a screening examination, each patient received 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. One month after the third injection was a final assessment. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 80 ± 6.4 years were included. The macular choroidal volume decreased significantly from median 4.1 mm (interquartile range 3.4-5.9) to median 3.9 mm (interquartile range 3.1-5.6) between the baseline and final examination (difference -0.46 mm, 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to 0.35, P < 0.001). Similarly, subfoveal choroidal thickness had decreased from 157.0 μm (interquartile range 116.0-244.5) at baseline to 139.0 μm (interquartile range 102.5-212.0) at the final examination (P < 0.001). Both parameters macular choroidal volume at baseline and subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline were not associated with the response to treatment. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased significantly after 3 monthly bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive, late-onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. It is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown that AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2016), PubMed (January 1946 to March 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 5 June 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 March 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in people who were diagnosed as having the early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Alio, Jorge L; Amat-Peral, Pedro; Tabernero, Juan
The aim of this work is to review the lenses, assessing their advantages and disadvantages. We describe a total of seven types of intraocular lenses (IOLs) recommended for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the PubMed web platform to search for implantable devices in various stages of AMD. We searched for both prospective and retrospective studies and also case reports. Clinical results in AMD patients have been described for a total of seven types of IOLs recommended for AMD: an implantable miniature telescope (IMT), IOL-VIP System, Lipshitz macular implant (LMI), sulcus-implanted Lipshitz macular implant, LMI-SI, Fresnel Prism Intraocular Lens, iolAMD and Scharioth Macula Lens. We conclude that to objectively ascertain the effectiveness and safety of these lenses, further independent clinical studies with longer follow-up data are necessary prior to the general use of these optical devices.
Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J
In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ‘inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration. PMID:26493033
Stanton, Chloe M.; Yates, John R.W.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Swaroop, Anand; Stambolian, Dwight; Fauser, Sascha; Hoyng, Carel; Yu, Yi; Atsuhiro, Kanda; Branham, Kari; Othman, Mohammad; Chen, Wei; Kortvely, Elod; Chalmers, Kevin; Hayward, Caroline; Moore, Anthony T.; Dhillon, Baljean; Ueffing, Marius
Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by binary logistic regression. CFD gene copy number was analyzed by gene copy number assay. Plasma CFD was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Genetic association was found between CFD gene SNP rs3826945 and AMD (odds ratio 1.44; P = 0.028) in a small discovery case-control series (462 cases and 325 controls) and replicated in a combined cohorts meta-analysis of 4765 cases and 2693 controls, with an odds ratio of 1.11 (P = 0.032), with the association almost confined to females. Copy number variation in the CFD gene was identified in 13 out of 640 samples examined but there was no difference in frequency between AMD cases (1.3%) and controls (2.7%). Plasma CFD concentration was measured in 751 AMD cases and 474 controls and found to be elevated in AMD cases (P = 0.00025). The odds ratio for those in the highest versus lowest quartile for plasma CFD was 1.81. The difference in plasma CFD was again almost confined to females. Conclusions. CFD regulates activation of the alternative complement pathway, which is implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The authors found evidence for genetic association between a CFD gene SNP and AMD and a significant increase in plasma CFD concentration in AMD cases compared with controls, consistent with a role for CFD in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:22003108
Iwata, Eiji; Ueno, Shinji; Ishikawa, Kohei; Ito, Yasuki; Uetani, Ruka; Piao, Chang-Hua; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko
To evaluate the changes in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular thickness, and focal macular electroretinograms (FMERGs) after three intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The medical records of 18 eyes of 18 patients who had received three consecutive monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab were retrospectively studied. The BCVA, macular thickness determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and FMERGs were measured before the first injection, and 10 days after each of the intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The number of eyes with improvement in BCVA after the first injection was one (6%), after the second injection was four (22%), and after the third injection was five (28%). The number of eyes with reduction in macular thickness was 4 (33%), 8 (44%), and 10 (56%) after each of the three injections. The number of eyes with increase in b-wave amplitude of the FMERGs was 7 (38%), 6 (33%), and 10 (56%) after each of the three each injections. The mean macular thickness was significantly thinner after the first injection, and the mean BCVA was significantly improved after the second injection. The mean amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the FMERGs were significantly improved only after the third injection (P<0.05). All parameters improved but the best was after the third injection, indicating that three monthly intravitreous injections with bevacizumab may be an effective treatment regimen for AMD.
Ozkok, Ahmet; Sigford, Douglas K; Tezel, Tongalp H
To test define characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns of different exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-two patients with choroidal neovascularization because of three different neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes were included in the study. Macular and peripheral fundus autofluorescence patterns of study subjects were compared in a masked fashion. Fundus autofluorescence patterns of all three neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes revealed similar patterns. However, peripapillary hypo-autofluorescence was more common among patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (88.2%) compared with patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation (12.5%) and patients without retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (21.1%) (P < 0.0001). Presence of peripapillary fundus autofluorescence defects in neovascular age-related macular degeneration maybe suggestive of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Briggs, C E; Rucinski, D; Rosenfeld, P J; Hirose, T; Berson, E L; Dryja, T P
To determine the spectrum of ABCR mutations associated with Stargardt macular degeneration and cone-rod degeneration (CRD). One hundred eighteen unrelated patients with recessive Stargardt macular degeneration and eight with recessive CRD were screened for mutations in ABCR (ABCA4) by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Variants were characterized by direct genomic sequencing. Segregation analysis was performed on the families of 20 patients in whom at least two or more likely pathogenic sequence changes were identified. The authors found 77 sequence changes likely to be pathogenic: 21 null mutations (15 novel), 55 missense changes (26 novel), and one deletion of a consensus glycosylation site (also novel). Fifty-two patients with Stargardt macular degeneration (44% of those screened) and five with CRD each had two of these sequence changes or were homozygous for one of them. Segregation analyses in the families of 19 of these patients were informative and revealed that the index cases and all available affected siblings were compound heterozygotes or homozygotes. The authors found one instance of an apparently de novo mutation, Ile824Thr, in a patient. Thirty-seven (31%) of the 118 patients with Stargardt disease and one with CRD had only one likely pathogenic sequence change. Twenty-nine patients with Stargardt disease (25%) and two with CRD had no identified sequence changes. This report of 42 novel mutations brings the growing number of identified likely pathogenic sequence changes in ABCR to approximately 250.
Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130
Choroidal neovascularization is a hallmark sign of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but it is not an isolated feature. Several processes are likely to contribute to the fibrotic scarring and vision loss that accompanies progressive disease. In a case series, a triple therapy approach to wet AMD was based on the goals of halting choroidal neovascularization, controlling the inflammatory response, and modifying proliferative factors. To address each of these goals, respectively, patients received photodynamic therapy, bevacizumab, and the steroid dexamethasone. The encouraging rate of response, including significant improvements in visual acuity, is consistent with the combined activities of these agents and provides the basis for more definitive studies.
Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have
Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Joshua D; Roth, Zachary; Campanella, Joseph; Beauchamp, George R
The quality-of-life loss and the financial consequences associated with age-related macular degeneration are assessed. The quality-of-life loss associated with macular degeneration is markedly underestimated by the general public, nonophthalmic physicians, and ophthalmologists who treat patients with this condition. Mild age-related macular degeneration causes a 17% decrement in the quality of life of the average patient, similar to that encountered with moderate cardiac angina or symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus syndrome. Moderate age-related macular degeneration causes a 40% decrease in the average patient's quality of life, similar to that associated with severe cardiac angina or renal dialysis. Very severe age-related macular degeneration causes a large 63% decrease in the average patient's quality of life, similar to that encountered with end-stage prostatic cancer or a catastrophic stroke that leaves a person bedridden, incontinent and requiring constant nursing care. The return on investment is high for both treatment with current age-related macular degeneration therapies and the research costs invested in the development of age-related macular degeneration treatment modalities. Age-related macular degeneration is a major public health problem that has a devastating effect upon patients and marked adverse financial consequences for the economy.
Ondeş, F; Yilmaz, G; Acar, M A; Unlü, N; Kocaoğlan, H; Arsan, A K
To investigate the relationship between posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The condition of the vitreous was examined by slit-lamp funduscopy and ultrasonography in 93 eyes of 50 patients with AMD (exudative or dry) and 100 eyes of 50 controls. There was complete PVD in 31 of the 93 eyes (33.3%) of 50 patients with AMD and the posterior vitreous was attached in 62 of these eyes (66.6%). In the control group, in 50 eyes (50%) of 50 subjects there was posterior vitreous detachment. The prevalence of PVD in eyes with macular degeneration was significantly lower (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference between the exudative and the nonexudative groups in respect to PVD. PVD may have a protective role against the development of AMD. Chronic vitreomacular traction and/or continuous exposure to free radicals and cytokines may possibly be one of the causes of AMD in eyes with attached vitreous.
Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Heidi
The aim of this article is to review the patient value conferred by interventions for neovascular macular degeneration. Value-based medicine is the practice of medicine based upon the patient value (improvement in quality of life and length of life) conferred by an intervention. For ophthalmologic interventions, in which length-of-life is generally unaffected, the value gain is equivalent to the improvement in quality of life. Photodynamic therapy delivers a value gain (improvement in quality of life) of 8.1% for the average person with classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, while laser photocoagulation for the same entity confers a 4.4% improvement in quality of life. Preliminary data suggest the value gain for the treatment of occult/minimally classic choroidal neovascularization with ranibizumab is greater than 15%. The average value gain for statins for the treatment of hyperlipidemia is 3.9%, while that for the use of biphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis is 1.1% and that for drugs to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia is 1-2%. Interventions, especially ranibizumab therapy, for neovascular macular degeneration appear to deliver an extraordinary degree of value compared with many other interventions across healthcare.
Fisher, E.; Wegner, A.; Pfeiler, T.; Mertz, M.
Purpose: To discuss present and future treatment possibilities in different types of choroidal neovascularisation. Methods: Presented are angiographic- and OCT-findings in patients with macular degeneration of different origin. Choroidal neovascularisations, which are not likely to respond positively to established procedures like thermal laser coagulation or photodynamic therapy will be discussed. Results and conclusions: Present study-guidelines and new methods of pharmacological intervention are analysed in different patterns of macular degeneration. Conventional laser coagulation in the treatment of classic, extrafoveal CNV and photodynamic therapy of predominantly classic subfoveal CNV still represent a gold standard. There are new recommendations, loosening the tight criteria of the TAP and VIP-guidelines, which cover, for instance, wider visual acuity ranges and the treatment of juxtafoveally located choroidal neovascularisations. Positive findings in literature confirm the role of PDT in pathologic myopia and other non-AMD CNV. Studies about surgical procedures, like macula- or RPE-translocation after surgical removal or thermal laser destruction of the CNV are in progress and are expected to show promising results. Phase II/III studies will soon point out the effect of anti-VEGF agents. The application of intravitreal (triamcinolone) or peribulbar (anecortave acetat) steroids could be useful. The combination with surgical or laser techniques could bring further benefit to the patient.
Gotoh, Norimoto; Kuroiwa, Sachiko; Kikuchi, Takanobu; Arai, Jun; Arai, Satoko; Yoshida, Noriko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
To study the genotypes, allelic frequencies, and polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) in unrelated Japanese patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) or exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and control subjects without macular degeneration. Cross-sectional study. Blood samples from 225 subjects older than 50 years were used. The 225 subjects included 58 patients with PCV, 85 with AMD, and 82 without macular degeneration. Coding exons of the Apo E gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the DNA sequences were determined by direct sequencing with an automated sequencer. Apo E epsilon3/epsilon3 was the most frequent genotype with a prevalence of 79.3% in PCV patients, 76.5% in AMD patients, and 67.1% in the control subjects. However, the differences in the percentages were not statistically significant among the three groups. The most frequently found allele in the three groups was epsilon3. Patients with PCV and AMD were less likely to have epsilon2 and epsilon4 than the control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. Five minor Apo E single nucleotide polymorphisms, including epsilon5 and epsilon7, were found. Japanese patients with PCV and AMD were less likely to have epsilon2 and epsilon4 polymorphisms, but the differences from the normals were not statistically significant for the Apo E genotypes and allelic frequencies.
Schwartz, Steven D; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Heilwell, Gad; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Pan, Carolyn K; Ostrick, Rosaleen M; Mickunas, Edmund; Gay, Roger; Klimanskaya, Irina; Lanza, Robert
It has been 13 years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our report provides the first description of hESC-derived cells transplanted into human patients. We started two prospective clinical studies to establish the safety and tolerability of subretinal transplantation of hESC-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy and dry age-related macular degeneration--the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations included visual acuity, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and visual field testing. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01345006 and NCT01344993. Controlled hESC differentiation resulted in greater than 99% pure RPE. The cells displayed typical RPE behaviour and integrated into the host RPE layer forming mature quiescent monolayers after transplantation in animals. The stage of differentiation substantially affected attachment and survival of the cells in vitro after clinical formulation. Lightly pigmented cells attached and spread in a substantially greater proportion (>90%) than more darkly pigmented cells after culture. After surgery, structural evidence confirmed cells had attached and continued to persist during our study. We did not identify signs of hyperproliferation, abnormal growth, or immune mediated transplant rejection in either patient during the first 4 months. Although there is little agreement between investigators on visual endpoints in patients with low vision, it is encouraging that during the observation period neither patient lost vision. Best corrected visual acuity improved from hand motions to 20/800 (and improved from 0 to 5 letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] visual acuity chart) in the study eye of the patient with Stargardt's macular dystrophy, and vision also seemed to improve in the patient with dry age-related macular
Chichagova, Valeria; Hallam, Dean; Collin, Joseph; Zerti, Darin; Dorgau, Birthe; Felemban, Majed; Lako, Majlinda; Steel, David H
Despite considerable effort and significant therapeutic advances, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the commonest cause of blindness in the developed world. Progressive late-stage AMD with outer retinal degeneration currently has no proven treatment. There has been significant interest in the possibility that cellular treatments may slow or reverse visual loss in AMD. A number of modes of action have been suggested, including cell replacement and rescue, as well as immune modulation to delay the neurodegenerative process. Their appeal in this enigmatic disease relate to their generic, non-pathway-specific effects. The outer retina in particular has been at the forefront of developments in cellular regenerative therapies being surgically accessible, easily observable, as well as having a relatively simple architecture. Both the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors have been considered for replacement therapies as both sheets and cell suspensions. Studies using autologous RPE, and to a lesser extent, foetal retina, have shown proof of principle. A wide variety of cell sources have been proposed with pluripotent stem cell-derived cells currently holding the centre stage. Recent early-phase trials using these cells for RPE replacement have met safety endpoints and hinted at possible efficacy. Animal studies have confirmed the promise that photoreceptor replacement, even in a completely degenerated outer retina may restore some vision. Many challenges, however, remain, not least of which include avoiding immune rejection, ensuring long-term cellular survival and maximising effect. This review provides an overview of progress made, ongoing studies and challenges ahead.
Halpern, Michael T; Schmier, Jordana K; Covert, David; Venkataraman, Krithika
Data were analyzed from the 1999-2001 Medicare Beneficiary Encrypted Files for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an ophthalmic condition characterized by central vision loss. Classifying AMD subtype by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modifications (ICD-9-CM) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003) code, resource utilization rates increased with disease progression. Individuals with more severe disease (wet only or wet and dry AMD) had greater costs than did those with less severe disease (drusen only or dry only). Costs among patients with wet disease increased yearly at rates exceeding inflation, possibly due in part to increased rates of treatment with photodynamic therapy among these individuals and the aging of the population.
Halpern, Michael T.; Schmier, Jordana K.; Covert, David; Venkataraman, Krithika
Data were analyzed from the 1999-2001 Medicare Beneficiary Encrypted Files for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an ophthalmic condition characterized by central vision loss. Classifying AMD subtype by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modifications (ICD-9-CM) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003) code, resource utilization rates increased with disease progression. Individuals with more severe disease (wet only or wet and dry AMD) had greater costs than did those with less severe disease (drusen only or dry only). Costs among patients with wet disease increased yearly at rates exceeding inflation, possibly due in part to increased rates of treatment with photodynamic therapy among these individuals and the aging of the population. PMID:17290647
Lachapelle, P; Quigley, M G; Polomeno, R C; Little, J M
It is generally well accepted that in Best's vitelliform macular degeneration (BVMD) the electroretinogram (ERG) is normal whereas the electro-oculogram (EOG) is markedly abnormal. We describe a patient in whom BVMD was suspected on the basis of the clinical findings, EOG and family history (one of her daughters had the typical vitelliform lesion). However, her dark-adapted ERG was markedly abnormal. Similar anomalies were found in the dark-adapted ERG of the daughter. While the temporal features of the various ERG waves were well preserved, a substantial decrease in the amplitude of specific segments of the ERG signal was observed. A similar decrease in the amplitude of the oscillatory potentials was also found. We believe that this unusual combination of BVMD and abnormal dark-adapted ERG may be due to the reported reduced penetrance and variable expressivity of the BVMD gene(s).
Chou, Jim-Son; Ting, Albert C.
A 2.5 X magnification system consisting of a two-zone intraocular implant and a spectacle was developed, tested, and clinically tried by fifty patients with cataract ad age-related macular degeneration. Optical bench testing results and clinical data confirmed that the field of view of the system was 2.6 times wider than an equivalent external telescope. The study also demonstrated that the implant itself was clinically equivalent to a standard monofocal intraocular lens for cataract. The clinical study indicated that higher magnification without compromising the compactness and optical quality was needed as the disease progressed. Also, a sound vision rehabilitation process is important to provide patients the full benefits of the system.
Gelfand, Bradley D.; Ambati, Jayakrishna
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) afflicts one out of every 40 individuals worldwide, causing irreversible central blindness in millions. The transformation of various tissue layers within the macula in the retina has led to competing conceptual models of the molecular pathways, cell types, and tissues responsible for the onset and progression of AMD. A model that has persisted for over 6 decades is the hemodynamic, or vascular theory of AMD progression, which states that vascular dysfunction of the choroid underlies AMD pathogenesis. Here, we re-evaluate this hypothesis in light of recent advances on molecular, anatomic, and hemodynamic changes underlying choroidal dysfunction in AMD. We propose an updated, detailed model of hemodynamic dysfunction as a mechanism of AMD development and progression. PMID:27423265
Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Chan, Chi-Chao
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States and developed countries. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unknown, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. The incidence and progression of all of the features of AMD are known to increase significantly with age. The tendency for familial aggregation and the findings of gene variation association studies implicate a significant genetic component in the development of AMD. This review summarizes in detail the AMD-related genes identified by studies on genetically engineered and spontaneously gene-mutated (naturally mutated) animals, AMD chromosomal loci identified by linkage studies, AMD-related genes identified through studies of monogenic degenerative retinal diseases, and AMD-related gene variation identified by association studies. PMID:15094132
Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Grzybowski, Andrzej
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss and is primarily treated with nutritional supplementation as well as with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for certain patients with neovascular disease. AMD is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. In addition, treatment outcomes from nutritional supplementation and anti-VEGF agents vary considerably. Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that there may be pharmacogenetic influences on these treatments. Many series have reported individual associations with variants in complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and other loci. However, at this time there are no validated associations. With respect to AMD, pharmacogenetics remains an intriguing area of research but is not helpful for routine clinical management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Miller, Joan W; Bagheri, Saghar; Vavvas, Demetrios G
While the development of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) as a therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was a great success, the pathologic processes underlying dry AMD that eventually leads to photoreceptor dysfunction, death, and vision loss remain elusive to date, with a lack of effective therapies and increasing prevalence of the disease. There is an overwhelming need to improve the classification system of AMD, to increase our understanding of cell death mechanisms involved in both neovascular and non-neovascular AMD, and to develop better biomarkers and clinical endpoints to eventually be able to identify better therapeutic targets—especially early in the disease process. There is no doubt that it is a matter of time before progress will be made and better therapies will be developed for non-neovascular AMD. PMID:29142592
Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.
A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982
Layana, Alfredo Garcia; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Aslam, Tariq; Holz, Frank G; Leys, Anita; Silva, Rufino; Delcourt, Cécile; Souied, Eric; Seddon, Johanna M
In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.
Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Kotliar, Konstantin; Rios-Martinez, Jorge; Lanzl, Ines; Navab, Nassir
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a gradually progressive eye condition, which is one of the leading causes of blindness and low vision in the Western world. Prevailing optical visual aids compensate part of the lost visual function, but omitting helpful complementary information. This paper proposes an efficient magnification technique, which can be implemented on a head-mounted display, for improving vision of patients with AMD, by preserving global information of the scene. Performance of the magnification approach is evaluated by simulating central vision loss in normally sighted subjects. Visual perception was measured as a function of text reading speed and map route following speed. Statistical analysis of experimental results suggests that our magnification method improves reading speed 1.2 times and spatial orientation to find routes on a map 1.5 times compared to a conventional magnification approach, being capable to enhance peripheral vision of AMD subjects along with their life quality.
Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heraghty, Julie; Cummins, Robert
Between 2007 and 2011, the Australian Macular Degeneration Foundation conducted a multifaceted campaign to increase public awareness of macular degeneration. Regular national polls conducted by an independent social research company have shown that awareness of macular degeneration increased from 47% to 80% in Australians aged 16 years or older and from 58% to 92% in those aged 50 years or older. The percentage of people aged 50 years or older who reported having had their macula checked in the 2 years prior to the survey increased from 33% to 70% from 2007 to 2011. Other measures, including analysis of Medicare data, have confirmed the success of the campaign. PMID:22813341
Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping
Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978
Stanislovaitiene, Daiva; Zaliuniene, Dalia; Krisciukaitis, Algimantas; Petrolis, Robertas; Smalinskiene, Alina; Lesauskaite, Vita; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Lesauskaite, Vaiva
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a progressive retinal disease, is responsible for an impaired central vision in about 180 million people worldwide. Current options for ARMD prevention and treatment are limited due to an incomplete understanding of disease etiopathogenesis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs5888 of SCARB1 gene reflecting lipid and antioxidant micronutrient metabolism pathways is associated with ARMD susceptibility and to evaluate if there is any relation between SCARB1 rs5888 and the macular lesion area. The prospective case-control study included patients with ARMD (n = 215) and the reference group (n = 238) drawn from a random sample of the Lithuanian population (n = 1436). The genotyping test of SCARB1 rs5888 was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Regression analysis adjusted by gender and age demonstrated that SCARB1 rs5888 TT genotype significantly decreased the odds for ARMD development (OR: 0.61, 95%; CI: 0.380-0.981, p = 0.04). A smoking habit and leading an outdoor life are associated with larger macular lesion areas in ARMD patients (0.54 (0.00-39.06) vs. 3.09 (0.02-19.30) and 0.27 (0.00-34.57) vs. 0.75 (0.00-39.06), respectively). In late stage ARMD subjects with CT genotype, the macular lesion area was larger than in TT carriers (7.64 (0.49-39.06) mm 2 vs. 5.02 (0.03-37.06) mm 2 , p = 0.006). SCARB1 rs5888 and environmental oxidative stress have a prominent role in ARMD susceptibility, early ARMD progression to advanced stage disease and even in the outcome of the disease-an area of macular lesion.
Ho, Chi Yd; Lek, Jia J; Aung, Khin Z; McGuinness, Myra B; Luu, Chi D; Guymer, Robyn H
We thank Invernizzi, Nguyen and Gillies 1 for their interest in our paper "Relationship between reticular pseudodrusen and choroidal thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration". 2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Jaffe, Glenn J; Martin, Daniel F; Toth, Cynthia A; Daniel, Ebenezer; Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Huang, Jiayan
To describe the effects of treatment for 1 year with ranibizumab or bevacizumab on macular morphology and the association of macular morphology with visual acuity (VA) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Participants in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials. Participants were assigned randomly to treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab on a monthly or as-needed schedule. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), color fundus photography (FP), and VA testing were performed periodically throughout 52 weeks. Masked readers graded images. General linear models were applied to evaluate effects of time and treatment on outcomes. Fluid type and location and thickness by OCT, size, and lesion composition on FP, FA, and VA. Intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), subretinal pigment epithelium fluid, and retinal, subretinal, and subretinal tissue complex thickness decreased in all treatment groups. A higher proportion of eyes treated monthly with ranibizumab had fluid resolution at 4 weeks, and the difference persisted through 52 weeks. At 52 weeks, there was little association between the presence of fluid of any type (without regard to fluid location) and the mean VA. However, at all time points, eyes with residual IRF, especially foveal IRF, had worse mean VA (9 letters) than those without IRF. Eyes with abnormally thin (<120 μm) or thick (>212 μm) retinas had worse VA than those with normal thickness (120-212 μm). At week 52, eyes with larger neovascular lesions or with foveal scar had worse VA than eyes without these features. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy reduced lesion activity and improved VA in all treatment groups. At all time points, eyes with residual IRF had worse VA than those without. Eyes with abnormally thin or thick retinas, residual large lesions, and scar also had worse VA
Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael
The use of advanced imaging in clinical practice is emerging and the use of this technology by optometrists in assessing patients with age-related macular degeneration is of interest. Therefore, this study explored contemporary, self-reported patterns of practice regarding age-related macular degeneration diagnosis and management using a cross-sectional survey of optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Practising optometrists were surveyed on four key areas, namely, demographics, clinical skills and experience, assessment and management of age-related macular degeneration. Questions pertaining to self-rated competency, knowledge and attitudes used a five-point Likert scale. Completed responses were received from 127 and 87 practising optometrists in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. Advanced imaging showed greater variation in service delivery than traditional techniques (such as slitlamp funduscopy) and trended toward optical coherence tomography, which was routinely performed in age-related macular degeneration by 49 per cent of respondents. Optical coherence tomography was also associated with higher self-rated competency, knowledge and perceived relevance to practice than other modalities. Most respondents (93 per cent) indicated that they regularly applied patient symptoms, case history, visual function results and signs from traditional testing, when queried about their management of patients with age-related macular degeneration. Over half (63 per cent) also considered advanced imaging, while 31 per cent additionally considered all of these as well as the disease stage and clinical guidelines. Contrary to the evidence base, 68 and 34 per cent rated nutritional supplements as highly relevant or relevant in early age-related macular degeneration and normal aging changes, respectively. These results highlight the emergence of multimodal and advanced imaging (especially optical coherence tomography) in the assessment of age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and disability among the elderly in developed countries. There is compelling evidence that atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration share a similar pathogenic process. The association between atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration has been inferred from histological, biochemical and epidemiological studies. Many published data indicate that drusen are similar in molecular composition to plaques in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a great body of evidence has emerged over the past decade that implicates the chronic inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis and progression of both disorders. We speculate that vascular atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration may represent different manifestations of the same disease induced by a pathologic tissue response to the damage caused by oxidative stress and local ischemia. In this review, we characterise in detail a strong association between age-related macular degeneration and atherosclerosis development, and we postulate the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of a systemic disease. This provides a new approach for understanding the aspects of pathogenesis and might improve the prevention and treatment of both diseases which both result from ageing of the human body.
Karan, G; Lillo, C; Yang, Z; Cameron, D J; Locke, K G; Zhao, Y; Thirumalaichary, S; Li, C; Birch, D G; Vollmer-Snarr, H R; Williams, D S; Zhang, K
Macular degeneration is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by photoreceptor degeneration and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the central retina. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt macular degeneration (STGD) is caused by mutations in ELOVL4, which is predicted to encode an enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of human ELOVL4 that causes STGD. In these mice, we show that accumulation by the RPE of undigested phagosomes and lipofuscin, including the fluorophore, 2-[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetraenyl]-1-(2-hyydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6,-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) is followed by RPE atrophy. Subsequently, photoreceptor degeneration occurs in the central retina in a pattern closely resembling that of human STGD and age-related macular degeneration. The ELOVL4 transgenic mice thus provide a good model for both STGD and dry age-related macular degeneration, and represent a valuable tool for studies on therapeutic intervention in these forms of blindness.
Koo, Euna; Neuringer, Martha; SanGiovanni, John Paul
Plant-based macular xanthophylls (MXs; lutein and zeaxanthin) and the lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin are the major constituents of macular pigment, a compound concentrated in retinal areas that are responsible for fine-feature visual sensation. There is an unmet need to examine the genetics of factors influencing regulatory mechanisms and metabolic fates of these 3 MXs because they are linked to processes implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work we provide an overview of evidence supporting a molecular basis for AMD-MX associations as they may relate to DNA sequence variation in AMD- and lipoprotein-related genes. We recognize a number of emerging research opportunities, barriers, knowledge gaps, and tools offering promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. Overviews on AMD- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)–related genes encoding receptors, transporters, and enzymes affecting or affected by MXs are followed with information on localization of products from these genes to retinal cell types manifesting AMD-related pathophysiology. Evidence on the relation of each gene or gene product with retinal MX response to nutrient intake is discussed. This information is followed by a review of results from mechanistic studies testing gene-disease relations. We then present findings on relations of AMD with DNA sequence variants in MX-associated genes. Our conclusion is that AMD-associated DNA variants that influence the actions and metabolic fates of HDL system constituents should be examined further for concomitant influence on MX absorption, retinal tissue responses to MX intake, and the capacity to modify MX-associated factors and processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24829491
Jonas, Jost B; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
This meta-analysis reports on current estimates of the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on a review of recent meta-analyses and literature research. Within an age of 45-85 years, global prevalences of any AMD, early AMD, and late AMD were 8.7% [95% credible interval (CrI), 4.3‒17.4], 8.0% (95% CrI, 4.0‒15.5), and 0.4% (95% CrI, 0.2-0.8). Early AMD was more common in individuals of European ancestry (11.2%) than in Asians (6.8%), whereas prevalence of late AMD did not differ significantly. AMD of any type was less common in individuals of African ancestry. The number of individuals with AMD was estimated to be 196 million (95% CrI, 140‒261) in 2020 and 288 million (95% CrI, 205‒399) in 2040. The worldwide number of persons blind (presenting visual acuity < 3/60) or with moderate to severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity < 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive) due to macular disease in 2010 was 2.1 million [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 1.9‒2.7] individuals out of 32.4 million individuals blind and 6.0 million (95% UI, 5.2‒8.1) persons out of 191 million people with MSVI. Age-standardized prevalence of macular diseases as cause of blindness in adults aged 50+ years worldwide decreased from 0.2% (95% UI, 0.2‒0.2) in 1990 to 0.1% (95% UI, 0.1‒0.2) in 2010; as cause for MSVI, it remained mostly unchanged (1990: 0.4%; 95% UI, 0.3‒0.5; 2010: 0.4%; 95% UI, 0.4‒0.6), with no significant sex difference. In 2015, AMD was the fourth most common cause of blindness globally (in approximately 5.8% of blind individuals) and third most common cause for MSVI (3.9%). These data show the globally increasing importance of AMD. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen
To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with MP across a range of retinal eccentricities, and these statistically significant relationships persisted after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade. BCVA, NEI VFQ-25 score, PRT and mesopic GD were unrelated to MP after controlling for age, sex and cataract grade (p>0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Diabetic macular edema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complications affecting about 25% of all patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are a major cause of significant decrease in vision and quality of life. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not uncommon, and diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. Recent studies suggest that DME, DR and AMD are inflammatory conditions characterized by a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, inflammatory processes and an increase in vascular permeability. Key factors that seem to have a dominant role in DME, DR and AMD are angiotensin II, prostaglandins and the vascular endothelial growth factor and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and enhanced production of pro-angiogenic factors may initiate the onset and progression of DME, DR and AMD. This implies that bioactive lipids that possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of angiogenic factors could be employed in the prevention and management of DME, DR and AMD. PMID:27695506
Cymerman, Rachel M; Skolnick, Adam H; Cole, William J; Nabati, Camellia; Curcio, Christine A; Smith, R Theodore
Reticular macular disease (RMD) is the highest risk form of early age-related macular degeneration and also specifically confers decreased longevity. However, because RMD requires advanced retinal imaging for adequate detection of its characteristic subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), it has not yet been completely studied with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death in the developed world. Because CAD appears in middle age, our purpose was to screen patients aged 45-80 years, documented either with or without CAD, to determine if CAD is associated with RMD. A prospective cohort study of patients with documented CAD status and no known retinal disease in a clinical practice setting at one institution. Subjects and Controls: A number of 76 eyes from 38 consecutive patients (23 with documented CAD, 15 controls documented without CAD; 47.4% female; mean age 66.7 years). Patients were imaged with near-infrared reflectance/spectral domain optical coherence tomography and assessed in masked fashion by two graders for the presence of SDD lesions of RMD and soft drusen. Presence or absence of RMD/SDD and soft drusen. RMD was more frequent in patients with CAD versus those without (Relative Risk [RR] = 2.1, CI = 1.08-3.95, P = 0.03). There was no association of CAD with soft drusen. A specific relationship between CAD and RMD suggests common systemic causes for both and warrants further study.
Kent, David L
Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been developed. These agents, originally developed for their anti-angiogenic mechanism of action, probably also work through an anti-permeability effect in preventing or reducing the amount of leakage from submacular neovascular tissue. Other treatment modalities include laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, and submacular surgery. In reality, these latter treatments can be similarly categorized as anti-angiogenic because their sole aim is destroying or removing choroidal neovascularization (CNV). At the cellular level, CNV resembles stereotypical tissue repair that consists of several matricellular components in addition to neovascularization. In the retina, the clinical term CNV is a misnomer since the term may more appropriately be referred to as aberrant submacular repair. Furthermore, CNV raises a therapeutic conundrum: To complete or correct any reparative process in the body, angiogenesis becomes an essential component. Anti-angiogenic therapy, in all its guises, arrests repair and causes the hypoxic environment to persist, thus fueling pro-angiogenesis and further development of CNV as a component of aberrant repair. However, we realize that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy preserves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration, albeit temporarily and therefore, repeated treatment is needed. More importantly, however, anti-angiogenic therapy demonstrates that we can at the very least tolerate neovascular tissue beneath the macula and preserve vision in contrast to our historical approach of total vascular destruction. In this clinical scenario, it may be possible to look beyond anti-angiogenesis if our goal is facilitating submacular repair without destroying the neurosensory retina. Thus, in this situation of neovascular tolerance, it may be timely to consider treatments that facilitate
Ferris, Frederick L; Wilkinson, C P; Bird, Alan; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chew, Emily; Csaky, Karl; Sadda, SriniVas R
To develop a clinical classification system for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Evidence-based investigation, using a modified Delphi process. Twenty-six AMD experts, 1 neuro-ophthalmologist, 2 committee chairmen, and 1 methodologist. Each committee member completed an online assessment of statements summarizing current AMD classification criteria, indicating agreement or disagreement with each statement on a 9-step scale. The group met, reviewed the survey results, discussed the important components of a clinical classification system, and defined new data analyses needed to refine a classification system. After the meeting, additional data analyses from large studies were provided to the committee to provide risk estimates related to the presence of various AMD lesions. Delphi review of the 9-item set of statements resulting from the meeting. Consensus was achieved in generating a basic clinical classification system based on fundus lesions assessed within 2 disc diameters of the fovea in persons older than 55 years. The committee agreed that a single term, age-related macular degeneration, should be used for the disease. Persons with no visible drusen or pigmentary abnormalities should be considered to have no signs of AMD. Persons with small drusen (<63 μm), also termed drupelets, should be considered to have normal aging changes with no clinically relevant increased risk of late AMD developing. Persons with medium drusen (≥ 63-<125 μm), but without pigmentary abnormalities thought to be related to AMD, should be considered to have early AMD. Persons with large drusen or with pigmentary abnormalities associated with at least medium drusen should be considered to have intermediate AMD. Persons with lesions associated with neovascular AMD or geographic atrophy should be considered to have late AMD. Five-year risks of progressing to late AMD are estimated to increase approximately 100 fold, ranging from a 0.5% 5-year risk for normal aging changes to a
Chan, Chi-Chao; Shen, Defen; Zhou, Min; Ross, Robert J.; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kang; Green, W. Richard; Tuo, Jingsheng
Purpose HtrA1 belongs to the high temperature requirement factor A family of serine proteases, which are involved in protein quality control and cell fate. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11200638, in the promoter of HtrA1 at chromosome 10q26 is reported as a likely causal variant for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The SNP is located in the regulatory region and increases production of HtrA1 protein. This study investigates HtrA1 expression and SNP genotypes in archived ocular slides with AMD. Methods Macular, nonretinal, and peripheral retinal cells were microdissected from archived slides from 57 eyes with AMD and 16 age-matched, non-AMD controls. HtrA1 rs11200638 SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HtrA1 transcripts were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR. HtrA1 protein expression was evaluated using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry. Results HtrA1 (G/A) SNP was successfully genotyped in 52 AMD cases and 13 non-AMD subjects. The frequencies of the risk allele (A) were 55 of 104 (52.9%) and 8 of 26 (30.8%) in AMD and control groups, respectively. HtrA1 mRNA was detected in normal peripheral and macular retinas, higher in the periphery than maculae. HtrA1 mRNA was much higher in the macula and a lot lower in the periphery of the AMD eyes as compared to control eyes. HtrA1 protein was expressed in normal retinal vascular endothelia and retinal pigment epithelia. Intense immunoreaction against HtrA1 was found in AMD lesions, slightly more in wet than dry AMD lesions. Conclusion This study successfully analyzes HtrA1 SNP and transcript expression in microdissected cells from archived paraffin fixed slides. Up-regulation of HtrA1 is detected in the macular lesions of AMD eyes. The data further suggest that rs11200638 in HtrA1 promoter is associated with AMD development. PMID:18427598
Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Kaarniranta, Kai; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Mackiewicz, Jerzy
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness in elderly people in the developed countries. Current screening protocols have limitations in detecting the early signs of retinal degeneration. Therefore, it would be desirable to find novel biomarkers for early detection of AMD. Development of novel biomarkers would help in the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of AMD. Proteomic analysis of tear film has shown promise in this research area. If an optimal set of biomarkers could be obtained from accessible body fluids, it would represent a reliable way to monitor disease progression and response to novel therapies. Tear films were collected on Schirmer strips from a total of 22 patients (8 with wet AMD, 6 with dry AMD, and 8 control individuals). 2D electrophoresis was used to separate tear film proteins prior to their identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and matching with functional databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified. Most of them were previously described in various proteomic studies concerning AMD. Shootin-1, histatin-3, fidgetin-like protein 1, SRC kinase signaling inhibitor, Graves disease carrier protein, actin cytoplasmic 1, prolactin-inducible protein 1, and protein S100-A7A were upregulated in the tear film samples isolated from AMD patients and were not previously linked with this disease in any proteomic analysis. The upregulated proteins supplement our current knowledge of AMD pathogenesis, providing evidence that certain specific proteins are expressed into the tear film in AMD. As far we are aware, this is the first study to have undertaken a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the human tear film proteome in AMD patients.
It is of great therapeutic significance that disordered function of the vascular endothelium which supply the affected ocular structures plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. According to current concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by pharmaacological or non pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction, which result in prevention or improvement of age related macular degeneration as well. Medicines including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors), statins, acetylsalicylic acid, trimetazidin, third generation beta-blockers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, folate, vitamin D, melatonin, advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker alagebrium, endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan, coenzyme Q10; "causal" antioxidant vitamins, N-acetyl-cysteine, resveratrol, L-arginine, serotonin receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, curcumin and doxycyclin all have beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Considering that the human vascular system is consubstantial, medicines listed above should be given to patients (1) who have no macular degeneration but have risk factors
Latalska, Małgorzata; Swiech-Zubilewicz, Anna; Mackiewicz, Jerzy
The aim of this study was to evaluate an incidence of the vitreomacular adhesion in patients with age-related macular degeneration. We examined 472 eyes in 241 patients (136 W/ 105 M) in age of 54-92 years (mean 62.6 years +/- 8.5) with dry or wet age-related macular degeneration using Cirrus HD-OCT (Zeiss) macular cube 512x128 program or 5-line pro-gram. Vitreomacular adhesion was observed in 139 eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (29.4%, p=0.000*), in 101 eyes with drusen (21.4%, p=0.000*), in 38 eyes with retinal pigment epithelium alterations (8%, p=0.202), in 278 eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration (58.9%, p=0.001*), in 21 eyes with pigment epithelial detachment (4.4%, p=0.303), in 161 eyes with choroidal neovascularzation (34. 1%, p=0.031*/ and in 96 eyes with scar (20.4%, p=0.040*). Probably, vitreomacular adhesion alone is not able to induce age-related macular degeneration, but it may be associated with choroidal neovascularization development, it can contribute to exudate formation and choroidal neovascularization, it may induces or sustains a chronic low-grade inflammation in the macula region.
Cuevas, P; Outeiriño, L A; Azanza, C; Giménez-Gallego, G
Among the age-related diseases that affect vision, age-related macular degeneration is the most frequent cause of blindness in patients older than 60 years. In this communication, we report the full anatomical and functional recovery of a patient diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration 1 year after a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate. PMID:24225910
Hogg, Ruth Esther
Historically, drusen, which are recognized as the hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), have been described in terms of size, margins, and texture, and several studies have emphasized the importance of large soft drusen particularly when combined with focal pigmentary irregularities in determining the risk of progression to neovascular AMD. However, recent developments in imaging over the past decade have revealed a further distinct phenotype strongly associated with the development of late AMD, namely, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) or reticular drusen. Reticular pseudodrusen appear as yellowish interlacing networks in the fundus and, although visible on color photography, are better visualized using infrared imaging or spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Studies correlating spectral domain optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy have shown that RPD are subretinal deposits located internal to the retinal pigment epithelium in contrast to traditional drusen, which are located external to the retinal pigment epithelium. As multiple longitudinal studies have revealed RPD are strong predictors for progression to both neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy, the interest in understanding the role that RPD play in the pathogenesis of AMD has grown. This review focuses on the current literature concerning RPD and considers what is currently known regarding their epidemiology, risk factors, appearance in both retinal imaging and histology, impact on visual function, relationship to other AMD lesions, and association with the development of late AMD.
Forest, David L.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Clegg, Dennis O.
ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD). A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease. PMID:26035859
Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael
ABSTRACT Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) provides detailed insight into the health of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This is highly valuable in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as RPE damage is a hallmark of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise current clinical descriptions regarding the appearance of AMD using FAF and to integrate these findings into a chair-side reference. A wide variety of FAF patterns have been described in AMD, which is consistent with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. In particular, FAF imaging in early to intermediate AMD has the capacity to reveal RPE alterations in areas that appear normal on funduscopy, which aids in the stratification of cases and may have visually significant prognostic implications. It can assist in differential diagnoses and also represents a reliable, sensitive method for distinguishing reticular pseudodrusen. FAF is especially valuable in the detection, evaluation, and monitoring of geographic atrophy and has been used as an endpoint in clinical trials. In neovascular AMD, FAF reveals distinct patterns of classic choroidal neovascularization noninvasively and may be especially useful for determining which eyes are likely to benefit from therapeutic intervention. FAF represents a rapid, effective, noninvasive imaging method that has been underutilized, and incorporation into the routine assessment of AMD cases should be considered. However, the practicing clinician should also be aware of the limitations of the modality, such as in the detection of foveal involvement and in the distinction of phenotypes (hypo-autofluorescent drusen from small areas of geographic atrophy). PMID:27668639
Miura, Masahiro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Takuya; Elsner, Ann E.; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki
PURPOSE To evaluate the birefringence properties of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To compare the information from two techniques—scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)—and investigate how they complement each other. METHODS The authors prospectively examined the eyes of two healthy subjects and 13 patients with exudative AMD. Using scanning laser polarimetry, they computed phase-retardation maps, average reflectance images, and depolarized light images. To obtain polarimetry information with improved axial resolution, they developed a fiber-based, polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT system and measured the phase retardation associated with birefringence in the same eyes. RESULTS Both GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography detected abnormal birefringence at the locus of exudative lesions. Polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT showed that in the old lesions with fibrosis, phase-retardation values were significantly larger than in the new lesions (P = 0.020). Increased scattered light and altered polarization scramble were associated with portions of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain OCT are complementary in probing birefringence properties in exudative AMD. Polarimetry findings in exudative AMD emphasized different features and were related to the progression of the disease, potentially providing a noninvasive tool for microstructure in exudative AMD. PMID:18515594
Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Guyader, Nathalie; Guerin, Anne; Despretz, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel
To investigate impairment in discriminating a figure from its background and to study its relation to visual acuity and lesion size in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with neovascular AMD and visual acuity <20/50 were included. Seventeen age-matched healthy subjects participated as controls. Complete ophthalmologic examination was performed on all participants. The stimuli were photographs of scenes containing animals (targets) or other objects (distractors), displayed on a computer monitor screen. Performance was compared in four background conditions: the target in the natural scene; the target isolated on a white background; the target separated by a white space from a structured scene; the target separated by a white space from a nonstructured, shapeless background. Target discriminability (d') was recorded. Performance was lower for patients than for controls. For the patients, it was easier to detect the target when it was separated from its background (under isolated, structured, and nonstructured conditions) than it was when located in a scene. Performance was improved in patients with increasing exposure time but remained lower in controls. Correlations were found between visual acuity, lesion size, and sensitivity for patients. Figure/ground segregation is impaired in patients with AMD. A white space surrounding an object is sufficient to improve the object's detection and to facilitate figure/ground segregation. These results may have practical applications to the rehabilitation of the environment in patients with AMD.
Fritsche, Lars G.; Fariss, Robert N.; Stambolian, Dwight; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Curcio, Christine A.
Genetic and genomic studies have enhanced our understanding of complex neurodegenerative diseases that exert a devastating impact on individuals and society. One such disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a major cause of progressive and debilitating visual impairment. Since the pioneering discovery in 2005 of complement factor H (CFH) as a major AMD susceptibility gene, extensive investigations have confirmed 19 additional genetic risk loci, and more are anticipated. In addition to common variants identified by now-conventional genome-wide association studies, targeted genomic sequencing and exome-chip analyses are uncovering rare variant alleles of high impact. Here, we provide a critical review of the ongoing genetic studies and of common and rare risk variants at a total of 20 susceptibility loci, which together explain 40–60% of the disease heritability but provide limited power for diagnostic testing of disease risk. Identification of these susceptibility loci has begun to untangle the complex biological pathways underlying AMD pathophysiology, pointing to new testable paradigms for treatment. PMID:24773320
Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345
Al-Zamil, Waseem M; Yassin, Sanaa A
Background Visual impairment in elderly people is a considerable health problem that significantly affects quality of life of millions worldwide. The magnitude of this issue is becoming more evident with an aging population and an increasing number of older individuals. Objective The objective of this article was to review the clinical and pathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities presently available or underway for both atrophic and wet forms of the disease. Methods An online review of the PubMed database was performed, searching for the key words. The search was limited to articles published since 1980 to date. Results Several risk factors have been linked to AMD, such as age (>60 years), lifestyle (smoking and diet), and family history. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, genetic factors have been implicated in the condition. Treatment for atrophic AMD is mainly close observation, coupled with nutritional supplements such as zinc and antioxidants, whereas treatment of wet AMD is based on targeting choroidal neovascular membranes. Conclusion Identification of modifiable risk factors would improve the possibilities of preventing the progression of AMD. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has transformed the therapeutic approach of the potentially blinding disease “wet AMD” into a more favorable outcome. PMID:28860733
Chatard, Hortense; Tepenier, Laure; Jankowski, Olivier; Aussems, Antoine; Allieta, Alain; Beydoun, Talal; Salah, Sawsen; Bucci, Maria P.
Purpose: To compare the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on postural sway, and the influence of different visual conditions. The hypothesis of our study was that the impact of AMD will be different between unilateral and bilateral AMD subjects compared to age-matched healthy elderly. Methods: Postural stability was measured with a platform (TechnoConcept®) in 10 elderly unilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 71.1 ± 4.6 years), 10 elderly bilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 70.8 ± 6.1 years), and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects (mean age: 69.8 ± 6.3 years). Four visual conditions were tested: both eyes viewing condition (BEV), dominant eye viewing (DEV), non-dominant eye viewing (NDEV), and eyes closed (EC). We analyzed the surface area, the length, the mean speed, the anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP). Results: Bilateral AMD subjects had a surface area (p < 0.05) and AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.01) higher than healthy elderly. Unilateral AMD subjects had more AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.05) than healthy elderly. Conclusions: We suggest that ADM subjects could have poor postural adaptive mechanisms leading to increase their postural instability. Further studies will aim to improve knowledge on such issue and to develop reeducation techniques in these patients. PMID:28408876
Al-Zamil, Waseem M; Yassin, Sanaa A
Visual impairment in elderly people is a considerable health problem that significantly affects quality of life of millions worldwide. The magnitude of this issue is becoming more evident with an aging population and an increasing number of older individuals. The objective of this article was to review the clinical and pathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities presently available or underway for both atrophic and wet forms of the disease. An online review of the PubMed database was performed, searching for the key words. The search was limited to articles published since 1980 to date. Several risk factors have been linked to AMD, such as age (>60 years), lifestyle (smoking and diet), and family history. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, genetic factors have been implicated in the condition. Treatment for atrophic AMD is mainly close observation, coupled with nutritional supplements such as zinc and antioxidants, whereas treatment of wet AMD is based on targeting choroidal neovascular membranes. Identification of modifiable risk factors would improve the possibilities of preventing the progression of AMD. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has transformed the therapeutic approach of the potentially blinding disease "wet AMD" into a more favorable outcome.
van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.
Zampatti, Stefania; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano
The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin, β-carotene), vitamins (vitamin A, E, C, D, B), mineral supplements (zinc, copper, selenium), dietary fatty acids [monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA both omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA), saturated fatty acids and cholesterol], and dietary carbohydrates. The literature revealed that many of these antioxidants and nutrients exert a protective role by functioning synergistically. Specifically, the use of dietary supplements with targeted actions can provide minimal benefits on the onset or progression of AMD; however, this does not appear to be particularly beneficial in healthy people. Furthermore, some supplements or nutrients have demonstrated discordant effects on AMD in some studies. Since intake of dietary supplements, as well as exposure to damaging environmental factors, is largely dependent on population habits (including dietary practices) and geographical localization, an overall healthy diet appears to be the best strategy in reducing the risk of developing AMD. As of now, the precise mechanism of action of certain nutrients in AMD prevention remains unclear. Thus, future studies are required to examine the effects that nutrients have on AMD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing the risk of AMD or preventing its progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Tyber, Kevin
To briefly review age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main findings from the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) report number 8 on the use of nutritional supplements for AMD, and to focus on data suggesting that supplement use should be guided using genetic testing of AMD risk genes. A literature search (January 2001 through October 26, 2016) was conducted using MEDLINE and the following MeSH terms: Antioxidants/therapeutic use, Genotype, Macular Degeneration/drug therapy, Macular degeneration/genetics, Dietary Supplements, Proteins/genetics, and Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use. Bibliographies of publications identified were also reviewed. English-language studies assessing AREDS supplement response in patients with AMD in relation to complement factor H gene ( CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene ( ARMS2) risk alleles were evaluated. Three of the 4 studies demonstrated a treatment interaction between ARMS2 and CFH genotypes and a differential response to supplements. The fourth study documented an interaction for the CFH genotype only. Reported response interactions included attenuated response, no response, and good response, whereas a subset showed increased progression of AMD. Conversely, one study reported no interactions between CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles and response to supplements. The weight of the evidence supports using genetic testing to guide selection of ocular vitamin use. This approach will avoid using supplements that could speed the progression of AMD in vulnerable patients, avoid using supplements that will have little to no effect in others, and result in appropriately using supplements in those that are likely to derive meaningful benefits.
Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Shah, Heeral R.; Rosner, Bernard
Objective We evaluated monozygotic twin pairs with discordant age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes to assess differences in behavioral and nutritional factors. Design Case series. Participants Caucasian male twin pairs from the United States Twin Study of Macular Degeneration. Methods Twin pairs were genotyped to confirm monozygosity. Ocular characteristics were evaluated based on fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Grading System and a 5-grade Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. We selected twin pairs discordant in each of the following phenotypic categories: Stage of AMD (n = 28), drusen area (n = 60), drusen size (n = 40), and increased pigment area (n = 56). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and linear regression were used to assess associations between behavioral and nutritional characteristics and each phenotype within discordant twin pairs. Main Outcome Measures Differences in smoking and dietary factors within twin pairs discordant for stage of AMD, drusen area, drusen size, and pigment area. Results Representative fundus photographs depict the discordant phenotypes. Pack-years of smoking were higher for the twin with the more advanced stage of AMD (P = 0.05). Higher dietary intake of vitamin D was present in the twins with less severe AMD (P = 0.01) and smaller drusen size (P = 0.05) compared with co-twins, adjusted for smoking and age. Dietary intakes of betaine and methionine were significantly higher in the twin with lower stage of AMD (P = 0.009) and smaller drusen area (P = 0.03), respectively. Conclusions The twin with the more advanced stage of AMD, larger drusen area, drusen size, and pigment area tended to be the heavier smoker. The twin with the earlier stage of AMD, smaller drusen size and area, and less pigment tended to have higher dietary vitamin D, betaine, or methionine intake. Results suggest that behavioral and nutritional factors associated with epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the etiology of AMD, in
Oshima, Hisaaki; Iwase, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Terasaki, Hiroko
To evaluate the long-term results of limited macular translocation (LMT) surgery with radial chorioscleral outfolding in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In addition, to identify the factors associated with the final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The medical records of 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients (65.2±9.8 years) who had undergone LMT for the treatment of wet AMD and were followed for at least 5 years, were reviewed. The surgical outcomes including the BCVA, degree of foveal displacement, and complications were recorded. The mean foveal displacement was 1332 ± 393 μm after the LMT. The CNV was removed in 16 eyes and photocoagulated in 4 eyes. The mean preoperative VA was 0.83 ± 0.33 logMAR units which significantly improved to 0.59 ± 0.37 logMAR units at 1 year after the surgery (P = 0.015). This BCVA was maintained at 0.59 ± 0.41 logMAR units on the final examination. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with that at 1 year after the surgery (r = 0.83, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final BCVA was significantly correlated with the BCVA at 1 year after the surgery (P<0.001), a recurrence of a CNV (P = 0.001), and the age (P = 0.022). LMT improves the BCVA significantly at 1 year, and the improved BCVA lasted for at least 5 years. These results indicate that the impaired function of the sensory retina at the fovea can recover on the new RPE after the displacement for at least 5 years. The ability to maintain good retinal function on the new RPE for a long period is important for future treatments of CNVs such as the transplantation of RPE cells and stem cells.
Fong, Angie HC; Lai, Timothy YY
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are major causes of visual impairment in the elderly population worldwide. With the aging population, the prevalence of neovascular AMD and DME has increased substantially over the recent years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of both neovascular AMD and DME. Since its introduction in 2006, ranibizumab, a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody fragment against all isoforms of VEGF-A, has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD has been demonstrated in the ANCHOR and MARINA trials. Further studies including the PIER, PrONTO, and SUSTAIN trials have also evaluated the optimal dosing regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD. The CATT and IVAN trials compared the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab with off-label use of bevacizumab. Studies such as SUSTAIN and HORIZON have shown that ranibizumab has a good safety profile and is well tolerated for over 4 years with very few serious ocular and systemic adverse events. For DME, Phase II RESOLVE study and Phase III RISE and RIDE studies have demonstrated superiority of ranibizumab treatment in improving vision over placebo controls. Phase II READ and Phase III RESOLVE and REVEAL studies have shown that ranibizumab is more effective both as monotherapy and in combination with laser compared with laser monotherapy. The 3-year results from the DRCRnet protocol I study found that ranibizumab with deferred laser resulted in better long-term visual outcome compared with ranibizumab with prompt laser. This review summarizes various important clinical trials on the long-term efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The pharmacological properties of ranibizumab, its cost effectiveness, and impact on quality of life will also be discussed. PMID:23766636
Coleman, D Jackson; Lee, Winston; Chang, Stanley; Silverman, Ronald H; Lloyd, Harriet O; Daly, Suzanne; Tsang, Stephen H
To evaluate PDE5/6 inhibition with sildenafil to reduce choroidal ischemia and treat age-related macular degeneration. Sildenafil was prescribed to treat participants with macular degenerations or macular dystrophies measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, color fundus photography, enhanced depth imaging, and best-corrected visual acuity. No change in calcified drusen was noted. Vitelliform-type soft drusen were not substantially changed. A participant with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy had a significant improvement in vision as well as in photoreceptor and ellipsoid layers. Our research supports sildenafil as a safe treatment for age-related and vitelliform macular degenerations. Thickened Bruch's membrane reduces the beneficial effect of perfusion increase, but all eyes appear to benefit from PDE6. Notably, maintenance or improvement in the photoreceptor layer may be the most significant result of sildenafil and is consistent with PDE6 inhibition. Thus, sil-denafil treatment of macular degeneration offers significant potential for vision retention and recovery. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Skalicky, Simon E; Fenwick, Eva; Martin, Keith R; Crowston, Jonathan; Goldberg, Ivan; McCluskey, Peter
The aim of the study is to measure the impact of age-related macular degeneration on vision-related activity limitation and preference-based status for glaucoma patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Two-hundred glaucoma patients of whom 73 had age-related macular degeneration were included in the research. Sociodemographic information, visual field parameters and visual acuity were collected. Age-related macular degeneration was scored using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study system. The Rasch-analysed Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 and the Visual Function Questionnaire Utility Index measured vision-related activity limitation and preference-based status, respectively. Regression models determined factors predictive of vision-related activity limitation and preference-based status. Differential item functioning compared Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 item difficulty for those with and without age-related macular degeneration. Mean age was 73.7 (±10.1) years. Lower better eye mean deviation (β: 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.63, P < 0.001) and age-related macular degeneration (β: 1.26 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.44, P = 0.001) were independently associated with worse vision-related activity limitation. Worse eye visual acuity (β: 0.978, 95% confidence interval: 0.961-0.996, P = 0.018), high risk age-related macular degeneration (β: 0.981, 95% confidence interval: 0.965-0.998, P = 0.028) and severe glaucoma (β: 0.982, 95% confidence interval: 0.966-0.998, P = 0.032) were independently associated with worse preference-based status. Glaucoma patients with age-related macular degeneration found using stairs, walking on uneven ground and judging distances of foot to step/curb significantly more difficult than those without age-related macular degeneration. Vision-related activity limitation and preference-based status are negatively impacted by severe glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Patients with both conditions
Sadda, SriniVas R; Tuomi, Lisa L; Ding, Beiying; Fung, Anne E; Hopkins, J Jill
To evaluate macular atrophy (MA) presence in the 24-month HARBOR study (NCT00891735) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post hoc analysis of a phase 3 multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, active treatment-controlled clinical trial. Evaluable subjects (N = 1095) with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to neovascular AMD treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg or 2.0 mg monthly or pro re nata (PRN). Fluorescein angiograms (FAs) and color fundus photographs at baseline and months 3, 12, and 24 were retrospectively graded by masked graders for MA: well-defined areas of depigmentation with increased choroidal vessel visibility, diameter ≥250 μm, corresponding to flat areas of well-demarcated staining on FA, excluding atrophy associated with retinal pigment epithelium tears. Atrophy immediately within, adjacent, and nonadjacent to CNV lesions was included. Macular atrophy incidence, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). At baseline, MA was detected in 11.2% (123/1095) of study eyes. At month 24, 29.4% (229/778) of eyes without baseline atrophy had detectable MA. Eyes with and without baseline MA had significant mean BCVA gains from baseline at month 24 (letters [95% confidence interval]: +6.7 [4.1-9.3]; +9.1 [8.0-10.2], respectively). Among eyes with and without MA at month 24, mean month 24 BCVA was 62.0 [60.3-63.7] and 64.7 [63.2-66.3] letters, respectively. Baseline risk factors for month 24 MA presence included intraretinal cysts (hazard ratio [HR], 2.45 [1.76-3.42]) and fellow eye atrophy (HR, 2.02 [1.42-2.87]); subretinal fluid was associated with a lower MA risk (HR, 0.50 [0.33-0.74]). Ranibizumab dose was not associated with MA development. Monthly versus PRN treatment trended toward an association with MA (HR, 1.29 [0.99-1.68]), but was not statistically significant. New MA was detected in 29% of study eyes after 24 months of treatment. Clinically significant BCVA gains were achieved with MA present over 24
Qualls, Laura G; Hammill, Bradley G; Wang, Fang; Lad, Eleonora M; Schulman, Kevin A; Cousins, Scott W; Curtis, Lesley H
To examine associations between newly diagnosed neovascular age-related macular degeneration and direct medical costs. This retrospective observational study matched 23,133 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration between 2004 and 2008 with a control group of 92,532 beneficiaries on the basis of age, sex, and race. The index date for each case-control set corresponded to the first diagnosis for the case. Main outcome measures were total costs per patient and age-related macular degeneration-related costs per case 1 year before and after the index date. Mean cost per case in the year after diagnosis was $12,422, $4,884 higher than the year before diagnosis. Postindex costs were 41% higher for cases than controls after adjustment for preindex costs and comorbid conditions. Age-related macular degeneration-related costs represented 27% of total costs among cases in the postindex period and were 50% higher for patients diagnosed in 2008 than in 2004. This increase was attributable primarily to the introduction of intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists. Intravitreous injections averaged $203 for patients diagnosed in 2004 and $2,749 for patients diagnosed in 2008. Newly diagnosed neovascular age-related macular degeneration was associated with a substantial increase in total medical costs. Costs increased over time, reflecting growing use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies.
McCloud, Christine; Khadka, Jyoti; Gilhotra, Jagjit Singh; Pesudovs, Konrad
The aim of this study was to understand people's experience with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in light of new treatment successes. An interpretive qualitative methodology was used to facilitate understanding of the experience of people with AMD. Rich in-depth data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data occurred through the processes of line-by-line coding, aggregation, and theme development using the NVivo 10 software. A total of 4 focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted with 34 people (median age = 81 years; range = 56 to 102 years; 19 females) with AMD. Four major themes arose from the narratives of the participants: cautious optimism, enduring, adaptation, and profound loss. Cautious optimism resonated for participants who had received successful treatment and stabilization of AMD. Enduring emerged as participants with exudative AMD described an ongoing need for invasive and frequent treatments (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections) that maintained their vision. Adaptation was evident in the narratives of all participants and was directly related to the physical and psychological limitations that were a consequence of visual disability. Profound loss encompassed both physical and emotional aspects of deteriorating vision and was most evident in patients for whom treatment had failed or had not been considered appropriate for their disease. The findings of this study shed new light on the influence of underlying pathology, disease trajectory, and success of new treatments on quality of life of people living with AMD. Optimism toward maintaining vision in the presence of exudative AMD was described by participants, moderated by ongoing caution and a need for endurance of frequent and often problematic intravitreal treatments. These findings add a deeper understanding of this complex and life-changing experience.
Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Bethlehem, Richard A I; Klein, Barrie P; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Dumoulin, Serge O
Patients with a scotoma in their central vision (e.g., due to macular degeneration, MD) commonly adopt a strategy to direct the eyes such that the image falls onto a peripheral location on the retina. This location is referred to as the preferred retinal locus (PRL). Although previous research has investigated the characteristics of this PRL, it is unclear whether eye movement metrics are modulated by peripheral viewing with a PRL as measured during a visual search paradigm. To this end, we tested four MD patients in a visual search paradigm and contrasted their performance with a healthy control group and a healthy control group performing the same experiment with a simulated scotoma. The experiment contained two conditions. In the first condition the target was an unfilled circle hidden among c-shaped distractors (serial condition) and in the second condition the target was a filled circle (pop-out condition). Saccadic search latencies for the MD group were significantly longer in both conditions compared to both control groups. Results of a subsequent experiment indicated that this difference between the MD and the control groups could not be explained by a difference in target selection sensitivity. Furthermore, search behavior of MD patients was associated with saccades with smaller amplitudes toward the scotoma, an increased intersaccadic interval and an increased number of eye movements necessary to locate the target. Some of these characteristics, such as the increased intersaccadic interval, were also observed in the simulation group, which indicate that these characteristics are related to the peripheral viewing itself. We suggest that the combination of the central scotoma and peripheral viewing can explain the altered search behavior and no behavioral evidence was found for a possible reorganization of the visual system associated with the use of a PRL. Thus the switch from a fovea-based to a PRL-based reference frame impairs search efficiency.
Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Kwan, Anthony S.; Owsley, Cynthia
Purpose To explore differences in driving performance of older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls, and to identify the visual determinants of driving performance in this population. Methods Participants included 33 older drivers with AMD (mean age [M] = 76.6 ± 6.1 years; better eye Age-Related Eye Disease Study grades: early [61%] and intermediate [39%]) and 50 age-matched controls (M = 74.6 ± 5.0 years). Visual tests included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and motion sensitivity. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist (masked to drivers' visual status). Outcome measures included driving safety ratings (scale of 1–10, where higher values represented safer driving), types of driving behavior errors, locations at which errors were made, and number of critical errors (CE) requiring an instructor intervention. Results Drivers with AMD were rated as less safe than controls (4.8 vs. 6.2; P = 0.012); safety ratings were associated with AMD severity (early: 5.5 versus intermediate: 3.7), even after adjusting for age. Drivers with AMD had higher CE rates than controls (1.42 vs. 0.36, respectively; rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 1.47–6.36, P = 0.003) and exhibited more observation, lane keeping, and gap selection errors and made more errors at traffic light–controlled intersections (P < 0.05). Only motion sensitivity was significantly associated with driving safety in the AMD drivers (P = 0.005). Conclusions Drivers with early and intermediate AMD can exhibit impairments in their driving performance, particularly during complex driving situations; motion sensitivity was most strongly associated with driving performance. These findings have important implications for assessing the driving ability of older drivers with visual impairment. PMID:29340641
Dougherty, Bradley E; Cooley, San-San L; Davidorf, Frederick H
To validate the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using Rasch analysis. Study participants with AMD were recruited from the retina service of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Ohio State University during clinical visits for treatment or observation. Visual acuity with habitual distance correction was assessed. A 10-item version of the PSS was administered in large print or by reading the items to the patient. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the measurement properties of the PSS, including fit to the model, ability to separate between people with different levels of perceived stress, category response structure performance, and unidimensionality. A total of 137 patients with a diagnosis of AMD were enrolled. The mean (±SD) age of participants was 82 ± 9 years. Fifty-four percent were female. Median Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity of the better eye was 65 letters (Snellen 20/50), with a range of approximately 20/800 to 20/15. Forty-seven percent of participants were receiving an anti-VEGF injection on the day of the study visit. The response category structure was appropriate. One item, "How often have you felt confident in your ability to handle your personal problems?" was removed due to poor fit statistics. The remaining nine items showed good fit to the model, acceptable measurement precision as assessed by the Rasch person separation statistic, and unidimensionality. There was some evidence of differential item functioning by age and visual acuity. The Perceived Stress Scale demonstrated acceptable measurement properties and may be useful for the measurement of perceived stress in patients with AMD.
Martin, Daniel F; Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Fine, Stuart L; Jaffe, Glenn J
Clinical trials have established the efficacy of ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In addition, bevacizumab is used off-label to treat AMD, despite the absence of similar supporting data. In a multicenter, single-blind, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 1208 patients with neovascular AMD to receive intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab on either a monthly schedule or as needed with monthly evaluation. The primary outcome was the mean change in visual acuity at 1 year, with a noninferiority limit of 5 letters on the eye chart. Bevacizumab administered monthly was equivalent to ranibizumab administered monthly, with 8.0 and 8.5 letters gained, respectively. Bevacizumab administered as needed was equivalent to ranibizumab as needed, with 5.9 and 6.8 letters gained, respectively. Ranibizumab as needed was equivalent to monthly ranibizumab, although the comparison between bevacizumab as needed and monthly bevacizumab was inconclusive. The mean decrease in central retinal thickness was greater in the ranibizumab-monthly group (196 μm) than in the other groups (152 to 168 μm, P=0.03 by analysis of variance). Rates of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were similar for patients receiving either bevacizumab or ranibizumab (P>0.20). The proportion of patients with serious systemic adverse events (primarily hospitalizations) was higher with bevacizumab than with ranibizumab (24.1% vs. 19.0%; risk ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.66), with excess events broadly distributed in disease categories not identified in previous studies as areas of concern. At 1 year, bevacizumab and ranibizumab had equivalent effects on visual acuity when administered according to the same schedule. Ranibizumab given as needed with monthly evaluation had effects on vision that were equivalent to those of ranibizumab administered monthly. Differences in rates of serious adverse events require further
Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/wk of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available. PMID:22503690
Das, R A; Romano, A; Chiosi, F; Menzione, M; Rinaldi, M
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition that accounts for 75% of cases of legal blindness in individuals over the age of 50. The objective of this review has been to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available combined treatments modalities in the treatment of neovascular AMD. Central and Medline were searched for original research studies (Phase I, II, III), abstracts, and review articles concerning combination therapies for the control of neovascular AMD. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The results of therapeutic trials focused on the actual options in the management of neovascular AMD are discussed. Intravitreal treatment with substances targeting all isotypes of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) results in a significant increase in visual acuity in patients with neovascular AMD. The combination with occlusive therapies like verteporfin photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) potentially offers a reduction of re-treatment frequency rate and long-term maintenance of the benefit reached. Despite the promise from combining anti-VEGF therapies with V-PDT, other combinations to improve outcomes with V-PDT deserve attention. Corticosteroids demonstrated an antiangiogenic effect and targeted the extravascular components of CNV, such as inflammatory cells and fibrocytes. Nevertheless, the study on the clinical application of corticosteroids will require a better understanding of the potential complications. Further developments interacting with various steps in the angiogenic cascade are under clinical or preclinical evaluation and may soon become available. In AMD the goal of a combination regimen is to address the therapy toward neovascular, inflammatory, and proliferative components of the disease. Combined treatments strategies are an obvious step providing disease control when it is not achieved with a single therapeutic approach. One risk of using a single therapy to control AMD is a rebound induced by compensatory stimulation of
Takasago, Yukari; Shiragami, Chieko; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Osaka, Rie; Ono, Aoi; Yamashita, Ayana; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Hirooka, Kazuyuki
To compare the areas of choriocapillaris (CC) nonperfusion and macular atrophy (MA) in treated exudative age-related macular degeneration. This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Forty-four eyes exhibiting MA (42 patients with age-related macular degeneration), with a dry macula, underwent fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography angiography. The area of MA detected by fundus autofluorescence and CC nonperfusion detected by optical coherence tomography angiography was measured using image analysis software. The rates of concordance between the MA and CC nonperfusion areas were calculated. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the areas of MA and CC nonperfusion in age-related macular degeneration eyes. The mean areas of MA and CC nonperfusion were 5.95 ± 4.50 mm and 10.66 ± 7.05 mm, respectively (paired t-test, P < 0.001). In 39 eyes (88.6%), the CC nonperfusion area was larger than the MA area, and the mean CC nonperfusion area was significantly larger than the mean MA area. Fundus autofluorescence matching optical coherence tomography angiography showed that the CC nonperfusion area was almost included in the MA area. The mean concordance rate for the MA area inside the CC nonperfusion area was 87.7 ± 13.9%. The MA and CC nonperfusion areas markedly overlapped. The area of CC nonperfusion correlated with the MA area. Choroidal ischemia might be involved in the pathogenesis of MA in treated age-related macular degeneration.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Agi, Jorge; Kasahara, Niro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz
To evaluate the quality of online information on age-related macular degeneration available in Portuguese. The search term "age-related macular degeneration" was used to browse the web using four different search engines. The first 40 websites appearing on match lists provided by each search engine were recorded and those listed in at least three tab pages selected. The Sandvik Severity Index was used as to assess website quality. Quality of information available on selected websites was rated average (mean Sandvik Score 7.08±2.23). Most websites disseminating information about age-related macular degeneration were of average quality. The need to readjust web-based information to target lay public and promote increased understanding was emphasized.
Findlay, Quan; Jobling, Andrew I; Vessey, Kirstan A; Greferath, Ursula; Phipps, Joanna A; Guymer, Robyn H; Fletcher, Erica L
The presence of drusen in the posterior eye is a hallmark feature of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration and their size is an indicator of risk of progression to vision-threatening forms of the disease. Since the initial observations that laser treatment can resolve drusen, there has been great interest in whether laser treatment can be used to reduce the progression of age-related macular degeneration. In this article, we review the development of lasers for the treatment of those with age-related macular degeneration. We provide an overview of the clinical trial results that demonstrated drusen resolution but that had mixed effects on progression of disease. In addition, we provide a summary of the recent developments in pulsed lasers that are designed to reduce the energy applied to the posterior eye to provide the therapeutic effects of conventional continuous wave lasers while reducing the secondary tissue effects.
Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K; Lee, Kristine E; Stricker, Bruno H; Vingerling, Johannes R; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E K; Klaver, Caroline C W; Wang, Jie Jin
To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analysis. setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), and Rotterdam Study (RS). observation procedures: Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. main outcome measures: Incidence of AMD. The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the 3 studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hautamäki, Asta; Luoma, Arto; Immonen, Ilkka
To study the anterior chamber flare during bevacizumab treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. During a 2-year prospective follow-up, 50 patients recently diagnosed with exudative age-related macular degeneration were treated at once-a-month visits if subretinal or intraretinal fluid or a new hemorrhage was present in the lesion area. Flare was measured weekly during the first month and then monthly in both eyes. Higher flare was associated with older age (P = 0.007, Linear Mixed Model), higher number of smoking pack-years (P = 0.019), macular cysts (P = 0.041), and pseudophakia (P = 0.003). The levels gradually increased during the follow-up (P < 0.0001) but less in the eyes with classic CNV (P = 0.011). Flare decreased during treatment-free periods lasting for at least two consecutive visits (P = 0.005). A peak in flare was observed 1 week after the first injection (P = 0.034, Wilcoxon signed rank test). In the fellow eyes, higher flare values in the beginning of the follow-up were associated with later conversion into exudative age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.015, Mann-Whitney U test). Anterior chamber flare correlated poorly with the CNV activity. Higher levels may, however, precede or exist early in the process that leads to the development of exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Yu, Honghua; Zou, Xiulan; Peng, Lianghong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Chu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Evidence has shown that the human immune system may play critical roles in this disease. Inducible costimulator (ICOS) promotes T-cell activation, differentiation, and T:B-cell interactions. The aim of the study was to understand the effect of ICOS on the development of AMD from genetic polymorphism perspective and serum level perspective. Two ICOS polymorphisms, rs10183087A/C and rs10932037C/T, were tested in 223 AMD cases and 262 healthy controls. The serum level of soluble ICOS (sICOS) was compared among subjects with different genotypes, as well as between AMD patients and controls. Data showed that prevalence of rs10183087CC genotype was significantly increased in AMD than in controls (p=0.001). Function analysis revealed that subjects carrying rs10183087CC genotype had higher serum levels of sICOS than those with AA or AC genotypes (p<0.05). When we compared serum levels of sICOS between cases and controls, results showed that AMD patients had significantly increased sICOS levels than healthy donors (p<0.05). Also, wet type cases were observed to have higher sICOS levels than cases with dry type (p<0.05). These data suggested ICOS polymorphism could affect the susceptibility to AMD by elevating protein expression, and serum levels of sICOS may be closed correlated with the development and progression of this disease. PMID:24083358
Khandhadia, Samir; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Heng, Ling Z; Gibson, Jane; Adams, David H; Alexander, Graeme J; Gibson, Jonathan M; Martin, Keith R; Menon, Geeta; Nash, Kathryn; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Ennis, Sarah; Cree, Angela J; Morgan, B Paul; Lotery, Andrew J
To investigate whether modification of liver complement factor H (CFH) production, by alteration of liver CFH Y402H genotype through liver transplantation (LT), influences the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, cross-sectional study. We recruited 223 Western European patients ≥ 55 years old who had undergone LT ≥ 5 years previously. We determined AMD status using a standard grading system. Recipient CFH Y402H genotype was obtained from DNA extracted from recipient blood samples. Donor CFH Y402H genotype was inferred from recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This approach was verified by genotyping donor tissue from a subgroup of patients. Systemic complement activity was ascertained by measuring levels of plasma complement proteins using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, including substrates (C3, C4), activation products (C3a, C4a, and terminal complement complex), and regulators (total CFH, C1 inhibitor). We evaluated AMD status and recipient and donor CFH Y402H genotype. In LT patients, AMD was associated with recipient CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4) but not with donor CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.626), after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype predicted donor CFH Y402H genotype with 100% accuracy (n = 49). Plasma complement protein or activation product levels were similar in LT patients with and without AMD. Compared with previously reported prevalence figures (Rotterdam Study), LT patients demonstrated a high prevalence of both AMD (64.6% vs 37.1%; OR, 3.09; P<0.001) and the CFH Y402H sequence variation (41.9% vs 36.2%; OR, 1.27; P = 0.014). Presence of AMD is not associated with modification of hepatic CFH production. In addition, AMD is not associated with systemic complement activity in LT patients. These findings suggest that local
Objective: To investigate possible risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Design: Case-control study. Participants: Of the 4757 persons enrolled in AREDS, 4519 persons aged 60 to 80 years were included in this study. The lesions associated with AMD ranged from absent in both eyes to advanced in one eye. Main Outcome Measures: Stereoscopic color fundus photographs of the macula were used to place participants into one of five groups, based on the frequency and severity of lesions associated with AMD. Participants with fewer than 15 small drusen served as the control group. Results: Staged model building techniques were used to compare each of the four case groups with the control group. Increased age was a consistent finding of all four of the case groups compared with the control group, and all the following associations were age adjusted. Persons with either intermediate drusen, extensive small drusen, or the pigment abnormalities associated with AMD (group 2) were more likely to be female, more likely to have a history of arthritis, and less likely to have a history of angina. Persons with one or more large drusen or extensive intermediate drusen (group 3) were more likely to use hydrochlorothiazide diuretics and more likely to have arthritis. Hypertension, hyperopia, presence of lens opacities, and white race were also found more frequently in this group as well as in persons with neovascular AMD (group 5). Only persons in group 5 were more likely to have an increased body mass index, whereas persons with geographic atrophy (group 4) as well as those in groups 3 and 5 were more likely to have completed fewer years in school or to be smokers. Those with geographic atrophy were also more likely to use thyroid hormones and antacids. Conclusions: Our findings for smoking and hypertension, which have been noted in previous studies, suggest that two important public health recommendations
Ooto, Sotaro; Vongkulsiri, Sritatath; Sato, Taku; Suzuki, Mihoko; Curcio, Christine A; Spaide, Richard F
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have not been fully characterized because of the complex morphology and a lack of correlative histologic studies. Expansion of our ability to interpret increasing attributes brings us closer to the goal of in vivo histologic analysis of the eye by OCT. To describe a new outer retinal finding of AMD using spectral-domain (SD) OCT and suggest histopathologic correlates. Twenty-five eyes of 16 patients with AMD with severe atrophy due to either choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or geographic atrophy (GA) and 53 donor eyes of 53 patients with late AMD were included. Imaging studies were conducted at a referral retinal practice and histopathology was done at a university research laboratory. Findings in the outer retina were evaluated in SD-OCT images in eyes with atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and compared with histopathologic findings in eyes with GA or CNV that also showed loss of the RPE. Spectral-domain OCT and histologic characteristics of the outer retina. The mean (SD) age of the 16 patients was 82.7 (7.9) years. Twenty eyes had CNV and 5 eyes had GA. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.800 logMAR (interquartile range, 0.350-1.000 logMAR), a Snellen equivalent of 20/126. A curvilinear hyperreflective density was identified above the Bruch membrane line within the atrophic area in the SD-OCT images. At the internal border, the material was contiguous with the outer portion of the RPE band. Below the material was a relatively hyporeflective space. The material was thrown into folds in cases with atrophy following CNV or was seen as a sheet with numerous bumps in eyes with GA. Review of histopathologic findings of eyes with advanced GA and CNV revealed a rippled layer of basal laminar deposits in an area of RPE atrophy that was located in the same level as the curvilinear line seen in the OCT images. We have described a new entity, termed outer
Williams, Michael A; McKay, Gareth J; Chakravarthy, Usha
Given the relatively high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the increased incidence of AMD as populations age, the results of trials of novel treatments are awaited with much anticipation. The complement cascade describes a series of proteolytic reactions occurring throughout the body that generate proteins with a variety of roles including the initiation and promotion of immune reactions against foreign materials or micro-organisms. The complement cascade is normally tightly regulated, but much evidence implicates complement overactivity in AMD and so it is a logical therapeutic target in the treatment of AMD. To assess the effects and safety of complement inhibitors in the prevention or treatment of advanced AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (January 1990 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 21 November 2013. We also performed handsearching of proceedings, from 2012 onwards, of meetings and conferences of specific professional organisations. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with
Sörensen, Silvia; White, Katherine; Mak, Wingyun; Zanibbi, Katherine; Tang, Wan; O'Hearn, Amanda; Hegel, Mark T
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible and predictable blindness among older adults with serious physical and mental health consequences. Visual impairment is associated with negative future outlook and depression and has serious consequences for older adults' quality of life and, by way of depression, on long-term survival. Psychosocial interventions have the potential to alleviate and prevent depression symptoms among older AMD patients. We describe the protocol of the Macular Degeneration and Aging Study, a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial Preventive Problem-Solving Intervention. The intervention is aimed at enhancing well-being and future planning among older adults with macular degeneration by increasing preparation for future care. Adequate randomization and therapeutic fidelity were achieved. Current retention rates were acceptable, given the vulnerability of the population. Acceptability (adherence and satisfaction) was high. Given the high public health significance and impact on quality of life among older adults with vision loss, this protocol contributes a valid test of a promising intervention for maintaining mental and physical health in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liutkeviciene, Rasa; Vilkeviciute, Alvita; Smalinskiene, Alina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Petkeviciene, Janina; Zaliuniene, Dalia; Lesauskaite, Vaiva
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in the developed countries. The main pathological change in AMD is the formation of drusen containing 40% of lipids, dominated by esterified cholesterol (EC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), and protein. Haplotype ε4 of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) acts as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor and is involved in the maintenance and repair of neuronal cell membranes. This study aimed to evaluate the association of AMD with ApoE gene polymorphism variants (rs7412 and rs429358). A total of 2133 subjects were enrolled in our research. The study group comprised patients with early AMD (n = 413) and exudative AMD (n = 307), and the control group enrolled randomly selected persons (n = 1413). The genotyping of ApoE (rs7412 and rs429358) was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Statistical analysis revealed that ApoE 4/2 genotype was less frequently observed in in older patients with exudative AMD compared to older healthy controls (0.4% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.003). Our data demonstrated that ApoE 4/2 genotype was less frequently observed in old patients (65 years and more) with exudative AMD compared to old healthy controls. It leads to hypothesis on the protective effect of ApoE 4/2 to develop AMD in the elderly.
Agi, Jorge; Kasahara, Niro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the quality of online information on age-related macular degeneration available in Portuguese. Methods: The search term “age-related macular degeneration” was used to browse the web using four different search engines. The first 40 websites appearing on match lists provided by each search engine were recorded and those listed in at least three tab pages selected. The Sandvik Severity Index was used as to assess website quality. Results: Quality of information available on selected websites was rated average (mean Sandvik Score 7.08±2.23). Conclusion: Most websites disseminating information about age-related macular degeneration were of average quality. The need to readjust web-based information to target lay public and promote increased understanding was emphasized. PMID:29898089
Feely, Mary; Vetere, Arlene; Myers, Lynn B.
One of the most prevalent visual impairments of people aged 60 and older is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which ranks third globally as a cause of visual impairment (World Health Organization, 2006). The purpose of this study was to conduct a tentative subjective assessment of eccentric viewing by persons with AMD. The authors recruited…
PROTECT YOUR EYES Age-Related Macular Degeneration ( AMD ) FACTS & PREVENTION TIPS A LEADING CAUSE OF VISION LOSS IN THE U.S . AMD is a ... Black 2% Other 89% White As the population ages, the number of cases is expected to increase ...
Huber, Jessica G.; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Plotkin, Ann D.
Closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs) are used by many elderly people who have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The functional vision of 68 participants, which was measured immediately after they adopted CCTVs, suggested successful outcomes, but the psychosocial impact of the use of CCTVs did not peak until a month later. The findings help…
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kammerer, Annette; Holz, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Becker, Stefanie; Kaspar, Roman; Himmelsbach, Ines
This study evaluated an emotion-focused and a problem-focused intervention designed for patients with age-related macular degeneration. It found a limited decrease in depression in the emotion-focused group and an increase in active problem orientation and in adaptation to vision loss in the problem-focused group.
Fosse, Per; Valberg, Arne
This study investigated the effects of changes in luminance on the oral reading speeds of 13 participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a control group of six age-matched persons with typical vision. For the AMD participants, self-reports of light preferences were also recorded. In the AMD group, reading rates depended on light…
Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.
Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…
Casten, Robin J.; Maloney, Eileen K.; Rovner, Barry W.
Visual impairment (blindness or low vision) is a leading cause of disability among older adults and is most often due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is predicted that 2.95 million people will have AMD by 2020 (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). Unfortunately, there is no cure for AMD, nor can lost vision be restored.…
Smith, Theresa Marie; Thomas, Kimberly; Dow, Katherine
Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States for persons aged 60 and older. Compared to individuals without disabilities, individuals with low vision demonstrate a 15% to 30% higher dependence on others to perform activities of daily living. In addition, low vision can adversely affect a person's quality of life.…
Steinmetz, Andrea; Bernhard, Andreas; Sahr, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard
The case of a 31-year-old captive female Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with decreased near vision but good distance vision is presented. Examination of the fundus revealed drusen-like bodies in the macula presumably because of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD). © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies because they are more affordable...
Blindness is the second greatest fear among the elderly. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly in most industrialized nations. AMD first compromises central high acuity vision. Subsequently, all vision may be lost. AMD is a progressive retinal d...
We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...
Zinc is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to its high concentration in the retina and role as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of studies that investigated dietary inta...
Kostadinov, F; Valmaggia, C
The disease perception of the patients treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor due to wet age-related macular degeneration was investigated. 177 questionnaires focusing on the development of the perceived visual acuity and the quality of life were evaluated. The subgroup 1 included 125 patients (70.6%) with a unilateral wet age-related macular degeneration. The subgroup 2 included 52 patients (29.4%) with a bilateral wet age-related macular degeneration. Patients would almost always recommend the therapy to a friend (97.2%). The critical remarks are related to the uncertain course of the disease (22.8%) and the uncertain duration of the treatment (19%). There was a discrepancy between the measured visual outcome and the perceived one in 5.6% in the subgroup 1, and in 38.5% in the subgroup 2. This difference was statistically significant (chi-square test with p<0.01). The treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor is judged positively. Binocular affected patients have a higher disease perception and therefore a poorer self-assessment of their visual acuity and their quality of life compared with monocular affected patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Evans, Jennifer R
Ginkgo is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and 'cerebral insufficiency'. It is thought to have several potential mechanisms of action including increased blood flow, platelet activating factor antagonism, and prevention of membrane damage caused by free radicals. Vascular factors and oxidative damage are thought to be two potential mechanisms in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to determine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to October 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 October 2012. We searched the reference lists of identified reports and the Science Citation Index. We also contacted investigators of included studies for additional information. All randomised trials in people with AMD where Ginkgo biloba extract had been compared to control were included. The review author extracted data using a standardised form. The data were verified with the trial investigators. Trial quality was assessed. Two published trials were identified that randomised a total of 119 people. In one study conducted in France, 20 people were randomly allocated to Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 80 mg twice daily or placebo. In
Yoshida, Tsunehiko; DeWan, Andrew; Zhang, Hong; Sakamoto, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Haru; Minami, Masayoshi; Obazawa, Minoru; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Ikue; Hoh, Josephine; Iwata, Takeshi
To study the effect of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 10q26, recently shown to be associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Chinese and Caucasian cohorts, in a Japanese cohort. Using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood of wet AMD cases and age-matched controls, we genotyped two SNPs, rs10490924, and rs11200638, on chromosome 10q26, 6.6 kb and 512 bp upstream of the HTRA1 gene, respectively, using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) and direct sequencing. Association tests were performed for individual SNPs and jointly with SNP complement factor H (CFH) Y402H. The two SNPs, rs10490924 and rs11200638, are in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1). Previous sequence comparisons among seventeen species revealed that the genomic region containing rs11200638 was highly conserved while the region surrounding rs10490924 was not. The allelic association test for rs11200638 yielded a p-value <10(-11). SNP rs11200638 conferred disease risk in an autosomal recessive fashion: Odds ratio was 10.1 (95% CI 4.36, 23.06), adjusted for SNP CFH 402, for those carrying two copies of the risk allele, whereas indistinguishable from unity if carrying only one risk allele. The HTRA1 promoter polymorphism, rs11200638, is a strong candidate with a functional consequence that predisposes Japanese to develop neovascular AMD.
Cameron, D Joshua; Yang, Zhenglin; Gibbs, Daniel; Chen, Haoyu; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Jorgensen, Adam; Zeng, Jiexi; Luo, Ling; Brinton, Eric; Brinton, Gregory; Brand, John M; Bernstein, Paul S; Zabriskie, Norman A; Tang, Shibo; Constantine, Ryan; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhang, Kang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. The two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (wet AMD), represent two types of degenerative processes in the macula that lead to loss of central vision. Soft confluent drusen, characterized by deposits in macula without visual loss are considered a precursor of advanced AMD. A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs11200638, in the promoter of HTRA1 has been shown to increases the risk for wet AMD. However, its impact on soft confluent drusen and GA or the relationship between them is unclear. To better understand the role the HTRA1 polymorphism plays in AMD subtypes, we genotyped an expanded Utah population with 658 patients having advanced AMD or soft confluent drusen and 294 normal controls and found that the rs11200638 was significantly associated with GA. This association remains significant conditional on LOC387715 rs10490924. In addition, rs11200638 was significantly associated with soft confluent drusen, which are strongly immunolabeled with HTRA1 antibody in an AMD eye with GA similar to wet AMD. Two-locus analyses were performed for CFH Y402H variant at 1q31 and the HTRA1 polymorphism. Together CFH and HTRA1 risk variants increase the odds of having AMD by more than 40 times. These findings expand the role of HTRA1 in AMD. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanism will provide an important insight in pathogenesis of AMD.
Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Singh, Ramandeep; Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Chen, Wei
The purpose of the study was to determine serum complement factor H (CFH) levels in patients of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and examine its association with CFH Y402H polymorphism. 115 AMD patients and 61 normal controls were recruited in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism was assayed by real time PCR and serum CFH levels were measured by ELISA and standardized to total serum protein. Chi-square test was applied to polymorphism analysis while Mann Whitney U-statistic for CFH-levels. Mendelian randomization approach was used for determining causal relationship. The genotype frequency differed between the AMD patients (TT- 18.3%, TC-41.3% and CC-40.4%) and controls (TT-76.3%, TC-13.6%, and CC-10.1%) (p = 0001). The frequency of alleles was also significantly different when AMD (T-39% and C-61%) was compared to controls (T-83% and C-17%) (p = 0.0001). Level of serum CFH was significantly lower in AMD patients as compared to normal controls (p = 0.001). Our data showed that the CFH Y402H polymorphism is a risk factor for AMD in the North Indian population. Mendelian randomization approach revealed that CFH Y402H polymorphism affects AMD risk through the modification of CFH serum levels. PMID:23922956
Zeng, Jiexi; Chen, Yuhong; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhou, Xinrong; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Hughes, Guy; Kasuga, Daniel; Bedell, Matthew; Lee, Clara; Ferreyra, Henry; Kozak, Igor; Haw, Weldon; Guan, Jean; Shaw, Robert; Stevenson, William; Weishaar, Paul D; Nelson, Mark H; Tang, Luosheng; Zhang, Kang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss worldwide. Research has linked AMD susceptibility with dysregulation of the complement cascade. Typically, complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), and complement component 3 (C3) are associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigated the association between complement factor D (CFD), another factor of the complement system, and advanced AMD in a Caucasian population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1683564, rs35186399, rs1683563, rs3826945, rs34337649, and rs1651896, across the region covering CFD, were chosen for this study. One hundred and seventy-eight patients with advanced AMD and 161 age-matched normal controls were genotyped. Potential positive signals were further tested in another independent 445 advanced AMD patients and 190 controls. χ2 tests were performed to compare the allele frequencies between case and control groups. None of the six SNPs of CFD was found to be significantly associated with advanced AMD in our study. Our findings suggest that CFD may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to AMD because no association was found between the six SNPs analyzed in the CFD region and advanced AMD.
Sobrin, Lucia; Seddon, Johanna M
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of irreversible visual loss and the disease burden is rising world-wide as the population ages. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of this disease. Among environmental factors, smoking, obesity and dietary factors including antioxidants and dietary fat intake influence onset and progression of AMD. There are also several lines of evidence that link cardiovascular, immune and inflammatory biomarkers to AMD. The genetic etiology of AMD has been and continues to be an intense and fruitful area of investigation. Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous common variants associated with AMD and sequencing is increasing our knowledge of how rare genetic variants strongly impact disease. Evidence for interactions between environmental, therapeutic and genetic factors is emerging and elucidating the mechanisms of this interplay remains a major challenge in the field. Genotype-phenotype associations are evolving. The knowledge of non-genetic, modifiable risk factors along with information about heritability and genetic risk variants for this disease acquired over the past 25 years have greatly improved patient management and our ability to predict which patients will develop or progress to advanced forms of AMD. Personalized medicine and individualized prevention and treatment strategies may become a reality in the near future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dieguez, Hernán H; Romeo, Horacio E; González Fleitas, María F; Aranda, Marcos L; Milne, Georgia A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Dorfman, Damián
Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Although experimental murine models exist, the vast majority take a long time to develop retinal alterations and, in general, these alterations are ubiquitous, with many resulting from non-eye-specific genetic manipulations; additionally, most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which, together with the parasympathetic system, regulates blood flow into the choroid. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present, no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy (also known as ganglionectomy) on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, loss of retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase, the appearance of drusen-like deposits, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor apoptosis, and a decline in photoreceptor electroretinographic function. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age-related macular degeneration, and
Srinivasan, Pratul P.; Kim, Leo A.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Comer, Grant M.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina
We present a novel fully automated algorithm for the detection of retinal diseases via optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Our algorithm utilizes multiscale histograms of oriented gradient descriptors as feature vectors of a support vector machine based classifier. The spectral domain OCT data sets used for cross-validation consisted of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects: 15 normal subjects, 15 patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 15 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Our classifier correctly identified 100% of cases with AMD, 100% cases with DME, and 86.67% cases of normal subjects. This algorithm is a potentially impactful tool for the remote diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:25360373
Zheng, Fang; Motulsky, Elie H; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; de López, Edith Pérez; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J
To demonstrate the advantage of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for the diagnosis and management of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) masquerading as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This is an observational cases series. Three patients referred with the diagnosis of neovascular AMD were identified in this retrospective study. In addition to color fundus, fluorescein angiography, and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) imaging, SD-OCTA (AngioPlex; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) was performed. SD-OCTA revealed bilateral parafoveal retinal microvascular changes in three patients and unambiguously confirmed the diagnosis of MacTel2. OCTA is an important tool for the correct diagnosis of MacTel2 in older patients with the concomitant or masquerading diagnosis of AMD. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:303-312.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Brión, María; Sanchez-Salorio, Manuel; Cortón, Marta; de la Fuente, Maria; Pazos, Belen; Othman, Mohammad; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Goncalo; Sobrino, Beatriz; Carracedo, Angel
Purpose To investigate new genetic risk factors and replicate reported associations with advanced age related macular degeneration (AMD) in a prospective case - control study developed with a Spanish cohort. Methods Three hundred and fifty-three unrelated patients with advanced AMD (225 with atrophic AMD, 57 with neovascular AMD, and 71 with mixed AMD) and 282 age-matched controls were included. Functional and tagging SNPs in 55 candidate genes were genotyped using the SNPlex™ genotyping system. Single SNP and haplotype association analysis were performed to determine possible genetic associations; interaction effects between SNPs were also investigated. Results In agreement with previous reports, ARMS2 and CFH genes were strongly associated with AMD in the studied Spanish population. Moreover, both loci influenced risk independently giving support to different pathways implicated in AMD pathogenesis. No evidence for association of advanced AMD with other previous reported susceptibility genes, such as CST3, CX3CR1, FBLN5, HMCN1, PON1, SOD2, TLR4, VEGF and VLDLR, was detected. However, two additional genes appear to be candidate markers for the development of advanced AMD. A variant located at the 3´UTR of the FGF2 gene (rs6820411) was highly associated with atrophic AMD, and the functional SNP rs3112831 at ABCA4 showed a marginal association with the disease. Conclusion We performed a large gene association study in advanced AMD in a Spanish population. Our findings show that CFH and ARMS2 genes seem to be the principal risk loci contributing independently to AMD in our cohort. We report new significant associations that could also influence the development of advanced AMD. These findings should be confirmed in further studies with larger cohorts. PMID:21106043
Yang, Zhenglin; Stratton, Charity; Francis, Peter J.; Kleinman, Mark E.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Gibbs, Daniel; Tong, Zongzhong; Chen, Haoyu; Constantine, Ryan; Yang, Xian; Chen, Yuhong; Zeng, Jiexi; Davey, Lisa; Ma, Xiang; Hau, Vincent S.; Wang, Chi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Pearson, Erik; Patel, Shrena; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Watkins, Scott; Luo, Ling; Zabriskie, Norman A.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Cho, Wongil; Schwager, Andrea; Hinton, David R; Klein, Michael L; Hamon, Sara C.; Simmons, Emily; Yu, Beifeng; Campochiaro, Betsy; Sunness, Janet S.; Campochiaro, Peter; Jorde, Lynn; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zack, Donald J.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Zhang, Kang
BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. Advanced AMD is comprised of geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Specific genetic variants that predispose for GA are largely unknown. METHODS We tested (i) for association between the functional toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) variant rs3775291 (L412F) and AMD in European Americans and (ii) the effect of TLR3 L and F variants on the viability of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro and on RPE cell apoptosis in wildtype and Tlr3−/− mice. RESULTS The F variant (or T allele at single nucleotide polymorphism at rs3775291) was associated with protection against GA (P=0.005); this association was replicated in two independent GA case-control series (P=5.43×10−4 and P=0.002, respectively. We observed no association between TLR3 variants and CNV. The rs377291 variant is probably critical to the function of TLR3, because a prototypic TLR3 ligand induced cell death and apoptosis in human RPE cells with the LL genotype to a greater extent than it did RPE cells with the LF genotype. Moreover, the ligand induced more RPE cell death and apoptosis in wild-type than in Tlr3−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS The TLR3 412F variant confers protection against GA, probably by suppressing RPE cell death. Given that double stranded RNA can activate TLR3-mediated apoptosis, our results suggest a possible role for viral dsRNA transcripts in the development of GA and raise awareness of potential toxicity induced by short interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics in the eye. PMID:18753640
Nakai, Shunichiro; Matsumiya, Wataru; Miki, Akiko; Nakamura, Makoto
Purpose To determine the association of age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene polymorphisms with the 3-year outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at rs10490924 in the ARMS2 gene of 65 patients with wet AMD who underwent PDT was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. The clinical characteristics and the outcomes of PDT were compared among the three genotypes at rs10490924. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of the clinical cofactors on the association of rs10490924 with the visual outcome at 36 months after the first PDT. Results A significant difference was found among the genotypes in the age and the baseline lesion size. The patients with the GG genotype showed a significant improvement in vision, and the patients with the TT genotype showed a significant worsening of vision at all time points measured after the initial PDT. In the multivariate regression analysis, the number of the G allele at rs10490924 was associated with a significantly greater improvement in the baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 36 months after the first PDT. Conclusions ARMS2 variants are likely associated with the 3-year outcomes of PDT in patients with wet AMD. PMID:28761324
Panova, I E; Ermak, E M; Shaimova, T A; Shaimova, V A
Ocular circulation disorders are an important factor in the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To date, however, there have been no studies on choroidal blood flow peculiarities in case of concurrent AMD and POAG. to determine distinctive features of choroidal blood flow characteristic of concurrent AMD and POAG and to assess their role in disease pathogenesis. Macular choroidal blood flow, including blood supply, was assessed in 54 patients (102 eyes) by means of Doppler ultrasound. Three groups were formed: group 1 - 38 eyes with both AMD and POAG; group 2 - 41 eyes with AMD and no signs of optic nerve pathology; and group 3 - 23 eyes with POAG and no signs of AMD. Groups 1 and 2 were subdivided into two subgroups each: А - atrophic AMD and B - macular drusen. The mean patient age was 78.7±8.4 years. The following parameters of choroidal blood flow were of interest: peak systolic velocity (Vps), end diastolic velocity (Ved), time-averaged maximum velocity (Vtamax), and resistance index (RI). Groups 1, 3, and 2A had an evident choroidal hypoperfusion in the macular area (decreased Vtamax) with uncompensated perfusion deficit, despite autoregulation efforts (decreased Vps, Ved, decreased or normal RI). Group 2B demonstrated a significantly higher rate of choroidal hyperperfusion (increased Vps, Ved, Vtamax, and RI). Concurrent AMD and POAG are notable for choroidal hypoperfusion in the macular area that leads to inadequate trophism of the neurosensory retina and can aggravate the course of AMD contributing to progression of its atrophic form.
Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Stack, Jim; Peto, Tunde; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Power, Rebecca; Nolan, John M
We compared macular pigment (MP) measurements using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Metrics Densitometer) and dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT MultiColor) in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macular pigment was measured in 117 subjects with early AMD (age, 44-88 years) using the Densitometer and Spectralis, as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787). Baseline and 6-month study visits data were used for the analyses. Agreement was investigated at four different retinal eccentricities, graphically and using indices of agreement, including Pearson correlation coefficient (precision), accuracy coefficient, and concordance correlation coefficient (ccc). Agreement was poor between the Densitometer and Spectralis at all eccentricities, at baseline (e.g., at 0.25° eccentricity, accuracy = 0.63, precision = 0.35, ccc = 0.22) and at 6 months (e.g., at 0.25° eccentricity, accuracy = 0.52, precision = 0.43, ccc = 0.22). Agreement between the two devices was significantly greater for males at 0.5° and 1.0° of eccentricity. At all eccentricities, agreement was unaffected by cataract grade. In subjects with early AMD, MP measurements obtained using the Densitometer and Spectralis are not statistically comparable and should not be used interchangeably in either the clinical or research setting. Despite this lack of agreement, statistically significant increases in MP, following 6 months of supplementation with macular carotenoids, were detected with each device, confirming that these devices are capable of measuring change in MP within subjects over time. (http://www.controlled-trials.com number, ISRCTN13894787.).
Sarwar, Salman; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Baldwin, Andrew J; Hanout, Mostafa; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Sepah, Yasir J; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong
Background Central vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Neovascular AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Growth of new blood vessels in patients with neovascular AMD is driven by a complex process that involves a signal protein called vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Anti-VEGF drugs that block this protein include ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. Objectives To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal injections of aflibercept versus ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or sham for treatment of patients with neovascular AMD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 11, 2015), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2015), PubMed (1948 to November 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to November 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched December 4, 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on November 30, 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which aflibercept monotherapy was compared with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or sham for participants with neovascular AMD who were treatment-naive. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration for screening, data abstraction, and study assessment. Two review authors
Gibbs, Daniel; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Ma, Xiang; Camp, Nicola J; Yang, Xian; Chen, Hayou; Jorgenson, Adam; Hau, Vincent; Dewan, Andrew; Zeng, Jiexi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Brand, John M; Hoh, Josephine; Cameron, D Joshua; Dixit, Manjusha; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhang, Kang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental influences. The genetic influences affecting AMD are not well understood and few genes have been consistently implicated and replicated for this disease. A polymorphism (rs11200638) in a transcription factor binding site of the HTRA1 gene has been described, in previous reports, as being most significantly associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigate haplotype association and individual polymorphic association by genotyping additional variants in the AMD risk-associated region of chromosome 10q26. We demonstrate that rs11200638 in the promoter region and rs2293870 in exon 1 of HTRA1, are among the most significantly associated variants for advanced forms of AMD.
Kitchens, John W; Kassem, Nawal; Wood, William; Stone, Thomas W; Isernhagen, Rick; Wood, Edward; Hancock, Brad A; Radovich, Milan; Waymire, Josh; Li, Lang; Schneider, Bryan P
Purpose To ascertain whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGFA), Complement Factor H (CFH), and LOC387715 genes could predict outcome to anti-VEGF therapy for patients with age related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients with “wet” AMD were identified by chart review. Baseline optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA) data, and at least 6 months of clinical follow up after 3 initial monthly injections of bevacizumab or ranibizumab were required for inclusion. Based on OCT and VA, patients were categorized into two possible clinical outcomes: (a) responders and (b) non-responders. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped for candidate SNPs in the VEGFA, LOC387715, and CFH genes. Clinical outcomes were statistically compared to patient genotypes. Results 101 patients were recruited, and one eye from each patient was included in the analysis. 97% of samples were successfully genotyped for all SNPs. We found a statistically significant association between the LOC387715 A69S TT genotype and outcome based on OCT. Conclusion Genetic variation may be associated with outcome in patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:24143065
Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.
Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.
Vaziri, Kamyar; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Moshfeghi, Andrew A
Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are important causes of visual impairment and blindness in the world. Because of recent advances and newly available treatment modalities along with the devastating consequences associated with late stages of these diseases, much attention has been paid to the importance of early detection and improving patient access to specialist care. Telemedicine or, more specifically, digital retinal imaging utilizing telemedical technology has been proposed as an important alternative screening and management strategy to help meet this demand. In this paper, we perform a literature review and analysis that evaluates the validity and feasibility of telemedicine in detecting diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Understanding both the progress and barriers to progress that have been demonstrated in these two areas is important for future telemedicine research projects and innovations in telemedicine technology.
Luttrull, Jeffrey K; Chang, David B; Margolis, Benjamin W L; Dorin, Giorgio; Luttrull, David K
Drug tolerance is the most common cause of treatment failure in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. "Low-intensity/high-density" subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) has been reported effective for a number of retinal disorders without adverse effects. It has been proposed that SDM normalizes retinal pigment epithelial function. On this basis, it has been postulated that SDM treatment might restore responsiveness to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs in drug-tolerant eyes. Subthreshold diode micropulse laser treatment was performed in consecutive eyes unresponsive to all anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, including at least three consecutive ineffective aflibercept injections. Monthly aflibercept was resumed 1 month after SDM treatment. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients, aged 73 to 97 years (average, 84 years), receiving 16 to 67 (average, 34) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections before SDM treatment were included and followed for 3 months to 7 months (average, 5 months) after SDM treatment. After SDM treatment and resumption of aflibercept, 92% (12 of 13) of eyes improved, with complete resolution of macular exudation in 69% (9 of 13). Visual acuity remained unchanged. Central and maximum macular thicknesses significantly improved. Subthreshold diode micropulse laser treatment restored drug response in drug-tolerant eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Based on these findings, a theory of SDM action is proposed, suggesting a wider role for SDM as retinal reparative/protective therapy.
Rotenstreich, Ygal; Ben-Ner, Daniel; Mahajna, Mohamad; Chibel, Ron; Sher, Ifat
Purpose: To objectively assess visual field (VF) defects and retinal cell function in healthy subjects and patients with macular degeneration using a chromatic multifocal pupillometer. Methods: A multifocal chromatic pupillometer (MCP) was used to record pupillary responses (PR) of 17 healthy subjects and 5 Best Vitelliform macular dystrophy patients. Blue and red light stimuli (peak 485nm and 620nm, respectively) were presented at light intensities of 400 and 1000 cd/m2, respectively at 76 different points in a 16.2 degree VF. The PR of patients were compared with their findings on Humphrey's 24-2 perimetry, optical coherence tomography and the PR obtained from healthy subjects. Results: Patients demonstrated reduced percentage of pupillary contraction and slower maximal contraction velocity, more than two standard errors (SE) away from the mean of healthy subjects in response to red light in majority of VF locations. In response to blue light, the percentage of pupillary contraction was lower (by over two SE) compared with normal controls only in central locations. The latency of maximal contraction velocity was shorter in patients compared with healthy subjects in response to both colors. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the advantage of using MCP-based objective VF to assess central scotoma in macular degeneration. Our finding also suggests that chromatic perimetry may differentiate between PR mediated by cones and rods, and can specifically detect defects in macular cones. Different parameters of PR such as latency of maximal contraction velocity may shed light on the pathophysiology of different blinding diseases.
Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Ivana K.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The societal impact is significant, with more than 2 million individuals in the United States alone affected by advanced stages of AMD. Recent progress in our understanding of this complex disease and parallel developments in therapeutics and imaging have translated into new management paradigms in recent years. However, there are many unanswered questions, and diagnostic and prognostic precision and treatment outcomes can still be improved. In this article, we discuss the clinical features of AMD, provide correlations with modern imaging and histopathology, and present an overview of treatment strategies. PMID:25280900
Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Lieske, Heidi B; Tran, Irwin; Turpcu, Adam; Colman, Shoshana
The purpose of this study was to use a cross-sectional prevalence-based health care economic survey to ascertain the annual, incremental, societal ophthalmic costs associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Consecutive patients (n = 200) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were studied. A Control Cohort included patients with good (20/20-20/25) vision, while Study Cohort vision levels included Subcohort 1: 20/30 to 20/50, Subcohort 2: 20/60 to 20/100, Subcohort 3: 20/200 to 20/400, and Subcohort 4: 20/800 to no light perception. An interviewer-administered, standardized, written survey assessed 1) direct ophthalmic medical, 2) direct nonophthalmic medical, 3) direct nonmedical, and 4) indirect medical costs accrued due solely to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The mean annual societal cost for the Control Cohort was $6,116 and for the Study Cohort averaged $39,910 (P < 0.001). Study Subcohort 1 costs averaged $20,339, while Subcohort 4 costs averaged $82,984. Direct ophthalmic medical costs comprised 17.9% of Study Cohort societal ophthalmic costs, versus 74.1% of Control Cohort societal ophthalmic costs (P < 0.001) and 10.4% of 20/800 to no light perception subcohort costs. Direct nonmedical costs, primarily caregiver, comprised 67.1% of Study Cohort societal ophthalmic costs, versus 21.3% ($1,302/$6,116) of Control Cohort costs (P < 0.001) and 74.1% of 20/800 to no light perception subcohort costs. Total societal ophthalmic costs associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration dramatically increase as vision in the better-seeing eye decreases.
You, Qi Sheng; Gaber, Raouf; Meshi, Amit; Ramkumar, Hema L; Alam, Mostafa; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Freeman, William R
To determine the efficacy of monthly (0.1 mL/4 mg) aflibercept for refractory neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet age-related macular degeneration). This was a retrospective interventional case series in which patients with wet age-related macular degeneration were treated with stepwise dose escalation. Nonvitrectomized patients resistant to monthly (Q4W) ranibizumab/bevacizumab were switched to 2 mg aflibercept every 8 weeks. With resistance, they were escalated to Q4W 2 mg aflibercept, then Q4W 4 mg (high dose high frequency, 4Q4W) aflibercept. Resistance was defined as ≥2 recurrences after being dry following ≥3 injections or persistent exudation on treatment of ≥5 injections. Thirty-three eyes of 28 patients were treated with 4Q4W aflibercept and followed for a mean of 16 months. A dry retina (no intraretinal or subretinal fluid) was achieved after initiating 4Q4W aflibercept treatment at a mean of 3.8 months. Central foveal thickness, maximum foveal thickness, intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and retinal pigment detachment height decreased significantly at 1 month after initiating the 4Q4W aflibercept, and the morphologic therapeutic effect was sustained until the last visit. Forty-five percent of eyes had one or more lines of vision improvement. New geographic atrophy developed in 9% of eyes during follow-up. No ocular or systemic adverse events occurred after initiating 4Q4W aflibercept. Intravitreal high-dose high-frequency aflibercept is an effective treatment for patients with refractory wet age-related macular degeneration.
Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho
To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P < 0.05). Within cleft group, the early-onset (<6 months) subgroup had even worse visual outcomes than the late-onset subgroup (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the incidence of prechoroidal cleft was positively correlated with having received intravitreal gas injection to displace a submacular hemorrhage and a diagnosis of retinal angiomatous proliferation and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration (P < 0.05). Diagnosis of retinal angiomatous proliferation and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.
Ziada, Jean; Hagenau, Felix; Compera, Denise; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Schaumberger, Markus M; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Schumann, Ricarda G
To describe the morphologic characteristics of the vitreomacular interface in intermediate age-related macular degeneration associated with tangential traction due to premacular membrane formation and to correlate with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and clinical data. Premacular membrane specimens were removed sequentially with the internal limiting membrane from 27 eyes of 26 patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were processed for immunocytochemical staining of epiretinal cells and extracellular matrix components. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and patient charts were evaluated in retrospect. Immunocytochemistry revealed hyalocytes and myofibroblasts as predominant cell types. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated evidence of vitreoschisis in all eyes. Myofibroblasts with contractile properties were observed to span between folds of the internal limiting membrane and vitreous cortex collagen. Retinal pigment epithelial cells or inflammatory cells were not detected. Mean visual acuity (Snellen) showed significant improvement from 20/72 ± 20/36 to 20/41 ± 20/32 (P < 0.001) after a mean follow-up period of 19 months (median, 17 months). During this period, none of the eyes required anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Fibrocellular premacular proliferation in intermediate age-related macular degeneration predominantly consists of vitreous collagen, hyalocytes, and myofibroblasts with contractile properties. Vitreoschisis and vitreous-derived cells appear to play an important role in traction formation of this subgroup of eyes. In patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and contractile premacular membrane, release of traction by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling results in significantly functional and anatomical improvement.
Takeuchi, K; Kachi, S; Iwata, E; Ishikawa, K; Terasaki, H
To evaluate the changes in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after 1 year and after ≥ 5 years after macular translocation for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV). The medical records of 61 consecutive patients who underwent macular translocation with 360° retinotomy for AMD (35 eyes) or mCNV (26 eyes) were reviewed. Overall, 40 patients, 17 mCNV and 23 AMD, were followed for at least 5 years. BCVA and area of the Goldmann visual field (VF) measured before, 12 months after surgery, and at the final visit. In the 23 AMD eyes followed for ≥ 5 years, the mean preoperative BCVA was 1.149 ± 0.105 logMAR units, which significantly improved to 0.69 ± 0.06 logMAR units at 1 year (P<0.001). This BCVA was maintained at 0.633 ± 0.083 logMAR units on their final examination. In the 17 eyes with mCNV followed for ≥ 5 years, the mean preoperative BCVA was 1.083 ± 0.119 logMAR units, which was significantly improved to 0.689 ± 0.121 logMAR units at 1 year (P = 0.001). This BCVA was maintained at 0.678 ± 0.142 logMAR units on their final examination. The area of the VF was significantly decreased at 12 months and did not change significantly thereafter. Our results show that macular translocation surgery significantly improves the BCVA and significantly decreases the VF area of eyes with mCNV or AMD after first 1 year. The BCVA and VF area do not change significantly from the values at 1 year for at least 5 years.
Lupidi, Marco; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Chhablani, Jay; Fiore, Tito; Singh, Sumit Randhir; Cardillo Piccolino, Felice; Corbucci, Roberta; Coscas, Florence; Coscas, Gabriel; Cagini, Carlo
Optical coherence tomography angiography is one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. It enables a depth-resolved assessment of the retinal and choroidal blood flow, far exceeding the levels of detail commonly obtained with dye angiographies. One of the first applications of optical coherence tomography angiography was in detecting the presence of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and establishing its position in relation to the retinal pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane, and thereby classifying the CNV as type 1, type 2, type 3, or mixed lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiograms, due to the longer wavelength used by optical coherence tomography, showed a more distinct choroidal neovascularization vascular pattern than fluorescein angiography, since there is less suffering from light scattering or is less obscured by overlying subretinal hemorrhages or exudation. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of optical coherence tomography angiography findings in exudative and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration have been largely investigated within the past 3 years both in clinical and experimental settings. This review constitutes an up-to-date of all the potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration in order to better understand how to translate its theoretical usefulness into the current clinical practice.
Velez-Montoya, Raul; Oliver, Scott C N; Olson, Jeffrey L; Fine, Stuart L; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Mandava, Naresh
To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning human genetics, risk factors, pharmacoeconomics, and prevention regarding age-related macular degeneration. An online review of the database Pubmed and Ovid was performed, searching for the key words: age-related macular degeneration, AMD, pharmacoeconomics, risk factors, VEGF, prevention, genetics and their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985 to date. All returned articles were carefully screened and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The webpage www.clinicaltrials.gov was also accessed in search of relevant research trials. A total of 366 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references and 25 webpages and online databases from different institutions. At the end, only 244 references were included in this review. Age-related macular degeneration is a complex multifactorial disease that has an uneven manifestation around the world but with one common denominator, it is increasing and spreading. The economic burden that this disease poses in developed nations will increase in the coming years. Effective preventive therapies need to be developed in the near future.
Velez-Montoya, Raul; Oliver, Scott C N; Olson, Jeffrey L; Fine, Stuart L; Mandava, Naresh; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo
To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning today's treatment options and promising research efforts regarding treatment for age-related macular degeneration. This review is aimed to serve as a practical reference for more in-depth reviews on the subject. An online review of the database PubMed and Ovid were performed, searching for the key words age-related macular degeneration, AMD, VEGF, treatment, PDT, steroids, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, VEGF-trap, radiation, combined therapy, as well as their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985. All returned articles were carefully screened, and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The web page www.clinicaltrials.gov was also accessed in search of relevant research trials. A total of 363 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references. At the end, only 160 references were included in this review. Treatment for age-related macular degeneration is a very dynamic research field. While current treatments are mainly aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor, future treatments seek to prevent vision loss because of scarring. Promising efforts have been made to address the dry form of the disease, which has lacked effective treatment.
Kim, Hye-Jung; Woo, Se Joon; Suh, Eui Jin; Ahn, Jeeyun; Park, Ji Hyun; Hong, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Ji Eun; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hwang, Duck Jin; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyu Hyung; Lee, Cheolju
To identify plasma protein biomarkers for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using a large-scale quantitative proteomic discovery procedure. Plasma proteomes from 20 exudative AMD patients and 20 healthy control patients were comparatively profiled by four-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins existing at statistically different levels were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting in 233 case-controlled samples. Newly discovered plasma biomarkers were further confirmed using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Out of 320 proteins identified, vinculin, protein S100A9, triosephosphate isomerase, protein S100A8, protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor, C-X-C motif chemokine 7, and tenascin X showed significantly differential expression in AMD patient plasma compared to control plasma. Among these, the area under the curve (AUC) for vinculin was 0.871 for discriminating between exudative AMD and controls (n = 201) and 0.879 for discriminating between AMD and controls (n = 233). A proteogenomic combination model using vinculin and two known risk genotypes in ARMS2 and CFH genes additionally provided excellent discrimination of AMD from controls (AUC = 0.916). The plasma level of vinculin was not associated with any confounding clinical variables, such as age, smoking, and other comorbidities. Additionally, vinculin was strongly expressed in retinal pigment epithelial cells of human eyes, and its expression was elevated when exposed to oxidative stress in vitro. Vinculin was identified as a potential plasma biomarker for AMD. The early detection of AMD using novel plasma biomarkers with genetic modeling may enable timely treatment and vision preservation in the elderly. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Chen, Yuhong; Zeng, Jiexi; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Trood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Jeanette; Weed, Matthew; Kasuga, Daniel; Bernstein, Paul S.; Hughes, Guy; Fu, Victoria; Chin, Jessica; Lee, Clara; Crocker, Maureen; Bedell, Matthew; Salasar, Francesca; Yang, Zhenglin; Goldbaum, Michael; Ferreyra, Henry; Freeman, William R.; Kozak, Igor; Zhang, Kang
Objectives To evaluate the independent and joint effects of genetic factors and environmental variables on advanced forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, and to develop a predictive model with genetic and environmental factors included. Methods Demographic information, including age at onset, smoking status, and body mass index, was collected for 1844 participants. Genotypes were evaluated for 8 variants in 5 genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to generate a risk predictive model. Results All genetic variants showed a strong association with AMD. Multivariate odds ratios were 3.52 (95% confidence interval, 2.08-5.94) for complement factor H, CFH rs1061170 CC, 4.21 (2.30-7.70) for CFH rs2274700 CC, 0.46 (0.27-0.80) for C2 rs9332739 CC/CG, 0.44 (0.30-0.66) for CFB rs641153 TT/CT, 10.99 (6.04-19.97) for HTRA1/LOC387715 rs10490924 TT, and 2.66 (1.43-4.96) for C3 rs2230199 GG. Smoking was independently associated with advanced AMD after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and all genetic variants. Conclusion CFH confers more risk to the bilaterality of geographic atrophy, whereas HTRA1/LOC387715 contributes more to the bilaterality of choroidal neovascularization. C3 confers more risk for geographic atrophy than choroidal neovascularization. Risk models with combined genetic and environmental factors have notable discrimination power. Clinical Relevance Early detection and risk prediction of AMD could help to improve the prognosis of AMD and to reduce the outcome of blindness. Targeting high-risk individuals for surveillance and clinical interventions may help reduce disease burden. PMID:21402993
Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W
Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.
Tode, Jan; Richert, Elisabeth; Koinzer, Stefan; Klettner, Alexa; von der Burchard, Claus; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lucius, Ralph; Roider, Johann
To investigate the effect of thermal stimulation of the retina (TS-R) on Bruch's membrane (BrM) thickness in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mouse models as a novel concept for the prophylaxis and treatment of dry AMD. Two knockout AMD mouse models, B6.129P2-Apoe tm1Unc /J (ApoE-/-) and B6.129X1-Nfe2I2 tm1Ywk /J (NRF2-/-), were chosen. One randomized eye of each mouse in four different groups (two of different age, two of different genotype) of five mice was treated by TS-R (532 nm, 10-ms duration, 50-μm spot size), the fellow eye served as control. Laser power was titrated to barely visible laser burns, then reduced by 70% to guarantee for thermal elevation without damage to the neuroretina, then applied uniformly to the murine retina. Fundus, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FLA) images were obtained at the day of treatment and 1 month after treatment. Eyes were enucleated thereafter to analyze BrM thickness by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a standardized blinded manner. Fundus images revealed that all ApoE-/- and NRF2-/- mice had AMD associated retinal alterations. BrM thickness was increased in untreated controls of both mouse models. Subvisible TS-R laser spots were not detectable by fundus imaging, OCT, or FLA 2 hours or 1 month after laser treatment. TEM revealed a significant reduction of BrM thickness in laser-treated eyes of all four groups compared to their fellow control eyes. TS-R reduces BrM thickness in AMD mouse models ApoE-/- and NRF2-/- without damage to the neuroretina. It may become a prophylactic or even therapeutic treatment option for dry AMD. TS-R may become a prophylactic or even therapeutic treatment option for dry AMD.
Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yaonan; Yao, Zhaomin; Zhao, Ruixue; Zhou, Fengfeng
Non-lethal macular diseases greatly impact patients’ life quality, and will cause vision loss at the late stages. Visual inspection of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images by the experienced clinicians is the main diagnosis technique. We proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) model to discriminate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) and healthy macula. The linear configuration pattern (LCP) based features of the OCT images were screened by the Correlation-based Feature Subset (CFS) selection algorithm. And the best model based on the sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm achieved 99.3% in the overall accuracy for the three classes of samples. PMID:28018716
de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; de Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Kniggendorf, Vinicius Ferreira; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Maia, André; Meyer, Carsten; Watanabe, Sung Eun Song; Farah, Michel Eid; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele
To evaluate the 6-month safety and efficacy of ziv-aflibercept intravitreal injections for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration. Fifteen patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration were enrolled. The best-corrected visual acuity was measured and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline and monthly. Full-field electroretinography and multifocal electroretinography were obtained at baseline and 4, 13, and 26 weeks after the first injection. All patients received three monthly intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) followed by as-needed treatment. Between baseline and 26 weeks, the mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved (P = 0.00408) from 0.93 ± 0.4 (20/200) to 0.82 ± 0.5 (20/160) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, respectively; the central retinal thickness decreased significantly (P = 0.0007) from 490.3 ± 155.1 microns to 327.9 ± 101.5 microns; the mean total macular volume decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 9.51 ± 1.36 mm to 8.08 ± 1.34 mm, and the a-wave implicit time increased, with no differences in the other full-field electroretinography parameters. The average multifocal electroretinography macular responses within the first central 15° showed significantly (P < 0.05) increased P1 amplitudes at 26 weeks. No systemic or ocular complications developed. Intravitreal ziv-aflibercept significantly improved the best-corrected visual acuity, multifocal electroretinography amplitudes, central retinal thickness, and total macular volume from baseline to 26 weeks. No retinal toxicity on full-field electroretinography or adverse events occurred during the follow-up period.
Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Heidi C; Kindermann, Sylvia; Sharma, Sanjay
To perform a value-based medicine analysis of clinical trials that evaluate the interventions of laser photocoagulation, intravitreal pegaptanib therapy, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Reference case cost-utility analysis using value-based medicine principles, which use patient-based utility values and standardized, input variable criteria. Data from participants in the Macular Photocoagulation Study, Pegaptanib for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Study, and the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy Study. Visual data were converted to a value-based format using time tradeoff utility analysis values from patients with macular degeneration. Costs were obtained from 2005 Medicare data. Outcomes (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and costs were discounted at a 3% annual rate. Interventional QALYs gained, percent improvement in quality of life, and dollars spent per QALY gained. Laser photocoagulation confers a 4.4% (P = 0.03 versus pegaptanib therapy) improvement in quality of life for the reference case, whereas pegaptanib therapy confers a 5.9% improvement and PDT confers an 8.1% (P = 0.0002 versus pegaptanib therapy) improvement. The cost-utility associated with laser photocoagulation is $8179, that for pegaptanib therapy is $66978, and that for PDT is $31544. All sensitivity analyses remain within the conventional standards of cost-effectiveness. Photodynamic therapy confers greater patient value than intravitreal pegaptanib therapy and laser photocoagulation for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Despite the fact that laser photocoagulation is the most cost-effective intervention, both PDT and pegaptanib therapy deliver greater value, and thus are both preferred over laser photocoagulation. Using an economic measure, photodynamic therapy is the preferred treatment among these 3 interventions.
Ethen, Cheryl M; Feng, Xiao; Olsen, Timothy W; Ferrington, Deborah A
Biochemical analysis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at distinct stages of the disease will help further understanding of the molecular events associated with disease progression. This study was conducted to determine the ability of a new grading system for eye bank eyes, the Minnesota Grading System (MGS), to discern distinct stages of AMD so that retinal region-specific changes in rod photoreceptor protein expression from donors could be determined. Donor eyes were assigned to a specific level of AMD by using the MGS. Expression of the rod photoreceptor proteins rhodopsin and arrestin was evaluated by Western immunoblot analysis in the macular and peripheral regions of the neurosensory retina from donors at different stages of AMD. A significant linear decline in both arrestin and rhodopsin content correlated with progressive MGS levels in the macula. In contrast, the peripheral region showed no significant correlation between MGS level and the content of either protein. The statistically significant relationship between decreasing macular rod photoreceptor proteins and progressive MGS levels of AMD demonstrates the utility of the clinically based MGS to correspond with specific protein changes found at known, progressive stages of degeneration. Future biochemical analysis of clinically characterized donor eyes will further understanding of the pathobiochemistry of AMD.
Zapuskalov, I V; Krivosheina, O I; Khoroshikh, Yu I
To develop a combination surgery for wet age-related macular degeneration and concurrent chronic peripheral uveitis that would include intravitreal injection of Lucentis and cryocerclage of the peripheral retina. A total of 75 patients were examined and divided into 2 groups: the main group (37 patients) and the controls (38 patients). Patients from the main group underwent the new combination surgery, while the controls received intravitreal Lucentis alone (peripheral uveitis was managed therapeutically). It has been found that the new combination method provides a significant and stable improvement in visual acuity (by a factor of 10) and a decrease in the area of central scotoma (by a factor of 2.95) in the postoperative period. The period needed for recovery in the central retinal thickness is also 1.6 times shorter. The new combination surgery for wet age-related macular degeneration and concurrent chronic peripheral uveitis provides rapid reduction of inflammation in the extreme periphery of the fundus and a 1.5 times faster (as compared to traditional methods) primary restoration of topographic anatomy of the retina in the macular region.
Davis, Bert; Russell, Steven; Abramoff, Michael; Nemeth, Sheila C.; Barriga, E. Simon; Soliz, Peter
The purpose of this study is to show that there exists a spectral characteristic that differentiates normal macular tissue from various types of genetic-based macular diseases. This paper demonstrates statistically that hyperspectral images of macular and other retinal tissue can be used to spectrally differentiate different forms of age-related macular degeneration. A hyperspectral fundus imaging device has been developed and tested for the purpose of collecting hyperspectral images of the human retina. A methodology based on partial least squares and ANOVA has been applied to determine the hyperspectral representation of individual spectral characteristics of retinal features. Each discrete tissue type in the retina has an identifiable spectral shape or signature which, when combined with spatial context, aids in detection of pathological features. Variations in the amount and distribution of various ocular pigments or the inclusion of additional biochemical substances will allow detection of pathological conditions prior to traditional histological presentation. Fundus imaging cameras are ubiquitous and are one of the most common imaging modalities used in documenting a patient's retinal state for diagnosis, e.g. remotely, or for monitoring the progression of an ocular disease. The added diagnostic information obtained with only a minor retro-fit of a specialized spectral camera will lead to new diagnostic information to the clinical ophthalmologist or eye-care specialist.
Fankhauser, Franz Ii; Ott, Maria; Munteanu, Mihnea
Photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy) allows the non-invasively reveal of local dynamics and local heterogeneities of macromolecular systems. The capability of this technique to diagnose the retinal pathologies by in-vivo investigations of spatial anomalies of retinas displaying non-exudative senile macular degeneration was evaluated. Further, the potential use of the technique for the diagnosis of the macular degeneration was analyzed and displayed by the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). The maculae and the peripheral retina of 73 normal eyes and of 26 eyes afflicted by an early stage of non-exudative senile macular degeneration were characterized by time-correlation functions and analyzed in terms of characteristic decay times and apparent size distributions. The characteristics of the obtained time-correlation functions of the eyes afflicted with nonexudative macular degeneration and of normal eyes differed significantly, which could be referred to a significant change of the nano- and microstructure of the investigated pathologic maculas. Photon-correlation spectroscopy is able to assess the macromolecular and microstructural aberrations in the macula afflicted by non-exudative, senile macular degeneration. It has been demonstrated that macromolecules of this disease show a characteristic abnormal behavior in the macula.
Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a kind of macular disease which mostly occurs in old people，and it may cause decreased vision or even lead to permanent blindness. Drusen is an important clinical indicator for AMD which can help doctor diagnose disease and decide the strategy of treatment. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is widely used in the diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases, include AMD. In this paper, we propose a classification method based on Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) to detect AMD. Drusen can exist in a few slices of OCT images, and MIL is utilized in our method. We divided the method into two phases: training phase and testing phase. We train the initial features and clustered to create a codebook, and employ the trained classifier in the test set. Experiment results show that our method achieved high accuracy and effectiveness.
Klein, Barbara E K; Howard, Kerri P; Iyengar, Sudha K; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Meyers, Kristin J; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Ronald
Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Malania, Maka; Konrad, Julia; Jägle, Herbert; Werner, John S; Greenlee, Mark W
Macular degeneration (MD) affects the central retina and leads to gradual loss of foveal vision. Although, photoreceptors are primarily affected in MD, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and central visual pathways may also be altered subsequent to photoreceptor degeneration. Here we investigate whether retinal damage caused by MD alters microstructural properties of visual pathways using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Six MD patients and six healthy control subjects participated in the study. Retinal images were obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Diffusion tensor images (DTI) and high-resolution T1-weighted structural images were collected for each subject. We used diffusion-based tensor modeling and probabilistic fiber tractography to identify the optic tract (OT) and optic radiations (OR), as well as nonvisual pathways (corticospinal tract and anterior fibers of corpus callosum). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial and radial diffusivity values (AD, RD) were calculated along the nonvisual and visual pathways. Measurement of RNFL thickness reveals that the temporal circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in eyes with macular degeneration than normal. While we did not find significant differences in diffusion properties in nonvisual pathways, patients showed significant changes in diffusion scalars (FA, RD, and AD) both in OT and OR. The results indicate that the RNFL and the white matter of the visual pathways are significantly altered in MD patients. Damage to the photoreceptors in MD leads to atrophy of the ganglion cell axons and to corresponding changes in microstructural properties of central visual pathways.
Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Wolkow, Natalie; Iacovelli, Jared; Kautz, Leon; Roth, Marie-Paule; Dunaief, Joshua L.
Iron-induced oxidative stress causes hereditary macular degeneration in patients with aceruloplasminemia. Similarly, retinal iron accumulation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may exacerbate the disease. The cause of retinal iron accumulation in AMD is poorly understood. Given that bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) is a major regulator of systemic iron, we examined the role of Bmp6 in retinal iron regulation and in AMD pathogenesis. Bmp6 was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a major site of pathology in AMD. In cultured RPE cells, Bmp6 was down-regulated by oxidative stress and up-regulated by iron. Intraocular Bmp6 protein injection in mice up-regulated retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, and altered retinal labile iron levels. Bmp6−/− mice had age-dependent retinal iron accumulation and degeneration. Postmortem RPE from patients with early AMD exhibited decreased Bmp6 levels. Because oxidative stress is associated with AMD pathogenesis and down-regulates Bmp6 in cultured RPE cells, the diminished Bmp6 levels observed in RPE cells in early AMD may contribute to iron build-up in AMD. This may in turn propagate a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and iron accumulation, exacerbating AMD and other diseases with hereditary or acquired iron excess. PMID:21703414
Starr, Matthew R; Mahr, Michael A; Barkmeier, Andrew J; Iezzi, Raymond; Smith, Wendy M; Bakri, Sophie J
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having macular fluid on the OCT prior to cataract surgery adversely affected vision or anatomic outcomes after cataract surgery in patients with exudative AMD. Retrospective, cohort study. We examined all patients who underwent cataract surgery and were receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from January 1 st , 2012 through December 31 st , 2016. There were 81 eyes that underwent cataract surgery and had received at least one intravitreal anti-VEGF injection for a diagnosis of exudative AMD within 6 months prior to surgery. Data collected included the development of subretinal or intraretinal macular fluid, or subretinal hemorrhage in the 6 months following surgery, number of injections, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and central subfield thickness (CST). There was a significant improvement between pre- and post-operative BCVA when comparing all patients (p values <0.0001) and no significant difference in CST before and after surgery (p >0.05). There were 23 eyes with fluid on the pre-operative OCT. There were no differences in final BCVA or CST and no difference in the development of fluid post-operatively when compared to patients without fluid pre-operatively (all p values >0.05). These patients also saw a significant improvement in BCVA (p = 0.006). In a real world setting, patients with both cataracts and wet AMD may safely undergo cataract surgery. Patients with stable pre-operative fluid on OCT should be considered for cataract surgery as these patients did well post-operatively with no worsening of their neovascular process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pauer, Gayle J T; Sturgill-Short, Gwen M; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G; Martin, Daniel F
Individual variation in response and duration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is seen among patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Identification of genetic markers that affect clinical response may result in optimization of anti-VEGF therapy. To evaluate the pharmacogenetic relationship between genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF signaling pathway and response to treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. In total, 835 of 1149 patients (72.7%) participating in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT) at 43 CATT clinical centers. Each patient was genotyped for 7 SNPs in VEGFA (rs699946, rs699947, rs833069, rs833070, rs1413711, rs2010963, and rs2146323) and 1 SNP in VEGFR2 (rs2071559) using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Genotypic frequencies were compared with clinical measures of response to therapy at 1 year, including the mean visual acuity, mean change in visual acuity, at least a 15-letter increase, retinal thickness, mean change in total foveal thickness, presence of fluid on optical coherence tomography, presence of leakage on fluorescein angiography, mean change in lesion size, and mean number of injections administered. Differences in response by genotype were evaluated with tests of linear trend calculated from logistic regression models for categorical outcomes and linear regression models for continuous outcomes. The method of controlling the false discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. For each of the measures of visual acuity evaluated, no association was observed with any of the genotypes or with the number of risk alleles. Four VEGFA SNPs demonstrated an association with retinal thickness: rs699947 (P = .03), rs833070 (P = .04), rs1413711 (P = .045), and rs2146323 (P = .006). However, adjusted P values for these associations were all statistically
Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-shuang; McCannel, Colin A; Liu, Chengcheng; Dai, Yang
To evaluate the impact of statin use on the incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its components, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and geographic atrophy (GA), among patients with bilateral large drusen. Cohort study within a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Patients enrolled in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that participants have >or=10 large (>125 microm) drusen and visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye. Patients scheduled for their final CAPT visit after May 2005 were interviewed on their history of use of cholesterol-lowering medications, including statins. Trained readers identified CNV and end point GA (>1 Macular Photocoagulation Study disc area of GA) based on review of fluorescein angiograms and fundus photographs taken at annual follow-up visits and when patients reported symptoms. The risk ratio for participants developing CNV or developing GA associated with statin use was estimated with time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Development of advanced AMD, CNV, and end point GA. Among 764 patients eligible for the interview, 744 (97.4%) patients completed the interview on medication use. Statin use was reported by 296 (39.8%) of those interviewed, with the majority, 187 (63.2%) of the 296, beginning use after enrollment in CAPT. Among 744 patients, advanced AMD developed in 332 (22.5%) eyes of 242 (32.5%) patients, CNV in 222 (15%) eyes of 176 (23.7%) patients, and GA in 114 (7.7%) eyes of 80 (10.8%) patients. With adjustment for other risk factors, the estimated risk ratio for eyes (95% confidence interval) associated with statin use was 1.15 (0.87-1.52) for advanced AMD, 1.35 (0.99-1.83) for CNV, and 0.80 (0.46-1.39) for GA. The CAPT data are not consistent with a strong protective effect (risk ratio,
Maguire, Maureen G; Daniel, Ebenezer; Shah, Ankoor R; Grunwald, Juan E; Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Avery, Robert L; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Revell W; Roth, Daniel B; Castellarin, Alessandro A; Bakri, Sophie J; Fine, Stuart L; Martin, Daniel F
To assess the influence of drug; dosing regimen; and traditional, nontraditional, and genetic risk factors on the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the fellow eye of patients treated for CNV with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Cohort study of patients enrolled in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients with no CNV in the fellow eye at the time of enrollment in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that study eyes have evidence on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual acuity between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 3 different regimens for dosing over a 2-year period. The genotypes for 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk of AMD were determined. Only patients without CNV in the fellow eye at baseline were considered at risk. The CATT ophthalmologists examined patients every 4 weeks through 2 years and recorded treatment for CNV in the fellow eye. Development of CNV in the fellow eye. Among 1185 CATT participants, 727 (61%) had no CNV in the fellow eye at enrollment. At 2 years, CNV had developed in 75 (20.6%) of 365 patients treated with ranibizumab and in 60 (16.6%) of 362 patients treated with bevacizumab (absolute difference, 4.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.7% to 9.6%; P = 0.17). The risk ratio for pro re nata dosing relative to monthly dosing was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.6). Greater elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluid in the foveal center of the study eye were associated with increased incidence of CNV in the fellow eye. Incidence was not associated with genotype on rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3; P>0.35). Through 2 years, there was no statistically significant difference between ranibizumab and
Balasubramanian, Siva; Lei, Jianqin; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Velaga, Swetha B; Haines, Jonathan; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Stambolian, Dwight; Sadda, SriniVas R
The choroid is thought to be relevant to the pathogenesis of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, but its role has not yet been fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between the extent of macular drusen and specific choroidal parameters, including thickness and intensity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were collected from two distinct, independent cohorts with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration: Amish (53 eyes of 34 subjects) and non-Amish (40 eyes from 26 subjects). All spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained using the Cirrus HD-OCT with a 512 × 128 macular cube (6 × 6 mm) protocol. The Cirrus advanced retinal pigment epithelium analysis tool was used to automatically compute drusen volume within 3 mm (DV3) and 5 mm (DV5) circles centered on the fovea. The inner and outer borders of the choroid were manually segmented, and the mean choroidal thickness and choroidal intensity (i.e., brightness) were calculated. The choroidal intensity was normalized against the vitreous and nerve fiber layer reflectivity. The correlation between DV and these choroidal parameters was assessed using Pearson and linear regression analysis. A significant positive correlation was observed between normalized choroidal intensity and DV5 in the Amish (r = 0.42, P = 0.002) and non-Amish (r = 0.33, P = 0.03) cohorts. Also, DV3 showed a significant positive correlation with normalized choroidal intensity in both the groups (Amish: r = 0.30, P = 0.02; non-Amish: r = 0.32, P = 0.04). Choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with normalized choroidal intensity in both Amish (r = -0.71, P = 0.001) and non-Amish (r = -0.43, P = 0.01) groups. Normalized choroidal intensity was the most significant constant predictor of DV in both the Amish and non-Amish groups. Choroidal intensity, but not choroidal thickness, seems to be associated with drusen volume in Amish and non-Amish populations. These
Rauch, Renate; Weingessel, Birgit; Maca, Saskia M; Vecsei-Marlovits, Pia V
To determine whether the time span between initial symptoms and treatment with ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration has an effect on visual outcome. In this retrospective study, 45 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration were split into 3 groups depending on the duration of visual symptoms--Group I: <1 month, Group II: 1 month to 6 months, and Group III: >6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity, clinical ophthalmologic examination, and central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography were recorded at baseline and 2 months later. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline. Treatment consisted of 2 intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg of ranibizumab at baseline and after 4 weeks. The mean time span between initial symptoms and treatment was 59 ± 62 days. In all groups, a reduction of retinal thickness was observed. Shorter disease duration, as estimated by persistence of visual symptoms, was correlated with a better visual outcome after treatment. Patients in Group I demonstrated a significant increase in best-corrected visual acuity (P = 0.007). Patients of Group II (P = 0.095) and Group III (P = 0.271) still achieved a visual improvement in best-corrected visual acuity, albeit not significant. The mean change in best-corrected visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.1 in all patients and was not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.87). Duration of visual symptoms <1 month before treatment is associated with a better visual outcome. Treatment of new-onset wet age-related macular degeneration should be initiated as soon as possible.
Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael
Review the current recommendations for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), the Cochrane Reviews and Trials, Dynamed, and Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS) in the last 10 years using the key words macular degeneration, agerelated macular degeneration (AMD), AMD and treatment, AMD and prevention. Sixty-nine published papers were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, original research articles, review articles, product prescribing information, and supplement product information for the prevention and treatment of AMD. AMD is a leading cause of visual impairment in older adults. At present there is no cure for advanced AMD, but intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors minimize and even reverse vision loss in patients with AMD of the neovascular type. In the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), participants with intermediate AMD who received a supplement combination of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc had a greater delay in progression to advanced AMD than those participants who received a portion of these supplements. In the second AREDS, AREDS2, the addition of lutein + zeaxanthin, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA + EPA to the complete AREDS formulation did not further reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. Subgroup analyses indicated that additional research with lutein + zeaxanthin supplementation is warranted as it was beneficial in participants with low dietary intake of lutein + zeaxanthin. A formulation without beta-carotene may be best for most patients, especially smokers or former smokers. Health care professionals will want to consider patient-specific information before recommending ocular health supplements.
Rosenfeld, Philip J.
Purpose To explain the pivotal role optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging had in the development of antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods A historical literature review was combined with personal perspectives from the introduction of OCT imaging and the early clinical use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Results At the time that OCT emerged, the gold standard for imaging of nvAMD was fluorescein angiography (FA), a time-consuming, dye-based, invasive technique that provided en face images of the retina and was used to characterize leakage, perfusion status, and the types of macular neovascularization (MNV). In comparison, OCT imaging was a fast, safe, noninvasive technique that complemented FA imaging by providing cross-sectional images of the macula. OCT was able to visualize and quantify the macular fluid that was associated with the presence of excess VEGF, which was identified by intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and fluid under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinicians quickly appreciated the benefits of OCT imaging for following macular fluid after anti-VEGF therapy. By observing the qualitative and quantitative changes in macular fluid depicted by OCT imaging, clinicians were empowered to compare anti-VEGF drugs and move from fixed-dosing regimens to patient-specific dosing strategies requiring fewer injections. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography imaging was adopted as a VEGF-meter, a method to detect excess VEGF, and evolved to become the gold standard imaging strategy for diagnosing nvAMD, assessing treatment responses to anti-VEGF drugs, deciding when to re-treat, and evaluating disease progression. PMID:27409464
Elsner, Ann E.; Burns, Stephen A.; Weiter, John J.
We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.
Elsner, Ann E.; Weber, Anke; Cheney, Michael C.; VanNasdale, Dean A.; Miura, Masahiro
Imaging polarimetry was used to examine different components of neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration. Retinal images were acquired with a scanning laser polarimeter. An innovative pseudo-color scale, based on cardinal directions of color, displayed two types of image information: relative phases and magnitudes of birefringence. Membranes had relative phase changes that did not correspond to anatomical structures in reflectance images. Further, membrane borders in depolarized light images had significantly higher contrasts than those in reflectance images. The retinal birefringence in neovascular membranes indicates optical activity consistent with molecular changes rather than merely geometrical changes. PMID:17429494
van de Graaf, Elizabeth S; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Simonsz, Huibert J
Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bilateral age-related macular degeneration with similar decrease of vision. From our out-patient department, two groups of patients with recent deterioration to bilateral visual acuity less than Snellen 0.5 (bilateral visual impairment, BVI) were recruited, with either persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMB + AMD), or with bilateral age-related macular degeneration (BAMD). To measure utility, the time trade-off method and the standard gamble method were applied through interviews. Correlations were sought between utility values and visual acuity, age and Visual Function Questionnaire-25 scores. Seventeen AMB + AMD patients (mean age 72.9 years), and 63 BAMD patients (mean age 79.6 years) were included in the study. Among AMB + AMD, 80 % were willing to trade lifetime in exchange for cure. The overall mean time trade-off utility was 0.925. Among BAMD, 75 % were willing to trade, utility was 0.917. Among AMB + AMD, 38 % accepted risk of death in exchange for cure, overall mean standard gamble utility was 0.999. Among BAMD, 49 % accepted risk of death, utility was 0.998. Utility was not related to visual acuity but it was to age (p = 0.02). Elderly patients with BVI, caused by persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or by bilateral AMD, had an approximately 8 % loss of TTO utility. Notably, the 8 % loss in elderly with BVI differs little from the 3.7 % loss we found previously in 35-year-old persons with unilateral
Muhammed, Şahin; Yüksel, Harun; Şahin, Alparslan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Özkurt, Zeynep Gürsel; Çaça, İhsan
To evaluate the knowledge and behaviors of ophthalmologists in Turkey concerning micronutrition support in patients with age related macular degeneration (ARMD). This study involved 1,845 ophthalmologists. A scientific poll was sent to all participants by email. The survey covered the following: demographic features, subspecialty knowledge about micronutrition preference for prescribing micronutrition to age related macular degeneration patients, and the reason for this preference. If a participant indicated that he or she prescribed micronutrition, the participant was also asked to indicate the source of the treatment and supplemental treatments. Of 1,845 ophthalmologists, 249 responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 9% (22) never, 43% (107) sometimes, 37% (92) frequently, and 11% (27) always used micronutrition. The most frequent prescribing subgroup was general ophthalmology (22%), followed by the retina-uvea subspecialty (13.9%). The micronutrition prescribing ratio was 54.8% in retina-uvea specialists when the "frequent" and "always" responses were combined. There was no statistically significant difference between subgroups with respect to prescribing micronutrition. Among the ophthalmologists prescribing micronutrition, 57.1% of them did not use the Age-Related Eye Disease Study-1 (AREDS) criteria, and only 31.3% prescribe micronutrition according to AREDS criteria. The results for the general ophthalmologist and retina-uvea specialist subgroups were similar, 56.3% vs 20.2%, and 54.1% vs 36.1%, respectively. Micronutrition was not recommended for the following reasons: expensive (55.4%), low patient expectancy (40%), no effect (30%), and low patient drug compliance (25.4%). Moreover, 55.2% of the clinicians recommended physical activities, dietary changes, and smoking cessation; 7.3% did not recommend these behavioral changes. This survey demonstrated that micronutrition preference in age related macular degeneration was low in ophthalmologists in Turkey
Chong, N.H. Victor; Keonin, Jason; Luthert, Phil J.; Frennesson, Christina I.; Weingeist, David M.; Wolf, Rachel L.; Mullins, Robert F.; Hageman, Gregory S.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. In its severest form, choroidal neovessels breach the macular Bruch’s membrane, an extracellular matrix compartment comprised of elastin and collagen laminae, and grow into the retina. We sought to determine whether structural properties of the elastic lamina (EL) correspond to the region of the macula that is predilected toward degeneration in AMD. Morphometric assessment of the macular and extramacular regions of 121 human donor eyes, with and without AMD, revealed a statistically significant difference in both the integrity (P < 0.0001) and thickness (P < 0.0001) of the EL between the macular and extramacular regions in donors of all ages. The EL was three to six times thinner and two to five times less abundant in the macula than in the periphery. The integrity of the macular EL was significantly lower in donors with early-stage AMD (P = 0.028), active choroidal neovascularization (P = 0.020), and disciform scars (P = 0.003), as compared to unaffected, age-matched controls. EL thickness was significantly lower only in individuals with disciform scars (P = 0.008). The largest gaps in macular EL integrity were significantly larger in all categories of AMD (each P < 0.0001), as compared to controls. EL integrity, thickness, and gap length in donors with geographic atrophy did not differ from those of controls. These structural properties of the macular EL correspond spatially to the distribution of macular lesions associated with AMD and may help to explain why the macula is more susceptible to degenerative events that occur in this disease. PMID:15632016
It has a great therapeutic significance that the disorder of the vascular endothelium, which supplies the affected ocular structures, plays a major role in the development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfuncition and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. The vascular wall including those in chorioids may be activated by several repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic and genetic factors causing a protracted host defence response with a consequent vascular damage, which leads to age-related macular degeneration. Based on this concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of the systemic vascular disease. This recognition should have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can stabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration, as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction resulting in prevention or improvement of age-related macular degeneration. Non-pharmacological interventions which may have beneficial effect in endothelial dysfunction include (1) smoking cessation; (2) reduction of increased body weight; (3) adequate physical activity; (4) appropriate diet (a) proper dose of flavonoids, polyphenols and kurcumin; (b) omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid; (c) carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthins), (d) management of dietary glycemic index, (e) caloric restriction, and (5) elimination of stressful lifestyle. Non-pharmacological interventions should be preferable even if medicaments are also used for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction.
Kaarniranta, Kai; Machalińska, Anna; Veréb, Zoltán; Salminen, Antero; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial eye disease that is associated with aging, family history, smoking, obesity, cataract surgery, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and unhealthy diet. Gender has commonly been classified as a weak or inconsistent risk factor for AMD. This disease is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris, which secondarily lead to damage and death of photoreceptor cells and central visual loss. Pathogenesis of AMD involves constant oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and increased accumulation of lipofuscin and drusen. Estrogen has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity and it regulates signaling pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review, we discuss potential cellular signaling targets of estrogen in retinal cells and AMD pathology.
Cheng, Jie; Hao, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhongchen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Matrix metalloproteinase -2 (MMP-2) gene and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Chinese Han population.A total of 126 AMD patients and 141 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotypes of MMP-2 gene polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). χtest was used to detect the differences of genotypes and alleles frequencies between case and control groups. Relative risk of AMD was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Distribution of variant allele carriers (computed tomography + TT genotypes) of MMP-2 gene rs243865 SNP was significantly different between case and control groups, and might act as protective factors for the onset of AMD (P = .044, OR = 0.583, 95% CI = 0.344-0.987). Nevertheless, the T allele might reduce the AMD risk (P = .030, OR = 0.611, 95% CI = 0.390-0.956). However, no significant association existed between rs243865 and AMD risk in the subgroup analysis based on age. GA + AA genotypes of rs243866 SNP may associate with a decreased risk of AMD in the age≤65 years subgroup (P = .028, OR = 0.399, 95% CI = 0.174-0.915).MMP-2 gene rs243865 and rs243866 SNPs associated with the risk of AMD. Further studies should be performed to confirm the results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Baas, Dominique C.; Ho, Lintje; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Merriam, Joanna E.; van het Slot, Ruben; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Gorgels, Theo G.M.F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Hofman, Albert; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Dean, Michael; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Allikmets, Rando; Hageman, Gregory S.
Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older adults and has a genetically complex background. This study examines the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and AMD. SLC2A1 regulates the bioavailability of glucose in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which might influence oxidative stress–mediated AMD pathology. Methods Twenty-two SNPs spanning the SLC2A1 gene were genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from an initial discovery cohort (the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Netherlands study). Replication testing was performed in The Rotterdam Study (the Netherlands) and study populations from Würzburg (Germany), the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS; United States), Columbia University (United States), and Iowa University (United States). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of SNP association was performed. Results In the discovery cohort, significant genotypic association between three SNPs (rs3754219, rs4660687, and rs841853) and AMD was found. Replication in five large independent (Caucasian) cohorts (4,860 cases and 4,004 controls) did not yield consistent association results. The genotype frequencies for these SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases among the six individual populations. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity of effect between the studies. Conclusions No overall association between SLC2A1 SNPs and AMD was demonstrated. Since the genotype frequencies for the three SLC2A1 SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases between the six cohorts, this study corroborates previous evidence that population dependent genetic risk heterogeneity in AMD exists. PMID:22509097
Zarubina, Anna V; Gal-Or, Orly; Huisingh, Carrie E; Owsley, Cynthia; Freund, K Bailey
To explore the association between presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) at baseline in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with the development of macular atrophy (MA) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. There were 74 eyes without pre-existing MA receiving anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD for 2 years or longer analyzed. At least two image modalities that included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography, and color fundus photos were used to assess for SDD presence, phenotype (dot and ribbon), and location, neovascularization type, and MA. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations assessed the association between SDD and the development of MA adjusting for age, neovascularization type, and choroidal thickness. SDD were present in 46 eyes (63%) at baseline. MA developed in 38 eyes (51%) during the mean of 4.7 ± 1.2 years of follow-up. Compared with eyes without SDD, those with SDD at baseline were 3.0 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-8.5, P = 0.0343) more likely to develop MA. Eyes with SDD present in the inferior macula and inferior extramacular fields at baseline were 3.0 times and 6.5 times more likely to develop MA at follow-up than eyes without SDD in these locations (95% CI 1.0-8.9, P = 0.0461 and 95% CI 1.3-32.4, P = 0.0218, respectively). MA development was not associated with a specific SDD phenotype. MA frequently developed in eyes during anti-VEGF treatment. SDD were independently associated with MA development. The extension of SDD into the inferior fundus, particularly in the inferior extramacular field, conferred higher odds of subsequent MA development.
Ozyurt, Ayhan; Kocak, Nilufer; Akan, Pınar; Calan, Ozlem Gursoy; Ozturk, Taylan; Kaya, Mahmut; Karahan, Eyup; Kaynak, Suleyman
The aim of the study was to evaluate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), dry AMD, and also in healthy controls. This study was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, and the study design was a prospective study. Forty-eight patients with wet AMD, 51 patients with dry AMD, and 50 controls were included in the study. All patients were naive to both previous lutein or zeaxanthin administration and any previous intravitreal injections. Fundus reflectance (VISUCAM 500, reflectance of a single 460 nm wavelength) was used to measure the MPOD levels. Three groups were compared regarding age, gender, serum lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations as well as MPOD levels. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels were significantly higher in control group when compared with wet AMD (Group 1) and dry AMD (Group 2) (P = 0.001 and P< 0.001, respectively). Mean MPOD was found to be similar in all of the three study subgroups (P = 0.630). However, maximum MPOD was significantly higher in control group when compared with Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.003). There was no correlation between serum lutein or zeaxanthin concentrations and mean MPOD levels (P = 0.815, r = 0.014 and P = 0.461, r = 0.043, respectively), but there was a weak correlation between serum zeaxanthin concentration and maximum MPOD level (P = 0.042, r = 0.124). Maximum MPOD level was found to be correlated with the level of AMD (Group 1, 2, and 3; r = 0.184, P = 0.041). Maximum MPOD level was found to be lower in patients with AMD when compared with control cases. Mean MPOD and maximum MPOD levels were similar in wet and dry AMD Groups. These results can be applied clinically keeping in mind that MPOD measurements with one wavelength reflectometry may not be completely reliable.
Zarubina, Anna V.; Gal-Or, Orly; Huisingh, Carrie E.; Owsley, Cynthia
Purpose To explore the association between presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) at baseline in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with the development of macular atrophy (MA) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Methods There were 74 eyes without pre-existing MA receiving anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD for 2 years or longer analyzed. At least two image modalities that included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography, and color fundus photos were used to assess for SDD presence, phenotype (dot and ribbon), and location, neovascularization type, and MA. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations assessed the association between SDD and the development of MA adjusting for age, neovascularization type, and choroidal thickness. Results SDD were present in 46 eyes (63%) at baseline. MA developed in 38 eyes (51%) during the mean of 4.7 ± 1.2 years of follow-up. Compared with eyes without SDD, those with SDD at baseline were 3.0 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–8.5, P = 0.0343) more likely to develop MA. Eyes with SDD present in the inferior macula and inferior extramacular fields at baseline were 3.0 times and 6.5 times more likely to develop MA at follow-up than eyes without SDD in these locations (95% CI 1.0–8.9, P = 0.0461 and 95% CI 1.3–32.4, P = 0.0218, respectively). MA development was not associated with a specific SDD phenotype. Conclusions MA frequently developed in eyes during anti-VEGF treatment. SDD were independently associated with MA development. The extension of SDD into the inferior fundus, particularly in the inferior extramacular field, conferred higher odds of subsequent MA development. PMID:29196768
Qureshi, Muhammad A; Robbie, Scott J; Hengerer, Fritz H; Auffarth, Gerd U; Conrad-Hengerer, Ina; Artal, Pablo
To determine safety and visual outcomes in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) implanted with a novel intraocular lens (IOL) that delivers an optimized retinal image to all macular areas within 10 degrees of retinal eccentricity. This was a consecutive case series of 244 eyes with dry/stable wet AMD and logMAR visual acuity ≥0.3 implanted with iolAMD Eyemax mono TM (London Eye Hospital Pharma), a single-piece, injectable, hydrophobic acrylic IOL sited in the capsular bag. Primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes were changes in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and corrected near visual acuity (CNVA) (logMAR). Mean age at surgery was 80 years. Mean duration of follow-up was 3 months (range 1-16 months). No eyes had worsening of CDVA. Frequency of perioperative complications was equivalent to standard IOL implantation. Postoperative refractive outcomes were within ±1 D of the target refraction in 88% of cases. Mean preoperative CDVA improved from 1.06 to 0.71 postoperatively (mean of differences -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3886 to -0.3223; p<0.0001), equating to an approximate Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study gain of 18 letters. Mean preoperative CNVA (N-point; logMAR conversion) improved from 1.36 to 0.88 postoperatively (mean of differences -0.48; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.44; p<0.0001). This novel IOL appears safe in the short to medium term. Improvements in postoperative CDVA and CNVA exceed those observed with standard implants.
Fan, Wenying; Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Uji, Akihito; Lei, Jianqin; Ip, Michael; Sadda, SriniVas R; Wykoff, Charles C
Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) and development of macular atrophy (MA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This was a prospective, multicenter study. Sixty participants (120 eyes) in the TREX-AMD trial (NCT01648292) with treatment-naïve neovascular AMD (NVAMD) in at least one eye were included. SCT was measured by certified reading center graders at baseline using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). The baseline SCT was correlated with the presence of MA at baseline and development of incident MA by month 18. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for information from both eyes. Baseline SCT in eyes with MA was statistically significantly less than in those without MA in both the dry AMD (DAMD) (P = 0.04) and NVAMD (P = 0.01) groups. Comparison of baseline SCT between MA developers and non-MA developers revealed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed the cut-off threshold of SCT for predicting the development of MA in cases without MA at baseline was 124 μm (AUC = 0.772; Sensitivity = 0.923; Specificity = 0.5). Among eyes without MA at baseline, those with baseline SCT ≤124 μm were 4.3 times more likely to develop MA (Odds ratio: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-12, P = 0.005) than those with baseline SCT >124 μm. Eyes with AMD and MA had less SCT than those without MA. Eyes with less baseline SCT also appear to be at higher risk to develop MA within 18 months.
Chang, Yi-Sheng; Lee, Wan-Ju; Lim, Chen-Chee; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Yi-Chian; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Teng, Yu-Ti; Huang, Yi-Hsun; Lai, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Sung-Huei
This study investigated the "real-world" use of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Taiwan and assessed the visual outcome. We reviewed the medical records at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Taiwan, during 2012-2014 for 264 consecutive eyes of 229 patients with nAMD, who applied for ranibizumab covered by national health insurance. A total of 194 eyes (73.5%) in 179 patients (65.5% men; mean ± standard deviation age 69.4 ± 10.7 years) were pre-approved for treatment. Applications for treatment increased year by year, but approval rates decreased during this time. The major causes of rejection for funding were diseases mimicking nAMD, including macular pucker/epiretinal membrane, macular scarring, dry-type AMD, and possible polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. After completion of three injections in 147 eyes, visual acuity significantly improved, gaining ≥1 line in 51.8% of eyes and stabilising in 38.3% of 141 eyes in which visual acuity was measured. The 114 eyes approved with only one application had a better visual outcome than the 27 eyes approved after the second or third applications. In conclusion, ranibizumab is effective for nAMD; however, approval after the second or third application for national health insurance cover is a less favourable predictor of visual outcome.
Olsen, Timothy W; Feng, Xiao
The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) is a method to evaluate human eye bank eyes and determine the level of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), by using criteria and definitions from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Donor eyes (108 pairs) from the Minnesota Lions Eye Bank were cut circumferentially at the pars plana to remove the anterior segment. A 1000 +/- 2.5-microm ruby sphere was placed on the optic nerve as a size reference. A digital, high-resolution, color macular photograph was taken through a dissecting microscope. The neurosensory retina was removed from one globe of the pair. The underlying retinal pigment epithelium was rephotographed, localizing the fovea with a proportional triangle. A grid was superimposed in the macular photographs and images were graded according to AREDS criteria. Twenty pairs were dissected bilaterally and graded for symmetry. Eighty-eight globes were graded into one of four MGS categories. Nineteen (95%) of 20 globes had symmetric grades. The MGS provides a methodology to grade donor tissue from eye bank eyes to correspond to the AREDS classification system. Donor tissue may be used for subsequent molecular analysis, including genomics and proteomics.
Spaide, Richard F
Previous models of disease in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were incomplete in that they did not encompass subretinal drusenoid deposits (pseudodrusen), subtypes of neovascularization, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. In addition, Type 3 neovascularization starts in the retina and may not necessarily involve the choroid. As such, the term choroidal neovascularization is not appropriate for these eyes. The new aspects in the AMD construct are to include specific lipoprotein extracellular accumulations, namely drusen and subretinal drusenoid deposits, as early AMD. The deposition of specific types of deposit seems to be highly correlated with choroidal thickness and topographical location in the macula. Late AMD includes macular neovascularization or atrophy. The particular type of extracellular deposit is predictive of the future course of the patient. For example, eyes with subretinal drusenoid deposits have a propensity to develop outer retinal atrophy, complete outer retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, or Type 3 neovascularization as specific forms of late AMD. Given Type 3 neovascularization may never involve the choroid, the term macular neovascularization is suggested for the entire spectrum of neovascular disease in AMD. In contrast to older classification systems, the proposed system encompasses the relevant presentations of disease and more precisely predicts the future course of the patient. In doing so, the concept was developed that there may be genetic risk alleles, which are not necessarily the same alleles that influence disease expression.
Stanescu-Segall, Dinu; Balta, Florian; Jackson, Timothy L
Large submacular hemorrhage, an uncommon manifestation of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, may also occur with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Submacular hemorrhage damages photoreceptors owing to iron toxicity, fibrin meshwork contraction, and reduced nutrient flux, with subsequent macular scarring. Clinical and experimental studies support prompt treatment, as tissue damage can occur within 24 hours. Without treatment the natural history is poor, with a mean final visual acuity (VA) of 20/1600. Reported treatments include retinal pigment epithelial patch, macular translocation, pneumatic displacement, intravitreal or subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, and combinations thereof. In the absence of comparative studies, we combined eligible studies to assess the VA change before and after each treatment option. The greatest improvement occurred after combined pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, with VA improving from 20/1000 to 20/400. The best final VA occurred using combined intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator, gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, with VA improving from 20/200 to 20/100. Both treatments had an acceptable safety profile, but most studies were small, and larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine both safety and efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Neepa; Maguire, Maureen G; Martin, Daniel F; Shaffer, James; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Toth, Cynthia A; Jaffe, Glenn J; Daniel, Ebenezer
To describe morphologic and visual outcomes in eyes with angiographic cystoid macular edema (CME) treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. A total of 1185 CATT study subjects. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA) images of all CATT study eyes were evaluated for CME. Grading of other characteristics on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photographic images at baseline and during 2-year follow-up was completed by readers at the CATT Reading Centers. Three groups were created on the basis of baseline CME and intraretinal fluid (IRF) status: (1) CME, (2) IRF without CME, (3) neither CME nor IRF. Visual acuity (VA) and total central retinal thickness (CRT) on OCT at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Among 1131 participants with images of sufficient quality for determining CME and IRF at baseline, 92 (8.1%) had CME, 766 (67.7%) had IRF without CME, and 273 (24.1%) had neither. At baseline, eyes with CME had worse mean VA (letters) than eyes with IRF without CME and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (52 vs. 60 vs. 66 letters, P < 0.001); higher mean total CRT (μm) on OCT (514 vs. 472 vs. 404, P < 0.001); and greater hemorrhage, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) lesions, and classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). All groups showed improvement in VA at follow-up; however, the CME group started and ended with the worst VA among the 3 groups. Central retinal thickness, although higher at baseline for the CME group, was similar at 1 and 2 years follow-up for all groups. More eyes with CME (65.3%) developed scarring during 2 years of follow-up compared with eyes with IRF without CME (43.8%) and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (32.5%; P < 0.001). In CATT, eyes with CME had worse baseline and follow-up VA, although all groups showed similar rates of improvement in VA during 2 years of follow-up. Cystoid macular edema seems to be a marker for poorer visual
Calabrèse, Aurélie; Liu, Tingting; Legge, Gordon E.
Individuals with macular degeneration often develop a Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) used in place of the impaired fovea. It is known that many people adopt a PRL left of the scotoma, which is likely to affect reading by occluding text to the right of fixation. For such individuals, we examined the possibility that reading vertical text, in which words are rotated 90° with respect to the normal horizontal orientation, would be beneficial for reading. Vertically oriented words would be tangential to the scotoma instead of being partially occluded by it. Here we report the results of an exploratory study that aimed at investigating this hypothesis. We trained individuals with macular degeneration who had PRLs left of their scotoma to read text rotated 90° clockwise and presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Although training resulted in improved reading of vertical text, the training did not result in reading speeds that appreciably exceeded reading speeds following training with horizontal text. These results do not support the hypothesis that people with left PRLs read faster with vertical text. PMID:28114373
Wakazono, Tomotaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oishi, Akio; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Hata, Masayuki; Takahashi, Ayako; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
To examine the recurrence rate of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion activity in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated factors after 1-year aflibercept treatment. Age-related macular degeneration eyes with 1-year aflibercept fixed-regimen treatment and a follow-up period of at least 18 months from the initial aflibercept injection for treatment-naive exudative AMD were retrospectively evaluated. The recurrence rate was examined. Age, gender, visual acuity, AMD subtype, greatest linear dimension, and retinal and choroidal thicknesses at the 12th month examination were compared between eyes with and without recurrence. Presence of remnant polyps and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) morphology were also compared in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) eyes. Of the 98 eyes studied, 69 displayed a dry macula at the 12th month examination; 43.7% exhibited recurrence during the subsequent 12-month period in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Although no factors associated with recurrence were detected in AMD, remnant polyps and pigment epithelial detachment morphology at the 12th month examination were significantly associated with recurrence in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (P = 0.018 and 0.048, respectively). Continuous, proactive treatment would be considered overtreatment for more than half of the AMD eyes that achieved a dry macula. Angiography and optical coherence tomography analyses may be useful for predicting recurrence in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy eyes.
Lin, Tai-Chi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Woung, Lin-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Chien
Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Reis, Gustavo Msm; Grigg, John; Chua, Brian; Lee, Anne; Lim, Ridia; Higgins, Ralph; Martins, Alessandra; Goldberg, Ivan; Clement, Colin I
The aim of this article is to evaluate the rate of patients developing sustained elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after ranibizumab (Lucentis) intravitreal (IVT) injections. This is a retrospective study. Charts of 192 consecutive patients receiving Lucentis for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were retrospectively reviewed. We enrolled patients with at least two IOP measurements between injections. Elevated IOP was defined as >21 mm Hg with an increase of at least 20% from baseline. Noninjected contralateral eyes of the same patient cohort were used as control. Primary outcome was defined as elevated IOP. Secondary outcomes were presence and type of glaucoma, number of injections, and time to IOP elevation. Elevated IOP occurred at a significantly higher rate in eyes receiving IVT ranibizumab (7.47%; n = 9) compared with control (0.93%; n = 1). Patients with preexisting glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) were more likely to develop elevated IOP after IVT ranibizumab injection. Intravitreal ranibizumab injections are associated with sustained IOP elevation in some eyes. Reis GMSM, Grigg J, Chua B, Lee A, Lim R, Higgins R, Martins A, Goldberg I, Clement CI. The Incidence of Intraocular Pressure Elevation following Intravitreal Ranibizumab (Lucentis) for Age-related Macular Degeneration. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(1):3-7.
Marcus, D M; Camp, M W; Sheils, W C; McIntosh, S B; Leibach, D B; Johnson, M H; Samy, C N
To evaluate the effectiveness of sham radiation treatments in masking patients to their randomization group in the Radiation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ROARMD) Study. Patients with choroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration were randomized to a treatment (RAD) group that received external beam irradiation (seven treatment sessions) or to a control (SHAM) group that received sham radiation (one sham treatment session). During a telephone survey, 62 of 73 randomized patients responded to the following questions: Do you think you received radiation? Why do you feel that way? Did the vision in your study eye worsen after enrollment? Eighty-one percent of the RAD group and 59% of the SHAM group thought that they had received radiation. In patients who thought that their vision had stabilized or improved, 82% thought that they had received radiation. In patients who thought that their vision was worse, only 39% thought that they had received radiation. In 54% of patients, subjective perception of vision influenced their guess as to whether they received radiation. Subjective patient perception of visual outcome was the most influential variable for masking. Variation between radiation treatment and sham session techniques, such as equipment used and duration of treatments, played a lesser role in the masking of patients. Seven treatment days correlated with a higher number of patients who thought that they had received radiation. Although our procedures do not strictly mask the two groups, one sham radiation session was effective in keeping patients guessing their randomization group.
Klein, Michael L; Francis, Peter J; Ferris, Frederick L; Hamon, Sara C; Clemons, Traci E
To design a risk assessment model for development of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incorporating phenotypic, demographic, environmental, and genetic risk factors. We evaluated longitudinal data from 2846 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. At baseline, these individuals had all levels of AMD, ranging from none to unilateral advanced AMD (neovascular or geographic atrophy). Follow-up averaged 9.3 years. We performed a Cox proportional hazards analysis with demographic, environmental, phenotypic, and genetic covariates and constructed a risk assessment model for development of advanced AMD. Performance of the model was evaluated using the C statistic and the Brier score and externally validated in participants in the Complications of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial. The final model included the following independent variables: age, smoking history, family history of AMD (first-degree member), phenotype based on a modified Age-Related Eye Disease Study simple scale score, and genetic variants CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S. The model did well on performance measures, with very good discrimination (C statistic = 0.872) and excellent calibration and overall performance (Brier score at 5 years = 0.08). Successful external validation was performed, and a risk assessment tool was designed for use with or without the genetic component. We constructed a risk assessment model for development of advanced AMD. The model performed well on measures of discrimination, calibration, and overall performance and was successfully externally validated. This risk assessment tool is available for online use.
Nicolas, Caroline M; Robman, Luba D; Tikellis, Gabriella; Dimitrov, Peter N; Dowrick, Adam; Guymer, Robyn H; McCarty, Catherine A
To investigate the relationship between iris colour, ethnic origin and the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Participants were recruited from the population-based Melbourne Visual Impairment Project or the prospective, randomized, double-masked Vitamin E, Cataract and Age-Related Macular Degeneration study. From these two cohorts, 171 participants aged between 52 and 93 years who were identified as having early AMD features at their baseline examination (1992-1995) were followed for an average of 6.8 years (until 2001) to determine the progression rate of early AMD. The participants' iris colour was categorized as light, intermediate or dark. Ethnic origin was categorized as Anglo-Saxon or non-Anglo-Saxon, according to the participants' grandparents' country of birth. In total, 53 (31%) of the 171 participants showed signs of AMD progression. Participants with light iris colour had twofold the risk of AMD progression of those with dark or intermediate iris colours, although the age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted associations were not significant (both P = 0.13). Age-adjusted and multivariate comparisons of Anglo-Saxon ethnic origin to non-Anglo-Saxon ethnic origin showed a noticeable but non-significant association with progression of AMD (P= 0.22 and P= 0.14, respectively). Individuals with light iris colour or of Anglo-Saxon ethnic origin had a strong tendency to greater progression of AMD. A larger sample is required to confirm these clinically important, but statistically non-significant, associations.
Eller, Andrew W; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mayercik, Vera A
Purpose To report the first described cases of peripheral yellow corneal rings secondary to vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design Retrospective single-center case series. Participants The eyes of four patients taking vitamin supplementation for ARMD were examined at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Department of Ophthalmology between January 2010 and April 2011. Methods We reviewed the medical records of four patients with peripheral corneal rings receiving vitamin supplementation for ARMD. Main Outcome Measures the presence of peripheral yellow corneal rings, skin findings, and serum carotene levels. Results Each patient had circumferential yellow peripheral corneal rings and exhibited subtle yellowing of the skin most notable on the palms. Serum carotene levels were normal in two of the three cases and markedly elevated in the last case in which it was measured. Conclusion It is unclear at this time how to counsel patients with this ocular finding. We suspect that these rings are more common than generally appreciated as they can have a subtle appearance or may be misdiagnosed as arcus senilis. We suggest that a formal study be performed on a cohort of patients taking macular degeneration vitamin supplementation that specifically screens for yellow rings and measures serum carotene levels when they are identified. PMID:22330962
Kolosova, Nataliya G; Muraleva, Natalia A; Zhdankina, Anna A; Stefanova, Natalia A; Fursova, Anzhela Z; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V
Age-related macular degeneration, a neurodegenerative and vascular retinal disease, is the most common cause of blindness in the Western countries. Evidence accumulates that target of rapamycin is involved in aging and age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration. The target of rapamycin inhibitor, rapamycin, suppresses the senescent cell phenotype and extends life span in diverse species, including mice. Rapamycin decreases senescence-associated phenotypes in retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. Herein, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on spontaneous retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, an animal model of age-related macular degeneration. Rats were treated with either 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg rapamycin, which was given orally as a food mixture. In a dose-dependent manner, rapamycin decreased the incidence and severity of retinopathy. Rapamycin improved some (but not all) histological abnormalities associated with retinopathy. Thus, in retinal pigment epithelial cell layers, rapamycin decreased nuclei heterogeneity and normalized intervals between nuclei. In photoreceptor cells, associated neurons, and radial glial cells, rapamycin prevented nuclear and cellular pyknosis. More important, rapamycin prevented destruction of ganglionar neurons in the retina. Rapamycin did not exert any adverse effects on the retina in control disease-free Wistar rats. Taken together, our data suggest the therapeutic potential of rapamycin for treatment and prevention of retinopathy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Soon Hyun; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong
Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) is the first choice of treatment for age-related macular degeneration. However, quite a few eyes treated using conventional dose anti-VEGF (CDAV) have persistent pigment epithelial detachment (PED) on optical coherence tomography. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of high dose anti-VEGF (HDAV) for refractory PED. In this retrospective study, 31 eyes of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients with persistent PED findings despite six or more intravitreal injections of CDAV (bevacizumab 1.25 mg or ranibizumab 2.5 mg) were analyzed. Changes in visual outcome, central foveal thickness, and PED height were compared before and after HDAV (bevacizumab 5.0 mg) for these refractory PED cases. The mean age of patients was 67.7 years. The number of CDAV injections was 12.1. The number of HDAV injections was 3.39. Best-corrected visual acuity in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution before and after HDAV was 0.49 and 0.41 (p < 0.001), respectively. Central foveal thickness before and after HDAV was 330.06 and 311.10 µm (p = 0.125), respectively. PED height before and after HDAV was 230.28 and 204.07 µm (p = 0.014), respectively. There were no serious adverse reactions in all the eyes. Increasing the dose of bevacizumab in refractory PED may be a possible treatment option.
Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169
Sharma, Sumit; Toth, Cynthia A; Daniel, Ebenezer; Grunwald, Juan E; Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Daniel F; Jaffe, Glenn J
To describe the association between morphologic features on fundus photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA) in the second year of the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Participants in the CATT. Study eye eligibility required angiographic and OCT evidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and VA between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment was assigned randomly to ranibizumab or bevacizumab with 3 different dosing regimens over a 2-year period. Fluid type, location, and thickness; retina and subretinal tissue complex thickness on OCT; size and lesion composition on FP and FA; and VA. Among 1185 CATT participants, 993 (84%) had fluid on OCT at baseline and completed 2 years of follow-up. At 2 years, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid, and subretinal tissue complex thickness decreased in all treatment groups. Ranibizumab monthly was best able to resolve each type of fluid. Eyes with SRF in the foveal center on OCT had better mean VA than eyes with no SRF (72.8 vs. 66.6 letters; P = 0.006). Eyes with IRF in the foveal center had worse mean VA than eyes without IRF (59.9 vs. 70.9 letters; P < 0.0001). Eyes with retinal thickness <120 μm had worse VA compared with eyes with retinal thickness 120 to 212 and >212 μm (59.4 vs. 71.3 vs. 70.3 letters; P < 0.0001). At 2 years, the mean VA (letters) of eyes varied substantially by the type of subfoveal pathology on FP and FA: 70.6 for no pathology; 74.1 for fluid only; 73.3 for CNV or pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment; 68.4 for nongeographic atrophy; and 62.9 for geographic atrophy, hemorrhage, RPE tear, or scar (P < 0.0001). The associations between VA and morphologic features identified through year 1 were maintained or strengthened during year 2. Eyes
Jin, Guangming; Ding, Xiaohu; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lanhua; Han, Xiaotong; Xiao, Ou; Liu, Ran; Wang, Wei; Yan, William; An, Lei; Zhao, Jialiang; He, Mingguang
To describe the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older adults in rural southern mainland China. Eligible persons aged 50 years or over were identified by geographically defined cluster sampling from Yangxi County, Guangdong Province, China. Participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examinations from August to November in 2014. Digital retinal photographs were graded for AMD lesions using the Clinical Classification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration developed by the Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee. Age-standardised prevalence of AMD and AMD lesions was calculated using the 2010 world population data and compared with those of other populations. Of 5825 subjects who participated (90.7% response rate), 4881 (83.8%) had fundus photographs gradable for AMD. Early, intermediate and late AMD were present in 2003 (41.0%), 879 (18.0%) and 42 (0.86%) participants. The age-standardised prevalence of early, intermediate and late AMD was 40.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 41.2%), 17.6% (95% CI 17.0% to 18.2%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.65% to 0.95%), respectively. Total AMD was more prevalent in men than in women (62.8% vs 57.1%). AMD is an important public health concern for rural southern China, and the prevalence of AMD was higher in men than in women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sin, Helena P Y; Liu, David T L; Lam, Dennis S C
To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded. Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye. Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Del Priore, Lucian V; Tezel, Tongalp H; Kaplan, Henry J
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the western world. Over the last decade, there have been significant advances in the management of exudative AMD with the introduction of anti-VEGF drugs; however, many patients with exudative AMD continue to lose vision and there are no effective treatments for advanced exudative AMD or geographic atrophy. Initial attempts at macular reconstruction using cellular transplantation have not been effective in reversing vision loss. Herein we discuss the current status of surgical attempts to reconstruct damaged subretinal anatomy in advanced AMD. We reinforce the concept of maculoplasty for advanced AMD, which is defined as reconstruction of macular anatomy in patients with advanced vision loss. Successful maculoplasty is a three-step process that includes replacing or repairing damaged cells (using transplantation, translocation or stimulation of autologous cell proliferation); immune suppression (if allografts are used to replace damaged cells); and reconstruction or replacement of Bruch's membrane (to restore the integrity of the substrate for proper cell attachment). In the current article we will review the rationale for maculoplasty in advanced AMD, and discuss the results of initial clinical attempts at macular reconstruction. We will then discuss the role of Bruch's membrane damage in limiting transplant survival and visual recovery, and discuss the effects of age-related changes within human Bruch's membrane on the initial attachment and subsequent proliferation of transplanted cells. We will discuss attempts to repair Bruch's membrane by coating with extracellular matrix ligands, anatomic reconstitution of the inner collagen layer, and the effects of Bruch's membrane reconstruction of ultrastuctural anatomy and subsequent cell behavior. Lastly, we will emphasize the importance of continued efforts required for successful maculoplasty.
Annweiler, Cedric; Drouet, Morgane; Duval, Guillaume T; Paré, Pierre-Yves; Leruez, Stephanie; Dinomais, Mickael; Milea, Dan
Vitamin D may be involved in ocular function in older adults, but there is no current consensus on a possible association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of circulating 25OHD concentration with AMD. A Medline search was conducted in November 2015, with no date limit, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" OR "Ergocalciferols" OR 'Cholecalciferol' combined with "Age-related macular degeneration" OR "Macular degeneration" OR "Retinal degeneration" OR "Macula lutea" OR "Retina". Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to compute (i) standard mean difference in 25OHD concentration between AMD and non-AMD patients; (ii) AMD risk according to circulating 25OHD concentration. Of the 243 retrieved studies, 11 observational studies-10 cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort study-met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 65 to 17,045 (52-100% women), and the number with AMD ranged from 31 to 1440. Circulating 25OHD concentration was 15% lower in AMD compared with non-AMD on average. AMD was inversely associated with the highest 25OHD quintile compared with the lowest (summary odds ratio (OR)=0.83 [95%CI:0.71-0.97]), notably late AMD (summary OR=0.47 [95%CI:0.28-0.79]). Circulating 25OHD<50nmol/L was also associated with late-stage AMD (summary OR=2.18 [95%CI:1.34-3.56]), an association that did not persist when all categories of AMD were considered (summary OR=1.26 [95%CI:0.90-1.76]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that high 25OHD concentrations may be protective against AMD, and that 25OHD concentrations below 50nmol/L are associated with late AMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirata, Akira; Hayashi, Ken; Murata, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro
The formation of macular hole after receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is rare. We report a case of macular hole that occurred after intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a patient, who underwent vitrectomy combined with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) removal. A 64-year-old female with AMD affecting her right eye received an intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent. After treatment, we identified a full thickness macular hole (MH) that was associated with the rapid resolution of the macular edema and contraction of the CNV. After performing vitrectomy combined with CNV removal, the MH closed and her visual acuity improved. Examination of the removed CNV revealed a network of microvessels devoid of pericytes. and Importance: The present findings suggest that rapid resolution of macular edema and contraction of the CNV and/or mild increase in the vitreous traction after anti-VEGF therapy could potentially cause MH. CNV removal via the MH may be an acceptable procedure, if the MH remains open, the CNV is of the classic type, and it spares a central portion of the fovea.
Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Ventura, Dora Fix; Németh, János
To establish fluctuation limits, it was considered that not only overall macular sensitivity but also fluctuations of individual test points in the macula might have clinical value. Three repeated measurements of microperimetry were performed using the Standard Expert test of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) in healthy subjects ( N = 12, age = 23.8 ± 1.5 years old) and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( N = 11, age = 68.5 ± 7.4 years old). A total of 37 macular points arranged in four concentric rings and in four quadrants were analyzed individually and in groups. The data show low fluctuation of macular sensitivity of individual test points in healthy subjects (average = 1.38 ± 0.28 dB) and AMD patients (average = 2.12 ± 0.60 dB). Lower sensitivity points are more related to higher fluctuation than to the distance from the central point. Fixation stability showed no effect on the sensitivity fluctuation. The 95th percentile of the standard deviations of healthy subjects was, on average, 2.7 dB, ranging from 1.2 to 4 dB, depending on the point tested. Point analysis and regional analysis might be considered prior to evaluating macular sensitivity fluctuation in order to distinguish between normal variation and a clinical change. S tatistical methods were used to compare repeated microperimetry measurements and to establish fluctuation limits of the macular sensitivity. This analysis could add information regarding the integrity of different macular areas and provide new insights into fixation points prior to the biofeedback fixation training.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in developed nations. AMD is characterized by retinal pigmented epithelial cell (RPE) dysfunction and loss of photoreceptor cells. Epidemiologic studies indicate important contributions of dietary patterns on risk for AMD, but th...
This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.
Birk, Tanja; Hickl, Susanne; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Miller, Daniel; Kammerer, Annette; Holz, Frank; Becker, Stefanie; Volcker, Hans E.
Purpose: The psychosocial needs of patients suffering from severe visual loss associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) are generally ignored in the clinical routine. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a psychosocial intervention program for ARMD patients. This intervention program was based on six modules…
Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…
Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.
Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…
Purpose: Our objective was to investigate if insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: 864 Caucasian non-diabetic participants from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository were used in this case control st...
We aimed to develop an eye specific model which used readily available information to predict risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) as our training dataset, which consisted of the 4,507 participants (contributing 1,185 affected v...
Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...
Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Heidi C; Kindermann, Sylvia; Sharma, Sanjay
To evaluate the comparability of articles in the peer-reviewed literature assessing the (1) patient value and (2) cost-utility (cost-effectiveness) associated with interventions for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A search was performed in the National Library of Medicine database of 16 million peer-reviewed articles using the key words cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, value, verteporfin, pegaptanib, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and therapy. All articles that used an outcome of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were studied in regard to (1) percent improvement in quality of life, (2) utility methodology, (3) utility respondents, (4) types of costs included (eg, direct healthcare, direct nonhealthcare, indirect), (5) cost bases (eg, Medicare, National Health Service in the United Kingdom), and (6) study cost perspective (eg, government, societal, third-party insurer). To qualify as a value-based medicine analysis, the patient value had to be measured using the outcome of the QALYs conferred by respective interventions. As with value-based medicine analyses, patient-based time tradeoff utility analysis had to be utilized, patient utility respondents were necessary, and direct medical costs were used. Among 21 cost-utility analyses performed on interventions for neovascular macular degeneration, 15 (71%) met value-based medicine criteria. The 6 others (29%) were not comparable owing to (1) varying utility methodology, (2) varying utility respondents, (3) differing costs utilized, (4) differing cost bases, and (5) varying study perspectives. Among value-based medicine studies, laser photocoagulation confers a 4.4% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal pegaptanib confers a 5.9% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for classic, minimally classic, and occult subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin confers
Brown, Gary C.; Brown, Melissa M.; Brown, Heidi C.; Kindermann, Sylvia; Sharma, Sanjay
Purpose To evaluate the comparability of articles in the peer-reviewed literature assessing the (1) patient value and (2) cost-utility (cost-effectiveness) associated with interventions for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods A search was performed in the National Library of Medicine database of 16 million peer-reviewed articles using the key words cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, value, verteporfin, pegaptanib, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and therapy. All articles that used an outcome of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were studied in regard to (1) percent improvement in quality of life, (2) utility methodology, (3) utility respondents, (4) types of costs included (eg, direct healthcare, direct nonhealthcare, indirect), (5) cost bases (eg, Medicare, National Health Service in the United Kingdom), and (6) study cost perspective (eg, government, societal, third-party insurer). To qualify as a value-based medicine analysis, the patient value had to be measured using the outcome of the QALYs conferred by respective interventions. As with value-based medicine analyses, patient-based time tradeoff utility analysis had to be utilized, patient utility respondents were necessary, and direct medical costs were used. Results Among 21 cost-utility analyses performed on interventions for neovascular macular degeneration, 15 (71%) met value-based medicine criteria. The 6 others (29%) were not comparable owing to (1) varying utility methodology, (2) varying utility respondents, (3) differing costs utilized, (4) differing cost bases, and (5) varying study perspectives. Among value-based medicine studies, laser photocoagulation confers a 4.4% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal pegaptanib confers a 5.9% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for classic, minimally classic, and occult subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and photodynamic therapy
Fritsche, Lars G.; Igl, Wilmar; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Grassmann, Felix; Sengupta, Sebanti; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Wen, Cindy; Gorski, Mathias; Kim, Ivana K.; Cho, David; Zack, Donald; Souied, Eric; Scholl, Hendrik P. N.; Bala, Elisa; Lee, Kristine E.; Hunter, David J.; Sardell, Rebecca J.; Mitchell, Paul; Merriam, Joanna E.; Cipriani, Valentina; Hoffman, Joshua D.; Schick, Tina; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Jiang, Yingda; Stanton, Chloe M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Zhan, Xiaowei; Kwong, Alan M.; Boleda, Alexis; Brooks, Matthew; Gieser, Linn; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Branham, Kari E.; Foerster, Johanna R.; Heckenlively, John R.; Othman, Mohammad I.; Vote, Brendan J.; Liang, Helena Hai; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Hall, Janette; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Craig, Jamie E.; Kitchner, Terrie E.; Yang, Zhenglin; Su, Zhiguang; Luo, Hongrong; Chen, Daniel; Ouyang, Hong; Flagg, Ken; Lin, Danni; Mao, Guanping; Ferreyra, Henry; Stark, Klaus; von Strachwitz, Claudia N.; Wolf, Armin; Brandl, Caroline; Rudolph, Guenther; Olden, Matthias; Morrison, Margaux A.; Morgan, Denise J.; Schu, Matthew; Ahn, Jeeyun; Silvestri, Giuliana; Tsironi, Evangelia E.; Park, Kyu Hyung; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Orlin, Anton; Brucker, Alexander; Li, Mingyao; Curcio, Christine; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Benchaboune, Mustapha; Cree, Angela J.; Rennie, Christina A.; Goverdhan, Srinivas V.; Grunin, Michelle; Hagbi-Levi, Shira; Campochiaro, Peter; Katsanis, Nicholas; Holz, Frank G.; Blond, Frédéric; Blanché, Hélène; Deleuze, Jean-François; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Peachey, Neal S.; Meuer, Stacy M.; Myers, Chelsea E.; Moore, Emily L.; Klein, Ronald; Hauser, Michael A.; Postel, Eric A.; Courtenay, Monique D.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn L.; Scott, William K.; Liew, Gerald; Tƒan, Ava G.; Gopinath, Bamini; Merriam, John C.; Smith, R. Theodore; Khan, Jane C.; Shahid, Humma; Moore, Anthony T.; McGrath, J. Allie; Laux, Reneé; Brantley, Milam A.; Agarwal, Anita; Ersoy, Lebriz; Caramoy, Albert; Langmann, Thomas; Saksens, Nicole T. M.; de Jong, Eiko K.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Cain, Melinda S.; Richardson, Andrea J.; Martin, Tammy M.; Blangero, John; Weeks, Daniel E.; Dhillon, Bal; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Romm, Jane; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Hayward, Caroline; Gorin, Michael B.; Klein, Michael L.; Baird, Paul N.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Fauser, Sascha; Yates, John R. W.; Allikmets, Rando; Wang, Jie Jin; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Chowers, Itay; Lotery, Andrew J.; Léveillard, Thierry; Zhang, Kang; Brilliant, Murray H.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Swaroop, Anand; Chew, Emily Y.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; DeAngelis, Margaret; Stambolian, Dwight; Haines, Jonathan L.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Heid, Iris M.
Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly with limited therapeutic options. Here, we report on a study of >12 million variants including 163,714 directly genotyped, most rare, protein-altering variant. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5×10–8) distributed across 34 loci. While wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference-P = 4.1×10–10). Very rare coding variants (frequency < 0.1%) in CFH, CFI, and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes. PMID:26691988
Lin, Michael K; Yang, Jin; Hsu, Chun Wei; Gore, Anuradha; Bassuk, Alexander G; Brown, Lewis M; Colligan, Ryan; Sengillo, Jesse D; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H
High-temperature requirement protein A1 (HTRA1) is a serine protease secreted by a number of tissues including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A promoter variant of the gene encoding HTRA1 is part of a mutant allele that causes increased HTRA1 expression and contributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in genomewide association studies. AMD is characterized by pathological development of drusen, extracellular deposits of proteins and lipids on the basal side of RPE. The molecular pathogenesis of AMD is not well understood, and understanding dysregulation of the extracellular matrix may be key. We assess the high-risk genotype at 10q26 by proteomic comparison of protein levels of RPE cells with and without the mutation. We show HTRA1 protein level is increased in high-risk RPE cells along with several extracellular matrix proteins, including known HTRA1 cleavage targets LTBP-1 and clusterin. In addition, two novel targets of HTRA1 have been identified: EFEMP1, an extracellular matrix protein mutated in Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy, a genetic eye disease similar to AMD, and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Our data support the role of RPE extracellular deposition with potential effects in compromised barrier to neovascularization in exudative AMD. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The wall of blood vessels including those in choroids may be harmed by several repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic, and genetic impacts (risk factors), which may trigger a protracted response, the so-called host defense response. As a consequence, pathological changes resulting in vascular injury (e. g. atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration) may be evolved. Risk factors can also act directly on the endothelium through an increased production of reactive oxygen species promoting an endothelial activation, which leads to endothelial dysfunction, the onset of vascular disease. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is a link between the harmful stimulus and vascular injury; any kind of harmful stimuli may trigger the defensive chain that results in inflammation that may lead to vascular injury. It has been shown that even early age-related macular degeneration is associated with the presence of diffuse arterial disease and patients with early age-related macular degeneration demonstrate signs of systemic and retinal vascular alterations. Chronic inflammation, a feature of AMD, is tightly linked to diseases associated with ED: AMD is accompanied by a general inflammatory response, in the form of complement system activation, similar to that observed in degenerative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. All these facts indicate that age-related macular degeneration may be a vascular disease (or part of a systemic vasculopathy). This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction may prevent the development or improve vascular disease resulting in prevention or improvement of age-related macular degeneration as well.
Mitchell, Paul; Bressler, Neil; Doan, Quan V; Dolan, Chantal; Ferreira, Alberto; Osborne, Aaron; Rochtchina, Elena; Danese, Mark; Colman, Shoshana; Wong, Tien Y
Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, such as ranibizumab, have significantly improved the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This study used patient-level simulation modelling to estimate the number of individuals in Australia who would have been likely to avoid legal blindness or visual impairment due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration over a 2-year period as a result of intravitreal ranibizumab injections. The modelling approach used existing data for the incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Australia and outcomes from ranibizumab trials. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as visual acuity in the better-seeing eye of worse than 6/60 or 6/12, respectively. In 2010, 14,634 individuals in Australia were estimated to develop neovascular age-related macular degeneration who would be eligible for ranibizumab therapy. Without treatment, 2246 individuals would become legally blind over 2 years. Monthly 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab would reduce incident blindness by 72% (95% simulation interval, 70-74%). Ranibizumab given as needed would reduce incident blindness by 68% (64-71%). Without treatment, 4846 individuals would become visually impaired over 2 years; this proportion would be reduced by 37% (34-39%) with monthly intravitreal ranibizumab, and by 28% (23-33%) with ranibizumab given as needed. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, given either monthly or as needed, can substantially lower the number of cases of blindness and visual impairment over 2 years after the diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Mason, John O; Patel, Shyam A
To study the efficacy of epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively analyzed patient charts on 17 eyes (16 patients) that underwent ERM peeling with a concurrent diagnosis of dry AMD. Eyes with concurrent dry AMD and with a good preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (better than or equal to 20/50) had a statistically significant mean BCVA improvement at 6 months after ERM peeling. There was a statistical increase in mean BCVA from 20/95 to 20/56 in dry AMD eyes, and no eyes showed worsening in BCVA at 6 months or at most recent follow-up. Five/seventeen (29.4%) eyes had cataract formation or progression. There were no other complications, reoperations, or reoccurrences. ERM peeling in eyes with dry AMD may show significant improvement, especially in eyes with good preoperative BCVA. The procedure is relatively safe with low complications and reoccurrences.
Zeng, Jiexi; Lu, Fang; Sun, Xufang; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Davey, Lisa; Chen, Haoyu; London, Nyall; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Salasar, Francesca; Carmona, Ruben; Kasuga, Daniel; Wang, Xiaolei; Bedell, Matthew; Dixie, Manjuxia; Zhao, Peiquan; Yang, Ruifu; Gibbs, Daniel; Liu, Xiaoqi; Li, Yan; Li, Cai; Li, Yuanfeng; Campochiaro, Betsy; Constantine, Ryan; Zack, Donald J.; Campochiaro, Peter; Fu, Yinbin; Li, Dean Y.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Zhang, Kang
A common haplotype on 10q26 influences the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and encompasses two genes, LOC387715 and HTRA1. Recent data have suggested that loss of LOC387715, mediated by an insertion/deletion (in/del) that destabilizes its message, is causally related with the disorder. Here we show that loss of LOC387715 is insufficient to explain AMD susceptibility, since a nonsense mutation (R38X) in this gene that leads to loss of its message resides in a protective haplotype. At the same time, the common disease haplotype tagged by the in/del and rs11200638 has an effect on the transcriptional upregulation of the adjacent gene, HTRA1. These data implicate increased HTRA1 expression in the pathogenesis of AMD and highlight the importance of exploring multiple functional consequences of alleles in haplotypes that confer susceptibility to complex traits. PMID:20140183
Klettner, Alexa; Kauppinen, Anu; Blasiak, Janusz; Roider, Johan; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive disease involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. It can result in severe visual loss e.g. AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the western countries. Although age, genetics, diet, smoking, and many cardiovascular factors are known to be linked with this disease there is increasing evidence that long-term oxidative stress, impaired autophagy clearance and inflammasome mediated inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis. Under certain conditions these may trigger detrimental processes e.g. release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), causing choroidal neovascularization e.g. in wet AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological threads in AMD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B
This review assesses the relevance of surgical approaches for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with respect to the pathophysiology of AMD and the current pharmacological possibilities. We discuss the different surgical approaches such as subretinal membrane excision, cell transplantation (IPE and RPE) and transplantation of retina and choroid (PATCH), as well as translocation surgery. Peeling of epiretinal membranes in patients with drusen as well as vitrectomy before epiretinal brachytherapy (VIDEON system) are the final topics. While overall pharmacotherapy has displaced surgical approaches, surgery is worthy of consideration in selected cases. For these patients surgical options need to be maintained in the armamentarium of retinal surgeons. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wang, Shusheng; Koster, Kyle M; He, Yuguang; Zhou, Qinbo
Since their recent discovery, miRNAs have been shown to play critical roles in a variety of pathophysiological processes. Such processes include pathological angiogenesis, the oxidative stress response, immune response and inflammation, all of which have been shown to have important and interdependent roles in the pathogenesis and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we present a brief review of the pathological processes involved in AMD and review miRNAs and other noncoding RNAs involved in regulating these processes. Specifically, we discuss several candidate miRNAs that show promise as AMD therapeutic targets due to their direct involvement in choroidal neovascularization or retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. We discuss potential miRNA-based therapeutics and delivery methods for AMD and provide future directions for the field of miRNA research with respect to AMD. We believe the future of miRNAs in AMD therapy is promising.
Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Blasiak, Janusz; Salminen, Antero
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in the elderly in the developed countries. The number of AMD patients will double during the next decades due to increasing number of aged people. Chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and accumulation of protein-rich deposits both in the retinal pigment epithelium lysosomes and under the retinal pigment epithelium herald the onset of AMD. The disease can be divided into dry and wet AMD forms. The dry form of the disease is more prevalent accounting for up to 90% of all cases. Continued intraocular injections are the current treatment strategy to prevent progression of wet AMD. It is a major challenge to develop new drugs that could prevent or at least ease the symptoms of the increasing population of AMD patients. Since AMD pathology is clearly associated with accumulated protein deposits, the autophagy clearance system might represent a potential future therapeutic target for AMD as is thoroughly discussed here.
Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness world-wide. Although the etiology of AMD is multifactorial, diet and nutrition have strong epidemiologic associations with disease onset and progression. Recent studies indicate a role for gut microbiota in development of AMD in mouse models and in some forms of human AMD. We previously found that consuming lower glycemia diets is associated with protection against AMD in humans and switching from higher to lower glycemia diets arrests AMD phenotypes in mice. Gut microbiota populations and circulating microbial cometabolites were altered in response to dietary carbohydrates, indicating a gut-retina axis. Here we explore additional gut microbiota-AMD interactions that point toward pathogenic roles for some gut microbiota families, including Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, and individual members of Turicibacteraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae. We also speculate on potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota influence AMD, with the objective of devising new AMD diagnoses and treatments.
Shams Najafabadi, Hoda; Daftarian, Narsis; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila
Age-related macular degeneration as the major cause of blindness in the elderly population has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. This retinal disorder is characterized by the photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells loss, occurring within the macula. The disease represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a multifactorial disease resulting from a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental risk factors. AMD is classified into two different types, dry and wet. Wet AMD is in close relation with angiogenesis and inflammatory processes.A variety of anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory drugs have been proposed for the treatment of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the pharmacological therapies of the wet form of AMD and focus on new drugs that are currently in different stages of research and development.
Ratna Priya, Rinki; Chew, Emily Y.; Swaroop, Anand
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment in individuals over 55 years of age worldwide. The varying clinical phenotypes of AMD result from contributions of genetic, epigenetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors. Genetic studies of AMD have come of age as a direct result of tremendous gains from human genome project, genomewide association studies and identification of numerous susceptibility loci. These findings have implicated immune response, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism, extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis signaling pathways in disease pathophysiology. Here, we address how the wealth of genetic findings in AMD is expected to impact the practice of medicine, providing opportunities for improved risk assessment, molecular diagnosis, preventive and therapeutic intervention. We propose that the potential of using genetic variants for monitoring treatment response (pharmacogenetics) may usher a new era of personalized medicine in the clinical management of AMD. PMID:23009893
Kunumpol, P; Umpaipant, W; Kanchanaranya, N; Charoenpong, T; Vongkittirux, S; Kupakanjana, T; Tantibundhit, C
This work proposed an automated screening system for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), and distinguishing between wet or dry types of AMD using fundus images to assist ophthalmologists in eye disease screening and management. The algorithm employs contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) in image enhancement. Subsequently, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and locality sensitivity discrimination analysis (LSDA) were used to extract features for a neural network model to classify the results. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was able to distinguish between normal eyes, dry AMD, or wet AMD with 98.63% sensitivity, 99.15% specificity, and 98.94% accuracy, suggesting promising potential as a medical support system for faster eye disease screening at lower costs.
Aronés-Santivañez, J R; Dyrda, A; Alarcón Valero, I
To present the case of simultaneous presentation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and aged-related macular degeneration (AMD). An 83-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye (LE). In the examination there was an orange peripapillary lesion surrounded by lipid exudates and another subfoveal greyish lesion in the LE. Disciform scarring was observed in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed a classic neovascular membrane in in the LE fovea. Indocyanine angiography (ICGA) showed a polyp-like peri-papillary aneurysmal dilation in both eyes. The patient was treated with photodynamic therapy and anti-VEFG injections with stabilisation of the lesions. PCV and AMD can co-exist in unusual cases. When PCV is suspected, ICGA is mandatory for diagnosis. Copyright Â© 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Modi, Yasha S.; Tanchon, Carley; Ehlers, Justis P
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness. Over the last decade, the treatment of NVAMD has been revolutionized by the development intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies. Several anti-VEGF medications are used for the treatment of NVAMD. The safety and tolerability of these medications deserve review given the high prevalence of NVAMD and the significant utilization of these medications. Numerous large randomized clinical trials have not shown any definitive differential safety relative to ocular or systemic safety of these medications. Intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy does appear to impact systemic VEGF levels, but the implications of these changes remain unclear. One unique safety concern relates drug compounding and the potential risks of contamination, specifically for bevacizumab. Continued surveillance for systemic safety concerns, particularly for rare events is merited. Overall these medications are well tolerated and effective in the treatment of NVAMD. PMID:25700714
DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Silveira, Alexandra C.; Carr, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Ivana K.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive degenerative disease which leads to blindness, affecting the quality of life of millions of Americans. More than 1.75 million individuals in the United States are affected by the advanced form of AMD. The etiological pathway of AMD is not yet fully understood, but there is a clear genetic influence on disease risk. To date, the 1q32 (CFH) and 10q26 (PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1) loci are the most strongly associated with disease; however, the variation in these genomic regions alone is unable to predict disease development with high accuracy. Therefore, current genetic studies are aimed at identifying new genes associated with AMD and their modifiers, with the goal of discovering diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Moreover, these studies provide the foundation for further investigation into the pathophysiology of AMD by utilizing a systems-biology-based approach to elucidate underlying mechanistic pathways. PMID:21609220
Wang, Y; Wang, V M; Chan, C-C
Although age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not a classic inflammatory disease like uveitis, inflammation has been found to have an important role in disease pathogenesis and progression. Innate immunity and autoimmune components, such as complement factors, chemokines, cytokines, macrophages, and ocular microglia, are believed to be heavily involved in AMD development. Targeting these specific inflammatory molecules has recently been explored in an attempt to better understand and treat AMD. Although antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy is the first line of defence against neovascular AMD, anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), immunosuppressive agents (eg, methotrexate and rapamycin), and biologics (eg, infliximab, daclizumab, and complement inhibitors) may provide an adjunct or alternative mechanism to suppress the inflammatory processes driving AMD progression. Further investigation is required to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of these drugs for both neovascular and non-neovascular AMD. PMID:21183941
Wei, Lai; Liu, Baoying; Tuo, Jingsheng; Shen, Defen; Chen, Ping; Li, Zhiyu; Liu, Xunxian; Ni, Jia; Dagur, Pradeep; Sen, H. Nida; Jawad, Shayma; Ling, Diamond; Park, Stanley; Chakrabarty, Sagarika; Meyerle, Catherine; Agron, Elvira; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.; McCoy, J. Philip; Blum, Emily; Francis, Peter J.; Klein, Michael L.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Baird, Paul N.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Nussenblatt, Robert B.
SUMMARY Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. While recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a number of genes and AMD, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in its etiology. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Further, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and mRNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23177625
Borrelli, Enrico; Souied, Eric H; Freund, K Bailey; Querques, Giuseppe; Miere, Alexandra; Gal-Or, Orly; Sacconi, Riccardo; Sadda, SriniVas R; Sarraf, David
To study choriocapillaris (CC) flow in eyes with Type 3 neovascularization (NV) and age-related macular degeneration, using optical coherence tomography angiography analysis. In this multicenter, retrospective, observational study, we collected data from 21 patients with unilateral Type 3 NV and age-related macular degeneration, based on clinical examination, structural optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography when available. An additional group of 20 nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration eyes with unilateral Type 1 or Type 2 NV due to age-related macular degeneration was included for comparison. En face optical coherence tomography angiography imaging (3 × 3 mm scans) with quantitative microvascular analysis of the CC was performed. Main outcome measures were: 1) the percent nonperfused choriocapillaris area; and 2) the average CC signal void size. We included 21 patients with unilateral Type 3 NV (15 female, 71.5%) and 20 patients with unilateral Type 1 or 2 NV (9 female, 45.0% P = 0.118). Mean ± SD age was 82.1 ± 7.4 years in the unilateral Type 3 patients and 78.3 ± 8.1 in unilateral Type 1/2 NV subjects (P = 0.392). The percent nonperfused choriocapillaris area was 56.3 ± 8.1% in eyes with Type 3 NV and 51.9 ± 4.3% in the fellow eyes (P = 0.016). The average signal void size was also increased in those eyes with Type 3 NV (939.9 ± 680.9 μm), compared with the fellow eyes (616.3 ± 304.2 μm, P = 0.039). The number of signal voids was reduced in the Type 3 NV eyes (604.5 ± 282.9 vs. 747.3 ± 195.8, P = 0.046). The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 135.9 ± 54.2 μm in eyes with Type 3 NV and 167.2 ± 65.4 μm in the fellow eyes (P = 0.003). In addition, the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral Type 3 NV displayed more significant CC flow abnormalities versus the fellow eyes with unilateral Type 1/2 NV (percent nonperfused choriocapillaris area = 51.9 ± 4.3% vs. 46.0 ± 2.1%, respectively, P < 0.0001; and average signal
Kahawita, Shyalle K; Casson, Robert J
The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for an association between Aspirin use and early age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A literature search was performed in 5 databases with no restrictions on language or date of publication. Four studies involving 10292 individuals examining the association between aspirin and ARMD met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was carried out by Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). The pooled odd ratios showed that Aspirin use was associated with early ARMD (pooled odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.88). There is a small but statistically significant association between Aspirin use and early ARMD, which may warrant further investigation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahawita, Shyalle K; Casson, Robert J
The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for an association between Aspirin use and early age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A literature search was performed in 5 databases with no restrictions on language or date of publication. Four studies involving 10292 individuals examining the association between aspirin and ARMD met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was carried out by Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). The pooled odd ratios showed that Aspirin use was associated with early ARMD (pooled odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.88). There is a small but statistically significant association between Aspirin use and early ARMD, which may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative. PMID:23820727
Budzinskaya, M V; Plyukhova, A A; Sorokin, P A
With account to the increase in the elderly population in most of the developed countries, the WHO defines age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as one of the main causes of blindness in the world. A large percentage of disability is accounted for by exudative, or neovascular, form of AMD. Today, a total of 5 anti-VEGF drugs exist that are recommended for treatment of exudative AMD: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept, and conbercept. Despite significant progress in the treatment of neovascular AMD yielded by the introduction into clinical practice of anti-VEGF drugs, some patients report a lack (down to complete lack) of response with standard treatment patterns and even a decrease in treatment efficacy after repeated intravitreal injections.
Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arias, Luis; Araiz, Javier; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Medina, Jose J; López-Gálvez, Maria Isabel; Manzanas, Lucía; Salas, Anna; Zapata, Miguel; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; García-Layana, Alfredo
Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids ( ω -3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ω -3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain). Results. High dietary intakes of ω -3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ω -3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD.
Sripathi, Srinivas R.; He, Weilue; Prigge, Cameron L.; Sylvester, O’Donnell; Um, Ji-Yeon; Powell, Folami L.; Neksumi, Musa; Bernstein, Paul S.; Choo, Dong-Won; Bartoli, Manuela; Gutsaeva, Diana R.; Jahng, Wan Jin
The current study aims to determine the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using the phosphorylation network. Specifically, we examined novel biomarkers for oxidative stress by protein interaction mapping using in vitro and in vivo models that mimic the complex and progressive characteristics of AMD. We hypothesized that the early apoptotic reactions could be initiated by protein phosphorylation in region-dependent (peripheral retina vs. macular) and tissue-dependent (retinal pigment epithelium vs. retina) manner under chronic oxidative stress. The analysis of protein interactome and oxidative biomarkers showed the presence of tissue- and region-specific post-translational mechanisms that contribute to AMD progression and suggested new therapeutic targets that include ubiquitin, erythropoietin, vitronectin, MMP2, crystalline, nitric oxide, and prohibitin. Phosphorylation of specific target proteins in RPE cells is a central regulatory mechanism as a survival tool under chronic oxidative imbalance. The current interactome map demonstrates a positive correlation between oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation and AMD progression and provides a basis for understanding oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal changes and the mechanism of aggregate formation induced by protein phosphorylation. This information could provide an effective therapeutic approach to treat age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:28580316
Sripathi, Srinivas R; He, Weilue; Prigge, Cameron L; Sylvester, O'Donnell; Um, Ji-Yeon; Powell, Folami L; Neksumi, Musa; Bernstein, Paul S; Choo, Dong-Won; Bartoli, Manuela; Gutsaeva, Diana R; Jahng, Wan Jin
The current study aims to determine the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using the phosphorylation network. Specifically, we examined novel biomarkers for oxidative stress by protein interaction mapping using in vitro and in vivo models that mimic the complex and progressive characteristics of AMD. We hypothesized that the early apoptotic reactions could be initiated by protein phosphorylation in region-dependent (peripheral retina vs. macular) and tissue-dependent (retinal pigment epithelium vs. retina) manner under chronic oxidative stress. The analysis of protein interactome and oxidative biomarkers showed the presence of tissue- and region-specific post-translational mechanisms that contribute to AMD progression and suggested new therapeutic targets that include ubiquitin, erythropoietin, vitronectin, MMP2, crystalline, nitric oxide, and prohibitin. Phosphorylation of specific target proteins in RPE cells is a central regulatory mechanism as a survival tool under chronic oxidative imbalance. The current interactome map demonstrates a positive correlation between oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation and AMD progression and provides a basis for understanding oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal changes and the mechanism of aggregate formation induced by protein phosphorylation. This information could provide an effective therapeutic approach to treat age-related neurodegeneration.
Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi
Existing drusen measurement is difficult to use in clinic because it requires a lot of time and effort for visual inspection. In order to resolve this problem, we propose an automatic drusen detection method to help clinical diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration. First, we changed the fundus image to a green channel and extracted the ROI of the macular area based on the optic disk. Next, we detected the candidate group using the difference image of the median filter within the ROI. We also segmented vessels and removed them from the image. Finally, we detected the drusen through Renyi's entropy threshold algorithm. We performed comparisons and statistical analysis between the manual detection results and automatic detection results for 30 cases in order to verify validity. As a result, the average sensitivity was 93.37% (80.95%~100%) and the average DSC was 0.73 (0.3~0.98). In addition, the value of the ICC was 0.984 (CI: 0.967~0.993, p < 0.01), showing the high reliability of the proposed automatic method. We expect that the automatic drusen detection helps clinicians to improve the diagnostic performance in the detection of drusen on fundus image.
Cheong, Allen MY; Legge, Gordon E; Lawrence, Mary G; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Ruff, Mary A
Purpose People with macular degeneration (MD) often read slowly even with adequate magnification to compensate for acuity loss. Oculomotor deficits may affect reading in MD, but cannot fully explain the substantial reduction in reading speed. Central-field loss (CFL) is often a consequence of macular degeneration, necessitating the use of peripheral vision for reading. We hypothesized that slower temporal processing of visual patterns in peripheral vision is a factor contributing to slow reading performance in MD patients. Methods Fifteen subjects with MD, including 12 with CFL, and five age-matched control subjects were recruited. Maximum reading speed and critical print size were measured with RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation). Temporal processing speed was studied by measuring letter-recognition accuracy for strings of three randomly selected letters centered at fixation for a range of exposure times. Temporal threshold was defined as the exposure time yielding 80% recognition accuracy for the central letter. Results Temporal thresholds for the MD subjects ranged from 159 to 5881 ms, much longer than values for age-matched controls in central vision (13 ms, p<0.01). The mean temporal threshold for the 11 MD subjects who used eccentric fixation (1555.8 ± 1708.4 ms) was much longer than the mean temporal threshold (97.0 ms ± 34.2 ms, p<0.01) for the age-matched controls at 10° in the lower visual field. Individual temporal thresholds accounted for 30% of the variance in reading speed (p<0.05). Conclusion The significant association between increased temporal threshold for letter recognition and reduced reading speed is consistent with the hypothesis that slower visual processing of letter recognition is one of the factors limiting reading speed in MD subjects. PMID:17881032
Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Swider, Malgorzata; Chico, John D.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Pantelyat, Alexander Y.; Duncan, Keith G.; Gardner, Leigh M.; Emmons, Jessica M.; Steinberg, Janet D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.
PURPOSE To determine macular pigment (MP) optical density (OD) in patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations (ABCA4-RD) and the response of MP and vision to supplementation with lutein. METHODS Stargardt disease or cone-rod dystrophy patients with foveal fixation and with known or suspected disease-causing mutations in the ABCA4 gene were included. MPOD profiles were measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum carotenoids, visual acuity, foveal sensitivity and retinal thickness were quantified. Changes in MPOD and central vision were determined in a subset of patients receiving oral supplementation with lutein for 6 months. RESULTS MPOD in patients ranged from normal to markedly abnormal. As a group, ABCA4-RD patients had reduced foveal MPOD and there was strong correlation with retinal thickness. Average foveal tissue concentration of MP, estimated by dividing MPOD by retinal thickness, was normal in patients whereas serum concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin was significantly lower than normal. After oral lutein supplementation for 6 months, 91% of the patients showed significant increases in serum lutein and 63% of the patient eyes showed a significant augmentation in MPOD. The retinal responders tended to be female, and have lower serum lutein and zeaxanthin, lower MPOD and greater retinal thickness at baseline. Responding eyes had significantly lower baseline MP concentration compared to non-responding eyes. Central vision was unchanged after the period of supplementation. CONCLUSIONS MP is strongly affected by the stage of ABCA4 disease leading to abnormal foveal architecture. MP could be augmented by supplemental lutein in some patients. There was no change in central vision after 6 months of lutein supplementation. Long-term influences on the natural history of this supplement on macular degenerations require further study. PMID:17325179
Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Hazim, Roni A; Diemer, Tanja; Paniagua, Antonio E; Volland, Stefanie; Umapathy, Ankita; Williams, David S
Stargardt macular dystrophy 3 (STGD3) is caused by dominant mutations in the ELOVL4 gene. Like other macular degenerations, pathogenesis within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to contribute to the loss of photoreceptors from the central retina. However, the RPE does not express ELOVL4 , suggesting photoreceptor cell loss in STGD3 occurs through two cell nonautonomous events: mutant photoreceptors first affect RPE cell pathogenesis, and then, second, RPE dysfunction leads to photoreceptor cell death. Here, we have investigated how the RPE pathology occurs, using a STGD3 mouse model in which mutant human ELOVL4 is expressed in the photoreceptors. We found that the mutant protein was aberrantly localized to the photoreceptor outer segment (POS), and that resulting POS phagosomes were degraded more slowly in the RPE. In cell culture, the mutant POSs are ingested by primary RPE cells normally, but the phagosomes are processed inefficiently, even by wild-type RPE. The mutant phagosomes excessively sequester RAB7A and dynein, and have impaired motility. We propose that the abnormal presence of ELOVL4 protein in POSs results in phagosomes that are defective in recruiting appropriate motor protein linkers, thus contributing to slower degradation because their altered motility results in slower basal migration and fewer productive encounters with endolysosomes. In the transgenic mouse retinas, the RPE accumulated abnormal-looking phagosomes and oxidative stress adducts; these pathological changes were followed by pathology in the neural retina. Our results indicate inefficient phagosome degradation as a key component of the first cell nonautonomous event underlying retinal degeneration due to mutant ELOVL4.
Friberg, Thomas R; Tolentino, Michael; Weber, Pamela; Patel, Sunil; Campbell, Scott; Goldbaum, Mauro
To assess the efficacy of pegaptanib as maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) patients after induction therapy. A phase IV, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled exploratory study including subjects with subfoveal NV-AMD who had had one to three induction treatments 30-120 days before entry and showed investigator-determined clinical/anatomical NV-AMD improvement. Lesions in the study eye were: any subtype, 12 or fewer disc areas; postinduction centre point thickness (CPT) 275 μm or less or thinning of 100 μm or more (optical coherence tomography); visual acuity (VA) 20/20-20/400. Intravitreal pegaptanib 0.3 mg was administered as maintenance every 6 weeks for 48 weeks with follow-up to week 54. Booster treatment additional unscheduled treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration, was allowed in the study eye at the investigators' discretion for clinical deterioration. Of 568 enrolled subjects, 86% completed 1 year of pegaptanib. Mean VA improvement during induction (49.6 to 65.5 letters) was well preserved (54-week mean 61.8 letters). Mean CPT was relatively stable during maintenance (20 μm increase during the study). Fifty per cent did not receive unscheduled booster treatment to week 54; 46% did have one such booster (mean 147 days after maintenance initiation). An induction-maintenance strategy, using non-selective then selective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, could be considered for NV-AMD. This approach may have particular relevance for patients with systemic comorbidities who require long-term anti-VEGF therapy for NV-AMD.
Laíns, Inês; Miller, John B; Mukai, Ryo; Mach, Steven; Vavvas, Demetrios; Kim, Ivana K; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba
To determine the association between dark adaption (DA) and different health conditions linked with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cross-sectional study, including patients with AMD and a control group. Age-related macular degeneration was graded according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification. We obtained data on medical history, medications, and lifestyle. Dark adaption was assessed with the extended protocol (20 minutes) of AdaptDx (MacuLogix). For analyses, the right eye or the eye with more advanced AMD was selected. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed, accounting for age and AMD stage. Seventy-eight subjects (75.6% AMD; 24.4% controls) were included. Multivariate assessments revealed that body mass index (BMI; β = 0.30, P = 0.045), taking AREDS vitamins (β = 5.51, P < 0.001), and family history of AMD (β = 2.68, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with worse rod intercept times. Abnormal DA (rod intercept time ≥ 6.5 minutes) was significantly associated with family history of AMD (β = 1.84, P = 0.006), taking AREDS supplements (β = 1.67, P = 0.021) and alcohol intake (β = 0.07, P = 0.017). Besides age and AMD stage, a higher body mass index, higher alcohol intake, and a family history of AMD seem to impair DA. In this cohort, the use of AREDS vitamins was also statistically linked with impaired DA, most likely because of an increased severity of disease in subjects taking them.
Pras, Eran; Kristal, Dana; Shoshany, Nadav; Volodarsky, Dina; Vulih, Inna; Celniker, Gershon; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Pras, Elon
To explore the molecular basis of familial, early onset, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with diverse phenotypes, using whole exome sequencing (WES). We performed WES on four patients (two sibs from two families) manifesting early-onset AMD and searched for disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified macular degeneration related genes. Validation studies of the variants included bioinformatics tools, segregation analysis of mutations within the families and mutation screening in an AMD cohort of patients. The index patients were in their 50s when diagnosed and displayed a wide variety of clinical AMD presentations: from limited drusen in the posterior pole to multiple basal-laminar drusen extending peripherally. Severe visual impairment due to extensive geographic atrophy and/or choroidal-neovascularisation was common by the age of 75 years. Approximately, 400 000 genomic variants for each DNA sample were included in the downstream bioinformatics analysis, which ended in the discovery of two novel variants; in one family a single bp deletion was identified in the Hemicentin (HMCN1) gene (c.4162delC), whereas in the other, a missense variant (p.V412M) in the Complement Factor-I (CFI) gene was found. Screening for these variants in a cohort of patients with AMD identified another family with the CFI variant. This report uses WES to uncover rare genetic variants in AMD. A null-variant in HMCN1 has been identified in one AMD family, and a missense variant in CFI was discovered in two other families. These variants confirm the genetic complexity and significance of rare genetic variants in the pathogenesis of AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wang, Jie Jin
To determine whether regular aspirin use is associated with a higher risk for developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by using analyzed data from a 15-year prospective cohort. A prospective analysis was conducted of data from an Australian population-based cohort with 4 examinations during a 15-year period (1992-1994 to 2007-2009). Participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline assessing aspirin use, cardiovascular disease status, and AMD risk factors. Age-related macular degeneration was graded side-by-side from retinal photographs taken at each study visit to assess the incidence of neovascular (wet) AMD and geographic atrophy (dry AMD) according to the international AMD classification. Of 2389 baseline participants with follow-up data available, 257 individuals (10.8%) were regular aspirin users and 63 of the 2389 developed neovascular AMD. Persons who were regular aspirin users were more likely to have incident neovascular AMD: the 15-year cumulative incidence was 9.3% in users and 3.7% in nonusers. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, persons who were regular aspirin users had a higher risk of developing neovascular AMD (odds ratio [OR], 2.46; 95% CI, 1.25-4.83). The association showed a dose-response effect (multivariate-adjusted P = .01 for trend). Aspirin use was not associated with the incidence of geographic atrophy (multivariate-adjusted OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.59-1.65). Regular aspirin use is associated with increased risk of incident neovascular AMD, independent of a history of cardiovascular disease and smoking.
Babanejad, Mojgan; Moein, Hamidreza; Akbari, Mohammad R; Badiei, Azadeh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Masoud; Najmabadi, Hossein
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder which results in irreversible vision loss and progressive impairment of central vision. Disease susceptibility is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the complement factor H gene are the most important genetic risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association four SNPs (dbSNP ID: rs800292, rs1061170, rs2274700 and rs3753395) of CFH gene with AMD in the Iranian population. We recruited 100 AMD patients and 100 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Direct sequencing for three SNPs (rs800292, rs2274700 and rs3753395) and restriction fragment length polymorphism utilized for rs1061170. Allele and genotype frequencies of SNPs were calculated and tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using the Chi-square test. An allelic and genotypic association was compared by logistic regression analysis using the SNPassoc. According to our results, the frequencies of risk allele for all SNPs (G, G, A, and C alleles of rs800292, rs2274700, rs3753395 and rs1061170, respectively) were significantly higher in AMD patients (p value < 0.001). AMD individuals who had at least one copy of the C allele of rs1061170 had an increased risk of disease compared with cases with the T allele. Other studied polymorphisms showed the same association. Our results suggest the contribution of all four predicted CFH polymorphisms in AMD susceptibility among the Iranian population. This association with CFH may lead to early detection and new strategies for prevention and treatment of AMD.
Liu, Aihua; Lin, Yanhua; Terry, Ryan; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S
Macular degeneration is a progressive, bilateral eye disorder that damages the macula of the human eye. The most common form of macular degeneration is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in people older than 50 years in developed countries. Autosomal dominant Stargardt disease-3 (STGD3) is an inherited macular dystrophy that has clinical features similar to dry AMD, but occurs at a much earlier age. It is caused by a mutation in the elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids-like 4 (ELOVL4) gene, which is responsible for encoding the elongase enzyme that converts shorter chain fatty acids into C28–C38 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs, total number of carbons ≥24). Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have inverse associations with the progression of AMD and STGD3, and a deficiency in retinal LCPUFAs and VLCPUFAs has been detected in AMD retinas and STGD3 animal models. This article systematically summarizes the roles of LCPUFAs and VLCPUFAs in AMD and STGD3, and discusses future research directions. PMID:25324899
Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the RPE in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. We will present the results of a study of the kinetics of lipofuscin growth in RPE cells using Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and scaling theory on a cluster aggregation model. The model captures the essential physics of lipofuscin growth in the cells. A remarkable feature is that small particles may be removed from the cells while the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation. We compare our results to the number of lipofuscin granules in eyes with early age-related degeneration. )
Santos, Laura M.; Mattiace, Linda A.; Costa, Manoel L.; Ferreira, Luciano C.; Benabou, Kelly; Kim, Ana H.; Abrahams, John; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Rozental, Renato
Spreading depression (SD), a slow diffusion-mediated self-sustained wave of depolarization that severely disrupts neuronal function, has been implicated as a cause of cellular injury in a number of central nervous system pathologies, including blind spots in the retina. Here we show that in the hypoglycemic chicken retina, spontaneous episodes of SD can occur, resulting in irreversible punctate lesions in the macula, the region of highest visual acuity in the central region of the retina. These lesions in turn can act as sites of origin for secondary self-sustained reentrant spiral waves of SD that progressively enlarge the lesions. Furthermore, we show that the degeneration of the macula under hypoglycemic conditions can be prevented by blocking reentrant spiral SDs or by blocking caspases. The observation that spontaneous formation of reentrant spiral SD waves leads to the development of progressive retinal lesions under conditions of hypoglycemia establishes a potential role of SD in initiation and progression of macular degeneration, one of the leading causes of visual disability worldwide. PMID:22308470
Kerur, Nagaraj; Fukuda, Shinichi; Banerjee, Daipayan; Kim, Younghee; Fu, Dongxu; Apicella, Ivana; Varshney, Akhil; Yasuma, Reo; Fowler, Benjamin J.; Baghdasaryan, Elmira; Marion, Kenneth M.; Huang, Xiwen; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Hirano, Yoshio; Serbulea, Vlad; Ambati, Meenakshi; Ambati, Vidya L.; Kajiwara, Yuji; Ambati, Kameshwari; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kim, Kyung Bo; Hinton, David R.; Leitinger, Norbert; Cambier, John C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Kenney, M. Cristina; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hara, Isao; West, A. Phillip; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Gelfand, Bradley D.; Ambati, Jayakrishna
Geographic atrophy is a blinding form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). In this disease, the RPE displays evidence of DICER1 deficiency, resultant accumulation of endogenous Alu retroelement RNA, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. How the inflammasome is activated in this untreatable disease is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that RPE degeneration in human cell culture and in mouse models is driven by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that results in activation of caspase-4 (caspase-11 in mice) and caspase-1, and requires cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-dependent interferon-β (IFN-β) production and gasdermin D-dependent interleukin-18 (IL-18) secretion. Reduction of DICER1 levelsor accumulation of Alu RNA triggers cytosolic escape of mitochondrial DNA, which engages cGAS. Moreover, caspase-4, gasdermin D, IFN-β, and cGAS levels are elevated in the RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy. Collectively, these data highlight an unexpected role for cGAS in responding to mobile element transcripts, reveal cGAS-driven interferon signaling as a conduit for mitochondrial damage-induced inflammasome activation, expand the immune sensing repertoire of cGAS and caspase-4 to non-infectious human disease, and identify new potential targets for treatment of a major cause of blindness. PMID:29176737
Kerur, Nagaraj; Fukuda, Shinichi; Banerjee, Daipayan; Kim, Younghee; Fu, Dongxu; Apicella, Ivana; Varshney, Akhil; Yasuma, Reo; Fowler, Benjamin J; Baghdasaryan, Elmira; Marion, Kenneth M; Huang, Xiwen; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Hirano, Yoshio; Serbulea, Vlad; Ambati, Meenakshi; Ambati, Vidya L; Kajiwara, Yuji; Ambati, Kameshwari; Hirahara, Shuichiro; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kim, Kyung Bo; Hinton, David R; Leitinger, Norbert; Cambier, John C; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kenney, M Cristina; Jazwinski, S Michal; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hara, Isao; West, A Phillip; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Sadda, SriniVas R; Gelfand, Bradley D; Ambati, Jayakrishna
Geographic atrophy is a blinding form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) death; the RPE also exhibits DICER1 deficiency, resultant accumulation of endogenous Alu-retroelement RNA, and NLRP3-inflammasome activation. How the inflammasome is activated in this untreatable disease is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that RPE degeneration in human-cell-culture and mouse models is driven by a noncanonical-inflammasome pathway that activates caspase-4 (caspase-11 in mice) and caspase-1, and requires cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-dependent interferon-β production and gasdermin D-dependent interleukin-18 secretion. Decreased DICER1 levels or Alu-RNA accumulation triggers cytosolic escape of mitochondrial DNA, which engages cGAS. Moreover, caspase-4, gasdermin D, interferon-β, and cGAS levels were elevated in the RPE in human eyes with geographic atrophy. Collectively, these data highlight an unexpected role of cGAS in responding to mobile-element transcripts, reveal cGAS-driven interferon signaling as a conduit for mitochondrial-damage-induced inflammasome activation, expand the immune-sensing repertoire of cGAS and caspase-4 to noninfectious human disease, and identify new potential targets for treatment of a major cause of blindness.
Levy, Olivier; Calippe, Bertrand; Lavalette, Sophie; Hu, Shulong J; Raoul, William; Dominguez, Elisa; Housset, Michael; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Combadiere, Christophe; Guillonneau, Xavier; Sennlaub, Florian
Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Li, Miaoling; Huisingh, Carrie; Messinger, Jeffrey; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Ferrara, Daniela; Freund, K Bailey; Curcio, Christine A
To systematically characterize histologic features of multiple chorioretinal layers in eyes with geographic atrophy, or complete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and outer retinal atrophy, secondary to age-related macular degeneration, including Henle fiber layer and outer nuclear layer; and to compare these changes to those in the underlying RPE-Bruch membrane-choriocapillaris complex and associated extracellular deposits. Geographic atrophy was delimited by the external limiting membrane (ELM) descent towards Bruch membrane. In 13 eyes, histologic phenotypes and/or thicknesses of Henle fiber layer, outer nuclear layer, underlying supporting tissues, and extracellular deposits at four defined locations on the non-atrophic and atrophic sides of the ELM descent were assessed and compared across other tissue layers, with generalized estimating equations and logit models. On the non-atrophic side of the ELM descent, distinct Henle fiber layer and outer nuclear layer became dyslaminated, cone photoreceptor inner segment myoids shortened, photoreceptor nuclei and mitochondria translocated inward, and RPE was dysmorphic. On the atrophic side of the ELM descent, all measures of photoreceptor health declined to zero. Henle fiber layer/outer nuclear layer thickness halved, and only Müller cells remained, in the absence of photoreceptors. Sub-RPE deposits remained, Bruch membrane thinned, and choriocapillaris density decreased. The ELM descent sharply delimits an area of marked gliosis and near-total photoreceptor depletion clinically defined as Geographic atrophy (or outer retinal atrophy), indicating severe and potentially irreversible tissue damage. Degeneration of supporting tissues across this boundary is gradual, consistent with steady age-related change and suggesting that RPE and Müller cells subsequently respond to a threshold of stress. Novel clinical trial endpoints should be sought at age-related macular degeneration stages before intense gliosis and thick
Mehat, Manjit S; Sundaram, Venki; Ripamonti, Caterina; Robson, Anthony G; Smith, Alexander J; Borooah, Shyamanga; Robinson, Martha; Rosenthal, Adam N; Innes, William; Weleber, Richard G; Lee, Richard W J; Crossland, Michael; Rubin, Gary S; Dhillon, Baljean; Steel, David H W; Anglade, Eddy; Lanza, Robert P; Ali, Robin R; Michaelides, Michel; Bainbridge, James W B
Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells offers the potential for benefit in macular degeneration. Previous trials have reported improved visual acuity (VA), but lacked detailed analysis of retinal structure and function in the treated area. Phase 1/2 open-label dose-escalation trial to evaluate safety and potential efficacy (clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01469832). Twelve participants with advanced Stargardt disease (STGD1), the most common cause of macular degeneration in children and young adults. Subretinal transplantation of up to 200 000 hESC-derived RPE cells with systemic immunosuppressive therapy for 13 weeks. The primary end points were the safety and tolerability of hESC-derived RPE cell administration. We also investigated evidence of the survival of transplanted cells and measured retinal structure and function using microperimetry and spectral-domain OCT. Focal areas of subretinal hyperpigmentation developed in all participants in a dose-dependent manner in the recipient retina and persisted after withdrawal of systemic immunosuppression. We found no evidence of uncontrolled proliferation or inflammatory responses. Borderline improvements in best-corrected VA in 4 participants either were unsustained or were matched by a similar improvement in the untreated contralateral eye. Microperimetry demonstrated no evidence of benefit at 12 months in the 12 participants. In one instance at the highest dose, localized retinal thinning and reduced sensitivity in the area of hyperpigmentation suggested the potential for harm. Participant-reported quality of life using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire indicated no significant change. Subretinal hyperpigmentation is consistent with the survival of viable transplanted hESC-derived RPE cells, but may reflect released pigment in their absence. The findings demonstrate the value of detailed analysis of spatial correlation of
Whitmore, S Scott; Braun, Terry A; Skeie, Jessica M; Haas, Christine M; Sohn, Elliott H; Stone, Edwin M; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ≥50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ≥ median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = -2.61; raw p value=0.0008). GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker expression. These results are
Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Millen, Amy E; Iyengar, Sudha K; Blodi, Barbara A; Johnson, Elizabeth; Snodderly, D Max; Klein, Michael L; Gehrs, Karen M; Tinker, Lesley; Sarto, Gloria E; Robinson, Jennifer; Wallace, Robert B; Mares, Julie A
Unhealthy lifestyles have been associated with increased odds for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD is unknown and was investigated. Interactions between healthy lifestyles AMD risk genotypes were studied in relation to the prevalence of AMD, assessed 6 years later. Women 50 to 79 years of age in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study with exposure and AMD data (n=1663). Healthy lifestyle scores (0-6 points) were assigned based on Healthy Eating Index scores, physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task hours/week), and smoking pack years assessed in 1994 and 1998. Genetic risk was based on Y402H in complement factor H (CFH) and A69S in age-related maculopathy susceptibility locus 2 (ARMS2). Additive and multiplicative interactions in odds ratios were assessed using the synergy index and a multiplicative interaction term, respectively. AMD presence and severity were assessed from grading of stereoscopic fundus photographs taken in 2001-2004. AMD was present in 337 women, 91% of whom had early AMD. The odds of AMD were 3.3 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-6.1) in women with both low healthy lifestyle score (0-2) and high-risk CFH genotype (CC), relative to those who had low genetic risk (TT) and high healthy lifestyle scores (4-6). There were no significant additive (synergy index [SI], 1.08; 95% CI, 0.70-1.67) or multiplicative (Pinteraction=0.94) interactions in the full sample. However, when limiting the sample to women with stable diets before AMD assessment (n=728) the odds for AMD associated with low healthy lifestyle scores and high-risk CFH genotype were strengthened (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8-11.6) and the synergy index was significant (SI, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70). Adjusting for dietary lutein and zeaxanthin attenuated, and therefore partially explained, the joint association. There were no significant additive or multiplicative interactions for ARMS2 and
Sigler, Eric J; Randolph, John C
To compare macular choroidal thickness between patients older than 65 years with early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and normals. This was a consecutive, cross-sectional observational study. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using horizontal raster scanning at 12 locations throughout the macula was performed in one eye of consecutive patients presenting with large soft drusen alone, drusen with additional features of early AMD, or a normal fundus. Choroidal thickness was measured at 7 points for each raster scan in the central 3 mm of the macula (total 84 points per eye). In addition, a single subfoveolar measurement was obtained for each eye. One hundred fifty eyes of 150 patients were included. There was no significant difference between mean refractive error for each diagnosis category via one-way ANOVA (P = 0.451). Mean macular choroidal thickness (CT) was 235 ± 49 μm (range, 125-334 μm; median 222 μm) for normals, 161 ± 39 μm (range, 89-260 μm; median = 158 μm) for the drusen group, and 115 ± 40 μm (range, 22-256 μm; median = 112 μm) for patients with AMD. Mean macular CT was significantly different via one-way ANOVA among all diagnosis categories (P < 0.001). The presence of features of early AMD without geographic atrophy and/or soft drusen alone is associated with decreased mean macular CT in vivo compared to that in patients with no chorioretinal pathology. Using enhanced depth imaging, measurement of a single subfoveolar choroidal thickness is highly correlated to mean central macular CT.
Ramkumar, Hema L.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent form of irreversible blindness worldwide in the elderly population. The pathology of dry AMD consists of degeneration of photoreceptors and the RPE, lipofuscin (A2E) accumulation, and drusen formation. Mice have been widely used for generating models that simulate human AMD features for investigating the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of the disease. Although the mouse has no macula, focal atrophy of photorecptors and RPE, lipofuscin accumulation, and increased A2E can develop in aged mouse eyes. However, drusen are rarely seen in mice because of their simpler Bruch’s membrane and different process of lipofuscin extrusion compared with humans. Thus, analyzing basal deposits at the ultrastructural level and understanding the ultrastructural pathologic differences between various mouse AMD models are critical to comprehending the significance of research findings and response to possible therapeutic options for dry AMD. Based on the multifactorial pathogenesis of AMD, murine dry AMD models can be classified into three groups. First, genetically engineered mice that target genes related to juvenile macular dystrophies are the most common models, and they include abcr−/− (Stargardt disease), transgenic ELOVL4 (Stargardt-3 dominant inheritary disease), Efemp1R345W/R345W (Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy), and Timp3S156C/S156C (Sorsby fundus dystrophy) mice. Other murine models target genes relevant to AMD, including inflammatory genes such as Cfh−/−, Ccl2−/−, Ccr2−/−, Cx3cr1−/−, and Ccl2−/−/cx3cr1−/−, oxidative stress associated genes such as Sod1−/− and Sod2 knockdown, metabolic pathway genes such as neprilysin −/− (amyloid β), transgenic mcd/mcd (cathepsin D), Cp−/−/Heph−/Y (ferroxidase ceruloplasmin/hepaestin, iron metabolism), and transgenic ApoE4 on high fat and high cholesterol diet (lipid metabolism). Second, mice have also been immunologically
Ferrone, Philip J; Anwar, Farihah; Naysan, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Khurram; Fastenberg, David; Graham, Kenneth; Deramo, Vincent
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative process that leads to severe vision loss. Wet AMD is defined by choroidal neovascularisation, leading to the accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF), macular oedema (ME), and pigment epithelium detachments (PED). Purpose To evaluate the initial clinical experience of conversion from bevacizumab or ranibizumab to aflibercept in wet AMD patients. Records of 250 consecutive wet AMD patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of 250 patients, 29 were naive (with no previous treatment), and 221 were previously treated with bevacizumab (1/3) or ranibizumab (2/3). On average, converted patients received 14 injections every 6 weeks on a treat-and-extend regimen with Avastin or Lucentis before being converted to aflibercept every 7 weeks on average (no loading dose) for three doses. For the purposes of this study, we concentrated on the patients converted to aflibercept since the number of naive patients was too small to draw any conclusion from. Snellen (as logMar) visual acuities, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared predrug and postdrug conversion. Converted patients did not show a significant difference in visual acuity or average OCT thickness from preconversion values; however, small improvements in ME (p=0.0001), SRF (p=0.0001), and PED (p=0.008) grading were noted on average after conversion to aflibercept. No significant difference in visual outcome or average OCT thickness was observed when switched from bevacizumab or ranibizumab q6 week to aflibercept 7-week dosing, on average. Mild anatomic improvements did occur in converted patients with regard to ME, SRF and PED improvement, on average, after conversion to aflibercept, and aflibercept was injected less frequently. No serious adverse reactions, including ocular infections or inflammation, as well as ocular and systemic effects were noted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S
To investigate fluorescence lifetime characteristics in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and to correlate the measurements with clinical data and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Patients with GA were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes were analyzed within GA and the surrounding retina, and data were correlated with best corrected visual acuity and OCT measurements. Fluorescence lifetime maps of 41 eyes of 41 patients (80 ± 7 years) with GA were analyzed. Mean lifetimes within areas of atrophy were prolonged by 624 ± 276 ps (+152%) in the short spectral channel and 418 ± 186 ps (+83%) in the long spectral channel compared to the surrounding tissue. Autofluorescence lifetime abnormalities in GA occurred with particular patterns, similar to those seen in fundus autofluorescence intensity images. Within the fovea short mean autofluorescence lifetimes were observed, presumably representing macular pigment. Short lifetimes were preserved even in the absence of foveal sparing but were decreased in patients with advanced retinal atrophy in OCT. Short lifetimes in the fovea correlated with better best corrected visual acuity in both spectral channels. This study established that autofluorescence lifetime changes in GA present with explicit patterns. We hypothesize that the short lifetimes seen within the atrophy may be used to estimate damage induced by atrophy and to monitor disease progression in the context of natural history or interventional therapeutic studies.
Patel, Nishal; Ohbayashi, Masahara; Nugent, Alex K; Ramchand, Kanchan; Toda, Masako; Chau, Kai-Yin; Bunce, Catey; Webster, Andrew; Bird, Alan C; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Chong, Victor
Age-related macular maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading causes of blindness in the Western world. Despite the magnitude of this clinical problem, very little is known about the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we analysed the sera (using indirect immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) from a very large cohort of such patients and normal age-matched controls to detect circulating anti-retinal antibodies. Patients with bilateral drusen (n = 64) and with chorioretinal neovascularization (CNV) (n = 51) were recruited in addition to age-matched control subjects (n = 39). The sera were analysed for anti-retinal immunoglobulins on retinal sections. The data were then correlated with the clinical features graded according to the International Classification and Grading System of ARM and AMD. The sera of patients with drusen (93·75%) and CNV (82·27%) were found to have a significantly (P = 0·02) higher titre of autoantibodies to the retina in comparison with controls (8·69%), indicating significant evidence of involvement of the immune process in early stages of AMD. Subsequent statistical analysis of the drusen group showed significant progressive staining (P = 0·0009) in the nuclei layers from early to late stages of ARM. Western blotting confirmed the presence of anti-retinal immunoglobulins to retinal antigens. As anti-retinal immunoglobulins are present in patients with bilateral drusen and exudative AMD, these antibodies could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Whilst we do not have evidence that these antibodies precede disease onset, the possibility that their presence might contribute to disease progression needs to be investigated. Finally, the eventual identification of the target antigens detected by these antibodies may permit the future development of new diagnostic methods for ARM and AMD. PMID:15946260
Chiras, Dimitrios; Kitsos, George; Petersen, Michael B; Skalidakis, Iosif; Kroupis, Christos
Oxidative stress refers to cellular or molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which especially occurs in age-related conditions as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense response. Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) are two common and complex age-related conditions that can cause irreversible vision loss. Two subtypes of AMD, which is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world, exist: the most prevalent dry type and the most severe wet type. Early dry AMD is characterized by formation of drusen, which are sub-retinal deposits, in the macular area and may progress to geographic atrophy with more dramatic manifestation. XFS is a systemic disorder of the extracellular matrix characterized by the accumulation of elastic fibrils that leads, in most cases, to glaucoma development with progressive and irreversible vision loss. Due to the aging population, the prevalence of these already-widespread conditions is increasing and is resulting in significant economic and psychological costs for individuals and for society. The exact composition of the abnormal drusen and XFS material as well as the mechanisms responsible for their production and accumulation still remain elusive, and consequently treatment for both diseases is lacking. However, recent epidemiologic, genetic and molecular studies support a major role for oxidative stress in both dry AMD and XFS development. Understanding the early molecular events in their pathogenesis and the exact role of oxidative stress may provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention for the prevention of progression to advanced disease.
Barriga, E. Simon; Murray, Victor; Nemeth, Sheila; Crammer, Robert; Bauman, Wendall; Zamora, Gilberto; Pattichis, Marios S.; Soliz, Peter
Purpose. To describe and evaluate the performance of an algorithm that automatically classifies images with pathologic features commonly found in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retinal digital photographs (N = 2247) of three fields of view (FOV) were obtained of the eyes of 822 patients at two centers: The Retina Institute of South Texas (RIST, San Antonio, TX) and The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (UTHSCSA). Ground truth was provided for the presence of pathologic conditions, including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, neovascularization in the optic disc and elsewhere, drusen, abnormal pigmentation, and geographic atrophy. The algorithm was used to report on the presence or absence of disease. A detection threshold was applied to obtain different values of sensitivity and specificity with respect to ground truth and to construct a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. The system achieved an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 for detection of DR and of 0.92 for detection of sight-threatening DR (STDR). With a fixed specificity of 0.50, the system's sensitivity ranged from 0.92 for all DR cases to 1.00 for clinically significant macular edema (CSME). Conclusions. A computer-aided algorithm was trained to detect different types of pathologic retinal conditions. The cases of hard exudates within 1 disc diameter (DD) of the fovea (surrogate for CSME) were detected with very high accuracy (sensitivity = 1, specificity = 0.50), whereas mild nonproliferative DR was the most challenging condition (sensitivity= 0.92, specificity = 0.50). The algorithm was also tested on images with signs of AMD, achieving a performance of AUC of 0.84 (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.50). PMID:21666234
Agurto, Carla; Barriga, E Simon; Murray, Victor; Nemeth, Sheila; Crammer, Robert; Bauman, Wendall; Zamora, Gilberto; Pattichis, Marios S; Soliz, Peter
To describe and evaluate the performance of an algorithm that automatically classifies images with pathologic features commonly found in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal digital photographs (N = 2247) of three fields of view (FOV) were obtained of the eyes of 822 patients at two centers: The Retina Institute of South Texas (RIST, San Antonio, TX) and The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (UTHSCSA). Ground truth was provided for the presence of pathologic conditions, including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, neovascularization in the optic disc and elsewhere, drusen, abnormal pigmentation, and geographic atrophy. The algorithm was used to report on the presence or absence of disease. A detection threshold was applied to obtain different values of sensitivity and specificity with respect to ground truth and to construct a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The system achieved an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 for detection of DR and of 0.92 for detection of sight-threatening DR (STDR). With a fixed specificity of 0.50, the system's sensitivity ranged from 0.92 for all DR cases to 1.00 for clinically significant macular edema (CSME). A computer-aided algorithm was trained to detect different types of pathologic retinal conditions. The cases of hard exudates within 1 disc diameter (DD) of the fovea (surrogate for CSME) were detected with very high accuracy (sensitivity = 1, specificity = 0.50), whereas mild nonproliferative DR was the most challenging condition (sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 0.50). The algorithm was also tested on images with signs of AMD, achieving a performance of AUC of 0.84 (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.50).
Grixti, Andre; Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Cortis, Dominic; Kumar, Balakrishna Vineeth; Prasad, Som
Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (-0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (-0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203 μ m preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238 μ m at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5 μ m at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively.
Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Kumar, Balakrishna Vineeth; Prasad, Som
Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (−0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (−0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203 μm preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238 μm at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5 μm at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively. PMID:24719771
Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley; Varma, Rohit
Purpose To assess the association of ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older. Methods Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios adjusted for covariates. Results After controlling for confounders (age, gender and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.0, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with a decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs: 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI 0.5, 0.9], respectively. Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR: 0.8; 95% CI 0.7, 1.0). Lighter colored irises were associated with GA (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 1.0, 25.3). Conclusions Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos were consistent with those in whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD. PMID:20138605
Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.
McGuinness, Myra B; Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A; Guymer, Robyn H; Robman, Luba D; Hodge, Allison M; Cerin, Ester; Giles, Graham G; Finger, Robert P
To assess the association between past physical activity and early, intermediate and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a community-based cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Diet and lifestyle information was recorded at baseline (1990-1994) and total recreational activity was derived from walking, vigorous and non-vigorous exercise. At follow-up (2003-2007), digital macular photographs were graded for early, intermediate and late AMD. Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for age, sex, smoking, region of descent, diet and alcohol. Effect modification by sex was investigated. Out of 20 816 participants, early, intermediate and late AMD were detected at follow-up in 4244 (21%), 2661 (13%) and 122 (0.6%) participants, respectively. No association was detected between past total recreational physical activity and early, intermediate or late AMD. Frequent (≥3 times/week) and less frequent (1-2 times/week) vigorous exercise were associated with lower odds of intermediate and late AMD in univariable models. After controlling for confounders, there was evidence of effect modification by sex and frequent vigorous exercise was associated with a 22% decrease in the odds of intermediate AMD (95% CI 4% to 36%) in women, but no association was found for men. Past frequent vigorous exercise may be inversely related to the presence of intermediate AMD in women. Further studies are needed to confirm whether physical activity and exercise have a protective effect for AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Aim The aim of this literature review was to explore the development of the role of specialist ophthalmic nurses in delivering ranibizumab intravitreal injections to patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to evaluate their contribution to reducing capacity pressures in medical retina services, while maintaining safe and effective standards of care. Method A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify relevant articles published between January 2000 and June 2015. A search of electronic databases was undertaken, and selected relevant journals were searched manually. A free text and subject heading search strategy was conducted, in which the abstracts of publications identified for review were assessed for relevance. Inclusion criteria were: nurses delivering ranibizumab intravitreal treatment; studies performed in the UK and other countries; and patients with AMD, diabetic macular oedema or central retinal vein occlusion receiving nurse-led ranibizumab (Lucentis) intravitreal treatment. Findings Five studies were identified from the literature search, which audited a total of 31,303 injections delivered by nurse practitioners between January 2007 and November 2013. The visual outcomes and the rate of complications from intravitreal injections delivered by trained ophthalmic nurse practitioners were comparable to intravitreal injections delivered by ophthalmologists. Four of the five studies reported increased patient satisfaction, patients consenting to nurse-delivered intravitreal injections, favourable pain experience, and absence of complaints. Conclusion Practice innovation is an example of a quality, innovation, productivity and prevention process. Role expansion, in which specialist ophthalmic nurses deliver intravitreal injections, has been shown to be economical, safe and effective. It enables timely delivery of the service, thereby preventing irreversible blindness for individuals with wet AMD.
Maguire, Maureen G; Alexander, Judith; Fine, Stuart L
To describe the characteristics of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in observed and treated eyes in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Cross-sectional descriptive study within a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients who developed CNV during CAPT follow-up. Inclusion criteria for CAPT specified bilateral large drusen (>or=10 drusen at least 125 micro), visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye, and age >or=50. Exclusion criteria included CNV and geographic atrophy >1 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc area or within 500 micro of the foveal center. One eye of each person was selected randomly for low-intensity laser treatment and the contralateral eye was observed. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline, annually for >or=5 years, and whenever there were symptoms of CNV. Trained readers at the CAPT Photograph Reading Center assessed color stereo photographs and angiogram negatives to identify CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was classified by type (predominantly classic CNV, minimally classic CNV, occult only CNV, or scar), location, and area. Visual acuity was measured by certified examiners. Symmetry of characteristics between eyes of bilaterally affected patients was examined. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 282 eyes of 225 patients. At the time of detection, 192 (68%) of the lesions were occult only, 153 (54%) were subfoveal, and 157 (56%) were
Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis; Azanza, Carlos; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo
This case report presents the effectiveness of intravitreal administration of dobesilate, a synthetic fibroblast growth factor inhibitor, in two patients showing neovascular age-related macular degeneration of the classic, and of the occult choroidal neovascularisation types, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the treatment induces the regression of both forms of this pathology, as assessed by spectral optical coherence tomography. Improvement of the lesions was accompanied of visual acuity improvement. PMID:22948997
Stein, Joshua D.; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Mrinalini, Tavag; Lee, Paul P.; Hutton, David W.
Purpose: To determine the most cost-effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration: monthly or as-needed bevacizumab injections, or monthly or as-needed ranibizumab injections. Methods: Using a Markov model with a 20-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating a hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration using monthly bevacizumab, as-needed bevacizumab, monthly ranibizumab, or as-needed ranibizumab. Data came from the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment Trial (CATT), the Medicare Fee Schedules, and the medical literature. Results: Compared with as-needed bevacizumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monthly bevacizumab is $242,357 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Monthly ranibizumab gains an additional 0.02 QALYs vs monthly bevacizumab at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of more than $10 million per QALY. As-needed ranibizumab was dominated by monthly bevacizumab. In sensitivity analyses assuming a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY, the annual risk of serious vascular events would have to be at least 2.5 times higher with bevacizumab than that observed in the CATT trial for as-needed ranibizumab to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <$100,000 per QALY. In another sensitivity analysis, even if every patient receiving bevacizumab experienced declining vision by one category (eg, from 20/25–20/40 to 20/50–20/80) after 2 years but all patients receiving ranibizumab retained their vision level, as-needed ranibizumab would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $97,340 per QALY. Conclusion: Even after considering the potential for differences in risks of serious adverse events and therapeutic effectiveness, bevacizumab confers considerably greater value than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular macular degeneration. PMID:24167325
Stein, Joshua D; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Mrinalini, Tavag; Lee, Paul P; Hutton, David W
To determine the most cost-effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration: monthly or as-needed bevacizumab injections, or monthly or as-needed ranibizumab injections. Using a Markov model with a 20-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating a hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration using monthly bevacizumab, as-needed bevacizumab, monthly ranibizumab, or as-needed ranibizumab. Data came from the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment Trial (CATT), the Medicare Fee Schedules, and the medical literature. Compared with as-needed bevacizumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monthly bevacizumab is $242,357 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Monthly ranibizumab gains an additional 0.02 QALYs vs monthly bevacizumab at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of more than $10 million per QALY. As-needed ranibizumab was dominated by monthly bevacizumab. In sensitivity analyses assuming a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY, the annual risk of serious vascular events would have to be at least 2.5 times higher with bevacizumab than that observed in the CATT trial for as-needed ranibizumab to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <$100,000 per QALY. In another sensitivity analysis, even if every patient receiving bevacizumab experienced declining vision by one category (eg, from 20/25-20/40 to 20/50-20/80) after 2 years but all patients receiving ranibizumab retained their vision level, as-needed ranibizumab would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $97,340 per QALY. Even after considering the potential for differences in risks of serious adverse events and therapeutic effectiveness, bevacizumab confers considerably greater value than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular macular degeneration.
Emsfors, Åsa; Christensson, Lennart; Elgán, Carina
To identify and describe nursing actions performed by nurses that create a sense of good nursing care in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. People who suffer from wet age-related macular degeneration risk central vision loss. Treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor is the only available option at present that preserves vision and no definitive cure currently exists. Patients feel that they are compelled to accept this treatment because they might otherwise become blind. An explorative and descriptive design based on the critical incident technique was used. Interviews with 16 Swedish patients who all had received intravitreal treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration. Two main areas of good nursing care were identified: 'Being perceived as an individual' and 'Being empowered'. The first area was divided into two categories: being respectful and being engaged. Being respectful was observed when nurses had a benevolent attitude towards their patients and answered questions kindly and politely. Patients saw themselves as individuals when nurses were available for conversation and focused on them. The second area was divided into two categories: encouraging participation and creating confidence. Encouraging participation refers to when nurses provided information continuously. Nurses instilled confidence and trust in their patients by keeping promises and by being honest. A respectful interaction between patients and caregivers is necessary for patients to obtain beneficial health care. Patient interviews revealed important information about nursing actions that created a sense of good nursing care in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Nurses acknowledged people as individuals and created trust by building partnerships and sharing decision-making. To address each patient's concerns, nurses need to prioritise each patient's narrative and participation by documenting agreements in their medical record. © 2017 John
Kim, Jae Hui; Chang, Young Suk; Kim, Jong Woo
To evaluate the 24-month natural course of visual changes in patients discontinuing treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid and factors predictive of visual prognosis. This retrospective, observational study included 35 patients (35 eyes) who initially received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but discontinued treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at treatment discontinuation was determined and compared with the 24-month BCVA, which was then compared between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and other neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Baseline characteristics predictive of visual outcome and the degree of visual change were also analyzed. The mean number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections before treatment discontinuation was 4.0 ± 1.6. The mean logarithm of minimal angle of resolution of BCVA at treatment discontinuation and that at 24 months were 1.02 ± 0.20 (Snellen equivalents = 20/209) and 1.60 ± 0.56 (20/796), respectively (P < 0.001). The 24-month BCVA was not different between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and other neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes (P = 0.803). The type of fluid (intraretinal fluid vs. no intraretinal fluid) was predictive of 24-month BCVA (P = 0.004) and the degree of changes in BCVA (P = 0.043). Marked deterioration in visual acuity was noted in patients discontinuing treatment, regardless of neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. The presence of intraretinal fluid was associated with worse visual prognosis, suggesting that patients with intraretinal fluid should be strongly warned about their poor prognosis before they decide to discontinue treatment.
Jonas, Jost B; Tao, Yong; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter
To measure the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The clinical interventional study included a study group of 18 patients with exudative AMD and a control group of 20 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Age did not vary significantly (p = 0.36) between study group (80.8 ± 6.4 years) and control group (77.0 ± 9.9 years), nor did gender (p = 0.75). During the interventions, aqueous humour samples were obtained, in which the concentration of cytokines was measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Macular thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the study group as compared to the control group, significantly higher concentrations were measured for epithelial growth factor (EGF) (p = 0.017), human growth factor (HGF) (p= 0.048), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) (p = 0.028), interleukin 12p40 (IL12p40) (p = 0.009), interleukin 1a2 (IL1a2) (p = 0.01), interleukin 3 (IL3) (p = 0.02), interleukin 6 (IL6) (p = 0.006), interleukin 8 (IL8) (p = 0.02), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.048), monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) (p = 0.016), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) (p = 0.004) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) (p = 0.006). Macular thickness was significantly associated with the concentrations of EGF (p = 0.001), HGF (p = 0.02), ICAM1 (p = 0.001), interleukin 12p40 (p = 0.006), IL 1a2 (p = 0.002), MIG (p = 0.001), MMP9 (p < 0.001) and PAI1 (p = 0.01). Interleukin 6 and MCP-1 showed significant associations with the height of retinal pigment epithelium detachment. Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of exudative AMD. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Liu, Kiang; Cheng, Ching Y.; Burke, Gregory L.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Jacobs, David R.; Sharrett, A. Richey
Objective To describe the relationship of systemic inflammatory disease, complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (1277T→C) genotype status and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) prevalence in a multiethnic population of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants We included 5887 persons aged 45 to 84 years with gradable AMD. Methods Digital fundus photographs were used to measure AMD. Two years earlier, biomarkers of inflammation were measured and history of inflammatory disease and use of antiinflammatory agents obtained. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of AMD. Results While controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and study site, there were no associations between systemic inflammatory factors and AMD severity. Higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [SD] increase in natural log [ln] units, 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–4.13) and interleukin-6 (OR per SD in ln, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.21–3.49) were associated with geographic atrophy but not other AMD end points. History of periodontal disease (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.14–2.47) was related to increased retinal pigment. A history of arthritis was associated with soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06–1.46). A history of oral steroid use was related to large drusen (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.14–3.97) and soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00–3.10) and history of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor use were associated with large drusen (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10–2.04), soft indistinct drusen (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10), and large drusen area (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.02–2.71). Whites, blacks, and Hispanics with CFH Y402H CC variant genotype had the highest frequency of early AMD compared with those with wild TT genotype. The frequency of CFH did explain some of the difference in AMD prevalence between Chinese and Hispanics compared with whites, but did not explain the difference in prevalence
Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E
To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753. The mean age of participants was 73.2 years (standard deviation, 5.6), and 55% were women. Participants underwent an eye examination and digital retinal color photography. The images were graded at a single center. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A previously published Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was used to classify participants according to their responses on the FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of the MDS score and AMD, taking account of potential confounders and the multicenter study design. Images were graded according to the International Classification System for age-related maculopathy and stratified using the Rotterdam staging system into 5 exclusive stages (AMD 0-4) and a separate category of large drusen (≥125 μm). Age-related macular degeneration 4 included neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and geographic atrophy (GA). Increasing MDS was associated with reduced odds of nvAMD in unadjusted and confounder-adjusted analysis. Compared with the lowest MDS adherence (≤4 score), those in the highest category MDS adherence (>6 score) showed lower odds of nvAMD (odds ratio, 0.53; 0.27-1.04; P trend = 0.01). The association with MDS did not differ by Y204H risk allele (P = 0.89). For all early AMD (grade 1-3), there was no relationship with MDS (P trend = 0.9). There was a weak trend (P = 0.1) between MDS and large drusen; those in the highest category of MDS had 20% reduced odds compared with those in
Mitchell, Jan; Bradley, Clare
Background The Age-related Macular Degeneration Alliance International commissioned a review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) in macular degeneration (MD) with a view to increasing awareness of MD, reducing its impact and improving services for people with MD worldwide. Method A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases, conference proceedings and key journal hand search checks. The resulting 'White Paper' was posted on the AMD Alliance website and is reproduced here. Review MD is a chronic, largely untreatable eye condition which leads to loss of central vision needed for tasks such as reading, watching TV, driving, recognising faces. It is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world. Shock of diagnosis, coupled with lack of information and support are a common experience. Incidence of depression is twice that found in the community-dwelling elderly, fuelled by functional decline and loss of leisure activities. Some people feel suicidal. MD threatens independence, especially when comorbidity exacerbates functional limitations. Rehabilitation, including low vision aid (LVA) provision and training, peer support and education, can improve functional and psychological outcomes but many people do not receive services likely to benefit them. Medical treatments, suitable for only a small minority of people with MD, can improve vision but most limit progress of MD, at least for a time, rather than cure. The White Paper considers difficulties associated with inappropriate use of health status measures and misinterpretation of utility values as QoL measures: evidence suggests they have poor validity in MD. Conclusion There is considerable evidence for the major damage done to QoL by MD which is underestimated by health status and utility measures. Medical treatments are limited to a small proportion of people. However, much can be done to improve QoL by early diagnosis of MD with good communication of prognosis and continuing support
Curriero, Frank C; Pinchoff, Jessie; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
The distance patients can travel outside the home influences how much of the world they can sample and to what extent they can live independently. Recent technological advances have allowed travel outside the home to be directly measured in patients' real-world routines. To determine whether decreased visual acuity (VA) from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual field (VF) loss from glaucoma are associated with restricted travel patterns in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from an eye clinic, while travel patterns were recorded during their real-world routines using a cellular tracking device. Sixty-one control subjects with normal vision, 84 subjects with glaucoma with bilateral VF loss, and 65 subjects with AMD with bilateral or severe unilateral loss of VA had their location tracked every 15 minutes between 7 am and 11 pm for 7 days using a tracking device. Average daily excursion size (defined as maximum distance away from home) and average daily excursion span (defined as maximum span of travel) were defined for each individual. The effects of vision loss on travel patterns were evaluated after controlling for individual and geographic factors. In multivariable models comparing subjects with AMD and control subjects, average excursion size and span decreased by approximately one-quarter mile for each line of better-eye VA loss (P ≤ .03 for both). Similar but not statistically significant associations were observed between average daily excursion size and span for severity of better-eye VF loss in subjects with glaucoma and control subjects. Being married or living with someone and younger age were associated with more distant travel, while less-distant travel was noted for older individuals, African Americans, and those living in more densely populated regions. Age-related macular degeneration-related loss of VA, but not glaucoma-related loss of VF, is associated with restriction of travel to more nearby locations
Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G
There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To examine the evidence as to whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements prevents the development of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 26 January 2012. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin and/or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5 and the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We included four RCTs in this review; 62,520 people were included in the analyses. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland and the USA and investigated vitamin E and beta-carotene supplements. Overall the quality of the evidence was high. People who took these supplements were not at decreased (or increased) risk of developing AMD. The pooled risk ratio for any antioxidant supplement in the prevention of any AMD was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.08) and for advanced AMD was 1.05 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.39). Similar results were seen when the analyses were
Willoughby, Alex S; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Toth, Cynthia A; Maguire, Maureen G; Burns, Russell E; Grunwald, Juan E; Daniel, Ebenezer; Jaffe, Glenn J
To evaluate the association of subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) with visual acuity (VA), geographic atrophy (GA), and scar in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. The 1185 CATT participants. Masked readers graded scar and GA on fundus photography and fluorescein angiography and graded SHRM on time-domain and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) throughout 104 weeks. Measurements of SHRM height and width in the fovea, within the center 1 mm(2), or outside the center 1mm(2) were obtained on SD OCT images at 56 (n = 76) and 104 (n = 66) weeks. Presence of SHRM, as well as location and size, and associations with VA, scar, and GA. Among CATT participants, the percentage with SHRM at enrollment was 77%, decreasing to 68% at 4 weeks after treatment and to 54% at 104 weeks. At 104 weeks, scar was present more often in eyes with persistent SHRM than in eyes with SHRM that resolved (64% vs. 31%; P < 0.0001). Among eyes with detailed evaluation of SHRM at weeks 56 (n = 76) and 104 (n = 66), mean VA letter score was 73.5 (standard error [SE], 2.8), 73.1 (SE, 3.4), 65.3 (SE, 3.5), and 63.9 (SE, 3.7) when SHRM was absent, present outside the central 1 mm(2), present within the central 1 mm(2) but not the foveal center, or present at the foveal center (P = 0.02), respectively. When SHRM was present, the median maximum height under the fovea, within the central 1 mm(2) including the fovea and anywhere within the scan, was 86 μm, 120 μm, and 122 μm, respectively. Visual acuity was decreased with greater SHRM height and width (P < 0.05). In eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), SHRM is common and often persists after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment. At 2 years, eyes with scar were more likely to have SHRM than other eyes. Greater SHRM dimensions were associated with worse VA. In eyes with neovascular AMD
Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay
Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Eligible publications were systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision without language or date restrictions; the database was up to date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as reliable when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, methodologic quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for AMD to systematic reviews and citations of reliable systematic reviews to support each treatment recommendation. Of 1570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met inclusion criteria; most targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements, or photodynamic therapy. We classified 33 (70%) reviews as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often by Cochrane reviews and reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy were the only interventions identified as effective by reliable reviews. Of 35 treatment recommendations extracted from the PPPs, 15 could have been supported with reliable systematic reviews; however, only 1
Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Heidi C; Peet, Jonathan
To assess the conferred value and average cost-utility (cost-effectiveness) for intravitreal ranibizumab used to treat occult/minimally classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Value-based medicine cost-utility analysis. MARINA (Minimally Classic/Occult Trial of the Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Neovascular AMD) Study patients utilizing published primary data. Reference case, third-party insurer perspective, cost-utility analysis using 2006 United States dollars. Conferred value in the forms of (1) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and (2) percent improvement in health-related quality of life. Cost-utility is expressed in terms of dollars expended per QALY gained. All outcomes are discounted at a 3% annual rate, as recommended by the Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Data are presented for the second-eye model, first-eye model, and combined model. Twenty-two intravitreal injections of 0.5 mg of ranibizumab administered over a 2-year period confer 1.039 QALYs, or a 15.8% improvement in quality of life for the 12-year period of the second-eye model reference case of occult/minimally classic age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. The reference case treatment cost is $52652, and the cost-utility for the second-eye model is $50691/QALY. The quality-of-life gain from the first-eye model is 6.4% and the cost-utility is $123887, whereas the most clinically simulating combined model yields a quality-of-life gain of 10.4% and cost-utility of $74169. By conventional standards and the most commonly used second-eye and combined models, intravitreal ranibizumab administered for occult/minimally classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization is a cost-effective therapy. Ranibizumab treatment confers considerably greater value than other neovascular macular degeneration pharmaceutical therapies that have been studied in randomized
Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Lieske, Heidi B; Turpcu, Adam; Rajput, Yamina
To compare a near decade of follow-up, newer control cohort data, use of both the societal and third party insurer cost perspectives, and integration of unilateral/bilateral therapy on the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for neovascular, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Value-Based Medicine ® , 12-year, combined-eye model, cost-utility analysis employing MARINA and HORIZON clinical trial data. Preference-based comparative effectiveness outcomes were quantified in (1) QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) gain, and (2) percent improvement in quality-of-life, while cost-effectiveness outcomes were quantified in (3) the cost-utility ratio (CUR) and financial return-on-investment (ROI) to society. Using MARINA and HORIZON trial data and a meta-analysis control cohort after 24 months, ranibizumab therapy conferred a combined-eye patient value (quality-of-life) gain of 16.3%, versus 10.4% found in 2006. The two-year direct ophthalmic medical cost for ranibizumab therapy was $46,450, a 33.8% real dollar decrease from 2006. The societal cost perspective CUR was -$242,920/QALY, indicating a $282,517 financial return-on-investment (ROI), or 12.3%/year to society for direct ophthalmic medical costs expended. The 3rd party insurer CUR ranged from $21,199/QALY utilizing all direct, medical costs, to $69,591/QALY using direct ophthalmic medical costs. Ranibizumab therapy for neovascular AMD in 2015, considering treatment of both eyes, conferred greater patient value gain (comparative effectiveness) and improved cost-effectiveness than in 2006, as well as a large monetary return-on-investment to the Gross Domestic Product and nation's wealth. The model herein integrates important novel features for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, vitreoretinal cost effectiveness analyses, including: (1) treatment of both eyes, (2) a long-term, untreated control cohort, and (3) the use of societal costs.
Kim, Benjamin J; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Levy, Nicole E; Maguire, Maureen G
To evaluate transient, large visual acuity (VA) decreases, termed sporadic vision loss, during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cohort within a randomized clinical trial. setting: Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). study population: Total of 1185 CATT patients. main outcome measures: Incidence of sporadic vision loss and odds ratio (OR) for association with patient and ocular factors. Sporadic vision loss was a decline of ≥15 letters from the previous visit, followed by a return at the next visit to no more than 5 letters worse than the visit before the VA loss. There were 143 sporadic vision loss events in 122 of 1185 patients (10.3%). Mean VA at 2 years for those with and without sporadic vision loss was 58.5 (∼20/63) and 68.4 (∼20/40) letters, respectively (P < .001). Among patients treated pro re nata, no injection was given for 27.6% (27/98) of sporadic vision loss events. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that baseline predictors for sporadic vision loss included worse baseline VA (OR 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.65-5.17 for ≤20/200 compared with ≥20/40), scar (OR 2.21, 95% CI:1.22-4.01), intraretinal foveal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OR 1.80, 95% CI:1.11-2.91), and medical history of anxiety (OR 1.90, 95% CI:1.12-3.24) and syncope (OR 2.75, 95% CI:1.45-5.22). Refraction decreased the likelihood of sporadic vision loss (OR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42-0.91). Approximately 10% of CATT patients had sporadic vision loss. Baseline predictors included AMD-related factors and factors independent of AMD. These data are relevant for clinicians in practice and those involved in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brader, Hilary Smolen; Ying, Gui-shuang; Martin, E. Revell; Maguire, Maureen G.
Objective To characterize the size, location, conformation, and features of incident geographic atrophy (GA) as detected by annual stereoscopic color photographs and fluorescein angiograms (FAs). Design Retrospective cohort study within a larger clinical trial Participants Patients with bilateral large drusen who developed GA during the course of the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Methods Annual stereoscopic color photographs and FAs were reviewed from 114 CAPT patients who developed GA in the untreated eye during 5-6 years of follow-up. Geographic atrophy was defined according to the Revised GA Criteria for identifying early GA23. Color-optimized fundus photographs were viewed concurrently with the FAs during grading. Main Outcome Measures Size and distance from the fovea of individual GA lesions, number of areas of atrophy, and change in visual acuity (VA) when GA first developed in an eye. Results At presentation, the median total GA area was 0.26mm2 (0.1 Disc area). GA presented as a single lesion in 89 (78%) of eyes. The median distance from the fovea was 395μm. Twenty percent of incident GA lesions were subfoveal and an additional 18% were within 250μm of the foveal center. Development of GA was associated with a mean decrease of 7 letters from the baseline visual acuity level compared to 1 letter among matched early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes without GA. GA that formed in areas previously occupied by drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPED) were on average larger (0.53 vs. 0.20 mm2; p=0.0001), more central (50 vs. 500 microns from the center of the fovea; p<0.0001), and associated with significantly worse visual outcome (20/50 vs. 20/25; p=0.0003) than GA with other drusen types as precursors. Conclusions Incident geographic atrophy most often appears on color fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms as a small, singular, parafoveal lesion, though a large minority of lesions are
Singh, Mahavir; Tyagi, Suresh C
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration. Among genes that are known to play a role include variant polymorphisms in the complement cascade components such as CFH, C2, C3, and CFB as potential genetic risk factors. So far, AMD disease hypothesized theories have not resulted into the anticipated impact towards the development of effective or preventive therapies in order to help alleviate patients' suffering because, as of today, it is still unclear what actually initiates or leads to this dreaded eye condition. Based upon our extensive work on the metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy) in various disease conditions we, therefore, are proposing a novel hypothesis for AMD pathogenesis as we strongly believe that Hcy and events such as pyroptosis make a greater contribution to the overall etiology of AMD disease in a target population of susceptible hosts by inciting and accelerating the inherent inflammatory changes in the retina of these patients (Fig. 2). In this context, we further state that Hcy and pyroptosis should be considered as legitimate and valuable markers of retinal dysfunction as they not only aid and abet in the development but also in the progression of AMD in older people as discussed in this paper. This discussion should open up new
Ashraf, Mohammed; Souka, Ahmed; Adelman, Ron A
To assess predictors of treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an attempt to develop a patient-centric treatment algorithm. We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for prognostic indicators/predictive factors with the key words: 'age related macular degeneration', 'neovascular AMD', 'choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV)', 'anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF)', 'aflibercept', 'ranibizumab', 'bevacizumab', 'randomized clinical trials', 'post-hoc', 'prognostic', 'predictive', 'response' 'injection frequency, 'treat and extend (TAE), 'pro re nata (PRN)', 'bi-monthly' and 'quarterly'. We only included studies that had an adequate period of follow-up (>1 year), a single predefined treatment regimen with a predetermined re-injection criteria, an adequate number of patients, specific morphological [optical coherence tomography (OCT)] criteria that predicted final visual outcomes and injection frequency and did not include switching from one drug to the other. We were able to identify seven prospective studies and 16 retrospective studies meeting our inclusion criteria. There are several morphological and demographic prognostic indicators that can predict response to therapy in wet AMD. Smaller CNV size, subretinal fluid (SRF), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and response to therapy at 12 weeks (visual, angiographic or OCT) can all predict good visual outcomes in patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy. Patients with larger CNV, older age, pigment epithelial detachment (PED), intraretinal cysts (IRC) and vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) achieved less visual gains. Patients having VMA/VMT required more intensive treatment with increased treatment frequency. Patients with both posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and SRF require infrequent injections. Patients with PED are prone to recurrences of fluid activity with a reduction in visual acuity (VA). A regimen that involves less intensive
Brader, Hilary Smolen; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Martin, E Revell; Maguire, Maureen G
To characterize the size, location, conformation, and features of incident geographic atrophy (GA) as detected by annual stereoscopic color photographs and fluorescein angiograms (FAs). Retrospective cohort study within a larger clinical trial. Patients with bilateral large drusen in whom GA developed during the course of the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Annual stereoscopic color photographs and FAs were reviewed from 114 CAPT patients in whom GA developed in the untreated eye during 5 to 6 years of follow-up. Geographic atrophy was defined according to the Revised GA Criteria for identifying early GA.(23) Color-optimized fundus photographs were viewed concurrently with the FAs during grading. Size and distance from the fovea of individual GA lesions, number of areas of atrophy, and change in visual acuity (VA) when GA first developed in an eye. At presentation, the median total GA area was 0.26 mm(2) (0.1 disc area). Geographic atrophy presented as a single lesion in 89 (78%) eyes. The median distance from the fovea was 395 μm. Twenty percent of incident GA lesions were subfoveal and an additional 18% were within 250 μm of the foveal center. Development of GA was associated with a mean decrease of 7 letters from the baseline VA level compared with 1 letter among matched early age-related macular degeneration eyes without GA. Geographic atrophy that formed in areas previously occupied by drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments on average were larger (0.53 vs. 0.20 mm(2); P = 0.0001), were more central (50 vs. 500 μm from the center of the fovea; P<0.0001), and were associated with significantly worse visual outcome (20/50 vs. 20/25; P = 0.0003) than GA with other drusen types as precursors. Incident GA most often appears on color fundus photographs and FAs as a small, singular, parafoveal lesion, although a large minority of lesions are subfoveal or multifocal at initial detection. The characteristics of incident GA
Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay
Topic Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? Clinical relevance High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We have examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Methods Eligible publications are systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision and employed no language or date restrictions; the database is up-to-date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as “reliable” when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, appraisal of methodological quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns (AAO PPP) for AMD to the identified systematic reviews and assessed whether any reliable systematic review was cited or could have been cited to support each treatment recommendation. Results Of 1,570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements or photodynamic therapy. We classified over two-thirds (33/47) of the reports as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often for Cochrane reviews and for reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Although most systematic reviews were reliable, anti
Danis, Ronald P; Lavine, Jeremy A; Domalpally, Amitha
Geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a devastating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). GA may be classified as drusen-related (drusen-associated GA) or neovascularization-related (neovascular-associated GA). Drusen-related GA remains a large public health concern due to the burden of blindness it produces, but pathophysiology of the condition is obscure and there are no proven treatment options. Genotyping, cell biology, and clinical imaging point to upregulation of parainflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and choroidal sclerosis as contributors, among other factors. Onset and monitoring of progression is accomplished through clinical imaging instrumentation such as optical coherence tomography, photography, and autofluorescence, which are the tools most helpful in determining end points for clinical trials at present. A number of treatment approaches with diverse targets are in development at this time, some of which are in human clinical trials. Neovascular-associated GA is a consequence of RPE loss after development of neovascular AMD. The neovascular process leads to a plethora of cellular stresses such as ischemia, inflammation, and dramatic changes in cell environment that further taxes RPE cells already dysfunctional from drusen-associated changes. GA may therefore develop secondary to the neovascular process de novo or preexisting drusen-associated GA may continue to worsen with the development of neovascular AMD. Neovascular-associated GA is a prominent cause of continued vision loss in patients with otherwise successfully treated neovascular AMD. Clearly, treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors early in the course of the neovascular disease is of great clinical benefit. However, there is a rationale and some suggestive evidence that anti-VEGF agents themselves could be toxic to RPE and enhance neovascular-associated GA. The increasing prevalence of legal blindness from this
Danis, Ronald P; Lavine, Jeremy A; Domalpally, Amitha
Geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a devastating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). GA may be classified as drusen-related (drusen-associated GA) or neovascularization-related (neovascular-associated GA). Drusen-related GA remains a large public health concern due to the burden of blindness it produces, but pathophysiology of the condition is obscure and there are no proven treatment options. Genotyping, cell biology, and clinical imaging point to upregulation of parainflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and choroidal sclerosis as contributors, among other factors. Onset and monitoring of progression is accomplished through clinical imaging instrumentation such as optical coherence tomography, photography, and autofluorescence, which are the tools most helpful in determining end points for clinical trials at present. A number of treatment approaches with diverse targets are in development at this time, some of which are in human clinical trials. Neovascular-associated GA is a consequence of RPE loss after development of neovascular AMD. The neovascular process leads to a plethora of cellular stresses such as ischemia, inflammation, and dramatic changes in cell environment that further taxes RPE cells already dysfunctional from drusen-associated changes. GA may therefore develop secondary to the neovascular process de novo or preexisting drusen-associated GA may continue to worsen with the development of neovascular AMD. Neovascular-associated GA is a prominent cause of continued vision loss in patients with otherwise successfully treated neovascular AMD. Clearly, treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors early in the course of the neovascular disease is of great clinical benefit. However, there is a rationale and some suggestive evidence that anti-VEGF agents themselves could be toxic to RPE and enhance neovascular-associated GA. The increasing prevalence of legal blindness from this
Montgomery, Martha P.; Postel, Eric; Umbach, David M.; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei; Sandler, Dale P.; Schmidt, Silke
Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Few studies have investigated its relationship to environmental neurotoxicants. In previous cross-sectional studies, we found an association between pesticide use and self-reported retinal degeneration. Objective: We evaluated the association of pesticide use with physician-confirmed incident AMD. Methods: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses enrolled from 1993–1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Cohort members reported lifetime use of 50 specific pesticides at enrollment. Self-reports of incident AMD during follow-up through 2007 were confirmed by reports from participants’ physicians and by independent evaluation of retinal photographs provided by the physicians. Confirmed cases (n=161) were compared with AHS cohort members without AMD (n=39,108). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and smoking. Results: AMD was associated with ever use of organochlorine [OR=2.7 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.0)] and organophosphate [OR=2.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.0)] insecticides and phenoxyacetate herbicides [OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.8)]. Specific pesticides consistently associated with AMD included chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion, and captan; others with notable but slightly less consistent associations were heptachlor, diazinon, phorate, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Results were similar for men and women. Some specific pesticides were associated with both early- and late-stage AMD, but others were associated with only one stage. Conclusions: Exposures to specific pesticides may be modifiable risk factors for AMD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP793 PMID:28886597
Baseler, Heidi A; Gouws, André; Crossland, Michael D; Leung, Carmen; Tufail, Adnan; Rubin, Gary S; Morland, Antony B
To assess cortical responses in patients undergoing antiangiogenic treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an objective, fixation-independent measure of topographic visual function. A patient with bilateral neovascular AMD was scanned using fMRI before and at regular intervals while undergoing treatment with intravitreal antiangiogenic injections (ranibizumab). Blood oxygenation level-dependent signals were measured in the brain while the patient viewed a stimulus consisting of a full-field flickering (6 Hz) white light alternating with a uniform gray background (18 s on and 18 s off). Topographic distribution and magnitude of activation in visual cortex were compared longitudinally throughout the treatment period (<1 year) and with control patients not currently undergoing treatment. Clinical behavioral tests were also administered, including visual acuity, microperimetry, and reading skills. The area of visual cortex activated increased significantly after the first treatment to include more posterior cortex that normally receives inputs from lesioned parts of the retina. Subsequent treatments yielded no significant further increase in activation area. Behavioral measures all generally showed an improvement with treatment but did not always parallel one another. The untreated control patient showed a consistent lack of significant response in the cortex representing retinal lesions. Retinal treatments may not only improve vision but also result in a concomitant improvement in fixation stability. Current clinical behavioral measures (e.g., acuity and perimetry) are largely dependent on fixation stability and therefore cannot separate improvements of visual function from fixation improvements. fMRI, which provides an objective and sensitive measure of visual function independent of fixation, reveals a significant increase in visual cortical responses in patients with wet AMD after treatment with
Tepelus, Tudor C; Hariri, Amir H; Balasubramanian, Siva; Sadda, SriniVas R
To compare macular thickness measurement algorithms of two different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices in eyes affected by dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patients with dry AMD and healthy volunteers from the retina clinic of the Doheny Eye Center - UCLA were imaged using two different SD-OCT devices: the RS-3000 Advance (Nidek, Padova, Italy) and the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). All patients had been previously diagnosed with drusen or geographic atrophy due to AMD. The commercial instrument software was used to generate the macular retinal thickness measurements, and measurements were compared between devices. Eighty-five diseased eyes from 49 patients and 16 healthy control eyes from eight normal volunteers were included in this study. The macular thickness measurements generated by the two instruments in eyes with AMD differed significantly in mean retinal thickness in the foveal center subfield (257.34 μm ± 51.72 μm using the Nidek OCT vs. 238.20 μm ± 51.89 μm using the Cirrus OCT; P < .001). The mean difference in macular thickness between the two devices was 19.14 μm ± 5.84 μm for diseased eyes and 17.06 μm ± 5.28 μm in normal control eyes, and this was not statistically different between the two groups (P > .05). The macular thickness measurements in diseased eyes, as evaluated by the two different instruments, however, showed excellent correlation (r = 0.99; P < .001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-0.99). Post hoc evaluation of cases with larger differences also showed differences in foveal center selection and variabilities in boundary selection with specific pathology. Macular thickness measurements provided by the Nidek and Cirrus OCT instruments in eyes with dry AMD are highly correlated but show a consistent difference, which may allow the use of a standard correction factor to be applied to better interrelate measurements between
Schmier, Jordana K; Hulme-Lowe, Carolyn K
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common ophthalmic condition that can have few symptoms in its early stage but can progress to major visual impairment. While there are no treatments for early-stage AMD, there are multiple modalities of treatment for advanced disease. Given the increasing prevalence of the disease, there are dozens of analyses of cost effectiveness of AMD treatments, but methods and approaches vary broadly. The goal of this review was to identify, characterize, and critique published models in AMD and provide guidance for their interpretation. After a literature review was performed to identify studies, and exclusion criteria applied to limit the review to studies comparing treatments for AMD, we compared methods across the 36 studies meeting the review criteria. To some extent, variation was related to targeting different audiences or acknowledging the most appropriate population for a given treatment. However, the review identified potential areas of uncertainty and difficulty in interpretation, particularly regarding duration of observation periods and the importance of visual acuity as an endpoint or a proxy for patient-reported utilities. We urge thoughtful consideration of these study characteristics when comparing results.
Handa, James T; Cano, Marisol; Wang, Lei; Datta, Sayantan; Liu, Tongyun
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies. While antioxidant micronutrient treatment is available for intermediate non-neovascular disease, and effective anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment is available for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. The role of lipids, which accumulate in the macula, and their oxidation, has emerged as an important factor in disease development. These oxidized lipids can either directly contribute to tissue injury or react with amine on proteins to form oxidation-specific epitopes, which can induce an innate immune response. If inadequately neutralized, the inflammatory response from these epitopes can incite tissue injury during disease development. This review explores how the accumulation of lipids, their oxidation, and the ensuing inflammatory response might contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Masuda, Yoichiro; Dumoulin, Serge O; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Wandell, Brian A
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess abnormal cortical signals in humans with juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). These signals have been interpreted as indicating large-scale cortical reorganization. Subjects viewed a stimulus passively or performed a task; the task was either related or unrelated to the stimulus. During passive viewing, or while performing tasks unrelated to the stimulus, there were large unresponsive V1 regions. These regions included the foveal projection zone, and we refer to them as the lesion projection zone (LPZ). In 3 JMD subjects, we observed highly significant responses in the LPZ while they performed stimulus-related judgments. In control subjects, where we presented the stimulus only within the peripheral visual field, there was no V1 response in the foveal projection zone in any condition. The difference between JMD and control responses can be explained by hypotheses that have very different implications for V1 reorganization. In controls retinal afferents carry signals indicating the presence of a uniform (zero-contrast) region of the visual field. Deletion of retinal input may 1) spur the formation of new cortical pathways that carry task-dependent signals (reorganization), or 2) unmask preexisting task-dependent cortical signals that ordinarily are suppressed by the deleted signals (no reorganization).
Dumoulin, Serge O.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Wandell, Brian A.
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess abnormal cortical signals in humans with juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). These signals have been interpreted as indicating large-scale cortical reorganization. Subjects viewed a stimulus passively or performed a task; the task was either related or unrelated to the stimulus. During passive viewing, or while performing tasks unrelated to the stimulus, there were large unresponsive V1 regions. These regions included the foveal projection zone, and we refer to them as the lesion projection zone (LPZ). In 3 JMD subjects, we observed highly significant responses in the LPZ while they performed stimulus-related judgments. In control subjects, where we presented the stimulus only within the peripheral visual field, there was no V1 response in the foveal projection zone in any condition. The difference between JMD and control responses can be explained by hypotheses that have very different implications for V1 reorganization. In controls retinal afferents carry signals indicating the presence of a uniform (zero-contrast) region of the visual field. Deletion of retinal input may 1) spur the formation of new cortical pathways that carry task-dependent signals (reorganization), or 2) unmask preexisting task-dependent cortical signals that ordinarily are suppressed by the deleted signals (no reorganization). PMID:18250083
Rein, David B; Wittenborn, John S; Zhang, Xinzhi; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Lesesne, Sarah B; Saaddine, Jinan
To forecast age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its consequences in the United States through the year 2050 with different treatment scenarios. We simulated cases of early AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), geographic atrophy (GA), and AMD-attributable visual impairment and blindness with 5 universal treatment scenarios: (1) no treatment; (2) focal laser and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for CNV; (3) vitamin prophylaxis at early-AMD incidence with focal laser/PDT for CNV; (4) no vitamin prophylaxis followed by focal laser treatment for extra and juxtafoveal CNV and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment; and (5) vitamin prophylaxis at early-AMD incidence followed by CNV treatment, as in scenario 4. Cases of early AMD increased from 9.1 million in 2010 to 17.8 million in 2050 across all scenarios. In non-vitamin-receiving scenarios, cases of CNV and GA increased from 1.7 million in 2010 to 3.8 million in 2050 (25% lower in vitamin-receiving scenarios). Cases of visual impairment and blindness increased from 620 000 in 2010 to 1.6 million in 2050 when given no treatment and were 2.4%, 22.0%, 16.9%, and 34.5% lower in scenarios 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Prevalence of AMD will increase substantially by 2050, but the use of new therapies can mitigate its effects.
Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Ulińska, Magdalena; Krzyzanowska, Anna; Stoczyńska, Ewelina; Borucka, Anna I; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Małgorzata, Zaras; Szaflik, Jacek P; Blasiak, Janusz
Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are prone to reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising during the stress due to intense oxygen metabolism and a high oxygen pressure. Additionally, the cells can be exposed to ROS as a consequence of accumulation of iron ions in these cells, sunlight exposure and tobacco smoke. There are several defense systems against RTF in the cell, including antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and DNA repair pathways. RPE cells display phagocytic activity towards outer segments of photoreceptors and this activity can be associated with additional oxidative stress since the segments are rich in long chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The oxidation of PUFA leads to the production of additional ROS. Moreover, oxidized PUFA are not correctly cleaved in the lysosomes of RPE and are accumulated in the form of lipofuscin, which is deposited in Bruch's membrane in the form of drusen and in this way it stimulates immune responses, including phagocytosis, associated with the recruiting of macrophages and dendritic cells. In this time, RPE cells are exposed to ROS, produced in oxygen burst associated with phagocytosis. Further studies, both clinical/epidemiological and in vitro, are needed to better understand relationship between AMD and oxidative stress.
Rossi, Ethan A.; Rangel-Fonseca, Piero; Parkins, Keith; Fischer, William; Latchney, Lisa R.; Folwell, Margaret A.; Williams, David R.; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina M.
Morgan and colleagues demonstrated that the RPE cell mosaic can be resolved in the living human eye non-invasively by imaging the short-wavelength autofluorescence using an adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscope. This method, based on the assumption that all subjects have the same longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) correction, has proved difficult to use in diseased eyes, and in particular those affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work, we improve Morgan’s method by accounting for chromatic aberration variations by optimizing the confocal aperture axial and transverse placement through an automated iterative maximization of image intensity. The increase in image intensity after algorithmic aperture placement varied depending upon patient and aperture position prior to optimization but increases as large as a factor of 10 were observed. When using a confocal aperture of 3.4 Airy disks in diameter, images were obtained using retinal radiant exposures of less than 2.44 J/cm2, which is ~22 times below the current ANSI maximum permissible exposure. RPE cell morphologies that were strikingly similar to those seen in postmortem histological studies were observed in AMD eyes, even in areas where the pattern of fluorescence appeared normal in commercial fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. This new method can be used to study RPE morphology in AMD and other diseases, providing a powerful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression, and offering a new means to assess the efficacy of treatments designed to restore RPE health. PMID:24298413
Luo, Ling; Harmon, Jennifer; Yang, Xian; Chen, Haoyu; Patel, Shrena; Mineau, Geraldine; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Buehler, Jeanette; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Ma, Xiang; Wong, Tien Y; Zhang, Maonian; Zhang, Kang
We examined familial aggregation and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Utah population using a population-based case-control study. Over one million unique patient records were searched within the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and the Utah Population Database (UPDB), identifying 4764 patients with AMD. Specialized kinship analysis software was used to test for familial aggregation of disease, estimate the magnitude of familial risks, and identify families at high risk for disease. The population-attributable risk (PAR) for AMD was calculated to be 0.34. Recurrence risks in relatives indicate increased relative risks in siblings (2.95), first cousins (1.29), second cousins (1.13), and parents (5.66) of affected cases. There were 16 extended large families with AMD identified for potential use in genetic studies. Each family had five or more living affected members. The familial aggregation of AMD shown in this study exemplifies the merit of the UPDB and supports recent research demonstrating significant genetic contribution to disease development and progression.
Black, James R M; Clark, Simon J
In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to analyze the contribution to disease of genetic variations that are common within a population, have attracted considerable investment. Despite identifying genetic variants for many conditions, they have been criticized for yielding data with minimal clinical utility. However, in this regard, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of blindness in the Western world, is a striking exception. Through GWAS, common genetic variants at a number of loci have been discovered. Two loci in particular, including genes of the complement cascade on chromosome 1 and the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes on chromosome 10, have been shown to convey significantly increased susceptibility to developing AMD. Today, although it is possible to screen individuals for a genetic predisposition to the disease, effective interventional strategies for those at risk of developing AMD are scarce. Ongoing research in this area is nonetheless promising. After providing brief overviews of AMD and common disease genetics, we outline the main recent advances in the understanding of AMD, particularly those made through GWAS. Finally, the true merit of these findings and their current and potential translational value is examined.Genet Med 18 4, 283-289.
Astle, Andrew T; Blighe, Alan J; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V
We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach.
Vazquez, Noelia Pitrelli; Knox, Paul C.
Aims With the arrival of effective treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) there is a need to find improved tests that would allow early detection. Ideally, these tests would allow monitoring of vision by patients themselves from home. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence for two recently developed vision tests designed for this purpose: the Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and the Radial Shape Discrimination (RSD) test. Methods Articles that investigated detection of nvAMD were reviewed. The methodology of the clinical evidence, where available, was judged for bias and applicability of the results to the general population using the QUADAS-2 quality assessment tool. Results The PHP test has proved to be good at detecting nvAMD but many studies assessed in this review were biased in the selection of patients, restricting the results to only those patients who can use the test and produce reliable results. On the other hand the RSD test is a simple test, well accepted by elderly patients with AMD. However, clinical studies to determine its value in the detection of early signs of nvAMD are still required. Conclusions To date, more studies have investigated the utility of the PHP test compared with the RSD test for detection of nvAMD. Both tests show promise but further evidence is needed to determine the real generalisability of the PHP test and the sensitivity of the RSD test. PMID:27738450
Palejwala, Neal V; Jia, Yali; Gao, Simon S; Liu, Liang; Flaxel, Christina J; Hwang, Thomas S; Lauer, Andreas K; Wilson, David J; Huang, David; Bailey, Steven T
To evaluate eyes with age-related macular degeneration and high-risk characteristics for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with optical coherence tomographic (OCT) angiography to determine whether earlier detection of CNV is possible. Eyes with drusen, pigmentary changes, and with CNV in the fellow eye were scanned with a 70-kHz spectral domain OCT system (Optovue RTVue-XR Avanti). The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was used to distinguish blood flow from static tissue. Two masked graders reviewed scans for CNV, defined as flow in the outer retinal/sub-RPE slab. Choroidal neovascularization flow area repeatability and between-grader reproducibility were calculated. Of 32 eyes, 2 (6%) were found to have Type 1 CNV with OCT angiography. The lesions were not associated with leakage on fluorescein angiography or fluid on OCT. One case was followed for 8 months without treatment, and the CNV flow area enlarged slightly without fluid buildup on OCT or vision loss. Between-grader reproducibility of the CNV flow area was 9.4% (coefficient of variation) and within-visit repeatability was 5.2% (pooled coefficient of variation). Optical coherence tomographic angiography can detect the presence of nonexudative CNV, lesions difficult to identify with fluorescein angiography and OCT. Further study is needed to understand the significance and natural history of these lesions.
Cassels, Nicola K; Wild, John M; Margrain, Tom H; Chong, Victor; Acton, Jennifer H
Microperimetry is a novel technique for assessing visual function that appears particularly suitable for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Compared with standard automated perimetry, microperimetry offers several unique features. It simultaneously images the fundus, incorporates an eye-tracking system to correct the stimulus location for fixation loss, and identifies any preferred retinal loci. We identified 52 articles that met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review of microperimetry in the assessment of visual function in AMD. We discuss microperimetry and AMD in relation to disease severity, structural imaging outcomes, other measures of visual function, and evaluation of the efficacy of surgical and/or medical therapies in clinical trials. The evidence for the use of microperimetry in the functional assessment of AMD is encouraging. Disruptions of the ellipsoid zone band and retinal pigment epithelium are clearly associated with reduced differential light sensitivity despite the maintenance of good visual acuity. Reduced differential light sensitivity is also associated with outer segment thinning and retinal pigment epithelium thickening in early AMD and with both a thickening and a thinning of the whole retina in choroidal neovascularization. Microperimetry, however, lacks the robust diffuse and focal loss age-corrected probability analyses associated with standard automated perimetry, and the technique is currently limited by this omission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oeverhaus, Michael; Meyer Zu Westrup, Verena; Dietzel, Martha; Hense, Hans-Werner; Pauleikhoff, Daniel
While the importance of risk polymorphisms for the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is well established, their impact on morphological and functional phenotypes is largely unclear. We aimed to characterize individual phenotypes in patients who were either homozygous for a risk allele in the CFH gene, ARMS2 gene, or both as compared to non-carriers. Patients with early AMD (n = 85) were assessed during a follow-up examination of a prospective study (MARS) with multimodal diagnostics including SD-OCT and microperimetry. Compared to non-carriers, OCT scans revealed lower retinal thickness in patients homozygous for CFH or ARMS2, which was caused by a significantly reduced photoreceptor layer. The number and ultrastructure of drusen were also significantly different. These findings indicate that patients with risk alleles demonstrate distinct phenotypic differences of morphology and function as compared to non-carriers. In particular in the CFH group, a loss of photoreceptors occurred concomitantly with reduced retinal sensitivity. Further studies might help to better understand the pathophysiology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dang, Yalong; Zhang, Chun; Zhu, Yu
In the developed world, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Although management of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) has dramatically progressed, there is still no effective treatment for nonneovascular AMD (dry AMD), which is characterized by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death (or dysfunction) and microenvironmental disruption in the retina. Therefore, RPE replacement and microenvironmental regulation represent viable treatments for dry AMD. Recent advances in cell biology have demonstrated that RPE cells can be easily generated from several cell types (pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or even somatic cells) by spontaneous differentiation, coculturing, defined factors or cell reprogramming, respectively. Additionally, in vivo studies also showed that the restoration of visual function could be obtained by transplanting functional RPE cells into the subretinal space of recipient. More importantly, clinical trials approved by the US government have shown promising prospects in RPE transplantation. However, key issues such as implantation techniques, immune rejection, and xeno-free techniques are still needed to be further investigated. This review will summarize recent advances in cell transplantation for dry AMD. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed.
Hüsler, S; Schmid, H
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the quality of life of about 40,000 patients in Switzerland. The treatment of wet AMD with intravitreal injected anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can be a heavy burden for many patients. The aim of this study was to understand the quality of life of the patients and to seek ways to improve the treatment compliance. Half-structured telephone interviews with 28 patients between 56 and 94 years of age were transcribed and analysed. In 21 patients, both eyes were concerned with AMD. The quality of life of patients with AMD is reduced. Many activities of daily living are hindered. Dependence on others increases. Communication of the diagnosis is perceived as a shock. Most interviewees wish for more information about their specific situation. Auxiliary means and counselling possibilities are hardly known. Wet AMD impacts on the quality of life of the patient. Treatment should therefore not be limited to the medical treatment of the ill eye. Triage to rehabilitation and counselling services should be included as important duties of the medical practitioners. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in persons over 55years of age in developed countries. AMD is a complex disease in which genetic, environmental and inflammatory factors influence its onset and progression. Elevation in serum anti-retinal autoantibodies, plasma and local activation of complement proteins of the alternative pathway, and increase in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines have been seen over the course of disease. Genetic studies of AMD patients confirmed that genetic variants affecting the alternative complement pathway have a major influence on AMD risk. Because the heterogeneity of this disease, there is no sufficient strategy to identify the disease onset and progression sole based eye examination, thus identification of reliable serological biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment by sampling patient's blood is necessary. This review provides an outline of the current knowledge on possible serological (autoantibodies, complement factors, cytokines, chemokines) and related genetic biomarkers relevant to the pathology of AMD, and discusses their application for prediction of disease activity and prognosis in AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Senra, Hugo; Ali, Zaria; Balaskas, Konstantinos; Aslam, Tariq
To review the current literature on the psychological impact of anti-VEGF treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), in terms of patients' experiences of receiving these treatments, and the impact of these treatments for patients' mental health and quality of life. We critically analyzed current literature evaluating psychological impact of anti-VEGF treatments for wAMD. Primary searches of PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were conducted in July and August of 2015. We reviewed all papers on the topic published until August 5, 2015. Our literature search found 14 papers addressing the psychological impact of anti-VEGF treatments for wAMD. Results highlighted potential anxieties and experiences of pain caused by receiving regular intravitreal injections. A positive visual outcome of anti-VEGF therapy is associated with positive vision-related QOL outcomes, although such association seems to be dependent on improvements on visual acuity. In the literature reviewed, patients receiving anti-VEGF treatments showed a prevalence rate of depression between 20 and 26 %. Although anti-VEGF treatments can cause some anxiety and being experienced as a stressful event, especially in the beginning of the treatment, preliminary findings suggest a potential benefit for long-term vision-related quality of life. Further longitudinal and qualitative research should bring more evidence on the positive and negative effects of these treatments on patients' long-term mental health.
Muzyka-Woźniak, Maria; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Wesolowska, Alicja
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness over the age of 50 in western countries. People with AMD are suffering from serious vision-related disability and their social life is compromised. The aim of our study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in patients with exudative AMD. The study group was 100 patients treated for AMD, the control group were 30 age and sex matched subjects without ophthalmic disorders. Patients were treated with anti-VEGF therapy, by means of National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). As well as visual function, the NEI-VFQ investigates social functioning, mental health and dependency. There was statistically significant difference in QoL overall score between study group and control group. Patients with AMD obtained 51.1 (+/- 20.5 ) overall score, control group reached 83.7 (+/- 11.7) overall score, p = 0.001. Detailed analysis of study group revealed low acceptance of the disease and strong dependency. QoL in patients with AMD assessed with NEI VFQ-25, is significantly impaired. Low quality of life and difficulties in performing daily activities point at the need of formal psychological and social care.
Bianchi, Enrica; Scarinci, Fabio; Ripandelli, Guido; Feher, Janos; Pacella, Elena; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Gabrieli, Corrado Balacco; Plateroti, Rocco; Plateroti, Pasquale; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Artico, Marco
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of impaired vision and blindness in the aging population. The aims of our studies were to identify qualitative and quantitative alterations in mitochondria in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from AMD patients and controls and to test the protective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a known neurotrophic and antiangiogenic substance, against neurotrophic keratouveitis. Histopathological alterations were studied by means of morphometry, light and electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, morphometric data showed that the RPE alterations noted in AMD may also develop in normal aging, 10-15 years later than appearing in AMD patients. Reduced tear secretion, corneal ulceration and leukocytic infiltration were found in capsaicin (CAP)-treated rats, but this effect was significantly attenuated by PEDF. These findings suggest that PEDF accelerated the recovery of tear secretion and also prevented neurotrophic keratouveitis and vitreoretinal inflammation. PEDF may have a clinical application in inflammatory and neovascular diseases of the eye.
Enders, P; Scholz, P; Muether, P S; Fauser, S
Purpose To analyze choroidal neovasularization (CNV) activity and recurrence patterns in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab, and the correlation with individual intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppression time (VST). Methods Post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients with nAMD treated with ranibizumab on a pro re nata regimen. Disease activity was analyzed monthly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and correlated with VSTs. Results Overall, 73 eyes of 73 patients were included in the study with a mean follow-up of 717 days (range: 412–1239 days). Overall, the mean CNV-activity-free interval was 76.5 days (range: 0–829 days). The individual range of the length of dry intervals was high. A total of 42% of patients had a range of more than 90 days. Overall, 16% of patients showed persistent activity. And 12% stayed dry after the initial ranibizumab treatment. No significant correlation was found between the CNV-recurrence pattern and VST (P=0.12). Conclusions CNV activity in nAMD is irregular, which is reflected in the range of the duration of dry intervals and late recurrences. The biomarker VST solely seems not to be sufficient to explain recurrence pattern of CNV in all AMD patients. PMID:27197870
Enders, P; Scholz, P; Muether, P S; Fauser, S
PurposeTo analyze choroidal neovasularization (CNV) activity and recurrence patterns in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab, and the correlation with individual intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppression time (VST).MethodsPost-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients with nAMD treated with ranibizumab on a pro re nata regimen. Disease activity was analyzed monthly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and correlated with VSTs.ResultsOverall, 73 eyes of 73 patients were included in the study with a mean follow-up of 717 days (range: 412-1239 days). Overall, the mean CNV-activity-free interval was 76.5 days (range: 0-829 days). The individual range of the length of dry intervals was high. A total of 42% of patients had a range of more than 90 days. Overall, 16% of patients showed persistent activity. And 12% stayed dry after the initial ranibizumab treatment. No significant correlation was found between the CNV-recurrence pattern and VST (P=0.12).ConclusionsCNV activity in nAMD is irregular, which is reflected in the range of the duration of dry intervals and late recurrences. The biomarker VST solely seems not to be sufficient to explain recurrence pattern of CNV in all AMD patients.
Luo, Dan; Deng, Tingting; Yuan, Wei; Deng, Hui; Jin, Ming
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading disease associated with blindness. It has a high incidence and complex pathogenesis. We aimed to study the metabolomic characteristics in Chinese patients with wet AMD by analyzing the morning plasma of 20 healthy controls and 20 wet AMD patients for metabolic differences. We used ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for this analysis. The relationship of these differences with AMD pathophysiology was also assessed. Remaining data were normalized using Pareto scaling, and then valid data were handled using multivariate data analysis with MetaboAnalysis software, including unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised partial least squares-discriminate analysis. The purpose of the present work was to identify significant metabolites for the analyses. Hierarchical clustering was conducted to identify metabolites that differed between the two groups. Significant metabolites were then identified using the established database, and features were mapped on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. A total of 5443 ion peaks were detected, all of them attributable to the same 10 metabolites. These included some amino acids, isomaltose, hydrocortisone, and biliverdin. The heights of these peaks differed significantly between the two groups. The biosynthesis of amino acids pathways also differed profoundly between patients with wet AMD and controls. These findings suggested that metabolic profiles and and pathways differed between wet AMD and controls and may provide promising new targets for AMD-directed therapeutics and diagnostics.
Mares, JA; Voland, R.; Sondel, SA; Millen, A.E.; LaRowe, T; Moeller, SM; Klein, M.L.; Blodi, B.A; Chappell, R.; Tinker, L.; Ritenbaugh, C; Gehrs, K; Sarto, G; Johnson, E.J; Snodderly, M; Wallace, RB
Purpose The relationships between lifestyle behaviors of diet, smoking and physical activity and the subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were investigated. Methods The population included 1,313 participants (55 to 74 years) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS). Scores on a modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index (mHEI) were assigned using responses to a food frequency questionnaire administered at WHIOS baseline (1994-1998). Physical activity and lifetime smoking history were queried. An average of six years later, stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken to assess presence and severity of AMD; present in 202 women, 94% of whom had early AMD, the primary outcome. Results In multivariate models, women whose diets scored in the highest compared with the lowest quintile on the mHEI had a 46% lower odds for early AMD. Women in the highest vs. lowest quintile for physical activity (MET- Hrs/Wk) had 54% lower odds for early AMD. Although smoking, alone was not independently associated with AMD, having a combination of three healthy lifestyles (healthy diet, physical activity and not smoking) was associated with a 71% lower odds for AMD compared with having high risk scores (P=0.0004). Conclusions Modifying lifestyles might reduce risk for early AMD as much as 3-fold, lowering the risk for advanced AMD in a person's lifetime and the social and economic costs of AMD to society. PMID:21149749
Zamora-Alvarado, Ruben; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a well-characterized and extensively studied disease. It is currently considered the leading cause of visual disability among patients over 60 years. The hallmark of early AMD is the formation of drusen, pigmentary changes at the macula, and mild to moderate vision loss. There are two forms of AMD: the “dry” and the “wet” form that is less frequent but is responsible for 90% of acute blindness due to AMD. Risk factors have been associated with AMD progression, and they are taking relevance to understand how AMD develops: (1) advanced age and the exposition to environmental factors inducing high levels of oxidative stress damaging the macula and (2) this damage, which causes inflammation inducing a vicious cycle, altogether causing central vision loss. There is neither a cure nor treatment to prevent AMD. However, there are some treatments available for the wet form of AMD. This article will review some molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the onset of AMD focusing on feasible treatments for each related factor in the development of this pathology such as vascular endothelial growth factor, oxidative stress, failure of the clearance of proteins and organelles, and glial cell dysfunction in AMD. PMID:29484106
Kheitan, Samira; Minuchehr, Zarrin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila
Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. However the cross talk between these cellular mechanisms has not been clearly and fully understood. The present study investigates a possible intersection between ER stress and inflammation in AMD. In this study, we recruited two collections of involved protein markers to retrieve their interaction information from IMEx-curated databases, which are the most well- known protein-protein interaction collections, allowing us to design an intersection network for AMD that is unprecedented. In order to find expression activated subnetworks, we utilized AMD expression profiles in our network. In addition, we studied topological characteristics of the most expressed active subnetworks to identify the hubs. With regard to topological quantifications and expressional activity, we reported a list of the most pivotal hubs which are potentially applicable as probable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we introduced MAPK signaling pathway as a significantly involved pathway in the association between ER stress and inflammation, leading to promising new directions in discovering AMD formation mechanisms and possible treatments.
Kheitan, Samira; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila
Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. However the cross talk between these cellular mechanisms has not been clearly and fully understood. The present study investigates a possible intersection between ER stress and inflammation in AMD. In this study, we recruited two collections of involved protein markers to retrieve their interaction information from IMEx-curated databases, which are the most well- known protein-protein interaction collections, allowing us to design an intersection network for AMD that is unprecedented. In order to find expression activated subnetworks, we utilized AMD expression profiles in our network. In addition, we studied topological characteristics of the most expressed active subnetworks to identify the hubs. With regard to topological quantifications and expressional activity, we reported a list of the most pivotal hubs which are potentially applicable as probable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we introduced MAPK signaling pathway as a significantly involved pathway in the association between ER stress and inflammation, leading to promising new directions in discovering AMD formation mechanisms and possible treatments. PMID:28742151
Yüksel, Harun; Türkcü, Fatih M; Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Cinar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah K; Ari, Seyhmus; Caça, Ihsan
Pigment epithelial detachment (PED) may be seen in all stages of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and may lead to poor prognosis. In this study, we retrospectively examined the effect of anti-VEGF treatments in ARMD patients with vascularized PED. Medical records of 15 patients with PED secondary to ARMD were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis of PED was made with fundoscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Patients were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab or/and bevacizumab and followed up for a minimum of one year. PED height and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was obtained before the first intravitreal anti-VEGF injection and again at the 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month after the injection. The mean baseline BCVA was 0.71 ± 0.48 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) unit and the mean baseline PED height was 361 ± 153 µ. The mean injection count per eye was 3.9 ± 2.9. There was a significant reduce in mean PED height (247 ± 177 µ) also in 2 eyes PED completely resolved at the end of the follow up period. The mean BCVA at 12th month (0,69 ± 0,37) were not different from the baseline record. This retrospective case series showed that intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy preserved vision and reduced PED height in PED patients in a one-year follow-up period.
Mitchell, P; Korobelnik, J-F; Lanzetta, P; Holz, F G; Prünte, C; Schmidt-Erfurth, U; Tano, Y; Wolf, S
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a poor prognosis if left untreated, frequently resulting in legal blindness. Ranibizumab is approved for treating neovascular AMD. However, further guidance is needed to assist ophthalmologists in clinical practice to optimise treatment outcomes. An international retina expert panel assessed evidence available from prospective, multicentre studies evaluating different ranibizumab treatment schedules (ANCHOR, MARINA, PIER, SAILOR, SUSTAIN and EXCITE) and a literature search to generate evidence-based and consensus recommendations for treatment indication and assessment, retreatment and monitoring. Ranibizumab is indicated for choroidal neovascular lesions with active disease, the clinical parameters of which are outlined. Treatment initiation with three consecutive monthly injections, followed by continued monthly injections, has provided the best visual-acuity outcomes in pivotal clinical trials. If continued monthly injections are not feasible after initiation, a flexible strategy appears viable, with monthly monitoring of lesion activity recommended. Initiation regimens of fewer than three injections have not been assessed. Continuous careful monitoring with flexible retreatment may help avoid vision loss recurring. Standardised biomarkers need to be determined. Evidence-based guidelines will help to optimise treatment outcomes with ranibizumab in neovascular AMD.
Buschini, Elisa; Fea, Antonio M; Lavia, Carlo A; Nassisi, Marco; Pignata, Giulia; Zola, Marta; Grignolo, Federico M
Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), also called geographic atrophy, is characterized by the atrophy of outer retinal layers and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Dry AMD accounts for 80% of all intermediate and advanced forms of the disease. Although vision loss is mainly due to the neovascular form (75%), dry AMD remains a challenge for ophthalmologists because of the lack of effective therapies. Actual management consists of lifestyle modification, vitamin supplements, and supportive measures in the advanced stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study demonstrated a statistically significant protective effect of dietary supplementation of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, zinc, and copper) on dry AMD progression rate. It was also stated that the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, has protective effects. Other antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals (such as crocetin, curcumin, and vitamins B9, B12, and B6) are under evaluation, but the results are still uncertain. New strategies aim to 1) reduce or block drusen formation, 2) reduce or eliminate inflammation, 3) lower the accumulation of toxic by-products from the visual cycle, 4) reduce or eliminate retinal oxidative stress, 5) improve choroidal perfusion, 6) replace/repair or regenerate lost RPE cells and photoreceptors with stem cell therapy, and 7) develop a target gene therapy. PMID:25878491
Ramanoël, Stephen; Chokron, Sylvie; Hera, Ruxandra; Kauffmann, Louise; Chiquet, Christophe; Krainik, Alexandre; Peyrin, Carole
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the processing of fine details in a visual scene, based on a high spatial frequency processing, is impaired, while the processing of global shapes, based on a low spatial frequency processing, is relatively well preserved. The present fMRI study aimed to investigate the residual abilities and functional brain changes of spatial frequency processing in visual scenes in AMD patients. AMD patients and normally sighted elderly participants performed a categorization task using large black and white photographs of scenes (indoors vs. outdoors) filtered in low and high spatial frequencies, and nonfiltered. The study also explored the effect of luminance contrast on the processing of high spatial frequencies. The contrast across scenes was either unmodified or equalized using a root-mean-square contrast normalization in order to increase contrast in high-pass filtered scenes. Performance was lower for high-pass filtered scenes than for low-pass and nonfiltered scenes, for both AMD patients and controls. The deficit for processing high spatial frequencies was more pronounced in AMD patients than in controls and was associated with lower activity for patients than controls not only in the occipital areas dedicated to central and peripheral visual fields but also in a distant cerebral region specialized for scene perception, the parahippocampal place area. Increasing the contrast improved the processing of high spatial frequency content and spurred activation of the occipital cortex for AMD patients. These findings may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures for AMD patients.
Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan
Visual attention can be guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations speeds up search times compared to random search arrays. Concomitantly, fewer fixations and more direct scan paths indicate more efficient visual exploration in repeated search arrays. In previous work, we found that simulating a central scotoma in healthy observers eliminated this search facilitation. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who suffer from impaired foveal vision. AMD patients performed visual search using only their more severely impaired eye (n = 13) as well as under binocular viewing (n = 16). Normal-sighted controls developed a significant contextual cueing effect. In comparison, patients showed only a small nonsignificant advantage for repeated displays when searching with their worse eye. When searching binocularly, they profited from contextual cues, but still less than controls. Number of fixations and scan pattern ratios showed a comparable pattern as search times. Moreover, contextual cueing was significantly correlated with acuity in monocular search. Thus, foveal vision loss may lead to impaired guidance of attention by contextual memory cues.
Garnier, Mickaël.; Hurtut, Thomas; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of legal blindness. As the disease progress, visual loss occurs rapidly, therefore early diagnosis is required for timely treatment. Automatic, fast and robust screening of this widespread disease should allow an early detection. Most of the automatic diagnosis methods in the literature are based on a complex segmentation of the drusen, targeting a specific symptom of the disease. In this paper, we present a preliminary study for AMD detection from color fundus photographs using a multiresolution texture analysis. We analyze the texture at several scales by using a wavelet decomposition in order to identify all the relevant texture patterns. Textural information is captured using both the sign and magnitude components of the completed model of Local Binary Patterns. An image is finally described with the textural pattern distributions of the wavelet coefficient images obtained at each level of decomposition. We use a Linear Discriminant Analysis for feature dimension reduction, to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem, and image classification. Experiments were conducted on a dataset containing 45 images (23 healthy and 22 diseased) of variable quality and captured by different cameras. Our method achieved a recognition rate of 93:3%, with a specificity of 95:5% and a sensitivity of 91:3%. This approach shows promising results at low costs that in agreement with medical experts as well as robustness to both image quality and fundus camera model.
Priya, Rinki Ratna; Chew, Emily Y; Swaroop, Anand
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment in individuals >55 years of age worldwide. The varying clinical phenotypes of AMD result from contributions of genetic, epigenetic, and nongenetic (environmental) factors. Genetic studies of AMD have come of age as a direct result of tremendous gains from the human genome project, genome-wide association studies, and identification of numerous susceptibility loci. These findings have implicated immune response, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism, extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis signaling pathways in disease pathophysiology. Herein, we address how the wealth of genetic findings in AMD is expected to impact the practice of medicine, providing opportunities for improved risk assessment, molecular diagnosis, preventive, and therapeutic intervention. We propose that the potential of using genetic variants for monitoring treatment response (pharmacogenetics) may usher in a new era of personalized medicine in the clinical management of AMD. Proprietary or commercial disclosures may be found after the references. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phan, Thanh Vân; Seoud, Lama; Chakor, Hadi; Cheriet, Farida
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease which causes visual deficiency and irreversible blindness to the elderly. In this paper, an automatic classification method for AMD is proposed to perform robust and reproducible assessments in a telemedicine context. First, a study was carried out to highlight the most relevant features for AMD characterization based on texture, color, and visual context in fundus images. A support vector machine and a random forest were used to classify images according to the different AMD stages following the AREDS protocol and to evaluate the features' relevance. Experiments were conducted on a database of 279 fundus images coming from a telemedicine platform. The results demonstrate that local binary patterns in multiresolution are the most relevant for AMD classification, regardless of the classifier used. Depending on the classification task, our method achieves promising performances with areas under the ROC curve between 0.739 and 0.874 for screening and between 0.469 and 0.685 for grading. Moreover, the proposed automatic AMD classification system is robust with respect to image quality. PMID:27190636
Mohammad, Fatimah; Wanek, Justin; Zelkha, Ruth; Lim, Jennifer I.; Chen, Judy; Shahidi, Mahnaz
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment. PMID:25478209
Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T
To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14-month period and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28 +/- 7 days after administration in an eye that had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Five patients (six eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis after repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50 mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen after an episode of unilateral postinjection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10 treatments). Tachyphylaxis can occur after long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved.
Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.
Purpose To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14 month period, and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28±7 days after administration in an eye which had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Results Five patients (6 eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis following repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen following an episode of unilateral post-injection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10). Conclusion Tachyphylaxis can occur following long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved. PMID:19516114
Irvine, John M.; Ghadar, Nastaran; Duncan, Steve; Floyd, David; O'Dowd, David; Lin, Kristie; Chang, Tom
Quantitative biomarkers for assessing the presence, severity, and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would benefit research, diagnosis, and treatment. This paper explores development of quantitative biomarkers derived from OCT imagery of the retina. OCT images for approximately 75 patients with Wet AMD, Dry AMD, and no AMD (healthy eyes) were analyzed to identify image features indicative of the patients' conditions. OCT image features provide a statistical characterization of the retina. Healthy eyes exhibit a layered structure, whereas chaotic patterns indicate the deterioration associated with AMD. Our approach uses wavelet and Frangi filtering, combined with statistical features that do not rely on image segmentation, to assess patient conditions. Classification analysis indicates clear separability of Wet AMD from other conditions, including Dry AMD and healthy retinas. The probability of correct classification of was 95.7%, as determined from cross validation. Similar classification analysis predicts the response of Wet AMD patients to treatment, as measured by the Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA). A statistical model predicts BCVA from the imagery features with R2 = 0.846. Initial analysis of OCT imagery indicates that imagery-derived features can provide useful biomarkers for characterization and quantification of AMD: Accurate assessment of Wet AMD compared to other conditions; image-based prediction of outcome for Wet AMD treatment; and features derived from the OCT imagery accurately predict BCVA; unlike many methods in the literature, our techniques do not rely on segmentation of the OCT image. Next steps include larger scale testing and validation.
Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis Fernando; Zamora-Alvarado, Ruben; Ochoa-De la Paz, Lenin; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a well-characterized and extensively studied disease. It is currently considered the leading cause of visual disability among patients over 60 years. The hallmark of early AMD is the formation of drusen, pigmentary changes at the macula, and mild to moderate vision loss. There are two forms of AMD: the "dry" and the "wet" form that is less frequent but is responsible for 90% of acute blindness due to AMD. Risk factors have been associated with AMD progression, and they are taking relevance to understand how AMD develops: (1) advanced age and the exposition to environmental factors inducing high levels of oxidative stress damaging the macula and (2) this damage, which causes inflammation inducing a vicious cycle, altogether causing central vision loss. There is neither a cure nor treatment to prevent AMD. However, there are some treatments available for the wet form of AMD. This article will review some molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the onset of AMD focusing on feasible treatments for each related factor in the development of this pathology such as vascular endothelial growth factor, oxidative stress, failure of the clearance of proteins and organelles, and glial cell dysfunction in AMD.
Molday, Robert S.; Zhong, Ming; Quazi, Faraz
ABCA4 is a member of the ABCA subfamily of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that is expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina. ABCA4, also known as the Rim protein and ABCR, is a large 2273 amino acid glycoprotein organized as two tandem halves, each containing a single membrane spanning segment followed sequentially by a large exocytoplasmic domain, a multispanning membrane domain and a nucleotide binding domain. Over 500 mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4 are associated with a spectrum of related autosomal recessive retinal degenerative diseases including Stargardt macular degeneration, cone-rod dystrophy and a subset of retinitis pigmentosa. Biochemical studies on the purified ABCA4 together with analysis of abca4 knockout mice and patients with Stargardt disease have implicated ABCA4 as a retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine transporter that facilitates the removal of potentially reactive retinal derivatives from photoreceptors following photoexcitation. Knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis for ABCA4 related retinal degenerative diseases is being used to develop rationale therapeutic treatments for this set of disorders. PMID:19230850
Molins, Blanca; Romero-Vázquez, Sara; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Adan, Alfredo; Dick, Andrew D
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a retinal degenerative disease, is the leading cause of central vision loss among the elderly population in developed countries and an increasing global burden. The major risk is aging, compounded by other environmental factors and association with genetic variants for risk of progression. Although the etiology of AMD is not yet clearly understood, several pathogenic pathways have been proposed, including dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The identification of AMD susceptibility genes encoding complement factors and the presence of complement and other inflammatory mediators in drusen, the hallmark deposits of AMD, support the concept that local inflammation and immune-mediated processes play a key role in AMD pathogenesis that may be accelerated through systemic immune activation. In this regard, increased levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with higher risk of AMD. Besides being a risk marker for AMD, CRP may also play a role in the progression of the disease as it has been identified in drusen, and we have recently found that its monomeric form (mCRP) induces blood retinal barrier disruption in vitro . In this review, we will address recent evidence that links CRP and AMD pathogenesis, which may open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent the progression of AMD.
Yang, Shiqi; Zhao, Jingke; Sun, Xiaodong
As a progressive chronic disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision impairment worldwide. Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a vital role in the formation of choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents have been recommended as a first-line treatment for neovascular AMD. However, persistent fluid or recurrent exudation still occurs despite standardized anti-VEGF therapy. Patients suffering from refractory or recurrent neovascular AMD may develop mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy, which results in a diminished therapeutic effect. Until now, there has been no consensus on the definitions of refractory neovascular AMD and recurrent neovascular AMD. This article aims at clarifying these concepts to evaluate the efficacy of switching drugs, which contributes to making clinical decision more scientifically. Furthermore, insight into the causes of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy would be helpful for developing possible therapeutic approaches, such as combination therapy and multi-target treatment that can overcome this resistance. PMID:27330279
Wang, Kai; Mitra, Rajendra Narayan; Zheng, Min; Han, Zongchao
The major purpose of this article is to evaluate oligochitosan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (OCCNPs) alginate laden injectable hydrogels and their potential treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The water soluble OCCNPs were loaded within injectable hydrogels as antioxidative agents. The release of OCCNPs from hydrogel, radical scavenging properties, and biocompatibility were evaluated and calculated in vitro. The effects of OCCNP laden hydrogel downregulating expression of angiogenic proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines were quantified in human retinal pigment epithlium-19 (ARPE-19) and umbilical endothelium cell lines. The hydrogels behaved with moderate swelling and controllable degradation. The laden OCCNPs were released in a controlled manner in vitro during two months of testing. The OCCNP loaded hydrogels exhibited robust antioxidative properties in oxygen radical absorbance capacity tests and reduced apoptosis in H 2 O 2 -induced ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, OCCNP loaded injectable hydrogels are biocompatible and suppressed the LPS-induced inflammation response in ARPE-19 cells, and inhibited expression of vascular endothelium growth factor in human ARPE-19 and umbilical endothelium cell lines. The alginate-gelatin injectable hydrogel loaded OCCNPs are biocompatible and have high potential in protecting cells from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in AMD cellular models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Butt, Thomas; Tufail, Adnan; Rubin, Gary
Health state utility values are a major source of uncertainty in economic evaluations of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This review identifies and critiques published utility values and methods for eliciting de novo utility values in AMD. We describe how utility values have been used in healthcare decision making and provide guidance on the choice of utility values for future economic evaluations for AMD. Literature was searched using PubMed, and health technology assessments (HTA) were searched using HTA agency websites to identify articles reporting utility values or approaches to derive utility values in AMD and articles applying utilities for use in healthcare decision making relating to treatments for AMD. A total of 70 studies qualified for data extraction, 22 of which were classified as containing utility values and/or elicitation methods, and 48 were classified as using utility values in decision making. A large number of studies have elicited utility values for AMD, although those applied to decision making have focused on a few of these. There is an appreciation of the challenges in the measurement and valuation of health states, with recent studies addressing challenges such as the insensitivity of generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires and utility in the worse-seeing eye. We would encourage careful consideration when choosing utility values in decision making and an explicit critique of their applicability to the decision problem.
Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74–1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77–1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention. PMID:26658620
Dugel, Pravin U; Zimmer, Cheryl N
To investigate whether multispectral imaging (MSI) is able to obtain a noninvasive view of melanin disruption associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which could support early diagnosis and potential treatment strategies. A single retinal center, retrospective, observational, image analysis study of MSI images of 43 patients was done to determine the extent of melanin pigment exhibited in association with AMD, based on the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification and grading scale. Corresponding fundus photos were also graded for 12 of the eyes. Fifty-one of 61 eyes (84%) of 43 patients with AMD were determined to have melanin disruption in their MSI images in at least the central and/or one of four inner ETDRS areas. There was a relationship between severity of disease and the degree of melanin disruption. The sensitivity of fundus photography for melanin pigment as compared to MSI was only 62.5%, with three false-negatives. A direct, noninvasive, unobstructed view of melanin disruption associated with AMD can be observed using MSI. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Sadda, SriniVas R.; Chakravarthy, Usha; Birch, David G.; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Henry, Erin C.; Brittain, Christopher
Purpose To summarize the recent literature describing the application of modern technologies in the study of patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Review of the literature describing the terms and definitions used to describe GA, imaging modalities used to capture and measure GA, and the tests of visual function and functional deficits that occur in patients with GA. Results In this paper we describe the evolution of the definitions used to describe GA. We compare imaging modalities used in the characterization of GA, report on the sensitivity and specificity of the techniques where data exist, and describe the correlations between these various modes of capturing the presence of GA. We review the functional tests that have been used in patients with GA, and critically examine their ability to detect and quantify visual deficits. Conclusion Ophthalmologists and retina specialists now have a wide range of assessments available for the functional and anatomic characterization of GA in patients with AMD. To date, studies have been limited by their unimodal approach and we recommend that future studies of GA use multimodal imaging. We also suggest strategies for the optimal functional testing of patients with GA. PMID:27652913
Lin, Jonathan B; Sene, Abdoulaye; Santeford, Andrea; Fujiwara, Hideji; Sidhu, Rohini; Ligon, Marianne M; Shankar, Vikram A; Ban, Norimitsu; Mysorekar, Indira U; Ory, Daniel S; Apte, Rajendra S
Macrophage aging is pathogenic in numerous diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in older adults. Although prior studies have explored the functional consequences of macrophage aging, less is known about its cellular basis or what defines the transition from physiologic aging to disease. Here, we show that despite their frequent self-renewal, macrophages from old mice exhibited numerous signs of aging, such as impaired oxidative respiration. Transcriptomic profiling of aged murine macrophages revealed dysregulation of diverse cellular pathways, especially in cholesterol homeostasis, that manifested in altered oxysterol signatures. Although the levels of numerous oxysterols in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma exhibited age-associated changes, plasma 24-hydroxycholesterol levels were specifically associated with AMD. These novel findings demonstrate that oxysterol levels can discriminate disease from physiologic aging. Furthermore, modulation of cholesterol homeostasis may be a novel strategy for treating age-associated diseases in which macrophage aging is pathogenic. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lorés-Motta, Laura; de Jong, Eiko K; den Hollander, Anneke I
Precision medicine aims to improve patient care by adjusting medication to each patient's individual needs. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a heterogeneous eye disease in which several pathways are involved, and the risk factors driving the disease differ per patient. As a consequence, precision medicine holds promise for improved management of this disease, which is nowadays a main cause of vision loss in the elderly. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies that have evaluated the use of molecular biomarkers to predict response to treatment in AMD. We predominantly focus on genetic biomarkers, but also include studies that examined circulating or eye fluid biomarkers in treatment response. This involves studies on treatment response to dietary supplements, response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and response to complement inhibitors. In addition, we highlight promising new therapies that have been or are currently being tested in clinical trials and discuss the molecular studies that can help identify the most suitable patients for these upcoming therapeutic approaches.
Chapman, Naoko A; Jacobs, Robert J; Braakhuis, Andrea J
A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate the role of diet and food intake in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eighteen high-quality studies were identified. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet had decreased risk of AMD progression. An Oriental diet pattern had decreased association with AMD prevalence, whereas a Western diet pattern had increased association with AMD prevalence. High consumption of vegetables rich in carotenoids, and fatty fish containing omega-3 fatty acids was beneficial for those at risk of AMD. Vegetable oils and animal fats containing omega-6 fatty acids, and red/processed meat should be consumed minimally to reduce the risk of AMD progression. High glycaemic index diets and alcohol consumption of greater than two drinks a day had increased association with AMD. As the quality of diet and food intake had a vital role in AMD, the provision of appropriate nutritional advice to those at risk of AMD is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim
Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086
Arikan, Sedat; Ersan, Ismail; Kara, Selcuk; Gencer, Baran; Korkmaz, Safak; Vural, Azer Sara
To compare the central corneal thicknesses (CCT), peripheral corneal thicknesses, and corneal volumes (CV) of the 2 eyes of patients with unilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty patients who were diagnosed with unilateral AMD were included in this prospective study for the purpose of making comparison between the diseased and healthy eyes. Optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography imaging were applied to all patients in order to confirm and reveal the presence of unilateral AMD. Then, the measurements of CCT, peripheral corneal thickness measured 4 mm distant from the center of the cornea (4 mm CT), and CV of each eye of these patients were obtained through the rotating Scheimpflug corneal topographer. Wilcoxon signed-rank test did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the 2 eyes of patients with unilateral AMD when we compared the CCT and CV of diseased and healthy eyes (p>0.05). However, 4 mm CT of the diseased eyes of these patients were statistically significantly thicker than the healthy eyes (p<0.05). The significant difference in terms of 4 mm CT between the diseased and healthy eyes of patients with unilateral AMD may demonstrate the possible effect of peripheral corneal thickness on the development of AMD.
Apte, Rajendra S; Richter, Jennifer; Herndon, John; Ferguson, Thomas A
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50 y of age in at least three continents. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the process by which abnormal blood vessels develop underneath the retina. CNV develops in 10% of patients with AMD but accounts for up to 90% of the blindness from AMD. Although the precise etiology of CNV in AMD remains unknown, the macrophage component of the inflammatory response, which has been shown to promote tumor growth and support atherosclerotic plaque formation, is thought to stimulate aberrant angiogenesis in blinding eye diseases. The current theory is that macrophage infiltration promotes the development of neovascularization in CNV. Methods and Findings We examined the role of macrophages in a mouse model of CNV. IL-10 −/− mice, which have increased inflammation in response to diverse stimuli, have significantly reduced CNV with increased macrophage infiltrates compared to wild type. Prevention of macrophage entry into the eye promoted neovascularization while direct injection of macrophages significantly inhibited CNV. Inhibition by macrophages was mediated by the TNF family death molecule Fas ligand (CD95-ligand). Conclusions Immune vascular interactions can be highly complex. Normal macrophage function is critical in controlling pathologic neovascularization in the eye. IL-10 regulates macrophage activity in the eye and is an attractive therapeutic target in order to suppress or inhibit CNV in AMD that can otherwise lead to blindness. PMID:16903779
Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J; Stevens, June; Duncan, Bruce B; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y
To examine the association between changes in waist-hip ratio (WHR), a measure of abdominal obesity, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 12 515 persons from a population-based cohort study, aged 45 to 64 years in 1987 to 1989, were followed up over 6 years. The percentage change in WHR during follow-up was ranked into sex-specific deciles; an increase in WHR was defined as the top 10% of change and a decrease in WHR as the bottom 10%. The association of increased or decreased WHR and presence of AMD at follow-up was determined using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. The average change in WHR was an increase of 2%, ranging from a decrease of 44% to an increase of 102%. A decrease in WHR of 3% or more was associated with 29% lower odds of any AMD (odds ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97). This effect was most pronounced among obese participants at baseline, where a decrease in WHR was associated with 59% lower odds of AMD (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.82). Middle-aged persons who had a 3% or greater reduction in WHR over time were less likely to have AMD, particularly among those who were initially obese.
Soubrane Daguet, Gisèle; Risard-Gasiorowski, Sarah; Massamba, Nathalie
Modern retinal drug therapy is a result of the recent challenges and breakthroughs in chemistry, physics, genetics, cell biology and biotechnologies. Specific pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug are of major importance and contribute to its ability to penetrate targeted ocular tissues in order to result in effective therapeutic concentrations. In addition, the drugs should maintain a prolonged time of activity and be safe with minimal local and systemic toxicity. The transporter vehicle or drug delivery system is crucial in order to enhance ocular tissue penetration and establish controlled drug release. Administration methods should be local, thereby reducing systemic side effects, and, ideally, treatment should be noninvasive. Within the group of so-called classic therapies, the use of pharmacologic treatments has become widespread for most severe retinal diseases. Thereby, ocular therapy of diseases like exudative age-related macular degeneration has improved markedly. Moreover, new metabolic pathways have been identified, new molecules have emerged, new synthesis technologies have been discovered, and new formulae conceived. These developments have opened new avenues for limiting disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schneider, Eric W; Fowler, Samuel C
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) provides rapid, flow-based imaging of the retinal and choroidal vasculature in a noninvasive manner. This review contrasts this novel technique with conventional angiography and discusses its current uses and limitations in the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Initial work with OCT-A has focused on its ability to identify choriocapillaris flow alterations in dry AMD and to sensitively detect choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVs) in neovascular AMD. Reduced choriocapillaris flow beyond the borders of geographic atrophy seen on OCT-A suggests a primary vascular cause in geographic atrophy. Longitudinal OCT-A analysis of CNV morphology has demonstrated the transition from an immature to mature CNV phenotype following treatment. Current clinical applications of OCT-A include identification of asymptomatic CNV and monitoring for CNV development in the setting of an acquired vitelliform lesion. OCT-A remains a promising diagnostic tool but one still very much in evolution. Larger studies will be needed to more accurately describe its sensitivity and specificity for CNV detection and to better characterize longitudinal CNV morphologic changes. Anticipated hardware and software updates including swept-source light sources, automated montaging, and manual adjustment of interscan timing should enhance the capabilities of OCT-A in the management of AMD.
Lu, Liang; Gu, Xiaorong; Hong, Li; Laird, James; Jaffe, Keeve; Choi, Jaewoo; Crabb, John; Salomon, Robert G
Protein modifications in which the epsilon-amino group of lysyl residues is incorporated into a 2-(omega-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) are mediators of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). They promote both angiogenesis into the retina ('wet AMD') and geographic retinal atrophy ('dry AMD'). Blood levels of CEPs are biomarkers for clinical prognosis of the disease. To enable mechanistic studies of their role in promoting AMD, for example, through the activation of B- and T-cells, interaction with receptors, or binding with complement proteins, we developed an efficient synthesis of CEP derivatives, that is especially effective for proteins. The structures of tryptic peptides derived from CEP-modified proteins were also determined. A key finding is that 4,7-dioxoheptanoic acid 9-fluorenylmethyl ester reacts with primary amines to provide 9-fluorenylmethyl esters of CEP-modified proteins that can be deprotected in situ with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene without causing protein denaturation. The introduction of multiple CEP-modifications with a wide variety of CEP:protein ratios is readily achieved using this strategy.
Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; Jonsson, Oskar; Thorisdottir, Sigridur; Helgadottir, Gudleif; Jonasson, Fridbert; Stefansson, Einar; Sigurdsson, Haraldur
The use of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has stressed ophthalmology services and drug budgets throughout the world. The authors study the population-based incidence of exudative AMD in Iceland and the use of intravitreal ranibizumab in a defined population. This is a prospective study of 439 consecutive patients aged 60 years and older with exudative AMD starting intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative AMD in Iceland from March 2007 to December 2009. All patients initially received three consecutive ranibizumab injections, with regular follow-up visits and re-treatment as needed. In total, 517 eyes from 439 patients received treatment for exudative AMD (mean age 79 years). The annual incidence of exudative AMD in the population 60 years and older is 0.29%. The incidence increased with advancing age, double for patients 85 years and older compared with those 75-79 years. Approximately 2400 ranibizumab injections per 100,000 persons aged 60 years and older were given each year for exudative AMD. These data allow an estimation of the incidence of exudative AMD in a Caucasian population and the treatment load with ranibizumab, which may help plan anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment programmes and estimate costs.
Francis, Peter James; Klein, Michael L
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), akin to other common age-related diseases, has a complex pathogenesis and arises from the interplay of genes, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. The past decade has seen very significant strides towards identification of those precise genetic variants associated with disease. That genes encoding proteins of the (alternative) complement pathway (CFH, C2, CFB, C3, CFI) are major players in etiology came as a surprise to many but has already lead to the development of therapies entering human clinical trials. Other genes replicated in many populations ARMS2, APOE, variants near TIMP3, and genes involved in lipid metabolism have also been implicated in disease pathogenesis. The genes discovered to date can be estimated to account for approximately 50% of the genetic variance of AMD and have been discovered by candidate gene approaches, pathway analysis, and latterly genome-wide association studies. Next generation sequencing modalities and meta-analysis techniques are being employed with the aim of identifying the remaining rarer but, perhaps, individually more significant sequence variations, linked to disease status. Complementary studies have also begun to utilize this genetic information to develop clinically useful algorithms to predict AMD risk and evaluate pharmacogenetics. In this article, contemporary commentary is provided on rapidly progressing efforts to elucidate the genetic pathogenesis of AMD as the field stands at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. PMID:21887094
Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress–related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n–3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. In this review, we examine the science behind the nutritional factors included in these interventional studies and the reasons for considering their inclusion to lower the rate of AMD progression. PMID:28096126
Taskintuna, Ibrahim; Elsayed, M. E. A. Abdalla; Schatz, Patrik
This review article summarizes the most recent clinical trials for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly in developed countries. A literature search through websites https://www.pubmed.org and https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, both accessed no later than November 04, 2015, was performed. We identified three Phase III clinical trials that were completed over the recent 5 years Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), implantable miniature telescope and tandospirone, and several other trials targeting a variety of mechanisms including, oxidative stress, complement inhibition, visual cycle inhibition, retinal and choroidal blood flow, stem cells, gene therapy, and visual rehabilitation. To date, none of the biologically oriented therapies have resulted in improved vision. Vision improvement was reported with an implantable mini telescope. Stem cells therapy holds a potential for vision improvement. The AREDS2 formulas did not add any further reduced risk of progression to advanced AMD, compared to the original AREDS formula. Several recently discovered pathogenetic mechanisms in dry AMD have enabled development of new treatment strategies, and several of these have been tested in recent clinical trials and are currently being tested in ongoing trials. The rapid development and understanding of pathogenesis holds promise for the future. PMID:26957835
Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Chbat, Elige; Darugar, Adil; Morel, Christophe; Morin, Bruno; Conrath, John; Devin, François
To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD. Between baseline and month 24 (M24), 42.4% of the variability in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was explained by the cumulative effect of the following societal factors: intermittent out-patient follow-up, marital status, daily reading, transportation type, commuting time. No isolated societal factor significantly correlated with ETDRS BCVA severity at M24. A trend to correlation was observed between the EDTRS score at M24 and the SSS (P = 0.076), economic burden (P = 0.075), time between diagnosis and treatment initiation (P = 0.070). A significant correlation was found for the disease burdensome on the patient (P = 0.034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease. PMID:28154734
Szmacinski, Henryk; Hegde, Kavita; Zeng, Hui-Hui; Eslami, Katayoun; Puche, Adam; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Lengyel, Imre; Thompson, Richard B.
Recently, we discovered microscopic spherules of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in aged human sub-retinal pigment epithelial (sub-RPE) deposits in the retinas of aged humans (PMID: 25605911), and developed evidence that the spherules may act to nucleate the growth of sub-RPE deposits such as drusen. Drusen are clinical hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We found that tetracycline-family antibiotics, long known to stain HAP in teeth and bones, also stained the HAP spherules, but in general the HAP-bound fluorescence excitation and emission spectra overlapped with the well-known autofluorescence of the RPE overlying drusen, making them difficult to resolve. However, we also found that certain tetracyclines exhibited substantial increases in fluorescence lifetime upon binding to HAP, and moreover these lifetimes were substantially greater than those previously observed (Dysli, et al., 2014) for autofluorescence in the human retina in vivo. Thus we were able to image the HAP spherules by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in cadaveric retinas of aged humans. These findings suggest that FLIM imaging of tetracycline binding to HAP could become a diagnostic tool for the development and progression of AMD.
Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.
García-Layana, Alfredo; Cabrera-López, Francisco; García-Arumí, José; Arias-Barquet, Lluís; Ruiz-Moreno, José M
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in developed countries. With the aging of population, AMD will become globally an increasingly important and prevalent disease worldwide. It is a complex disease whose etiology is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors. An extensive decline in the quality of life and progressive need of daily living assistance resulting from AMD among those most severely affected highlights the essential role of preventive strategies, particularly advising patients to quit smoking. In addition, maintaining a healthy diet, controlling other risk factors (such as hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis), and the use of nutritional supplements (antioxidants) are recommendable. Genetic testing may be especially important in patients with a family history of AMD. Recently, unifying criteria for the clinical classification of AMD, defining no apparent aging changes; normal aging changes; and early, intermediate, and late AMD stages, are of value in predicting AMD risk of progression and in establishing recommendations for the diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and follow-up of patients. The present review is focused on early and intermediate AMD and presents a description of the clinical characteristics and ophthalmological findings for these stages, together with algorithms for the diagnosis and management of patients, which are easily applicable in daily clinical practice.
Ueda-Consolvo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Atsushi; Ozaki, Mayumi; Nakamura, Tomoko; Yagou, Takaaki; Abe, Shinya
To assess the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and frequency of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). We examined 64 consecutive patients with nAMD who were evaluated for endothelial function by use of peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT 2000; Itamar Medical, Caesarea, Israel) at Toyama University Hospital from January 2015. We tallied the number of anti-VEGF treatments between January 2014 and December 2015 and determined the correlation between the number of anti-VEGF injections and endothelial function expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Multiple regression analysis was also performed to identify the independent predictors of a larger number of injections. The mean number of anti-VEGF injections was 8.2 ± 3.3. The mean lnRHI was 0.47 ± 0.17. The lnRHI correlated with the number of anti-VEGF injections (r = -0.56; P = 0.030). The multiple regression analysis revealed that endothelial function, neovascular subtypes, and treatment regimens were associated with the number of injections. Endothelial dysfunction may affect the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy. Neovascular subtypes may also predict a larger number of injections.
Bracha, Peter; Moore, Nicholas A; Ciulla, Thomas A
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), stem cells could possibly replace or regenerate disrupted pathologic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and produce supportive growth factors and cytokines such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived RPE was first subretinally transplanted in a neovascular AMD patient in 2014. Areas covered: Induced PSCs are derived from the introduction of transcription factors to adult cells under specific cell culture conditions, followed by differentiation into RPE cells. Induced PSC-derived RPE cells exhibit ion transport, membrane potential, polarized VEGF secretion and gene expression that is similar to native RPE. Despite having similar in vitro function, morphology, immunostaining and microscopic analysis, it remains to be seen if iPSC-derived RPE can replicate the myriad of in vivo functions, including immunomodulatory effects, of native RPE cells. Historically, adjuvant RPE transplantation during CNV resections were technically difficult and complicated by immune rejection. Autologous iPSCs are hypothesized to reduce the risk of immune rejection, but their production is time-consuming and expensive. Alternatively, allogenic transplantation using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched iPSCs, similar to HLA-matched organ transplantation, is currently being investigated. Expert opinion: Challenges to successful transplantation with iPSCs include surgical technique, a pathologic subretinal microenvironment, possible immune rejection, and complications of immunosuppression.
Sugiyama, Atsushi; Sakurada, Yoichi; Honda, Shigeru; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Yoneyama, Seigo; Kikushima, Wataru; Iijima, Hiroyuki
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical implications of required retreatment after 3-monthly intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections followed by as-needed reinjections up to 5 years in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 165 treatment-naïve eyes from 165 patients with exudative AMD. Visual changes were investigated in terms of the required retreatments. Retreatment-free proportions were 37.0, 23.7, 16.6, 12.1, and 10.5% at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Visual changes were significantly better in eyes which did not require retreatment at every yearly checkpoint within the 5 years. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that requirement of additional IVR treatments in the first 12-24 months was associated with the T allele (risk allele) of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.010 and 0.015, respectively). Cox regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.046) and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.036) were associated with required retreatment within the 5-year follow-up period. Age and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S are the risk factors requiring retreatments, leading to poor visual change in eyes with exudative AMD following the initial 3-monthly IVR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry
We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.
Grassmann, Felix; Fauser, Sascha; Weber, Bernhard H F
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the central retina and the main cause of legal blindness in industrialized countries. Risk to develop the disease is conferred by both individual as well as genetic factors with the latter being increasingly deciphered over the last decade. Therapeutically, striking advances have been made for the treatment of the neovascular form of late stage AMD while for the late stage atrophic form of the disease, which accounts for almost half of the visually impaired, there is currently no effective therapy on the market. This review highlights our current knowledge on the genetic architecture of early and late stage AMD and explores its potential for the discovery of novel, target-guided treatment options. We reflect on current clinical and experimental therapies for all forms of AMD and specifically note a persisting lack of efficacy for treatment in atrophic AMD. We further explore the current insight in AMD-associated genes and pathways and critically question whether this knowledge is suited to design novel treatment options. Specifically, we point out that known genetic factors associated with AMD govern the risk to develop disease and thus may not play a role in its severity or progression. Treatments based on such knowledge appear appropriate rather for prevention than treatment of manifest disease. As a consequence, future research in AMD needs to be greatly focused on approaches relevant to the patients and their medical needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress-related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. In this review, we examine the science behind the nutritional factors included in these interventional studies and the reasons for considering their inclusion to lower the rate of AMD progression. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in developed countries. In the absence of effective treatments to slow AMD progression, it is predicted that the prevalence of AMD will double over the next 20 years. One area of significant interest is the potential role that nutrition may play in preventing and/or delaying the progression of AMD. Specifically, is there any benefit in oral antioxidant and/or mineral supplementation? This review critically evaluates the currently available evidence relating to nutrition and AMD, with particular reference to the key findings of two large National Eye Institute-sponsored clinical studies, namely, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS2. Topical controversies relating to nutrition and AMD are considered and analyzed in the context of the published literature to guide practitioners through assessing the merit, or otherwise, of common claims. This article provides a foundation for clinicians to provide informed advice to AMD patients based on available research evidence.
Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul
There is uncertainty in the published literature as to whether physical activity should be advocated for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) prevention. We aimed to assess prospectively the association between physical activity and the 15-year incidence of AMD in older adults. We assessed AMD from retinal photographs. Participants provided details of walking exercise and the performance of moderate or vigorous activities, which were used to calculate metabolic equivalents (METs). After adjusting for age, adults aged ≥ 75 years in the highest tertile (the most physically active) compared to those in the lowest tertile (least physically active) were 79% less likely to have incident late AMD over the 15 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.05-0.95). However, after further adjusting for sex, body mass index, smoking, fish consumption, and white cell count, this association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06-1.28). Significant associations were not found in those aged <75 or with the 15-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. Physical activity did not influence the risk of AMD over 15 years in older adults, independent of diet, smoking, white cell count, and body mass index. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Tsao, Sean W; Fong, Donald S
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide for which preventative therapies are few. Evidence suggesting shared common risk factors and mirrored pathophysiology between cardiovascular disease and AMD led to the hypothesis that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) could be helpful in preventing AMD. For over a decade, observational studies have repeatedly investigated this hypothesis with conflicting conclusions. Although many reports conclude that statin use has no effect on the risk of AMD, no randomized controlled trial has yet been completed. Furthermore, relatively few studies factor characteristics of statin use into their analysis. A few studies have observed an incompletely explained protective effect against drusen, a funduscopic finding associated with AMD. Although there is insufficient evidence for a preventive effect of statins on dry AMD, there does seem to be stronger evidence against any effect on the development of exudative AMD. Overall, we find that there is insufficient evidence to conclude whether statin use is helpful in preventing AMD.
Christen, William G; Cook, Nancy R; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie E
Prospective data to examine the association of homocysteine with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level and AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy women. We evaluated the relationship between baseline levels of plasma homocysteine and incident AMD among 27,479 female health professionals aged 40 years or older. Main outcome measures were total AMD, defined as self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition. During an average 10 years of follow-up, a total of 452 cases of AMD, including 182 cases of visually significant AMD, were documented. Women in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma homocysteine had modestly, but statistically non-significant, increased risks of total AMD (hazard ratio, HR, 1.24, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.95-1.63; p for trend 0.07) and visually significant AMD (HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-2.17; p for trend 0.052) in age- and treatment-adjusted analyses. These prospective data from a large cohort of apparently healthy women do not support a strong role for homocysteine in AMD occurrence.
Chew, Emily Y
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS2 provided evidence for treating persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with antioxidant vitamins and minerals to reduce the risk of development of late AMD. The AREDS2 data suggest that the beta-carotene in the original AREDS supplements be replaced by lutein and zeaxanthin, providing a safer drug for those who are smokers or former smokers. Even though consuming fish reduced the risk of AMD in observational studies, the AREDS2 results showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) had no beneficial effect on AMD. Despite the major progress in the discovery of gene variants associated with AMD, the use of genetic testing to predict disease has not been clinically useful. The use of genetic testing prior to AMD therapies such as administering AREDS supplements is not recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology and other organizations. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Du, Hongjun; Sun, Xufang; Guma, Monica; Luo, Jing; Ouyang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Jing; Quach, John; Nguyen, Duy H; Shaw, Peter X; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registered blindness among the elderly and affects over 30 million people worldwide. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in pathogenesis of AMD. In advanced wet AMD, although, most of the severe vision loss is due to bleeding and exudation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and it is well known that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the growth of the abnormal blood vessels. VEGF suppression therapy improves visual acuity in AMD patients. However, there are unresolved issues, including safety and cost. Here we show that mice lacking c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit decreased inflammation, reduced CNV, lower levels of choroidal VEGF, and impaired choroidal macrophage recruitment in a murine model of wet AMD (laser-induced CNV). Interestingly, we also detected a substantial reduction in choroidal apoptosis of JNK1-deficient mice. Intravitreal injection of a pan-caspase inhibitor reduced neovascularization in the laser-induced CNV model, suggesting that apoptosis plays a role in laser-induced pathological angiogenesis. Intravitreal injection of a specific JNK inhibitor decreased choroidal VEGF expression and reduced pathological CNV. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in linking oxidative stress, inflammation, macrophage recruitment apoptosis, and VEGF production in wet AMD and pharmacological JNK inhibition offers a unique and alternative avenue for prevention and treatment of AMD.
Querques, Giuseppe; Souied, Eric H
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the United States, Europe, and other developed countries. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, current evidence suggests a multifactorial aetiology. Nutrition may play an important role in the development and progression of AMD. There have been several epidemiological studies suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids could have a protective role in AMD, but a beneficial effect remains to be demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. There also exists a substantial body of evidence suggesting that protection against AMD may be provided by specific micronutrients (vitamins and minerals and antioxidants). The identification of risk factors for the development and progression of AMD is of particular importance for understanding the origins of the disorder and for establishing strategies for its prevention. We examine the relationship between dietary omega-3 intake and the incidence and progression of AMD, as well as the role of omega-3 supplementation in the prevention of the disorder, and also explore the role of other micronutrients in AMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
García-Layana, Alfredo; Cabrera-López, Francisco; García-Arumí, José; Arias-Barquet, Lluís; Ruiz-Moreno, José M
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in developed countries. With the aging of population, AMD will become globally an increasingly important and prevalent disease worldwide. It is a complex disease whose etiology is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors. An extensive decline in the quality of life and progressive need of daily living assistance resulting from AMD among those most severely affected highlights the essential role of preventive strategies, particularly advising patients to quit smoking. In addition, maintaining a healthy diet, controlling other risk factors (such as hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis), and the use of nutritional supplements (antioxidants) are recommendable. Genetic testing may be especially important in patients with a family history of AMD. Recently, unifying criteria for the clinical classification of AMD, defining no apparent aging changes; normal aging changes; and early, intermediate, and late AMD stages, are of value in predicting AMD risk of progression and in establishing recommendations for the diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and follow-up of patients. The present review is focused on early and intermediate AMD and presents a description of the clinical characteristics and ophthalmological findings for these stages, together with algorithms for the diagnosis and management of patients, which are easily applicable in daily clinical practice. PMID:29042759
Stefanova, N A; Zhdankina, A A; Fursova, A Zh; Kolosova, N G
Decline with age of the content of melatonin is considered as one of the leading mechanisms of aging and development of associated diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--the disease, which becomes the most common cause of blindness and acuity of vision deterioration in elderly. The prospects of the use of melatonin in the prevention of AMD is being actively discussed, but as a rule on the basis of the results of the experiments on cells in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We showed previously that the senescence-accelerated OXYS rat is an adequate animal model of AMD, already used for identifying the relevant therapeutic targets. Here we have investigated the effect of Melatonin (Melaksen, 0,004 mg per kg--a dose equivalent to the recommended one for people) on the development of retinopathy similar to AMD in OXYS rats. Ophthalmoscopic examinations show that Melatonin supplementation decreased the incidence and severity of retinopathy and improved some (but not all) histological abnormalities associated with retinopathy. Thus, melatonin prevented the structural and functional changes in RPE cells, reduced the severity of microcirculatory disorders. Importantly, Melatonin prevented destruction of neurosensory cells, associative and gangliolar neurons in the retina. Taken together, our data suggest the therapeutic potential of Melatonin for treatment and prevention of AMD.
Kang, Jung-Hwan; Choung, Se-Young
Damage of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by A2E may be critical for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) management. Accumulation and photooxidation of A2E are known to be one of the critical causes in AMD. Here, we evaluated the protective effect of resveratrol (RES), piceatannol (PIC) and RES glycones on blue-light-induced RPE cell death caused by A2E photooxidation. A2E treatment followed by blue light exposure caused significant damages on human RPE cells (ARPE-19). But the damages were attenuated by post- and pre-treatment of RES and PIC in our in vitro models. The results of cell free system and FAB-MS analysis clearly showed that the reduction of A2E by blue light exposure was significantly rescued, and that oxidized forms of A2E were significantly reduced by RES or PIC treatment. Besides, RES or PIC inhibited the intracellular accumulation of A2E. Not only RES and PIC but RES glycones showed protection of ARPE-19 cells against A2E and blue-light-induced photo-damage. These findings demonstrate that RES and its analogs may have protective effects against A2E and blue-light-induced ARPE-19 cell death through regulation of A2E accumulation as well as photooxidation of A2E. Thus RES and its analogs may be beneficial for AMD treatment.
Neely, David C; Bray, Kevin J; Huisingh, Carrie E; Clark, Mark E; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision impairment in older adults in the United States, yet little is known about whether AMD is appropriately diagnosed in primary eye care. To examine the prevalence of eyes with AMD in patients seen in primary eye care clinics who purportedly have normal macular health per their medical record and the association of AMD with patient and physician characteristics. In this cross-sectional study of primary eye care practices in Birmingham, Alabama, 644 persons 60 years or older with normal macular health per medical record based on their most recent dilated comprehensive eye examination by a primary eye care ophthalmologist or optometrist were enrolled from May 1, 2009, through December 31, 2011. Data analysis was performed from May 1, 2016, through December 20, 2016. Presence of AMD as defined by the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging system based on color fundus photography and a masked grader. Types of AMD-associated lesions were noted. Patient health and physician characteristics were collected. The sample consisted of 1288 eyes from 644 participants (231 [35.9%] male and 413 [64.1%] female; mean [SD] age, 69.4 [6.1] years; 611 white [94.9%]) seen by 31 primary eye care ophthalmologists or optometrists. A total of 968 eyes (75.2%) had no AMD, in agreement with their medical record; 320 (24.8%) had AMD despite no diagnosis of AMD in the medical record. Among eyes with undiagnosed AMD, 32 (10.0%) had hyperpigmentation, 43 (13.4%) had hypopigmentation, 249 (77.8%) had small drusen, 250 (78.1%) had intermediate drusen, and 96 (30.0%) had large drusen. Undiagnosed AMD was associated with older patient age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09; P < .001), male sex (age-adjusted OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.91; P = .04), and less than a high school education (age-adjusted OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.03-5.62; P = .04). Prevalence of undiagnosed AMD was not different for
Becerra, E M; Morescalchi, F; Gandolfo, F; Danzi, P; Nascimbeni, G; Arcidiacono, B; Semeraro, F
Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is one of the first pharmacologic compounds evaluated for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The most important effects of TA consist in the stabilisation of the blood-retinal barrier and the down-regulation of inflammation. TA also has anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic properties. The peculiar characteristic of being well tolerated by ocular tissues and the capability to remain active for many months after a single intravitreal injection, make this drug a safe and effective alternative. In the past decade, intravitreal injection of TA (IVTA) has emerged as a useful treatment of several ocular diseases such as uveitis, macular edema secondary to retinal vasculature disease, neovascularisation and vitreoretinopathy. In this paper, we review all the available evidence of its use in AMD as mono-therapy or in combination with other treatments, and we discuss which role TA will play in the treatment of AMD in the future. The first experiences with IVTA as monotherapy for the treatment of exudative AMD reported a positive outcome in transiently reducing the leakage from CNV. However, in the long-term follow-up, IVTA as monotherapy had no effect on the risk of severe visual acuity loss, despite a significant anti-angiogenic effect found 3 months after the treatment. Consequently, studies using the combination of IVTA and photodynamic therapy (PDT), which acts synergistically, were performed. They reported to improve vision and to reduce the number of re-treatments with PDT. A large number of publications confirmed the positive synergic role of combining TA and PDT (therapies) for the treatment of all types of CNV: classic or predominantly classic, occult or minimally classic and RAP (Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation) lesions. The advantages registered with the use of IVTA plus PDT compared to PDT alone were partially limited by the side effects, such as the rapid evolution
Abedi, Farshad; Wickremasinghe, Sanjeewa; Richardson, Andrea J; Islam, Amirul F M; Guymer, Robyn H; Baird, Paul N
To determine the association of genetic variants in known age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk-associated genes with outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in neovascular AMD. Prospective cohort study. We enrolled 224 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Australia. Patients were treated with 3 initial monthly ranibizumab or bevacizumab injections followed by 9 months of "as required" injections based on clinician's decision at each follow-up visit according to retreatment criteria. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in known AMD risk-associated genes including CFH (rs800292, rs3766404, rs1061170, rs2274700 and rs393955), HTRA1 (rs11200638), CFHR1-5 (rs10922153, rs16840639, rs6667243, and rs1853883), LOC387715/ARMS2 (rs3793917 and rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199 and rs1047286), C2 (rs547154), CFB (rs641153) and F13B (rs6003) were examined. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the role of each SNP in treatment outcome. The influence of selected SNPs on mean change in visual acuity (VA) at 12 months. Mean baseline VA was 51 ± 16.8 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. Overall, the mean change in VA from baseline was +3.2 ± 14.9 letters at 12 months. The AA (homozygote risk) genotype at rs11200638 - HTRA1 promoter SNP (P = 0.001) and GG (homozygote risk) genotype at rs10490924 (A69S) in LOC387715/ARMS2 (P = 0.002) were each significantly associated with poorer VA outcome at 12 months after multiple correction. Mean ± standard deviation change in VA from baseline in patients with AA genotype at rs11200638 was -2.9 ± 15.2 letters after 12 months compared with +5.1 ± 14.1 letters in patients with AG or GG genotypes at this SNP. Patients with either of these genotypes were also significantly more likely to lose >15 letters after 12 months. SNPs rs11200638 and rs10490924 were in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.92). None of the other examined SNPs
Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna V; Clark, Mark E; Huisingh, Carrie E; Jackson, Gregory R; Zhang, Yuhua; McGwin, Gerald; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia
To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs. Visual functions measured were best-corrected photopic visual acuity, contrast and light sensitivity, mesopic visual acuity, low-luminance deficit, and rod-mediated dark adaptation. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were identified through multimodal imaging (color fundus photographs, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography). The sample included 1,202 eyes (958 eyes with normal health and 244 eyes with early AMD). In normal eyes, SDDs were not associated with any visual function evaluated. In eyes with early AMD, dark adaptation was markedly delayed in eyes with SDDs versus no SDD (a 4-minute delay on average), P = 0.0213. However, this association diminished after age adjustment, P = 0.2645. Other visual functions in early AMD eyes were not associated with SDDs. In a study specifically focused on eyes in normal macular health and in the earliest phases of AMD, early AMD eyes with SDDs have slower dark adaptation, largely attributable to the older ages of eyes with SDD; they did not exhibit deficits in other visual functions. Subretinal drusenoid deposits in older eyes in normal macular health are not associated with any visual functions evaluated.
Sobrin, Lucia; Maller, Julian B; Neale, Benjamin M; Reynolds, Robyn C; Fagerness, Jesen A; Daly, Mark J; Seddon, Johanna M
About 40% of the genetic variance of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can be explained by a common variation at five common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We evaluated the degree to which these known variants explain the clustering of AMD in a group of densely affected families. We sought to determine whether the actual number of risk alleles at the five variants in densely affected families matched the expected number. Using data from 322 families with AMD, we used a simulation strategy to generate comparison groups of families and determined whether their genetic profile at the known AMD risk loci differed from the observed genetic profile, given the density of disease observed. Overall, the genotypic loads for the five SNPs in the families did not deviate significantly from the genotypic loads predicted by the simulation. However, for a subset of densely affected families, the mean genotypic load in the families was significantly lower than the expected load determined from the simulation. Given that these densely affected families may harbor rare, more penetrant variants for AMD, linkage analyses and resequencing targeting these families may be an effective approach to finding additional implicated genes. PMID:19844262
Azar, G; Quaranta-El Maftouhi, M; Masella, J-J; Mauget-Faÿsse, M
To assess the evolution of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) following supplementation with various macular formulations obtained with the Visucam ® 200, and to study the factors affecting MPOD measurements. In this prospective, randomized, double-masked multicenter study, patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (patients without retinal pathology who underwent cataract surgery 1 month previously) and group B (patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration [AMD] in one eye). In each group, half of the patients were randomly assigned to receive a food supplementation either with or without carotenoids (5mg of Lutein and 1mg of Zeaxanthin). Outcome measures included MPOD responses obtained with the Visucam ® 200 for one year. In total, 126 subjects (52 men, 74 women) with a mean age of 75.3±7.61 years were enrolled. Mean MPOD values at the time of inclusion were statistically lower in group A (0.088 density unit [DU]) compared to group B (0.163 DU, P<0.05). No statistically significant increase in MPOD was noted in either group, even after discontinuation of the supplementation. By multiple regression analysis, age, female gender, lens status and the presence of AMD seemed to significantly affect MPOD measurements. No significant improvement in MPOD seems to be detected with the Visucam ® 200 after carotenoid supplementation. The MPOD measurement seems to be highly affected by cataract extraction and the presence of AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Forte, Raimondo; Panzella, Lucia; Cesarano, Ida; Cennamo, Gilda; Eidenberger, Thomas; Napolitano, Alessandra
The hypothesis that oral supplementation of the epilutein/lutein combination could augment the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was tested. In a prospective randomized interventional study, 40 consecutive patients with early-stage AMD were recruited. After a 2-week run-in period, patients were randomly treated with a daily oral administration of 8 mg epilutein and 2 mg lutein (group 1) or 10 mg lutein (group 2) for 2 months. At baseline (BL) and 1-month (M1) and 2-month visits (M2), all patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including measurement of MPOD in a 7° area (Visucam 200; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Milan, Italy). Xanthophylls were quantified in plasma, as well as the HDL, non-HDL, and erythrocyte fractions at each study visit. Twenty-one patients (mean age 69.4 ± 6.7 years, 35 eyes) were included in group 1. Mean MPOD was 0.203 ± 0.02 optical density units (ODU) at BL, and increased to 0.214 ± 0.04 ODU at M1 (p = 0.008) and 0.206 ± 0.03 ODU at M2 (p = 0.04). Sixteen patients (mean age 72.0 ± 6.3 years, 29 eyes) were included in group 2. Mean MPOD was 0.215 ± 0.03 at BL, which reduced to 0.202 ± 0.03 ODU at M1 (p = 0.003) and 0.207 ± 0.02 ODU at M2 (p < 0.001). A rise in the systemic level of total xanthophylls was observed at M1 for both groups. At M2, total xanthophylls were significantly increased only in group 1 and decreased in group 2. In patients with early-stage AMD, the administration of lutein in combination with epilutein was associated with an increased MPOD compared to the administration of lutein alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mansour, Ahmad M; Chhablani, Jay; Antonios, Rafic S; Yogi, Rohit; Younis, Muhammad H; Dakroub, Rola; Chahine, Hasan
In vitro and in vivo studies did not detect toxicity to the retinal pigment epithelium cells using intravitreal ziv-aflibercept. Our purpose is to ascertain the 3-month safety and efficacy in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal ziv-aflibercept. Prospectively, consecutive patients with wet AMD underwent ziv-aflibercept intravitreal injection (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) from March 2015 to November 2015. Monitoring of best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, cataract progression and by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were carried out at baseline day 1, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after injections. 30 eyes were treated (22 Caucasians, 8 Indians; 16 men, 14 women; 14 right eyes and 16 left eyes) with mean age of 74.3 years with 11 treatment-naïve cases and 19 having had treatment-non-naïve. Best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline logMAR 1.08-0.74 at 1 week, 0.72 at 1 month, 0.67 at 2 months and 0.71 at 3 months (p<0.001 for all time periods). Central macular thickness in microns decreased from 332.8 to 302.0 at 1 week, 244.8 at 1 month, 229.0 at 2 months and 208.2 at 3 months (p<0.001 for all time periods). There were no signs of intraocular inflammation, or change in lens status or increase in intraocular pressure throughout the study. Off label use of ziv-aflibercept improves visual acuity, without detectable ocular toxicity and offers a cheaper alternative to the same molecule aflibercept, especially in low/middle-income countries and in countries where aflibercept (Eylea) is not available. NCT02486484. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schneegans, Anna-Lena; Selbach, Michael; Kremmer, Stephan
To evaluate the effect of transpalpebral electrotherapy on patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 22 patients were randomized in two groups to either receive therapy (n = 12) or placebo (n = 10). There was no statistically significant difference for age and initial visual acuity (VA) between the two groups (p = 0.6; ANOVA). Treatment was performed on 5 consecutive days. On each day two sessions were applied. Every session included 8 spots (40 sec/spot) around the eye globe. The current applied (changing frequency 5-80 Hz) varied individually between 150 and 220 μA. Patients were examined before treatment, at the end of the 5-day treatment period, after 4 weeks and at 6 months. Examinations included a standardized VA testing, using ETDRS letters, contrast sensitivity, macular sensitivity and fixation stability using microperimetry and measurements with SD-OCT. At the end of week 1, mean VA improved markedly (p = 0.001; T test), with 7 out of 12 patients showing an improvement of more than 5 letters. After 4 weeks, there was an improvement of more than 10 letters in 3 patients (mean + 5.7 letters; p = 0.001; T test) whereas at 6 months a loss of 1.6 letters was observed. Only 4 (33%) of our patients did not show any improvement at all. Contrast sensitivity displayed a similar pattern. Within one week after treatment, there was a rapid improvement (+4.4 optotypes; p = 0.006; T test). After 6 months, contrast sensitivity declined again (+1.5 optotypes; p = 0.2; T test). Compared to the placebo group changes on VA failed statistical significance (p = 0.1 at 4 week; T test) whereas changes on contrast sensitivity were statistically significant (p = 0.01 at week 4; T test). No adverse events were seen or reported during the study period. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a transpalpebral electrostimulation in patients with dry AMD that demonstrates a temporary increase in visual function in some of these patients; results that
Ahmed, Daniel; Stattin, Martin; Graf, Alexandra; Forster, Julia; Glittenberg, Carl; Krebs, Ilse; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak
To compare the detection rate of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in treatment-naive neovascular age-related macular degeneration by swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA, Topcon's DRI Triton) working at 1,050 nm wavelength versus fluorescence angiography. Cross-sectional analysis of 156 eyes (107 neovascular age-related macular degeneration and 49 dry AMD) in 98 patients, previously diagnosed by multimodal imaging using fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (Heidelberg's Spectralis) in a tertiary retina center, evaluated by SS-OCTA 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm and 6 mm × 6 mm macular cubes. Main outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of SS-OCTA in AMD. Potential factors influencing CNV detection rate were analyzed. Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography detected CNV in 81 of 107 eyes, resulting in a sensitivity of 75.7%. In 49 eyes with dry AMD, no CNV could be identified (specificity 100%). A statistical significance was calculated for nondetection of treatment-naive CNV by SS-OCTA in pigment epithelial detachment over 400 μm (P = 0.0238). Topcon's SS-OCTA was not able to detect all CNV lesions. Large pigment epithelial detachments were associated with signal loss. Fluorescence angiography still remains the gold standard, but the tested SS-OCTA device can be considered as a feasible additional diagnostic tool in AMD.
Waugh, Norman; Loveman, Emma; Colquitt, Jill; Royle, Pamela; Yeong, Jian Lee; Hoad, Geraldine; Lois, Noemi
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual loss in older people. Advanced AMD takes two forms, neovascular (wet) and atrophic (dry). Stargardt disease (STGD) is the commonest form of inherited macular dystrophy. To carry out a systematic review of treatments for dry AMD and STGD, and to identify emerging treatments where future NIHR research might be commissioned. Systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library from 2005 to 13 July 2017 for reviews, journal articles and meeting abstracts. We looked for studies of interventions that aim to preserve or restore vision in people with dry AMD or STGD. The most important outcomes are those that matter to patients: visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, reading speed, ability to drive, adverse effects of treatment, quality of life, progression of disease and patient preference. However, visual loss is a late event and intermediate predictors of future decline were accepted if there was good evidence that they are strong predictors of subsequent visual outcomes. These include changes detectable by investigation, but not necessarily noticed by people with AMD or STGD. ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization search portal and the UK Clinical Trials gateway were searched for ongoing and recently completed clinical trials. The titles and abstracts of 7948 articles were screened for inclusion. The full text of 398 articles were obtained for further screening and checking of references and 112 articles were included in the final report. Overall, there were disappointingly few good-quality studies (including of sufficient size and duration) reporting useful outcomes, particularly in STGD. However we did identify a number of promising research topics, including drug treatments, stem cells, new forms of laser treatment, and implantable intraocular lens telescopes. In many cases, research is already under way, funded by industry or governments. In AMD
Fenwick, Eva K.; Man, Ryan E. K.; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Neelam, Kumari; Chua, Jacqueline; Gan, Alfred T. L.; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y.
Importance Understanding the link between ethnicity and health is critical to making appropriate public policy decisions. Few population-level data are available about this connection, however, including the influence of ethnicity on the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision-specific functioning (VSF). Objective To identify the influence of ethnicity on VSF among Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients with AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional, population-based study relied on patients and their data from 3 population-based studies in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and Indian. Of 10 033 Chinese, Malay, and Indian adults who participated in the study, 9962 (99.3%) who had gradable fundus images and Visual Function Index (VF-11) data available were included in the analyses for the present study. Uniocular presenting distance visual acuity was measured using the logMAR chart. Separate multiple linear regression models examined the association between AMD and VSF in the 3 ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, presenting visual acuity in the better-seeing eye, educational level, income, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol level, and other eye conditions. Data were collected between January 20, 2004, and December 19, 2011; data analysis was conducted between November 12, 2015, and December 28, 2016. Exposures Age-related macular degeneration according to fundus photographs graded using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Main Outcomes and Measures Rasch analysis was used to convert VF-11 questionnaire scores to estimated interval measures of VSF. Results Of the 9962 participants, the mean (SD) age was 58.8 (10.4) years; 4909 (49.3%) were male; 590 (5.9%) had early AMD (241 Chinese, 161 Malays, and 188 Indians) and 60 (0.6%) had late AMD (25 Chinese, 21 Malays, and 14 Indians). In the adjusted models, compared with no AMD, early AMD was
Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Vashist, Praveen; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; Thulasiraj, R. Duraisami; John, Neena; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Chakravarthy, Usha
Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in India. Methods. Of 7518 people aged 60 years and older identified from randomly sampled villages in North and South India, 5853 (78%) attended an eye examination including fundus photography. Fundus images were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Results. Fundus images were ungradable in 1587 people, mainly because of cataract. People 80 years of age and older were less likely to attend the eye examination and more likely to have ungradable images. For ages 60 to 79 years, the percent prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) were late AMD 1.2 (0.8–1.5); and early AMD: grade 1 (soft distinct drusen or pigmentary irregularities), 39.3 (37.2–41.5); grade 2 (soft distinct drusen with pigmentary irregularities or soft indistinct or reticular drusen), 6.7 (5.8–7.6); and grade 3 (soft indistinct or reticular drusen with pigmentary irregularities), 0.2 (0.1–0.4). For ages 80 and older, the respective percent prevalence was: late AMD, 2.5 (0.4–4.7); and early AMD: grade 1, 43.1(35.7–50.6); grade 2, 8.1 (4.3–12.0); and grade 3, 0.5 (0–1.5). Conclusions. The prevalence of early AMD (grades 1 and 2) is similar to that observed in Western populations, but grade 3 appears to be lower. The prevalence of late AMD is comparable to that in Western populations in the age group 60 to 79 years. It is likely that the prevalence in the 80 and older age group is underestimated. PMID:19696177
Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Farsiu, Sina; Toth, Cynthia A; Klingeborn, Mikael
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible visual dysfunction in individuals over 65 in Western Society. Patients with AMD are classified as having early stage disease (early AMD), in which visual function is affected, or late AMD (generally characterized as either "wet" neovascular AMD, "dry" atrophic AMD or both), in which central vision is severely compromised or lost. Until recently, there have been no therapies available to treat the disorder(s). Now, the most common wet form of late-stage AMD, choroidal neovascularization, generally responds to treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies. Nevertheless, there are no current therapies to restore lost vision in eyes with advanced atrophic AMD. Oral supplementation with the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) or AREDS2 formulation (antioxidant vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthin, and zinc) has been shown to reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD, although the impact was in neovascular rather than atrophic AMD. Recent findings, however, have demonstrated several features of early AMD that are likely to be druggable targets for treatment. Studies have established that much of the genetic risk for AMD is associated with complement genes. Consequently, several complement-based therapeutic treatment approaches are being pursued. Potential treatment strategies against AMD deposit formation and protein and/or lipid deposition will be discussed, including anti-amyloid therapies. In addition, the role of autophagy in AMD and prevention of oxidative stress through modulation of the antioxidant system will be explored. Finally, the success of these new therapies in clinical trials and beyond relies on early detection, disease typing, and predicting disease progression, areas that are currently being rapidly transformed by improving imaging modalities and functional assays.
Uehara, Hironori; Mamalis, Christina; McFadden, Molly; Taggart, Michael; Stagg, Brian; Passi, Samuel; Earle, Phillip; Chakravarthy, Usha; Hogg, Ruth E; Ambati, Balamurali K
To evaluate serum soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Case-control study. Study involved 56 non-AMD participants, 53 early AMD patients, and 97 neovascular AMD patients from Belfast in Northern Ireland. Serum samples were collected from each patient. Serum sFlt-1 was measured by human sVEGFR1/sFlt-1 ELISA kit. The results were analyzed by Excel and SPSS. Serum sFlt-1 concentration of non-AMD, early AMD, and neovascular AMD were 90.8 ± 2.9 pg/mL (± standard error of the mean), 88.2 ± 2.6 pg/mL, and 79.9 ± 2.2 pg/mL. sFlt-1 from neovascular AMD patients was significantly decreased compared to non-AMD and early AMD patients (ANOVA, P < .01). For each 10-point increase in sFlt-1, the odds for having neovascular AMD compared with non-AMD and neovascular AMD decrease by 27.8%, odds ratio (OR) = 0.722 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.588-0.888, P = .002) and 27.0%, OR = 0.730 (95% CI: 0.594-0.898, P = .003), respectively. In patients over 73 years of age, serum sFlt-1 <80 pg/mL was associated with a >6-fold higher risk of neovascular AMD. Reduced serum sFlt-1 differentiates those patients with neovascular AMD from both early AMD and non-AMD participants. In those aged over 73, serum sFlt <80 pg/mL seems to indicate a particularly high risk of neovascular AMD. Our results indicate serum sFlt-1 could be a biomarker for development of neovascular AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Wan-Ju Annabelle; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing blindness in the elderly. It shares many common possible pathogenic mechanisms with cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have discussed the association between AMD and stroke, but the results were inconsistent. Our aim was to determine the associations between neovascular AMD and the risk of stroke in the Taiwanese population. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used claims data from National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged more than 45 years without stroke, myocardial infarction, or any AMD were selected from 2001 to 2008 and followed until 2010. The index date was defined as the date of nAMD diagnosis (ICD-9 code, 362.52). The comparison group was patients without an nAMD diagnosis with age- and sex-matched to nAMD subjects at a ratio of up to 10 to 1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used. The incidence of stroke events (ICD-9 codes, 430-434) and their subtypes (hemorrhagic and ischemic) were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included acute myocardial infarction (AMI), composite AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a higher risk of developing stroke, with an adjusted HR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68). A higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.70, 95% CI, 1.03-2.83) was also found. No significant differences were observed in ischemic stroke, the composite of AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a significantly higher risk of developing stroke, which was driven mainly by the increased risk of developing the hemorrhagic subtype. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Querques, Giuseppe; Kamami-Levy, Cynthia; Georges, Anouk; Pedinielli, Alexandre; Capuano, Vittorio; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Poulon, Fanny; Souied, Eric H
To describe adaptive optics (AO) imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Flood-illumination AO infrared (IR) fundus images were obtained in four consecutive patients with GA using an AO retinal camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes). Adaptive optics IR images were overlaid with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence images to allow direct correlation of en face AO features with areas of foveal sparing. Adaptive optics appearance of GA and foveal sparing, preservation of functional photoreceptors, and cone densities in areas of foveal sparing were investigated. In 5 eyes of 4 patients (all female; mean age 74.2 ± 11.9 years), a total of 5 images, sized 4° × 4°, of foveal sparing visualized on confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence were investigated by AO imaging. En face AO images revealed GA as regions of inhomogeneous hyperreflectivity with irregularly dispersed hyporeflective clumps. By direct comparison with adjacent regions of GA, foveal sparing appeared as well-demarcated areas of reduced reflectivity with less hyporeflective clumps (mean 14.2 vs. 3.2; P = 0.03). Of note, in these areas, en face AO IR images revealed cone photoreceptors as hyperreflective dots over the background reflectivity (mean cone density 3,271 ± 1,109 cones per square millimeter). Microperimetry demonstrated residual function in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence. Adaptive optics allows the appreciation of differences in reflectivity between regions of GA and foveal sparing. Preservation of functional cone photoreceptors was demonstrated on en face AO IR images in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence.
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR) and/or relative risk (RR) outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD. PMID:21144031
Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.
We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694
Lee, Hyungwoo; Kang, Kyung Eun; Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Hyung Chan
To evaluate an automated segmentation algorithm with a convolutional neural network (CNN) to quantify and detect intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) through analyses of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images from patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Reliability and validity analysis of a diagnostic tool. We constructed a dataset including 930 B-scans from 93 eyes of 93 patients with nAMD. A CNN-based deep neural network was trained using 11550 augmented images derived from 550 B-scans. The performance of the trained network was evaluated using a validation set including 140 B-scans and a test set of 240 B-scans. The Dice coefficient, positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, relative area difference (RAD), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate segmentation and detection performance. Good agreement was observed for both segmentation and detection of lesions between the trained network and clinicians. The Dice coefficients for segmentation of IRF, SRF, SHRM, and PED were 0.78, 0.82, 0.75, and 0.80, respectively; the PPVs were 0.79, 0.80, 0.75, and 0.80, respectively; and the sensitivities were 0.77, 0.84, 0.73, and 0.81, respectively. The RADs were -4.32%, -10.29%, 4.13%, and 0.34%, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.98, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.98, respectively. All lesions were detected with high PPVs (range 0.94-0.99) and sensitivities (range 0.97-0.99). A CNN-based network provides clinicians with quantitative data regarding nAMD through automatic segmentation and detection of pathological lesions, including IRF, SRF, PED, and SHRM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hata, Masayuki; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ooto, Sotaro; Oishi, Akio; Tamura, Hiroshi; Miyata, Manabu; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Takahashi, Ayako; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
To investigate the difference in intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration between pachychoroid neovasculopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and its associations with responses to three monthly anti-VEGF injections as an initial treatment for the two conditions. This study included nine eyes with treatment-naïve pachychoroid neovasculopathy and 21 eyes with treatment-naïve nAMD. Before the initial intravitreal anti-VEGF injection, aqueous humor samples were collected and the concentration of VEGF was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration was compared between the two conditions, and its associations with responses to anti-VEGF therapy were investigated. The mean VEGF concentration in pachychoroid neovasculopathy was significantly lower than that in nAMD (63.4 ± 17.8 pg/ml and 89.8 ± 45.0 pg/ml, respectively; P = 0.035). The VEGF concentration was associated with the presence or absence of drusen (β = 0.503, P = 0.004). After anti-VEGF therapy, 6 (66.7%) of 9 eyes with pachychoroid neovasculopathy and 17 (81.0%) of 21 eyes with nAMD achieved dry macula (P = 0.640). Dry macula at 3 months and 12 months was significantly associated with a low VEGF concentration in pachychoroid neovasculopathy (P = 0.013 and P = 0.042, respectively), but not in nAMD (P = 0.108 and P = 0.219). The mean VEGF concentration in pachychoroid neovasculopathy was lower than that in nAMD, suggesting that the way in which VEGF is involved in angiogenesis may differ between pachychoroid neovasculopathy and nAMD.
Wang, Yujuan; Hanus, Jakub W; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Shen, Defen; Ogilvy, Alexander; Ou, Jingxing; Chu, Xi K; Shi, Guangpu; Li, Wei; Wang, Shusheng; Chan, Chi-Chao
Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and possibly associated with an activation of neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein/class II transcription activator of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)/heterokaryon incompatibility/telomerase-associated protein 1, leucine-rich repeat or nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In the present study, we used a translational approach to address this hypothesis. In patients with AMD, we observed increased mRNA levels of NLRP3, pro-interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 in AMD lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor. In vitro, a similar increase was evoked by oxidative stress or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in the adult retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cell line, and the increase was reduced in siRNA transfected cells to knockdown NLRP3. Ultrastructural studies of ARPE-19 cells showed a swelling of the cytoplasm, mitochondrial damage, and occurrence of autophagosome-like structures. NLRP3 positive dots were detected within autophagosome-like structures or in the extracellular space. Next, we used a mouse model of AMD, Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout on rd8 background (DKO rd8) to ascertain the in vivo relevance. Ultrastructural studies of the RPE of these mice showed damaged mitochondria, autophagosome-like structures, and cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are reminiscent of the pathology seen in stressed ARPE-19 cells. The data suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome may contribute in AMD pathogenesis.
Arcinue, Cheryl A.; Ma, Feiyan; Barteselli, Giulio; Sharpsten, Lucie; Gomez, Maria Laura; Freeman, William R.
Purpose To evaluate 6-month and 1-year outcomes of every 8 weeks (Q8W) aflibercept in patients with resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. Methods Retrospective review of patients with resistance (multiple recurrences or persistent exudation) to every 4 weeks (Q4W) ranibizumab or bevacizumab that were switched to Q8W aflibercept. Results Sixty-three eyes of 58 patients had a median of 13 (interquartile range (IQR), 7-22) previous anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF) injections. At 6-months after changing to aflibercept, 60.3% of eyes were completely dry, which was maintained up to one-year. The median maximum retinal thickness improved from 355 microns to 269 microns at 6 months (p<0.0001) and 248 microns at one year (p<0.0001). There was no significant improvement in ETDRS visual acuity at 6 months (p=0.2559) and one-year follow-up (p=0.1081) compared with baseline. The mean difference in ETDRS visual acuity compared to baseline