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Sample records for maculatus osteichthyes pimelodidae

  1. Reproduction and embryogenesis of the mandi-amarelo catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Pimelodidae), in captivity.

    PubMed

    Arantes, F P; Borçato, F L; Sato, Y; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2013-02-01

    To study reproduction and embryogenesis, Pimelodus maculatus specimens were kept in captivity and captured bimonthly during 1 year. Gonads samples (211 specimens) were collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Pimelodus maculatus prepared to reproduce when water temperature was high, and even reached advanced maturation but did not spawn in captivity. Spent fish gonads were not documented, and atretic follicles were frequent (60%) in late maturation females. When then submitted to hypophysation, 70% of the females responded positively to hormonal treatment. Oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after a second hormonal injection at 26°C. The fertilisation rate was 65.1 ± 9.2% at 24°C. Recently spawned oocytes of P. maculatus were spherical, non-adhesive, yellow in colour, with an average diameter of 1113.92 ± 37.02 μm and covered by a thick gelatinous layer. Blastopore closure occurred 7 h and 30 min after fertilisation. Embryonic development was completed within 18 h after fertilisation. The results of this work provide important knowledge for the handling and cultivation of not only P. maculatus, but other species of potential value for fish culture.

  2. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    PubMed Central

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  3. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

  4. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length.

  5. The effect of Anonchocephalus chilensis Riggenbach (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) on infracommunity patterns in Genypterus maculatus Tschudi (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S A; George-Nascimento, M

    2008-09-01

    The use of parasite body size (i.e. body mass) is a promising proxy to improve the study of patterns in parasite infracommunities, which are usually analysed using only numerical descriptors. This study deals with the importance and effect of the presence of a large endoparasite species, the cestode Anonchocephalus chilensis in a marine fish species, Genypterus maculatus, on the structure of the parasite infracommunities. Numerical and volumetric measures of aggregated properties of parasite infracommunities were compared and their correlation examined. The highly dominant presence of A. chilensis by volume causes a dramatic change in the patterns observed, including a smaller total volume of the remaining species when this volumetrically dominant species is present. However, C-scores and V-ratios, both indices based on null models of species occurrence, do not support the idea of communities structured by interspecific competition. Analyses reveal that numerical and volumetric community descriptors are complementary ways to search for patterns and to reveal processes within these systems. PMID:18394212

  6. Comparative application of direct sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and cytogenetic markers in the genetic characterization of Pimelodus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) species: possible implications for fish conservation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M; Bressane, K C O; Moresco, A R C; Moreira-Filho, O; Almeida-Toledo, L F; Garcia, C

    2014-01-01

    Pimelodus (Pimelodidae) is a genus comprising a group of South American species with complex taxonomic relationships. Cytogenetics, polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and sequencing data of mitochondrial genes were analyzed to characterize 4 Pimelodus species: P. fur, P. heraldoi, P. maculatus, and Pimelodus sp. All populations presented 2n=56 chromosomes and distinct karyotypic formulae. The heterochromatin distribution pattern and the number and location of 5S and 18S rDNA sites are discussed. The application of PCR-RFLP markers and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA genes provided species-specific haplotypes, which allowed us to differentiate the species studied. The mitochondrial gene sequences presented nucleotide mutations in the restriction sites and throughout the sequences, and they were mostly related to synonymous substitutions in the coded proteins; however, they did not affect the protein and its function. Comparing the data obtained using these 3 methodologies, the existence of a species complex in P. maculatus along the basins studied might be inferred, showing that cytogenetics is an important tool in studies focusing on the conservation or management of both natural and captive populations of these fishes. PMID:25036358

  7. Heteromorphic sex chromosome system with an exceptionally large Y chromosome in a catfish Steindachneridion sp. (Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Swarça, A C; Fenocchio, A S; Cestari, M M; Bertollo, L A C; Dias, A L

    2006-01-01

    The chromosomes and banding patterns of Steindachneridion sp., a large catfish (Pimelodidae), endemic to the Iguaçu River, Brazil, were analyzed using conventional (C-, G-banding) and restriction enzyme banding methods. The same diploid number (2n = 56) as in other members of the genus and the family was found but the karyotype displayed an XX/XY sex chromosome system. The X chromosome was the smallest submetacentric, while the Y was the largest chromosome in the karyotype. Meiotic analysis showed 27 autosomal bivalents plus one heteromorphic XY bivalent during spermatogenesis. Sex chromosomes had no particular pattern after C-banding but G- and restriction enzyme bandings showed specific banding characteristics. The present finding represents the first report of a well-differentiated and uncommon sex chromosome system in the catfish family Pimelodidae.

  8. Trophic ecomorphology of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from a tropical stream.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, J P A; Goulart, E; Oliveira, E F; Yamamura, C B

    2011-05-01

    The present study analysed the relationship between morphology and trophic structure of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from the Caracu Stream (22º 45' S and 53º 15' W), a tributary of the Paraná River (Brazil). Sampling was carried out at three sites using electrofishing, and two species of Loricariidae and four of Heptapteridae were obtained. A cluster analysis revealed the presence of three trophic guilds (detritivores, insectivores and omnivores). Principal components analysis demonstrated the segregation of two ecomorphotypes: at one extreme there were the detritivores (Loricariidae) with morphological structures that are fundamental in allowing them to fix themselves to substrates characterised by rushing torrents, thus permitting them to graze on the detritus and organic materials encrusted on the substrate; at the other extreme of the gradient there were the insectivores and omnivores (Heptapteridae), with morphological characteristics that promote superior performance in the exploitation of structurally complex habitats with low current velocity, colonised by insects and plants. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed an ecomorphological divergence between insectivores, which have morphological structures that permit them to capture prey in small spaces among rocks, and omnivores, which have a more compressed body and tend to explore food items deposited in marginal backwater zones. Mantel tests showed that trophic structure was significantly related to the body shape of a species, independently of the phylogenetic history, indicating that, in this case, there was an ecomorphotype for each trophic guild. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the Siluriformes of the Caracu Stream were ecomorphologically structured and that morphology can be applied as an additional tool in predicting the trophic structure of this group.

  9. Growth and reproduction of the highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, K L; Taylor, B M; Hernandez-Ortiz, D; Cuetos-Bueno, J

    2016-05-01

    Highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus sampled in Chuuk, Micronesia, exhibited a moderate growth rate and a relatively short life span compared to other epinephelids of a similar size. Combined gonad and otolith analysis provide preliminary evidence that the species conforms to a protogynous sexual pattern. Mean total length at maturity for females was 308 mm with first age at maturity 2·8 years for females and 4 years for males, which differs from other regional studies. Based on the gonado-somatic index and microscopic analysis of gonads, E. maculatus in Chuuk have a 4 month spawning season (January to April) that corresponds with seasonal lows in sea surface water temperature and overlaps with that of other aggregating epinephelids. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth factor (K) was 0·51 year(-1) , while total mortality was 0·34 year(-1) . Current management for E. maculatus in Chuuk includes a January to May catch, sale and export ban, which overlaps with its reproductive season. The effectiveness of these arrangements will require on-going monitoring to determine whether alternative management strategies are required to ensure population persistence. PMID:27021483

  10. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    PubMed

    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  11. Draft Genomes of Anopheles cracens and Anopheles maculatus: Comparison of Simian Malaria and Human Malaria Vectors in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics. PMID:27347683

  12. Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

  13. Classification of Dopamine Receptor Genes in Vertebrates: Nine Subtypes in Osteichthyes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Fontaine, Romain; Pasqualini, Catherine; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission regulates various brain functions, and its regulatory roles are mediated by two families of G protein-coupled receptors: the D1 and D2 receptor families. In mammals, the D1 family comprises two receptor subtypes (D1 and D5), while the D2 family comprises three receptor subtypes (D2, D3 and D4). Phylogenetic analyses of dopamine receptor genes strongly suggest that the common ancestor of Osteichthyes (bony jawed vertebrates) possessed four subtypes in the D1 family and five subtypes in the D2 family. Mammals have secondarily lost almost half of the ancestral dopamine receptor genes, whereas nonmammalian species kept many of them. Although the mammalian situation is an exception among Osteichthyes, the current classification and characterization of dopamine receptors are based on mammalian features, which have led to confusion in the identification of dopamine receptor subtypes in nonmammalian species. Here we begin by reviewing the history of the discovery of dopamine receptors in vertebrates. The recent genome sequencing of coelacanth, gar and elephant shark led to the proposal of a refined scenario of evolution of dopamine receptor genes. We also discuss a current problem of nomenclature of dopamine receptors. Following the official nomenclature of mammalian dopamine receptors from D1 to D5, we propose to name newly identified receptor subtypes from D6 to D9 in order to facilitate the use of an identical name for orthologous genes among different species. To promote a nomenclature change which allows distinguishing the two dopamine receptor families, a nomenclature consortium is needed. This comparative perspective is crucial to correctly interpret data obtained in animal studies on dopamine-related brain disorders, and more fundamentally, to understand the characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission in vertebrates. PMID:26613258

  14. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  15. Mechanisms of zinc toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments occurring both naturally, and through anthropogenic inputs. This study investigated impacts of sub-lethal Zn exposure in the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Known as inanga, this amphidromous fish is widespread throughout the Southern hemisphere, but to date almost nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to elevated environmental metals. Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of Zn (control, 8, 270 and 1000μgL(-1)) over 96h. End-points measured included those relating to ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body calcium and sodium influx), oxygen consumption (respirometry), oxidative stress (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) and whole body accumulation of Zn. Zn exposure caused increases in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation, but only at the highest exposure level tested. Zn also significantly inhibited calcium influx, but stimulated sodium influx, at 1000μgL(-1). The sub-lethal changes induced by Zn exposure in inanga appear to be conserved relative to other, better-studied species. These data are the first to explore the sensitivity of juvenile galaxiid fish to Zn, information that will be critical to ensuring adequate environmental protection of this important species.

  16. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  17. Two Nerocila species parasitizing Pomadasys maculatus from Nagapattinam, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    Two species of Cymothoidae (Nerocila loveni and Nerocila sundaica) were collected on the host fish Pomadasys maculatus from the Nagapattinam coast. Pomadasys maculatus is a new host for these parasitic isopods not previously recorded in the world. Nerocila loveni was mainly attached on the caudal peduncle of the fish and N. sundaica was collected from the pectoral fin and the body of the host. For N. loveni and N. sundaica, the prevalence reached 28.70 and 26.08 % respectively. One parasite was collected per host fish. PMID:27605820

  18. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a

  19. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a

  20. A new species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasite of Ariopsis guatemalensis (Osteichthyes: Ariidae) from Tres Palos lagoon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gopar-Merino, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis

    2005-08-01

    Hysterothylacium perezi n. sp. is described from the intestine of the "cuatete" Ariopsis guatemalensis Günther, 1864 (Osteichthyes: Ariidae), in Tres Palos, a coastal lagoon located in the Mexican Pacific basin. The new species differs from all other species of Hysterothylacium Ward and Magath, 1917, in possessing a spinous postcloacal pad. In addition, H. perezi is readily distinguished from the 21 species described in fishes from America and Hawaii by having the greatest number of caudal papillae (47 to 51 pairs + 1 single, precloacal papillae). This species is the third described from hosts inhabiting estuarine environments in America and the fourth reported in Mexico. PMID:17089763

  1. First report of the characterization of the pathophysiological mechanisms caused by the freshwater catfish Pimelodus maculatus (order: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Beatriz Elena; Rangel, Marisa; Gonçalves, Jacqueline Coimbra; Pereira, Lilibete; Rego, Solange; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Haddad, Vidal; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2015-07-01

    Injuries caused by aquatic animals in Brazil in most cases are provoked by marine and freshwater catfish. Pimelodus maculatus is a freshwater catfish very common in Brazilian basins that causes frequent accidents mainly amongst fishermen, and whose venom characteristics and pathological mechanisms of the venom are poorly known. In the present study for the first time, we have characterized the main pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the clinical manifestation (pain, local inflammation and edema) of the envenomations caused by P. maculatus crude venom. It was estimated that the crude venom of one P. maculatus stinger contains approximately 100 μg of protein, likely the quantity involved in the envenomation. P. maculatus crude venom induced marked nociceptive and edematogenic effects and caused vascular permeability alterations at doses from 30 to 100 μg/animal. Additionally, P. maculatus crude venom caused a decrease in the contraction force in in situ frog heart, did not cause hemorrhage or alterations in clotting times (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), but induced significant changes in the levels of CK and its isoenzyme CK-MB in mice. In the present work, we present a correlation between the effects obtained experimentally and the main symptoms observed in the human accidents provoked by P. maculatus. PMID:25911957

  2. Modification of postmortem wounds by Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) activity: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of insect activity on hacking trauma which was inflicted with a small cleaver and a razor blade under controlled conditions. Three pig hooves were each subjected to a blow with a small cleaver and a cut with a razor blade prior to insect exposure. We used Dermestes maculatus DeGeer 1774 species. These beetles made principally depressions and destruction on both wounds, and bites were observed on the edges of the wounds. As time passed and insects fed and refuge, chop marks were deformed and disappeared, taking this less than a month. Thus, D. maculatus could mask postmortem wounds and probably premortem wounds, and so the cause of death. PMID:26352289

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  4. Modification of postmortem wounds by Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) activity: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of insect activity on hacking trauma which was inflicted with a small cleaver and a razor blade under controlled conditions. Three pig hooves were each subjected to a blow with a small cleaver and a cut with a razor blade prior to insect exposure. We used Dermestes maculatus DeGeer 1774 species. These beetles made principally depressions and destruction on both wounds, and bites were observed on the edges of the wounds. As time passed and insects fed and refuge, chop marks were deformed and disappeared, taking this less than a month. Thus, D. maculatus could mask postmortem wounds and probably premortem wounds, and so the cause of death.

  5. Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Noronha, Eliane F; Miller, Robert N G; Costa, Fabio T; Pereira, Caroline D; Mehta, Angela; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L

    2008-12-01

    Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds. Entomopathogenic organisms can offer an alternative to conventional pesticides for pest control, producing hydrolases that degrade insect exoskeleton. In this study, protein secretions of the ascomycete Metarhizium anisopliae, which conferred bioinsecticidal activity against Callosobruchus maculatus, were characterized via 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteases, reductases and acetyltransferase enzymes were detected. These may be involved in degradation and nutrient uptake from dehydrated C. maculatus. Proteins identified in this work allowed description of metabolic pathways. Their potential applications in biotechnology include both novel compound development and production of genetically modified plants resistant to insect pests.

  6. Genetic divergence between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Paraná River Basin.

    PubMed

    Bignotto, T S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Maniglia, T C; Boni, T A; Lucio, L C; Gomes, V N; Prioli, R A; Oliveira, A V; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M

    2009-06-01

    Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz, 1829) and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eingenmann and Eigenmann, 1889) are large migratory catfishes of high biological importance and great commercial value in South America. Because fertile crossbreeds can be artificially produced in hatcheries, a high genetic proximity between these two Pimelodidae species is conceivable. Possible escape of crossbred specimens from pisciculture stations is a serious environmental concern. Despite their importance, knowledge of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum biology, ecology, population diversity and genetics is limited. In the present work, the genetic divergence between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum populations from the Paraná River Basin was analyzed on the basis of polymorphisms in ISSR fragments and in the hypervariable sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Estimates of intraspecific haplotype (h > 0.5) and nucleotide diversities (pi < 0.01) indicate that P. corruscans and P. reticulatum have survived a historical population decline, followed by a demographic expansion. The interspecific polymorphisms within the mtDNA control region and ISSR fragments were suitable as diagnostic molecular markers and could be used to discriminate the two species. A unique Pseudoplatystoma specimen, captured in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain, was identified by these DNA diagnostic markers as a hybrid P. reticulatum x P. corruscans, which possibly escaped from pisciculture. The integrity of the natural population of P. corruscans in the Upper Paraná River is at risk of genetic introgression or homogenization due to the presence of hybrids and the transposition of P. reticulatum upstream through the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam. Data presented herein improve the understanding of the genetic relatedness between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and represent potential tools for future programs of conservation and surveillance of genetic introgression events and the

  7. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J.; Downs, Kevin P.; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj < 0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure. PMID:24556253

  8. Repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Thymus persicus against Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y

    2008-01-01

    Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity. PMID:19226805

  9. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption. PMID:27078512

  10. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  11. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  12. The De Novo Transcriptome and Its Functional Annotation in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally. PMID:27442123

  13. The De Novo Transcriptome and Its Functional Annotation in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally. PMID:27442123

  14. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of the Morinda lucida essential oil against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides.

  15. Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most

  16. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  17. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  18. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle. PMID:26981762

  19. Smell no evil: Copper disrupts the alarm chemical response in a diadromous fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Oliver R B; Barbee, Nicole C; Hassell, Kathryn L; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    Fish, at all life stages, utilize olfactory information in the decision-making processes essential to survival. Olfaction is a sensitive sensory process, and toxicants within urban aquatic environments can have destructive or depreciating effects. In the present study, the authors exposed Galaxias maculatus, a native fish commonly found in urban waterways throughout southeastern Australia, to 1 of 5 ecologically relevant copper (II) chloride concentrations (<1 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 8 μg/L, 18 μg/L) for 16 h. After exposure, the authors tested the response of individual fish to 1 of 3 stimuli: a conspecific skin extract containing a stress-inducing alarm chemical odor, a conspecific odor, and distilled water as a control. Stress responses were quantified through behavioral assays. The authors found evidence for distinct changes in behavioral response with increasing copper concentration and a marked difference in response between control fish and fish exposed to the alarm chemical odor. Copper, even at relatively low concentrations, can have a significant effect on the stress response behavior shown by G. maculatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2209-2214. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552396

  20. Current insecticide susceptibility status of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus Theobald to malathion, permethrin, DDT and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Aziz, I; Zurainee, M N; Rohana, S H; Zamree, I; Lee, H L

    2014-03-01

    Chemical insecticides are still considered as important control agents for malaria vector control. However, prolonged use of these chemicals may select mosquito vectors for resistance. In this study, susceptibility status of adult Anopheles maculatus collected from 9 localities in peninsular Malaysia, viz., Jeli, Temerloh, Pos Banun, Senderut, Jeram Kedah, Segamat, Kota Tinggi, Kluang and Pos Lenjang were determined using the standard WHO bioassay method in which the adult mosquitoes were exposed to standard insecticide impregnated papers malathion, permethrin, DDT and deltamethrin--at pre-determined diagnostic dosage. Deltamethrin was most effective insecticide among the four insecticides tested, with the LT50 of 29.53 min, compared to malathion (31.67 min), DDT (47.76 min) and permethrin (48.01 min). The effect of all insecticides on the laboratory strain was greater (with all insecticides demonstrated LT50 < 1 hour) than the field strains (deltamethrin 32.7, malathion 53.0, permethrin 62.0, DDT 67.4 min). An. maculatus exhibited low degree of resistance to all test insecticides, indicating that these chemical insecticides are still effective in the control of malaria vector.

  1. Sex allocation and interactions between relatives in the bean beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Reece, Sarah E; Wherry, Ruth N; Bloor, Juliette M G

    2005-11-01

    When a small number of females contribute offspring to a discrete mating group, sex allocation (Local Mate Competition: LMC) theory predicts that females should bias their offspring sex ratio towards daughters, which avoids the fitness costs of their sons competing with each other. Conversely, when a large number of females contribute offspring to a patch, they are expected to invest equally in sons and daughters. Furthermore, sex ratios of species that regularly experience variable foundress numbers are closer to those predicted by LMC theory than species that encounter less variable foundress number scenarios. Due to their patterns of resource use, female Callosobruchus maculatus are likely to experience a broad range of foundress number scenarios. We carried out three experiments to test whether female C. maculatus adjust their sex ratios in response to foundress number and two other indicators of LMC: ovipositing on pre-parasitised patches and ovipositing with sisters. We did not find any evidence of the predicted sex ratio adjustment, but we did find evidence of kin biased behaviour.

  2. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  3. Zanobatus maculatus, a new species of panray from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Zanobatidae).

    PubMed

    Séret, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A new species of panray, Zanabatus maculatus sp. nov., is described from 12 type specimens collected in the Gulf of Guinea (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new species is distinguished from its sympatric congener, the striped panray Zanobatus schoenleinii, by its smaller size, heavier thorn pattern, spearhead-shaped dermal denticles and maculate colour pattern. PMID:27615946

  4. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.

  5. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    PubMed Central

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  6. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    PubMed

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F₁ progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  7. Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

  8. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations. Results Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π) and the haplotype diversity index (H) indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), and H+-ATPase (HA) was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G

  9. Molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus maculatus-X. couchianus interspecies hybrid skin to UVB exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Bowswell, Mikki; Bowswell, William; Yang, Kuan; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic and genetic similarities between Xiphophorus and human melanoma render Xiphophorus a useful animal model for studying the genetic basis of melanoma etiology. In the Xiphophorus model, melanoma has been shown to be inducible by ultraviolet light (UVB) exposure among interspecies hybrids, but not in parental line fish similarly treated. This leads to questions of what genes are responsive to UVB exposure in the skin of the interspecies hybrids, as well as how parental alleles in hybrids may be differentially regulated and the potential roles they may play in induced melanomagenesis. To address these questions, we produced X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus (Sp-Couch) F1 hybrid fish, exposed both hybrid and parental fish to UVB, and performed gene expression profiling of the skin using RNA-Seq methodology. We characterized a group of unique UVB-responsive genes in Sp-Couch hybrid including dct, pmela, tyr, tyrp1a, slc2a11b, rab38a, rab27, tspan10, slc45a2, oca2, slc24a5, ptn and mitfa. These genes are associated with melanin production and melanocyte proliferation. They were also up-regulated in Sp-Couch hybrid, indicating that their UVB response is hybridization initiated. In the hybrid, several melanin production and pigmentation related genes, including slc45a2, tspan10, dct, slc2a11b and ptn showed either X. couchianus or X. maculatus allele specific expression. The finding that these genes exhibit allele specific expression regulatory mechanisms in Sp-Couch hybrids, but do not exhibit a corresponding UVB response in either one of the parental fishes, may suggest UVB targets and imply mechanisms regarding the susceptibility of Sp-Couch to induced melanomagenesis.

  10. Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5′-RACE and 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5′- and 3′- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. PMID:24533145

  11. Intra-specific variation in female remating in Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Matsumura, Fumi

    2004-05-01

    The effects of mating duration on female remating (exp. 1) and under different male densities (exp. 2) were examined in two strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis and in one strain of the bruchid beetle, C. maculatus. In experiment 1, the frequency of female remating was markedly different between the two strains of C. chinensis. Females of the jC strain, reared long-term in the laboratory, did not remate after being allowed to mate freely (=monogamy), whereas females of the isC strain, recently established from the field, showed high remating frequencies (=polyandry). In both strains, the frequency of female remating increased after the duration of the first mating was deliberately shortened. The relation between mating duration and remating frequency was significantly different, however, between the two strains. In a closely related species, C. maculatus, which manifests polyandry, this relation was more similar to that of the field-derived (=isC) than to that of the laboratory-derived (=jC) strain of C. chinensis. The reasons for the inter-strain variation observed in the remating frequencies of C. chinensis are also discussed. In experiment 2, the mating duration of the three strains was compared under different male densities. Only the lab-derived strain demonstrated a significantly shorter mating duration when one female was placed together with five males than when paired with one male. The shorter mating duration (approximately 26 s) was similar to that of females allowed to remate in the monogamous strain in experiment 1.

  12. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  13. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

  14. A Kunitz-type inhibitor of coleopteran proteases, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds and its effect on Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Sá, Claudia Mara; Freire, Maria Das Graças Machado; Parra, José Roberto Postali

    2004-05-01

    The cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the major pests of Vigna unguiculata cowpea. Digestion in the cowpea weevil is facilitated by high levels of cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases. Plants synthesize a variety of molecules, including proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors, to defend themselves against attack by insects. In this work, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds showed activity against papain. The inhibition of papain by ApTI was of the noncompetitive type, with a K(i) of 1 microM. ApTI was highly effective against digestive proteinases from C. maculatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil), and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil) and was moderately active against midgut proteinases from the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. In C. maculates fed an artificial diet containing 0.25% and 0.5% ApTI (w/w), the latter concentration caused 50% mortality and reduced larval weight gain by approximately 40%. The action of ApTI on C. maculatus larvae may involve the inhibition of ApTI-sensitive cysteine proteinases and binding to chitin components of the peritrophic membrane (or equivalent structures) in the weevil midgut.

  15. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.

  16. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  17. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n.

  18. Control of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using the essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A

    2012-01-01

    The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ρ-cymene (3.5%), β-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010 g L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001 g L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant.

  19. The importance of carcass volatiles as attractants for the hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (De Geer).

    PubMed

    von Hoermann, C; Ruther, J; Reibe, S; Madea, B; Ayasse, M

    2011-10-10

    A decaying cadaver emits volatile organic compounds that are used by necrophilous and necrophagous insects in order to find their brood substrate. Although volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released by carcasses have been identified, little is known about the specific compounds that are used by these insects while searching for a brood substrate. Therefore, we have investigated the chemical ecology involved in the attraction of the necrophagous hide beetle Dermestes maculatus, which feeds as an adult and larva upon decomposing carcasses. Our aims have been to identify the responsible compounds in the odours of the carcass that are important for the attraction of the beetles. Furthermore, we have studied sex- and age-related differences in beetle attraction and tested whether the hide beetle can distinguish between various stages of decomposition by means of the emitted odours. Headspace collection of volatiles released from piglet carcasses (bloated stage, post-bloating stage, advanced decay and dry remains), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and bioassays were conducted to identify the volatiles responsible for the attraction of the beetles. Freshly emerged male beetles were attracted by the odour of piglets in the post-bloating stage (9 days after death; T(mean) = 27 °C) and the EAD-active compound benzyl butyrate. Statistical analysis revealed a higher relative proportion of benzyl butyrate in the odour bouquet of the post-bloating stage in comparison with the other stages. We therefore conclude that this compound plays an important role in the attraction of hide beetles to carcass odour. This underlines the potential use of D. maculatus for the estimation of the post mortem interval. The decomposition stage at which the female beetles are attracted to the odour of a cadaver remains unknown, as does the nature of this attraction. Pheromones (sexual or aggregation

  20. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues.

  1. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues. PMID:25097041

  2. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  3. The genetic architecture of sexual conflict: male harm and female resistance in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Brown, E; Tregenza, T; Pincheira-Donoso, D; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hunt, J; Hosken, D J

    2011-02-01

    Males harm females during mating in a range of species. This harm is thought to evolve because it is directly or indirectly beneficial to the male, despite being costly to his mate. The resulting sexually antagonistic selection can cause sexual arms races. For sexually antagonistic co-evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation for traits involved in female harming and susceptibility to harm, but even then intersexual genetic correlations could facilitate or impede sexual co-evolution. Male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates during copulation by damaging the female's reproductive tract. However, there have been no investigations of the genetic variation in damage or in female susceptibility to damage, nor has the genetic covariance between these characters been assessed. Here, we use a full-sib/half-sib breeding design to show that male damage is heritable, whereas female susceptibility to damage is much less so. There is also a substantial positive genetic correlation between the two, suggesting that selection favouring damaging males will increase the prevalence of susceptible females. We also provide evidence consistent with intralocus sexual conflict in this species.

  4. Can preference for oviposition sites initiate reproductive isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

    PubMed

    Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

  5. Effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic agents on locomotion in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Fok, M; Stein, R B

    2002-08-01

    Some neurotransmitters act consistently on the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in a wide range of vertebrates. In contrast, acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA) have various effects on locomotion in different preparations. The roles of ACh and NA have not been studied in amphibian walking, so we examined their effects in an isolated spinal cord preparation of the mudpuppy ( Necturus maculatus). This preparation contains a CPG that produces locomotor activity when N-methyl- D-aspartic acid (NMDA), an excitatory amino acid agonist, is added to the bath. The addition of carbachol, a long acting ACh agonist, to the bath disrupted the walking rhythm induced by NMDA, while not changing the level of activity in flexor and extensor motoneurons. Adding clonidine, an alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonist, had no effect on the NMDA-induced walking rhythm. Physostigmine, an ACh-esterase inhibitor, disrupted the walking rhythm, presumably by potentiating the effects of endogenously released ACh. Atropine, an ACh antagonist that binds to muscarinic ACh receptors, blocked the effects of carbachol, indicating that the action is mediated, at least in part, by muscarinic receptors. In the absence of carbachol, atropine had no effect. Locomotion was not induced by carbachol, atropine or clonidine in a resting spinal cord preparation. Cholinergic actions do not seem to be essential to the CPG for walking in the mudpuppy, but ACh may convert a rhythmic walking state to a more tonic state with occasional bursts of EMG activity for postural adjustments.

  6. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  7. Identification and functional analysis of interferon regulatory factor 3 in Lateolabrax maculatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Wei, Qun; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Chun-Lei; Bi, Yan-Hui; Gu, Yi-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a member of the IFN regulatory transcription factor family, which binds to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) within the promoter of IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes. In this study, the IRF3 cDNA of sea perch Lateolabrax maculatus (SpIRF3) was identified, which contained 1781 bp with an open reading frame of 1398 bp that coded a 465 amino acid protein. The SpIRF3 protein shared conserved characterizations with its homologues and displayed the conserved DNA-binding domain, IRF association domain, serine-rich C-terminal domain, and tryptophan residue cluster. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that SpIRF3 belonged to the IRF3 subfamily. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpIRF3 mainly resided in the cytoplasm without stimuli but translocated into nuclei in the presence of poly I:C. Real-time PCR data indicated that SpIRF3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by poly I:C stimulation in various organs. Moreover, reporter assay revealed that SpIRF3 functioned as a modulator in triggering the IFN response by inducing the activity of IFN and ISRE-containing promoter. These data revealed that SpIRF3 was a potential molecule in the IFN immune defense system against viral infection. PMID:27181713

  8. Seasonal dynamics of the flower head infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by two nonfrugivorous tephritids.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. PMID:25368091

  9. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  10. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  11. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  12. Potential of combining neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    PubMed

    Lale; Mustapha

    2000-07-01

    The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C. maculatus. The interaction of the strategies also significantly reduced percentage of cowpea seeds infested by C. maculatus. Treatment of seeds with NSO at the rates of 50 mg/5 g and 75 or 100 mg/5 g reduced seed damage from over 25% in controls to less than 10% and less than 5%, respectively, in all varieties. PMID:10758260

  13. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. PMID:26245779

  14. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species.

  15. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE) for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001) and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001). However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001). Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40%) significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus. PMID:27336696

  16. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE) for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001) and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001). However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001). Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40%) significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus. PMID:27336696

  17. Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks.

  18. Potential of the Lectin/Inhibitor Isolated from Crataeva tapia Bark (CrataBL) for Controlling Callosobruchus maculatus Larva Development.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A; de Sá, Leonardo F R; de Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Correia, Maria Tereza dos S; Paiva, Patrícia Maria G; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2015-12-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus is an important predator of cowpeas. Due to infestation during storage, this insect affects the quality of seed and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CrataBL, a multifunction protein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, on C. maculatus larva development. The protein, which is stable even in extreme pH conditions, showed toxic activity, reducing the larval mass 45 and 70% at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/w), respectively. Acting as an inhibitor, CrataBL decreased by 39% the activity of cysteine proteinases from larval gut. Conversely, the activity of serine proteinases was increased about 8-fold. The toxic properties of CrataBL may also be attributed to its capacity of binding to glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans. Such binding interferes with larval metabolism, because CrataBL-FITC was found in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and feces of larvae. These results demonstrate the potential of this protein for controlling larva development. PMID:26568149

  19. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. PMID:26443776

  20. Sexual size and shape dimorphism and allometric scaling patterns in head traits in the New Zealand common gecko Woodworthia maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clint D

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them.

  1. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. PMID:26443776

  2. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  3. Potential of the Lectin/Inhibitor Isolated from Crataeva tapia Bark (CrataBL) for Controlling Callosobruchus maculatus Larva Development.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A; de Sá, Leonardo F R; de Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Correia, Maria Tereza dos S; Paiva, Patrícia Maria G; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2015-12-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus is an important predator of cowpeas. Due to infestation during storage, this insect affects the quality of seed and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CrataBL, a multifunction protein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, on C. maculatus larva development. The protein, which is stable even in extreme pH conditions, showed toxic activity, reducing the larval mass 45 and 70% at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/w), respectively. Acting as an inhibitor, CrataBL decreased by 39% the activity of cysteine proteinases from larval gut. Conversely, the activity of serine proteinases was increased about 8-fold. The toxic properties of CrataBL may also be attributed to its capacity of binding to glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans. Such binding interferes with larval metabolism, because CrataBL-FITC was found in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and feces of larvae. These results demonstrate the potential of this protein for controlling larva development.

  4. Dietary shift in juvenile coral trout ( Plectropomus maculatus) following coral reef degradation from a flood plume disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Colin K. C.; Bonin, Mary C.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2016-06-01

    Acute environmental disturbances impact on habitat quality and resource availability, which can reverberate through trophic levels and become apparent in species' dietary composition. In this study, we observed a distinct dietary shift of newly settled and juvenile coral trout ( Plectropomus maculatus) following severe coral reef habitat degradation after a river flood plume affected the Keppel Islands, Australia. Hard coral cover declined by ~28 % in the 2 yr following the 2010-2011 floods, as did the abundance of young coral trout. Gut contents analysis revealed that diets had shifted from largely crustacean-based to non-preferred prey fishes following the disturbances. These results suggest that newly settled and juvenile coral trout modify their diet and foraging strategy in response to coral habitat degradation. This bottom-up effect of habitat degradation on the diet of a top coral reef predator may incur a metabolic cost, with subsequent effects on growth and survival.

  5. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo.

  6. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species.

  7. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

  8. Paracreptotrema blancoi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiformes: Allocreadiidae) in the Olomina, Priapichthys annectens (Osteichthyes: poeciliidae), from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Brooks, Daniel R; Daverdin, Rita

    2006-06-01

    A new species of allocreadiid digenean is described from Priapichthys annectens (Regan) (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae) in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. A new genus, Paracreptotrema, is proposed to accommodate this species as well as Fellodistomum mendezi Songandares-Bernal, 1955, which was previously described from another poeciliid, Brachyrhaphis episcopi, in Panama. Paracreptotrema differs from all other nominal genera of Allocreadiidae by a combination of its symmetrical testes, restricted vitellaria, and the lack of oral lappets (muscular 'papillae') or other such appendages. Paracreptotrema blancoi n. sp. resembles Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928, but differs in lacking ventral oral lappets and in having vitellaria extending posteriorly only to the level of the testes. It can be distinguished from P. mendezi n. comb. in having a relatively larger and more posteriorly placed acetabulum, vitellaria that are more restricted anteriorly, smaller testes, and a uterus that does not extend to the posterior end of the body. The genus seems to be restricted to poeciliids in Central America.

  9. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established. PMID:26250192

  10. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-17

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.

  11. Bioefficacy of a long-lasting insecticide impregnated net on blood feeding inhibition of Anopheles maculatus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    PubMed

    Beng, Tan Swee; Vythilingam, Indra; Lim, Lee Han

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bioefficacy and blood feeding inhibition of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions using the WHO tunnel test method on unwashed and washed long-lasting insecticide impregnated net with extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by 80 degrees C on the same net during washing. PermaNet exhibited fairy high durability to washing (5 washes) and had fairy long-lasting bioefficacy against Anopheles maculatus for blood feeding inhibition on both unwashed (39 months) and washed (26 months) nets. However, Perma-Net exhibited lower bioefficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus. This study also suggested that the application of extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by an increased heat at 80 degrees C on the same net exerted significant differences (p < 0.05) in mortality of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, extrinsic heat treatment did not enhance any significant increase in blood feeding inhibition of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (p > 0.05). An. maculatus exhibited significant differences in resting preference after a successful blood meal, as more blood-fed and live females preferred to rest and stay near the bait in the mouse cage, and more dead and unfed females were found in the outer cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05). Conversely, fully blood-fed and live Cx. quinquefasciatus females did not show any resting preference between the mouse cage and outer cage, but there were more dead and unfed females in the mouse cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05).

  12. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus.

  13. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres-2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen-and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  14. Corticosterone treatment has subtle effects on thermoregulatory behavior and raises metabolic rate in the New Zealand common gecko, Hoplodactylus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Preest, Marion R; Cree, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Baseline concentrations of adrenal glucocorticoids often vary substantially in wild vertebrates in the field. In at least one ectotherm, females of the New Zealand common gecko, Hoplodactylus maculatus, this variation in baseline (not stress-induced) corticosterone appears to be correlated with variation in body temperature (T(b)). We tested the hypothesis that elevated corticosterone affects thermoregulatory behavior so as to raise T(b) and that, independently of an increase in T(b), corticosterone increases metabolic rate. Compared with geckos receiving placebo implants, those that received implants containing corticosterone displayed heat-seeking behaviors, had a higher mean T(b) in their home cages, and, at one time of day, selected a higher mean T(b) in a thermal gradient. At a constant T(b), corticosterone-treated geckos consumed oxygen at a rate approximately 50% higher than placebo geckos. This work has far-reaching implications for a variety of physiological and ecological processes in ectotherms and suggests that corticosterone should be considered as a variable influencing T(b) and metabolism in future studies.

  15. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kathryn B.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Rosa, Márta E.; Sloan, Nadia S.; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351

  16. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Robinson, Stephen P; Rosa, Márta E; Sloan, Nadia S; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351

  17. Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

    2012-08-01

    Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism.

  18. Outbreak of hirame rhabdovirus infection in cultured spotted sea bass Lateolabrax maculatus on the western coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-G; Do, J W; Jung, S H; Han, H-J

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we determined the cause of a disease outbreak in spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus reared in culture cages on the western coast of Korea in 2013. The major signs in the diseased fish exhibited were haemorrhaging on the membranes of the abdomen, gastrointestinal organs and opercular gills, as well as an enlarged spleen. No external morphological signs of infection were visible, except for a darkening in colour. No parasites or pathological bacteria were isolated from the diseased fish; however, epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells inoculated with tissue homogenates from the diseased fish showed cytopathic effects (CPEs). Virus particles in the EPC cells were bullet-shaped, 185-225 nm long and 70-80 nm wide, characteristic of Rhabdoviridae. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of homogenized tissues from the diseased fish and supernatants of cell cultures with CPEs indicated specific, 553-bp-long fragments corresponding to the matrix protein gene of the hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV). Phylogenetically, the HIRRV phosphoprotein gene of spotted sea bass was more closely related to phosphoproteins from Chinese and Polish HIRRV strains than from other Korean strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HIRRV infection in cultured spotted sea bass.

  19. Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

    2012-08-01

    Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism. PMID:22594940

  20. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    PubMed

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  1. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B.; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  2. A RAD-Tag Genetic Map for the Platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) Reveals Mechanisms of Karyotype Evolution Among Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3–40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24–25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104

  3. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  4. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

  5. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  6. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus

  7. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  8. Rapid adaptation to a novel host in a seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus): the role of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran

    2007-02-01

    Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 x 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural

  9. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids. PMID:25477682

  10. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.

  11. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region. PMID:26262594

  12. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region.

  13. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  14. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  15. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  16. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  17. Effects of insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in West Africa on the development of flat-backed toad tadpoles (Amietophrynus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-02-01

    In the West African savanna zone, traditional subsistence farming increasingly shifts to cash crop farming and in particular to cotton cultivation, which is accompanied by application of pesticides. Increasing use of pesticides by smallholder farmers is suspected to have negative effects on non-target organisms. In this study, possible pesticide impact on the development of tadpoles was investigated. Two insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in Benin were compared: Cotofan® (active ingredient (a.i.): α- and β-endosulfan) and Tihan® (a.i.: spirotetramat and flubendiamide). Tadpoles of the widespread species Amietophrynus maculatus were kept in small water basins with increasing insecticide concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg a.i./L) over a period of 28 days. Tadpoles showed reduced survival at the highest endosulfan concentrations (100 μg/L). Survival of tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis was not influenced by Tihan®. Endosulfan in concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/L negatively impacted the movement of the tadpoles which was not the case for the mixture of spirotetramat and flubendiamide. Time to metamorphosis was not significantly different in the various treatments. Tail length of tadpoles was significantly shorter in Cotofan® treatments compared to controls. Pesticide residues in the tadpoles were relatively low after keeping them in concentrations of 1 and 10 μg a.i./L (25 and 26 μg/kg wet weight (w/w) for the sum of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate and below the detection limits for flubendiamide and spirotetramat). For the 100 μg a.i./L treatments, 1,600 μg/kg w/w was found of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate together in the survived tadpoles and 21 μg/kg w/w of flubendiamide.

  18. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  20. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  1. Detection of dwarf gourami iridovirus (Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus) in populations of ornamental fish prior to and after importation into Australia, with the first evidence of infection in domestically farmed Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Anneke E; Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Lintermans, Mark; Landos, Matthew; Stephens, Fran; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    The movement of ornamental fish through international trade is a major factor for the transboundary spread of pathogens. In Australia, ornamental fish which may carry dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), a strain of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), have been identified as a biosecurity risk despite relatively stringent import quarantine measures being applied. In order to gain knowledge of the potential for DGIV to enter Australia, imported ornamental fish were sampled prior to entering quarantine, during quarantine, and post quarantine from wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets in Australia. Samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of megalocytivirus. Farmed and wild ornamental fish were also tested. Megalocytivirus was detected in ten of fourteen species or varieties of ornamental fish. Out of the 2086 imported gourami tested prior to entering quarantine, megalocytivirus was detected in 18.7% of fish and out of the 51 moribund/dead ornamental fish tested during the quarantine period, 68.6% were positive for megalocytivirus. Of fish from Australian wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets 14.5% and 21.9%, respectively, were positive. Out of 365 farmed ornamental fish, ISKNV-like megalocytivirus was detected in 1.1%; these were Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus). Megalocytivirus was not detected in free-living breeding populations of Blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus) caught in Queensland. This study showed that imported ornamental fish are vectors for DGIV and it was used to support an import risk analysis completed by the Australian Department of Agriculture. Subsequently, the national biosecurity policy was revised and from 1 March 2016, a health certification is required for susceptible families of fish to be free of this virus prior to importation. PMID:26452601

  2. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA in Sorubim lima (Teleostei; Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Sczepanski, T S; Vicari, M R; de Almeida, M C; Nogaroto, V; Artoni, R F

    2013-01-01

    Interspaced repetitive DNA elements and segmental duplications have been extensively analyzed in fishes through physical chromosome mapping methods, providing a better comprehension of the structure and organization of the genome of this group. In order to contribute to this scenario, a sequence integration study of different classes of repetitive DNA with high resolution physical chromosome mapping was performed in Sorubim lima. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber-FISH with probes for 18S and 5S rRNA genes, TTAGGGn sequence and non-LTR retrotransposon family members Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6 showed that non-LTR elements may be dispersed in the chromosome set with relative concentration in heterochromatic regions, as shown by Rex1, or may even intercalate in 45S rDNA and the telomeric sequence, as found for Rex3 and Rex6. These results reinforce the presence of preferential regions of retroelement accumulation and contribute to a better understanding of the genomic organization of some repetitive DNA classes in fishes. PMID:24060610

  3. Scale structure in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne; Heaslop, Meg; Carr, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are secreted within the dermis by a capsule of scleroblasts, and enclosed in a pouch made of collagen fibers, in contact with the epidermis over the posterior third of the scale. Each scale grows from a focus, which represents the first formed part of the scale. On the internal surface of the scale is elasmodin, made of collagen fiber bundles arranged in layers. Elasmodin, unmineralized in N. forsteri, contains cells in the living animal, and the number of layers increases as the scales grow. Squamulin, on the thin external part of the scale, is also laid down in layers, and based on a matrix of fine collagen fibrils, mineralized with a poorly crystalline biogenic calcium hydroxylapatite. Squamulin is divided into separate sections called squamulae, and contains long tubules with cells applied to the wall of the tubule. The anterior and lateral surfaces of the squamulin are ornamented with pediculae, and the posterior surface has longitudinal ridges, from which collagen fibers extend to anchor the scale within the pouch. Elasmodin and squamulin are linked by unmineralized collagen fibrils. The layers, formed at irregular intervals, are connected around the margin of the scale, effectively converting the whole scale into a flat structure resembling a pearl, with the first formed tissues deeply embedded inside the scale, and the youngest on the outer surface. Incremental lines in the hard tissue, and the number of layers in the elasmodin, do not reflect the chronological age of the fish.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  5. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  6. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  7. Cytogenetic studies in three Pimelodella meeki populations (Pisces, Pimelodidae) from Tibagi River basin (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Vidotto, A P; Swarça, A C; Fenocchio, A S; Dias, A L

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed cytogenetically specimens of Pimelodella meeki from Tibagi River at Limoeiro (LM) and from two tributaries, Couro do Boi (CB) and Gabriel da Cunha (GC) Rivers. All specimens presented 2n=46 chromosomes, which were the karyotypes composed by 15 pairs metacentric (M) + 6 pairs submetacentric (SM) + 2 pairs subtelocentric (ST). In specimens of GC, CB, and LM, the results of analyses of the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), done by means of AgNO3 and CMA3 staining, showed that they are identical, located in terminal position on the short arm of a SM chromosome pair, and they were observed to be a size heteromorphism in some metaphase plates. FISH with 18S rDNA probe yielded evidence for these regions but not for the size variation, indicating that they are not due to a greater number of NOR cistrons in one of the homologue chromosomes. An interesting characteristic of these regions is that they could appear divided in blocks, as evidenced by all the techniques. This work makes clear the necessity for more deeply systematic studies, because of the confused taxonomic situation of the genus Pimelodella.

  8. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America. PMID:25271459

  9. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b). PMID:27470724

  10. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-05-09

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.

  11. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-07-11

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b).

  12. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.

  13. Morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract in carnivorous freshwater Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Faccioli, Claudemir Kuhn; Chedid, Renata Alari; do Amaral, Antônio Carlos; Franceschini Vicentini, Irene Bastos; Vicentini, Carlos Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, a freshwater carnivorous catfish found in Neotropical region, using gross anatomy, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This species presented a short and tubular esophagus with thick longitudinal folds. The esophageal mucosa was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing epithelial cells, club cells and also numerous goblet cells, which secreted acidic and neutral mucins to protect and lubricate the epithelium. The stomach was a J-shaped saccular organ consisting of the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. The cardiac and fundic regions contained tubular gastric glands, whereas these glands were absent in the pyloric region. The gastric epithelial cells presented apical secretions that predominantly consisted of neutral mucins. The gastric musculature was, therefore, likely designed for retaining prey and the mechanical preparation of food. The intestine consisted of four regions: anterior, middle, posterior and rectal. The anterior intestine possessed thick folds to increase the surface area for absorption, the middle intestine was coiled and the posterior intestine presented thin folds and a thick musculature. The intestinal epithelium consisted mainly of enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes were columnar cells with a PAS-positive brush border that contained lysosomes in the posterior intestine. Goblet cells were more numerous in the posterior intestine and secreted acidic and neutral mucins important for lubricating and protecting the epithelium. The rectum was lined by columnar epithelium with goblet cells and epithelial cells containing apical acidic and neutral mucins.

  14. Cranial nerves of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae [Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii: Actinistia], and comparisons with other craniata.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R G; Bemis, W E

    1993-01-01

    We reconstructed the cranial nerves of a serially sectioned prenatal coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. This allowed us to correct several mistakes in the literature and to make broad phylogenetic comparisons with other craniates. The genera surveyed in our phylogenetic analysis were Eptatretus, Myxine, Petromyzon, Lampetra, Chimaera, Hydrolagus, Squalus, Mustelus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepisosteus, Amia, Neoceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Latimeria and Ambystoma. Cladistic analysis of our data shows that Latimeria shares with Ambystoma two characters of the cranial nerves. Our chief findings are: 1) Latimeria possesses an external nasal papilla and pedunculated olfactory bulbs but lacks a discrete terminal nerve. In other respects its olfactory system resembles the plesiomorphic pattern for craniates. 2) The optic nerve is plicated, a character found in many but not all gnathostomes. Latimeria retains an interdigitated partial decussation of the optic nerves, a character found in all craniates surveyed. 3) The oculomotor nerve supplies the same extrinsic eye muscles as in lampreys and gnathostomes. As in gnathostomes generally, Latimeria has a ciliary ganglion but its cells are located intracranially in the root of the oculomotor nerve, and their processes reach the eye via oculomotor and profundal rami. 4) The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle as in all craniates that have not secondarily reduced the eye and its extrinsic musculature. 5) The profundal ganglion and ramus are entirely separate from the trigeminal system, with no exchange of fibers. This character has an interesting phylogenetic distribution: in hagfishes, lampreys, lungfishes and tetrapods, the profundal and trigeminal ganglia are fused, whereas in other taxa surveyed the ganglia are separate. The principal tissues innervated by the profundal nerve are the membranous walls of the tubes of the rostral organ. 6) As in lampreys and gnathostomes, the trigeminal nerve has maxillary and mandibular rami. Unlike all other gnathostomes surveyed, the trigeminal nerve of Latimeria lacks a sizable superficial ophthalmic ramus. Thus, Latimeria lacks the well-developed superficial ophthalmic complex reported in most other fishes. As in gnathostomes generally, the maxillary ramus of the trigeminal nerve fuses with the buccal ramus of the anterodorsal lateral line nerve to form the buccal+maxillary complex. We reject the term 'Gasserian ganglion', which is often applied to the fused profundal and trigeminal ganglion of tetrapods. 7) The abducent nerve innervates not only the lateral rectus muscle (a character common to myopterygians) but also the basicranial muscle. As we previously reported, it is probable that the basicranial muscle of Latimeria is homologous to the ocular retracter muscle of amphibians.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. Formation and structure of scales in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2012-05-01

    The large elasmoid scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are formed within the dermis by unpigmented scleroblasts, growing within a collagenous dermal pocket below a thick glandular epidermis. The first row of scales, on the trunk of the juvenile lungfish, appears below the lateral line of the trunk, single in this species, at around stage 53. The scales, initially circular in outline, develop anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of initiation in the mid-trunk region, and rows are added alternately below the line, and above the line, until they reach the dorsal or ventral midline, or the margins of the fins. Scales develop later on the ventral surface of the head, from a separate centre of initiation. Scales consist of three layers, all produced by scleroblasts of dermal origin. The outermost layer of interlocking plates, or squamulae, consists of a mineralised matrix of fine collagen fibrils, covered by unmineralised collagen and a single layer of cells. Squamulae of the anterior and lateral surfaces are ornamented with short spines, and the mineralised tissue of the posterior surface is linked to the pouch by collagen fibrils. The innermost layer, known as elasmodin, consists of bundles of thick collagen fibrils and cells arranged in layers. An intermediate layer, made up of collagen fibrils, links the outer and inner layers. The elasmoid scales of N. forsteri can be compared with scale types among other osteichthyan groups, although the cellsand canaliculi in the mineralised squamulae bear little resemblance to typical bone.

  16. The epithelial sodium channel in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Maejima, Sho; Yoshie, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Konno, Norifumi; Joss, Jean M P

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a Na(+)-selective, aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in sodium transport homeostasis. ENaC is rate-limiting for Na(+) absorption in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs of tetrapods. Although the ENaC/degenerin gene family is proposed to be present in metazoans, no orthologues or paralogues for ENaC have been found in the genome databases of teleosts. We studied full-length cDNA cloning and tissue distributions of ENaCα, β and γ subunits in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Neoceratodus ENaC (nENaC) comprised three subunits: nENaCα, β and γ proteins. The nENaCα, β and γ subunits are closely related to amphibian ENaCα, β and γ subunits, respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills, kidney and rectum. Amiloride-sensitive sodium current was recorded from Xenopus oocytes injected with the nENaCαβγ subunit complementary RNAs under a two-electrode voltage clamp. nENaCα immunoreactivity was observed in the apical cell membrane of the gills, kidney and rectum. Thus, nENaC may play a role in regulating sodium transport of the lungfish, which has a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This is interesting because there may have been an ENaC sodium absorption system controlled by aldosterone before the conquest of land by vertebrates.

  17. Cartilage, bone, and intermandibular connective tissue in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates.

  18. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection.

  19. Molecular study of Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) as a probable species complex.

    PubMed

    Deprá, I C; Gomes, V N; Deprá, G C; Oliveira, I J; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2014-08-07

    Astyanax altiparanae, belonging to the bimaculatus group, which includes species with similar colors and morphology, occurs in the upper Paraná River basin. As the use of mitochondrial DNA has made great strides in the diagnosis of species, in previous researches, two strains were detected in A. altiparanae with a high divergence in the D-loop region, provisionally called AltoPR and AltoPR-D. Evidence led to the hypothesis that the two strains did not belong to the same species. Phylogenetic hypotheses were produced by maximum-likelihood. Mean internal distances of the AltoPR and AltoPR-D groups were respectively 0.002 and 0.003, with the distance between them being 0.037. Sequences from GenBank of specimens collected from the Paraíba do Sul River basin were also divided into two groups, of which one may be identified as AltoPR. Since the other group provided an intermediate distance when compared to AltoPR-D, an in-depth investigation was required. The other species analyzed showed a greater distance and was revealed to be a monophyletic taxon. The results suggested that they are really two species and that neither corresponds to the other species used in the current study.

  20. Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes: Prochilodontidae) from the Paraná River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R S; Martins, M L; Marengoni, N G; Francisco, C J; Piazza, R S; Takahashi, H K; Onaka, E M

    2005-11-25

    This work evaluated parasitic infections by Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus captured between August 2000 and August 2001 in the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo, Brazil. Of 87 fishes examined, 59 were infected (25 males and 34 females). High mean intensities occurred in August 2000 (45.2, range 2-204), September 2000 (28.5, range 11-73), October 2000 (59.3, range 2-250) and February 2001 (27.3, range 3-73). There was no relationship of rainfall with mean intensity and prevalence. Males were more parasitized (P<0.05) than females. This work contributes to the knowledge of helminth parasites of fish from a little studied region of the Paraná River, showing diversity in their fauna when compared to other places in the same river.

  1. Reproductive biology of a Characidiinae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba River, Maricá-RJ.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Caramaschi, E P; Fenerich-Verani, N

    2002-08-01

    The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length--weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.

  2. Reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P

    2005-11-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs.

  3. Structure and Possible Functions of Constant-Frequency Calls in Ariopsis seemanni (Osteichthyes, Ariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Jörg; Esser, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, Tavolga conducted a series of experiments in which he found behavioral evidence that the vocalizations of the catfish species Ariopsis felis may play a role in a coarse form of echolocation. Based on his findings, he postulated a similar function for the calls of closely related catfish species. Here, we describe the physical characteristics of the predominant call-type of Ariopsis seemanni. In two behavioral experiments, we further explore whether A. seemanni uses these calls for acoustic obstacle detection by testing the hypothesis that the call-emission rate of individual fish should increase when subjects are confronted with novel objects, as it is known from other vertebrate species that use pulse-type signals to actively probe the environment. Audio-video monitoring of the fish under different obstacle conditions did not reveal a systematic increase in the number of emitted calls in the presence of novel objects or in dependence on the proximity between individual fish and different objects. These negative findings in combination with our current understanding of directional hearing in fishes (which is a prerequisite for acoustic obstacle detection) make it highly unlikely that A. seemanni uses its calls for acoustic obstacle detection. We argue that the calls are more likely to play a role in intra- or interspecific communication (e.g. in school formation or predator deterrence) and present results from a preliminary Y-maze experiment that are indicative for a positive phonotaxis of A. seemanni towards the calls of conspecifics. PMID:23741408

  4. Polyphyletic origins of schizothoracine fish (Cyprinidae, Osteichthyes) and adaptive evolution in their mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The schizothoracine fish, also called snow trout, are members of the Cyprinidae, and are the most diversified teleost fish in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Clarifying the evolutionary history of the schizothoracine fish is therefore important for better understanding the biodiversity of the QTP. Although morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies have supported the monophyly of the Schizothoracinae, a recent molecular phylogenetic study based on the mitochondrial genome questioned the monophyly of this taxon. However, the phylogenetic analysis of that study was on the basis of only three schizothoracine species, and the support values were low. In this report, we inferred the phylogenetic tree on the basis of mitochondrial genome data including 21 schizothoracine species and five closely related species, and the polyphyletic origins of the Schizothoracinae were strongly supported. The tree further suggests that the Schizothoracinae consists of two clades, namely the "morphologically specialized clade" and the "morphologically primitive clade", and that these two clades migrated independently of each other to the QTP and adapted to high altitude. We also detected in their mitochondrial genomes strong signals of positive selection, which probably represent evidence of high-altitude adaptation. In the case of the morphologically specialized clade, positive selection mainly occurred during the Late Paleocene to the Early Oligocene. Its migration also seems to have occurred in the Early Eocene, and this timing is consistent with the drastic uplifting of the QTP. On the other hand, positive selection in the morphologically primitive clade has mainly occurred since the Late Miocene. Because its members are thought to have migrated to the QTP recently, it is possible that they are now undergoing high-altitude adaptation. PMID:25747043

  5. Feeding ecology of Gila boraxobius (Osteichthyes: Cyprindae) endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.E.; Williams, C.D.

    1980-06-30

    Gila boraxobius is a dwarf species of cyprinid endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon. Despite a relatively depauperate fauna and flora in the lake, 24 food items were found in intestines of G. boraxobius. Ten of the 24 foods, including six insects, were of terrestrial origin. The relative importance of food items fluctuated seasonally. Diatoms, chironomid larvae, microcrustaceans, and dipteran adults were the primary foods during spring. In summer, diatoms decreased and terrestrial insects increased in importance. During autumn important foods were terrestrial insects, chironomid larvae, and diatoms. Diatoms and microcrustaceans increased in importance during winter. Chironomid larvae were of importance in winter, when the importance of terrestrial food items decreased substantially. Similar food habits were observed between juveniles and adults, except that adults consumed more gastropods and diatoms and juveniles consumed more copepods and terrestrial insects. Gila boraxobius feeds opportunistically with individuals commonly containing mostly one food item. Fish typically feed by picking foods from soft bottom sediments or from rocks. However, fish will feed throughout the water column or on the surface if food is abundant there. Gila boraxobius feeds throughout the day, with a peak in feeding activity just after sunset. A daily ration of 11.1 percent body weight was calculated for the species during June. A comparison of food habits among G. boraxobius and populations of G. alvordensis during the summer shows that all are opportunistic in feeding, but that G. boraxobius relies more heavily on terrestrial foods.

  6. The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

  7. Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

    2009-09-01

    One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

  8. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  9. Ultrastructural studies of Henneguya rhamdia n. sp. (Myxozoa) a parasite from the Amazon teleost fish, Rhamdia quelen (Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Edilson; Tajdari, Jessica; Azevedo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Henneguya rhamdia n. sp. is described in the gill filaments of the teleost fish Rhamdia quelen, collected from the Peixe Boi River, State of Pará, Brazil. This myxosporean produced spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 300 microm in diameter, which contained developmental stages, including spores. Several dense bodies up to 2 microm in diameter were observed among the spores. The spore body was ellipsoidal (13.1 microm in length, 5.2 microm in width, and 2.5 microm in thickness) and each of the two valves presented a tapering tail (36.9 microm in length). These valves surrounded the binucleated sporoplasm cell and two equal ellipsoidal polar capsules (4.7 x 1.1 microm), which contained 10-11 (rarely 12) polar filament coils. The sporoplasm contained sporoplasmosomes with a laterally eccentric dense structure with a half-crescent section. Based on the data obtained by electron microscopy and on the host specificity, the spores differed from previously described Henneguya species, mainly in their shape and size, number and arrangement of the polar filament coils, and sporoplasmosome morphology.

  10. Metazoan endoparasites diversity of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) as an indicator of environmental alterations on a tropical aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels.

  11. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  12. Metazoan endoparasites diversity of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) as an indicator of environmental alterations on a tropical aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels. PMID:25119352

  13. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for F ST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2-2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2-2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin.

  14. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  15. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied. PMID:16341415

  16. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  17. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Hirayama, Kentaro; Fukuda, Kenji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Saito, Tadao; Newgrain, Keith; Merchant, Jim; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Milk oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the tiger quoll a species of marsupial that is closely related to the eastern quoll, Dasyurus viverrinus. They were characterized by (1)H - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following oligosaccharides were identified; Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3) Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with an α(2-3)Neu5Ac linked to β(1-4)Gal residue of either branch of Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6) units, and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with a β(1-3) linked Gal and an α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac. In addition, larger oligosaccharides were characterized as follows; Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc and their α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac derivatives.

  18. Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

  19. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  20. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Hirayama, Kentaro; Fukuda, Kenji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Saito, Tadao; Newgrain, Keith; Merchant, Jim; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Milk oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the tiger quoll a species of marsupial that is closely related to the eastern quoll, Dasyurus viverrinus. They were characterized by (1)H - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following oligosaccharides were identified; Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3) Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with an α(2-3)Neu5Ac linked to β(1-4)Gal residue of either branch of Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6) units, and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with a β(1-3) linked Gal and an α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac. In addition, larger oligosaccharides were characterized as follows; Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc and their α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac derivatives. PMID:27206413

  1. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  2. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  3. Analysis of spawning behavior, habitat, and season of the federally threatened Etheostoma scotti, Cherokee darter (Osteichthyes: Percidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, C.M.; Porter, B.A.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Etheostoma scotti (Cherokee darter) is a member of the subgenus Ulocentra and a federally threatened endemic to the Etowah River system, GA. Field observations of spawning behavior of the Cherokee darter were made at five stream sites to identify spawning season and habitat over two field seasons. Cherokee darters primarily spawn in pool habitats between mid-March and early June, at temperatures between 11 and 18 ?C. Egg deposition was typically on large gravel substrate, but ranged from gravel to bedrock in size and included woody debris. Spawning occurred in a variety of depths (0.09-0.59 m) and velocities (0-0.68 m/s).

  4. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  5. Redescription of Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus (Osteichthyes: Hiodontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Nelson, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is redescribed from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus in southern Manitoba. The redescription adds details regarding the surface morphology and reproductive structures of the parasite not described previously. These include the characteristic tegumental papillae around the oral opening, paired papillae on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the body, and tegumental bosses on the dorsal surface of the forebody. Crepidostomum opeongoensis co-occurred with its hypothesized sister species, Crepidostomum illinoiense, in all host individuals harboring the former, and both species are characteristic of hiodontids. The association of C. opeongoensis with hiodontids and the absence of hiodontids in Lake Opeongo where C. opeongoensis was originally reported indicate that the Algonquin Park region may have had hiodontids in the past and that the life cycle may be completed at present without the original fish host.

  6. Endo-parasitic helminthes of four mormyrid species (Osteichthyes: Mormyridae) from a West African flood river system.

    PubMed

    Nwani, C D; Oti, E E; Odoh, G E; Ezenwaji, H M G

    2008-01-15

    Mormyrus rume rume, Hyperopisus bebe bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii sampled from the Anambra river with a fleet of gill nets, traps and hook and line were examined for endo-parasitic helminthes from October 2005 to September 2006. Recovered helminthes were Rhadinorhynchus horridus from the intestine of H. bebe bebe and G. petersii; Procamallanus laeviconchus from the stomach of M. rume rume and C. tamandua; Spinitectus mormyri from the stomach of M. rume rume; Contracaecum sp. from the coelom of H. bebe bebe, G. petersii and C. tamandua, whereas an unidentified cestode infected the intestine of all the mormyrids. G. petersii constitutes a new host record for R. horridus; M. rume rume for S. mormyri and M. rume rume and C. tamandua for P. laeviconchus. In cases of mixed infection the parasites occupied their preferred habitats. The overall prevalence of the endo-parasites in the fish hosts was 41.9%, which is within the range (< 50%) typical of southern Nigerian freshwater lotic habitats. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of R. horridus in its host fishes were higher in the dry (October/November-March) than the rainy season (April-September/October); in the nematodes (P. laeviconchus, S. mormyri and Contracaecum) the reverse was the case, whereas no definite pattern was exhibited by the unidentified cestode. P. laeviconchus appeared reddish from engorgement of blood but no damage was evident at the point of attachment. Local inflammation where R. horridus was attached to the mucosa of the intestine was not considered severe. R. horridus and P. laeviconchus are probably the most important parasites of the mormyrids in terms of fishery management in the Anambra river system.

  7. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  8. Phylogeography of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Siluriformes - Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin offers preliminary evidence for the first case of "homing" for an Amazonian migratory catfish.

    PubMed

    Batista, J S; Alves-Gomes, J A

    2006-12-01

    The large pimelodid, Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, is one of the two most important catfish species for the fisheries in the Amazon. It is captured by commercial and artisanal fishing fleets in at least five Amazonian countries, at fishing grounds more than 5000 km apart. Current evidence suggests a complex life cycle that includes the longest reproductive migration known for a freshwater fish species. Experimental fisheries have pointed to a decrease in yield in the Western Amazon. However, reliable information about the capture and status of this fishery resource is still nonexistent, and no study has ever addressed its genetic diversity. We sequenced the entire D-loop of 45 individuals of B. rousseauxii, fifteen from each of three different fishing locations along the main channel of the Solimões-Amazonas System covering a distance of around 2200 km. Results of phylogenetic analyses, molecular diversity estimations, analysis of molecular variance, and nested clade analysis, together show that there is no genetic segregation associated with location in the main channel, as one would expect for a migratory species. However, the significant decrease found in genetic diversity towards the western part of the Amazon could be explained by a non-random choice of tributary to spawn. It is possible that the genetic diversity of the migrating schools decreases towards the west because portions of the species' genetic diversity are being "captured" by the different effluents, as the fish migrates to spawn in the headwaters. Like the salmon in North America, B. rousseauxii may be returning to their home tributary to spawn.

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River.

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. PMID:25733151

  11. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species.

  12. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  13. Insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and α-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 μL. L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 μL. L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 μL .cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests. PMID:23949717

  14. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  15. [Anisakidae larvae (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) parasites of the bluewing searobin Prionotus punctatus (Bloch, 1793) (Osteichthyes: Triglidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bicudo, Alvaro J A; Tavares, Luiz E R; Luque, José L

    2005-01-01

    Eighty specimens of Prionotus punctatus (Bloch, 1793) from Angra dos Reis, coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (23 degrees 01 'S, 44 degrees 19 'W), were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Three species of larval nematodes anisakids were found, Anisakis sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. from the liver and mesenteries. These nematodes are described and a revision of available literature concerning nematodes belonging to these genera was made. PMID:16229755

  16. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  17. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, A S; Luque, J L

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W and 23 degrees 05'S, 44 degrees 30'W), Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91%) specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes) were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957) was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955) showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  18. A new cryptogonimid (Digenea) from the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), in several localities of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.

  19. Geographical variation in metazoan parasites of the deep-sea fish Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 (Osteichthyes: Ipnopidae) from the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, Paula; Montero, Francisco E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the parasite fauna of Bathypterois mediterraneus, the most common fish below 1500 m in Western Mediterranean waters. Samples were obtained during July 2010 from the continental slope of two different areas (off Catalonia and Balearic Islands) in three different bathymetric strata at depths between 1000 and 2200 m. The parasite fauna of B. mediterraneus included a narrow range of species: Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum, Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Anisakis sp. larva 3 type II and Sarcotretes sp. Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum and H. aduncum were the most predominant parasites. H. aduncum showed significant differences in abundance between depths of 2000-2200 m with 1000-1400 m and 1400-2000 m, irrespective of locality, whereas S. cf. dorsolineatum showed significant differences between the two localities at all depths except for 2000-2200 m. We suggest the possible usefulness of these two parasites as geographical indicators for discriminating discrete stocks of B. mediterraneus in Western Mediterranean waters.

  20. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  1. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented.

  2. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Fajer-Avila, E J; Bakenhaster, M

    2010-03-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae, Perciformes), from the Gulf of Mexico off Treasure Island, Florida, USA. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in having a smooth gubernaculum with a distinct dorsal tooth on the distal tip. The new species is most similar to P. carolinensis Moravec, de Buron & Roumillat, 2006, but differs in length and shape of spicules. It can be distinguished from P. carolinensis and other species with unknown males, by the markedly greater body length of gravid females (up to about 100 cm). Philometra floridensis is the third valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from sciaenids. PMID:19580690

  3. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; De Chambrier, A; Yamashita, M M

    2009-02-01

    This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of 'tucunaré', but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for 'tucunaré' might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir. PMID:19347164

  4. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  5. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors act at different spatial and temporal scales to shape population structure, distribution and speciation in Italian Barbus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Luca; Zaccara, Serena; Delmastro, Giovanni B; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Salzburger, Walter; Gante, Hugo F

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have given substantial attention to external factors that affect the distribution and diversification of freshwater fish in Europe and North America, in particular Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles. In the present paper we examine sequence variation at one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (over 3 kbp) from populations sampled across several drainages of all species of Barbus known to inhabit Italian freshwaters (introduced B. barbus and native B. balcanicus, B. caninus, B. plebejus and B. tyberinus). By comparing species with distinct ecological preferences (rheophilic and fluvio-lacustrine) and using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny we gained considerable insight about the intrinsic and extrinsic processes shaping barbel distribution, population structure and speciation. We found that timescales of Italian barbel diversification are older than previously thought, starting in the Early Miocene, and involving local and regional tectonism and basin paleo-evolution rather than Pleistocene glacial cycles. Conversely, more recent environmental factors associated with glaciation-deglaciation cycles have influenced species distributions. These events had a more marked impact on fluvio-lacustrine than on rheophilic species by means of river confluence at low sea levels. We show that genetic structure is influenced by species ecology: populations of small rheophilic species inhabiting upper river stretches of large basins are less connected and more differentiated than large fluvio-lacustrine species that inhabit lower river courses. We report the existence of both natural and human-induced interspecific gene flow, which could have great impacts on the evolution and persistence of species involved. In addition, we provide evidence that B. tyberinus is genetically distinguishable from all other Italian taxa and that its morphological similarity to B. plebejus and intermediacy with B. caninus are best explained by recent common ancestry and similar ecology with the former, rather than by hybrid origin involving these two species as previously hypothesized.

  6. Mitochondrial D-loop nucleotide diversity in Astyanax (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná and upper Paraguay River basins.

    PubMed

    Prioli, A J; Carlo, V A; Soria, T V; Prioli, S M A P; Pavanelli, C S; Prioli, R A; Gomes, V N; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M

    2012-04-27

    The morphological discrimination between the species Astyanax altiparanae and A. asuncionensis of the upper Paraná River and Paraguay River basins, respectively, has always been difficult. Two D-loop haplogroups of A. altiparanae are known, one with the presence (AltoPR) or the absence (AltoPR-D) of a 32-bp block similar to that in A. asuncionensis. We examined these samples to characterize A. altiparanae and verify whether A. asuncionensis occurred in the upper Paraná River prior to the submergence of the Sete Quedas Falls when Itaipu reservoir was impounded. D-loop sequences were analyzed in A. altiparanae of the upper Paraná and Iguaçu Rivers and those of A. asuncionensis of the upper Paraguay River. The haplogroup AltoPR was found at all sites of the upper Paraná and Iguaçu Rivers, whereas AltoPR-D occurred in the Itaipu reservoir, floodplain and in the Tietê and Grande Rivers. Two haplogroups of A. asuncionensis were identified and both did not have the 32-bp block. However, AltoPR and AltoPR-D differed from one another in 5.1% of their bases and between 8.9 and 12.5% with regard to the haplogroups of the upper Paraguay basin. Further, AltoPR-D occurred in the Grande River upstream the Marimbondo Falls and other older reservoirs than Itaipu. The results reject the hypothesis of the establishment of A. asuncionensis and suggest that the haplogroup AltoPR-D existed in the upper Paraná River before the impounding of the Itaipu reservoir. Moreover, morphological similarity and high genetic variation within the altiparanae/asuncionensis group suggest the existence of a cryptic species complex.

  7. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.

  8. Diet shifts related to body size of the pirambeba Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 (Osteichthyes, Serrasalminae) in the Cajuru Reservoir, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A K; Alvim, M C; Peret, A C; Alves, C B

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed to identify shifts in the Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 diet related to body size. Specimens were collected from April 1992 to January 1993 at the Cajuru Reservoir, in the Pará River, São Francisco River Basin, by seining the shore with nets of nylon, 1 mm opening, and with gill nets. Stomach contents of 152 individuals measuring 15-192 mm SL were examined. Food items were identified and weighed separately. For qualitative analysis, the frequency of occurrence method was used. The relative importance of each food component was determined based on the alimentary index (IAi). The frequencies of occurrence data were subjected to cluster analysis using the Canberra coefficient of dissimilarity and UPGMA as the cluster method. Distinctive gradual changes in food habits, associated with body size, were identified in this species. The smaller individuals fed predominantly on microcrustaceans and insect larvae. The intermediate size classes ingested insects, fish fins, fish scales, and chunks of fish flesh, in this order of importance. For the larger pirambebas, fish was the most abundant food category identified, followed by insects.

  9. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. PMID:27028984

  10. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs.

  11. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Osteichthyes: Lutjanidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Lutjanidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: Philometra argentimaculati sp. n. and Philometra fulvi sp. n. from the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) and blacktail snapper Lutjanus fulvus (Foerster), respectively. P. argentimaculati is mainly characterised by the body length of male 2.56-3.07 mm, needle-like spicules 183-228 μm long, length of the gubernaculum at 90-120 μm, distal end of the gubernaculum with lamellar structures without a dorsal protuberance and by the dorsally non-interrupted male caudal mound. P. fulvi differs from all Philometra spp. with described males in the rectangular shape of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and is noted for the length of needle-like spicules 123-138 μm, that of the gubernaculum 69-93 μm and for the presence of a dorsal protuberance and lamella-like structures on the gubernaculum distal end. These are the first nominal species of philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the region of the Indian Ocean. A necessity of further detailed studies on philometrids parasitising marine fishes worlwide is stressed.

  12. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of Floridosentis ward, 1953 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) parasites of mullets (Osteichthyes) from Mexico, using 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Morrone, Juan J; García-Varela, Martín

    2012-08-01

    Species of Floridosentis (Acanthocephala) are common parasites of mullets (Mugil spp., Mugilidae) found in tropical marine and brackish water in the Americas. Floridosentis includes 2 species distributed in Mexico, i.e., Floridosentis pacifica, restricted to the Pacific Ocean near Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, and Floridosentis mugilis, distributed along the coast of the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. We sampled 18 populations of F. mugilis and F. pacifica (12 from the Pacific and 6 from the Gulf of Mexico) and sequenced a fragment of the rDNA large subunit to evaluate phylogenetic relationships of populations of Floridosentis spp. from Mexico. Species identification of museum specimens of F. mugilis from the Pacific Ocean was confirmed by examination of morphology traits. Phylogenetic trees inferred with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference indicate that Floridosentis is monophyletic comprising of 2 major well-supported clades, the first clade corresponding to F. mugilis from the Gulf of Mexico, and the second to F. pacifica from the Pacific Ocean. Genetic divergence between species ranged from 7.68 to 8.60%. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.14 to 0.86% for F. mugilis and from 1.72 to 4.49% for F. pacifica. Data obtained from diagnostic characters indicate that specimens from the Pacific Ocean in Mexico have differences in some traits among locations. These results are consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis, indicating that F. pacifica is distributed in the Pacific Ocean in Mexico with 3 major lineages.

  14. Effect of 2,4-D herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of juveniles of Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Fish form important fisheries and aquaculture resources worldwide. In Brazil, pearl eartheater (Geophagus brasiliensis) is an important commercially exploited species and is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of herbicides that are often detected in the aquatic environment. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to G. brasiliensis and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, and the neutral red retention time assay to estimate effects at the cellular level. Such investigations have not been carried out before with this species. First, the acute toxicity of 2,4-D to G. brasiliensis in terms of the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h medium lethal concentration (LC(50)) was calculated to be 45.95, 32.49, 28.28, and 15.16 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that exposure of fish to 40 mg/l 2,4-D caused reduction in oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of 59% and 85%, respectively, in relation to the controls. Mean neutral red retention time assay was significantly lower in comparison with control for organisms exposed to 1, 5, 10, and 40 mg/l 2,4-D. However, the effects at the cellular level were progressive, suggesting that the fish are not able to recover from such increasing effects.

  15. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) from South America.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O

    2015-11-01

    Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America. PMID:26675898

  16. Redescription of Ichthyouris bursata Moravec & Prouza, 1995 (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae), a parasite of wild and aquarium-reared discus Symphysodon spp. (Osteichthyes).

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Laoprasert, Thitiporn

    2008-10-01

    The oxyuroid nematode Ichthyouris bursata Moravec & Prouza, 1995 (Pharyngodonidae) was recorded from the intestine of discus (Symphysodon spp. and hybrids) cultured in discus farms in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, central Thailand, during 2006 and 2007. This material made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this little known parasite species, using both light and scanning electron microscopy (the latter not previously used for the male). The SEM examination showed taxonomically important morphological features not previously reported or erroneously described, including the presence of three bilobed lips, a pair of sclerotised plate-like structures and a median cone-shaped outgrowth on the posterior cloacal lip, short 'hairs' on the cloacal lips, digital phasmids in the male and, sometimes, up to two filaments on the egg poles. This species is of South American origin, which was confirmed by its recent record from a free-living blue discus S. aequifasciatus Pellegrin in Brazil. The reproduction and transmission of I. bursata in the conditions of aquarium tanks is probably permitted by the direct (homoxenous) life-cycle of this parasite.

  17. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

    PubMed

    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru. PMID:26373332

  18. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  19. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.

  20. Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Macroderoididae) in Astyanax aeneus (Gunther, 1860) and Bryconamericus scleroparius (Regan, 1908) (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Daverdin, Rita Hartvigsen; Brooks, Daniel R

    2002-02-01

    Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. is described from the small-bodied characids Astyanax aeneus and Bryconamericus scleroparius in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica. The species differs from W. valenciae in possessing an acetabulum that is smaller than the oral sucker and vitelline follicles that are ovoid or rounded rather than elongate and tubular. Detailed comparison between these 2 species is handicapped by the less than satisfactory condition of the type and only museum specimen of W. valenciae. Wallinia chavarriae and W. valenciae belong to a subfamily of trematodes, Walliniinae, that arguably includes Creptotrematina spp., Magnivitellum simplex, and possibly Margotrema. The morphology of walliniines suggests that they are macroderoidids, but a clearer understanding of their classification could be gained from their larval morphology or from molecular systematic studies. The host associations of a monophyletic Walliniinae would indicate diversification within 2 groups of freshwater fishes: the neotropical characids for species of Wallinia, Creptotrematina, and Magnivitellum and the endemic central Mexican goodeids for those of Margotrema. The biogeography and host associations of these parasites provide a system for studies of potential host switching and vicariance, involving the middle-American and neotropical regions.

  1. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms. PMID:26203999

  2. Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin.

    PubMed

    Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA.

  3. Elastoidin actinotrichia in Coelacanth fins: a comparison with teleosts.

    PubMed

    Geraudie, J; Meunier, F J

    1980-01-01

    In this work, we present the first ultrastructural evidences of actinotrichia in the Coelacanth Latimeria. We describe its actinotrichia with the electron microscope (SEM and TEM) and compare their structure to Teleost actinotrichia. Both elements present similar fine structure, i.e. a periodic cross-striation of 60-65 nm; the plesiomorphic character of actinotrichia is discussed in Osteichthyes.

  4. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  5. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.

  6. Osteognathostomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Noch häufig, vor allem im englischen Sprachraum, wird für die fischartigen Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett, also die Actinopterygii und Sarcopterygii, der Begriff "Osteichthyes" (Knochenfische) verwendet. Da sich jedoch aus einem Subtaxon der Sarcopterygier die Tet rapoda entwickelten (S. 322), würde diese Gruppierung ein paraphyletisches Taxon darstellen. Hier wird daher dem Vorschlag W. Hennigs (1983) gefolgt und die Schwestergruppe der Chondrichthyes Osteognathostomata genannt: Sie enthält alle weiteren kiefertragenden Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett (Name!) (Abb. 201). Die Sarcopterygii umfassen demnach verschiedene fossile Gruppen, die rezenten Reliktgruppen der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) sowie die Tetrapoda und ihre Stammgruppenvertreter. (Neuerdings wird in der Literatur aus denselben Gründen einer konsequent phylogenetischen Systematisierung wieder die Gruppierung Osteichthyes, aber unter Einschluss der Tetrapoda, verwendet!).

  7. Coevolution of the Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes) based on a revised hypothesis of parasite phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Boeger, W A; Kritsky, D C

    1997-12-01

    A revised hypothesis for the phylogeny of the Subclass Polyonchoinea (Monogenoidea) was constructed employing phylogenetic systematics. The Acanthocotylidae (formerly of the Order Capsalidea) is transferred to the Order Gyrodactylidea based on this analysis. The new phylogeny is used to determine coevolutionary relationships of the familial taxa of Monogenoidea with their hosts. The coevolutionary analysis suggests that the Monogenoidea apparently underwent sympatric speciation or dispersal while parasitic on ancestral Gnathostomata, resulting in two primary clades: the Polyonchoinea and the Oligonchoinea + Polystomatoinea. The two parasite clades apparently cospeciated independently with divergence of the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. In the Polyonchoinea, the clade associated with Chondrichthyes experienced primary extinction within the Holocephala, but coevolved into the Loimoidae and Monocotylidae in the Galeomorphii and Squalea (Elasmobranchii), respectively. Within the Osteichthyes, polyonchoineans experienced primary extinction with the divergence of Sarcopterygii, Polypteriformes and Acipenseriformes. They demonstrate primary dispersal from the Neopterygii into the Squalea (as Amphibdellatinea), Actinistia (as Neodactylodiscinea) and Urodela (as Lagarocotylidea). Secondary dispersals of polyonchoineans occurred in the Gyrodactylidae to the Polypteriformes, Urodela and Anura; in the Acanthocotylidae to the Myxinoidea and Squalea; in the Capsalidae to the Acipenseriformes and Elasmobranchii; and in the Monocotylidae to the Holocephala. The Oligonchoinea and Polystomatoinea developed upon divergence of the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. Oligonchoineans cospeciated within the Chondrichthyes, with the Chimaericolidea developing within the Holocephala and the ancestor of the Diclybothriidea + Mazocraeidea within the Elasmobranchii. Two cases of primary dispersal occurred within this clade: the Diclybothriidae to the Acipenseriformes and the ancestor of

  8. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds. PMID:27598647

  9. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.

  10. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈ 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈ 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  11. Diets of deepwater oreos (Oreosomatidae) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W

    2016-06-01

    The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use. PMID:27188827

  12. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests.

    PubMed

    Reis, Suelen L; Mantello, Anieli G; Macedo, Jeferson M; Gelfuso, Erica A; da Silva, Cássio P; Fachin, Ana L; Cardoso, Alexandre M; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-01-01

    Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies. PMID:26907246

  13. Primary gene products as plant defenses. Final report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.

    1986-04-01

    Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus has a major migut proteinase of the thiol type which is powerfully inhibited by E-64. We devised a technique for preparing and incorporating proteinases inhibitors into artificial cowpeas: E-64, at concentrations as low as 0.01% (w/w), slowed development, increased mortality, and reduced fecundity. Clearly, thiol proteinase inhibitors in the diet of C. maculatus have a severe impact on this insect and could prevent economic infestations from developing were such inhibitors present in their natural food, i.e., cowpeas.

  14. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  15. Polypterus and the evolution of fish pectoral musculature.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Benjamin C; Du, Trina Y; Standen, Emily M; Larsson, Hans C E

    2015-06-01

    Polypterus, a member of the most primitive living group of ray-finned fishes, has demonstrated the ability to perform fin-assisted terrestrial locomotion, a behavior that indicates a complex pectoral musculoskeletal system. Review of the literature reveals that many aspects of the pectoral muscular anatomy of Polypterus are still unclear, with a number of conflicting descriptions. We provide a new interpretation of the pectoral musculature using soft tissue-enhanced microCT scanning and gross anatomical dissection. The results demonstrate a complex musculature, with six independent muscles crossing the glenoid-fin joint. Comparisons with other bony-fish (Osteichthyes), including both ray-finned (Actinopterygii) and lobed-fin (Sarcopterygii) fish, indicate the presence of novel muscles within Polypterus: coracometapterygialis I+II and the zonopropterygialis medialis. Examination of these muscular additions in the context of osteichthyan phylogeny indicates that this represents a previously unrecognized event in the evolution of pectoral musculature in Osteichthyes. Despite its phylogenetic position as a basal actinopterygian, the musculature of Polypterus has more similarities both anatomically and functionally with that of sarcopterygians. This anatomy, along with other features of Polypterus anatomy such as lobed fins, ventral paired lungs, and a large spiracle, may make it a good model for inferences of stem tetrapod locomotion. PMID:25994125

  16. Geology and taphonomy of the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahud, Artur; Petri, Setembrino

    2015-09-01

    The taphonomy of Early Permian vertebrates from a sandy facies at the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation, was surveyed in order to acquire data for the interpretation of the sedimentary processes and paleoenvironment of deposition. Six outcrops from the Rio Claro municipality and surrounding areas, from the Brazilian State of São Paulo, were investigated. The vertebrate groups are Chondrichthyes (Xenacanthiformes, Ctenacanthiformes and Petalodontiformes), Osteichthyes (Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii) and Tetrapodomorpha. They occur as loose teeth, scales, spines and bone remains. The sandy facies is characterized by fining upward deposition. The coarser sandstone immediately above the underlying Tatuí Formation is rich in Chondrichthyes. However, the fine sandstone above, immediately beneath the silty shale facies, is devoid of Chondrichthyes, though Osteichthyes scales, teeth and bones were present. The taphonomy is important for inferring sedimentary processes and then the paleoenvironments. The poor sorting of the sandstone and the presence of fossils that are mostly abraded or worn are indicative of a high energy environment. In contrast, the presence of fossils in a good state of preservation, some without abrasion and breakages are indicative of only limited transport. Differences of fossil spatial density, numbers of specimens and taxa may be explained by the dynamics of deposition, from details of the palaeoenvironment can be obtained.

  17. Advances in genomics of bony fish

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Hans J.; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances of genomic technologies applied to studies of fish species belonging to the superclass of Osteichthyes (bony fish) with a major emphasis on the infraclass of Teleostei, also called teleosts. This superclass that represents more than 50% of all known vertebrate species has gained considerable attention from genome researchers in the last decade. We discuss many examples that demonstrate that this highly deserved attention is currently leading to new opportunities for answering important biological questions on gene function and evolutionary processes. In addition to giving an overview of the technologies that have been applied for studying various fish species we put the recent advances in genome research on the model species zebrafish and medaka in the context of its impact for studies of all fish of the superclass of Osteichthyes. We thereby want to illustrate how the combined value of research on model species together with a broad angle perspective on all bony fish species will have a huge impact on research in all fields of fundamental science and will speed up applications in many societally important areas such as the development of new medicines, toxicology test systems, environmental sensing systems and sustainable aquaculture strategies. PMID:24291769

  18. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided. PMID:26701570

  19. New species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided. PMID:25543785

  20. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  1. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-12-22

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided.

  2. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  3. New species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2014-11-14

    Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided.

  4. Development of Transgenics in Chickpea.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop in much of the developing world and ranks third in production among food legumes. Chickpea production is limited worldwide by drought, insect damage from Helicoverpa armigera, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis and disease pressure from ...

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of pyriproxyfen under environmentally realistic exposure conditions of integrated vector management for Aedes aegypti control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Silva, Carolina Fabiano; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Olegário de Campos Júnior, Edimar; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern to control Aedes aegypti mosquito exposure in developing countries such as Brazil. Thus, integrated approaches using a combination of chemical, pyriproxyfen larvicide, and biological, Xiphophorus maculatus, larvivorous fish species approaches are necessary and important to initiate more effective control against mosquito borne diseases. This study describes the toxicological effects of pyriproxyfen larvicide on the fish Xiphophorus maculatus, the larvivorous fish species employed to destroy A. aegypti larvae mosquito species. The toxicological profile of pyriproxyfen was evaluated to determine compatible concentrations for the use of this chemical in conjunction with X. maculatus as an integrated approach against A. aegypti mosquito larvae. According to the behavioral responses of fish, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of pyriproxyfen were determined to be 2.5 and 5 µg/L, respectively. Bioassays indicated that although pyriproxyfen was not lethal to X. maculatus, the application of this compound at a concentration reported to control the emergence of A. aegypti larvae may decrease the swimming performance of larvivorous fish and their ability to ingest A. aegypti L4 larvae. Data show that integration of biological larvivorous fish and chemical larvicides is more effective when the appropriate larvicide concentration is utilized. PMID:27458879

  6. Isolation and cross-familial amplification of 41 microsatellites for the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, G.M.L.; King, T.L.; St. -Cyr, J.; Valcourt, M.; Bernatchez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis; Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) is a phenotypically diverse fish species inhabiting much of North America. But relatively few genetic diagnostic resources are available for this fish species. We isolated 41 microsatellites from S. fontinalis polymorphic in one or more species of salmonid fish. Thirty-seven were polymorphic in brook charr, 15 in the congener Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and 14 in the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). Polymorphism was also relatively high in Oncorhynchus, where 21 loci were polymorphic in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 16 in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) but only seven and four microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the more distantly related lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), respectively. One duplicated locus (Sfo228Lav) was polymorphic at both duplicates in S. fontinalis. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian) fish from the Lower Bokkeveld Group (Ceres Subgroup), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. E.; Almond, J. E.; Evans, F. J.; Long, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    Four major groups of fish are represented by fragmentary remains from South Africa's Lower Bokkeveld Group of Early to Middle Devonian age: the Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi and Osteichthyes. These represent the oldest known occurrences of these groups in southern Africa, as well as an important addition to the very meagre record of earlier Devonian fish from the Malvinokaffric Province of southwestern Gondwana. Bokkeveld fish material comes from the Gydo (Late Emsian) and Tra Tra (Middle Eifelian) Formations of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces. The cosmopolitan marine acanthodian Machæracanthus is represented only by isolated fin spines which may belong to two different species on the basis of their external ornamentation, cross-sectional outline and internal histology. The elasmobranchs are represented by four elements: (1) a flattened chondrocranium which bears affinity to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous symmoriid (protacrodont) 'cladodont' sharks. It is probably the earliest known (Emsian) shark chondrocranium; (2) an isolated, primitive scapulocoracoid with a very short coracoidal ridge; (3) ankylosed and isolated radials, interpreted as parts of pterygial plates of a paired fin of an unknown chondrichthyan bearing affinity to the Middle Devonian Zamponiopteron from Bolivia; and (4) isolated barlike structures, perhaps gill arch or a jaw elements, thought to be from the same taxon as (3). The placoderms are represented by an incomplete trunk armour and fragmentary, finely ornamented plates of a primitive antiarch. The Osteichthyes are represented by a single large scale of an unidentified dipnoan from the Eifelian of the Cedarberg range, as well as a probable sarcopterygian dermal plate from the Emsian of the Prince Albert area. These are among the earliest sarcopterygian remains recorded from the Malvinokaffric Province.

  8. The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.

    PubMed

    Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E

    2000-03-01

    Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level.

  9. Patterns of recruitment and microhabitat associations for three predatory coral reef fishes on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, C. K. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Almany, G. R.; Jones, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    This study examined recruitment patterns and microhabitat associations for three carnivorous fishes, Plectropomus maculatus, Lutjanus carponotatus and Epinephelus quoyanus, at the Keppel Islands, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Habitat selectivity was highest for recruits that were found mostly with corymbose Acropora, predominantly on patches of live coral located over loose substrates (sand). Adults were more commonly associated with tabular Acropora. The proportion of P. maculatus (72 %) found with live corals was higher than for L. carponotatus (68 %) and E. quoyanus (44 %). Densities of recruits were highly variable among locations, but this was only partly related to availability of preferred microhabitats. Our findings demonstrate that at least some carnivorous reef fishes, especially during early life-history stages, strongly associate with live corals. Such species will be highly sensitive to increasing degradation of coral reef habitats.

  10. Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from 3D orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in three cichlid species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes show considerable diversity in swim bladder morphology. In members of the subfamily Etroplinae, the connection between anterior swim bladder extensions and the inner ears enhances sound transmission and translates into an improved hearing ability. We tested the hypothesis that those swim bladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology and thus compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swim bladder), Hemichromis guttatus (large swim bladder without extensions), and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swim bladder and inner ears). Methodology and results We applied immunostaining together with confocal imaging and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast-enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D, and evaluated otolith dimensions. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Conclusions Our results imply that improved audition in E. maculatus is associated not only with swim bladder modifications but also with altered inner ear morphology. However, not all modifications in E. maculatus could be connected to enhanced auditory abilities, and so a potential improvement of the vestibular sense, among others, also needs to be considered. Our study highlights the value of analyzing orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in their intact 3

  11. Screening and purification of a novel trypsin inhibitor from Prosopis juliflora seeds with activity toward pest digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Franco, O L; Tagliari, P D; Bloch, C; Mohan, M; Thayumanavan, B

    2005-08-01

    Several pests are capable of decreasing crop production causing severe economical and social losses. Aiming to find novel molecules that could impede the digestion process of different pests, a screening of alpha-amylase and trypsin-like proteinase inhibitors was carried out in Prosopis juliflora, showing the presence of both in dry seeds. Furthermore, a novel trypsin inhibitor, with molecular mass of 13,292 Da, was purified showing remarkable in vitro activity against T. castaneum and C. maculatus.

  12. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  13. Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Torres, E P; Salazar, N P; Belizario, V Y; Saul, A

    1997-03-01

    The vectorial importance of known and potential vectors in Morong, Bataan, Philippines was assessed based on human and animal baited collections of adult mosquitoes and on larval collections. Anopheles flavirostris, the principal vector in the Philippines, was the most abundant among human landing catches, followed by An. maculatus sensu lato (s.l.). Both showed similar seasonal abundance with a peak during the early drier part of the year, which coincided with the peak in malaria cases. Both An. flavirostris and An. maculatus s.l. fed throughout the night with the broad peak of capture from 00:00 to 04:00 and from 22:00 to 00:00, respectively. The two species had similar parous rates (0.76 and 0.72, respectively) giving an average life span equivalent to four feeding cycles. Neither vector was abundant with average human landing rates on collectors of 0.6 and 0.4 mosquitoes per person per night, respectively over the study period. An. maculatus s.l. showed a stronger preference for outdoor feeding compared to An. flavirostris. An. maculatus s.l. was markedly zoophilic with a biting rate on water buffalo 50 times the human landing rate. An. flavirostris was less zoophilic with a corresponding ratio of 7.5. It was concluded that in this area, An. flavirostris is the principal vector. The combination of localised transmission, late night biting pattern and localised breeding sites of An. flavirostris suggest that the use of bed nets and environmental management are relevant control measures that can be implemented through community participation.

  14. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  15. Identification and mapping of two divergent, unlinked major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in Xiphophorus fishes.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, T J; Godwin, U B; Norton, S F; Nairn, R S; Kazianis, S; Morizot, D C

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes from the inbred fish strain Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 A. We mapped one of these genes, designated here as DXB, to linkage group III, linked to a malic enzyme locus, also syntenic with human and mouse MHC. Comparison of genomic and cDNA clones shows the gene consists of six exons and five introns. The encoded beta1 domain has three amino acids deleted and a cytoplasmic tail nine amino acids longer than in other teleost class II beta chains, more similar to HLA-DRB, clawed frog Xela-F3, and nurse shark Gici-B. Key residues for disulfide bonds, glycosylation, and interaction with alpha chains are conserved. These same features are also present in a swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) genomic DXB PCR clone. A second type of class II B clone was amplified by PCR from X. maculatus and found to be orthologous to class II genes identified in other fishes. This DAB-like gene is 63% identical to the X. maculatus DXB sequence in the conserved beta2-encoding exon and was mapped to new unassigned linkage group LG U24. The DXB gene, then, represents an unlinked duplicated locus not previously identified in teleosts. PMID:9691047

  16. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  17. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides.

  18. Resistance of αAI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.

  19. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Silvana; e Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut.

  20. Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

    2009-12-01

    A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

  1. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Silvana; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032

  2. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

  3. Hearing in Cichlid Fishes under Noise Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing thresholds of fishes are typically acquired under laboratory conditions. This does not reflect the situation in natural habitats, where ambient noise may mask their hearing sensitivities. In the current study we investigate hearing in terms of sound pressure (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) of two cichlid species within the naturally occurring range of noise levels. This enabled us to determine whether species with and without hearing specializations are differently affected by noise. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated auditory sensitivities in the orange chromide Etroplus maculatus, which possesses anterior swim bladder extensions, and the slender lionhead cichlid Steatocranus tinanti, in which the swim bladder is much smaller and lacks extensions. E. maculatus was tested between 0.2 and 3kHz and S. tinanti between 0.1 and 0.5 kHz using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. In both species, SPL and PAL audiograms were determined in the presence of quiet laboratory conditions (baseline) and continuous white noise of 110 and 130 dB RMS. Baseline thresholds showed greatest hearing sensitivity around 0.5 kHz (SPL) and 0.2 kHz (PAL) in E. maculatus and 0.2 kHz in S. tinanti. White noise of 110 dB elevated the thresholds by 0–11 dB (SPL) and 7–11 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and by 1–2 dB (SPL) and by 1–4 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. White noise of 130 dB elevated hearing thresholds by 13–29 dB (SPL) and 26–32 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and 6–16 dB (SPL) and 6–19 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. Conclusions Our data showed for the first time for SPL and PAL thresholds that the specialized species was masked by different noise regimes at almost all frequencies, whereas the non-specialized species was much less affected. This indicates that noise can limit sound detection and acoustic orientation differently within a single fish family. PMID:23469032

  4. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  5. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  6. Morphology of the gas bladder in bumblebee catfishes (Siluriformes, Pseudopimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Birindelli, José L O; Shibatta, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    The gross morphology of the gas bladder is described and compared for representatives of all valid genera of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes). Cephalosilurus albomarginatus and species of Batrochoglanis, and Microglanis have the most basic form: a large, cordiform gas bladder with a simple internal T-shaped septum. Cephalosilurus apurensis, C. fowleri, and C. nigricauda also have a large, cordiform gas bladder, but they have well-developed trabeculae associated with the internal T-shaped septum, and a pair of well-developed constrictor muscles inserted on the external wall; the latter feature is present in most species of Pimelodidae, but absent in all other catfishes. The monotypic Lophiosilurus alexandri also has well-developed constrictor muscles, and its gas bladder is moderately sized. The species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis have a diminutive gas bladder partially divided into two lateral sacs without internal communication, and lack constrictor muscles. The parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is a wide and long shelf connected to the dorsal surface of the gas bladder in most pseudopimelodid genera. However, in the species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis the parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is shorter and has its anterior ramus folded back, partially covering the gas bladder anteroventrally; and the tympanic opening is smaller than in species of the other genera. Five phylogenetic characters are proposed based on the morphology of the gas bladder and associated structures in species of Pseudopimelodidae, and the evolution of those characters in the family is discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21538478

  7. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F

    2014-08-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction.

  8. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F

    2014-08-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction. PMID:25038864

  9. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  10. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  11. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  12. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  13. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Fishes from the Lower Reach of the Kelantan River, Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Rohasliney; Song, Tan Han; Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Yen, Tan Peck

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in the tissues of fish collected from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Malaysia. Fishes were collected using gill nets during the dry and wet seasons. A total of 78 individual fish were caught and comprised 6 families, 11 genera and 13 species. The dorsal muscle was analysed using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentration of Cd in Chitala chitala (0.076 mg/kg) was above the critical limit values of the European Commission (EC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mean concentrations of Cd in Barbonymus gonionatus and Tachysurus maculatus were already at the level of concern, whereas the other species were approaching the limits of permissible levels. No fish samples were found to have a Ni level higher than the permissible limit of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg set by the WHO (1985). Osteochilus hasseltii (0.169 mg/kg) and T. maculatus (0.156 mg/kg) showed high Pb concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be elevated in the wet season (p<0.05). Omnivorous fish were detected with elevated concentrations of Cd and Ni, whereas carnivorous fish had the highest concentration of Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in fish tissues were positively correlated with fish weight (p<0.05). This study determined that the fish species caught in the Kelantan River were contaminated with non-essential metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Nevertheless, the heavy metal concentration in the fish tissues, with the exception of C. chitala, O. hasseltii and T. maculatus, did not exceed the EC, FAO, Malaysian Food Act (MFA) or WHO guidelines. PMID:27073597

  14. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  15. An insecticidal N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin gene from Griffonia simplicifolia (Leguminosae).

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, K; Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L

    1996-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia II, an N-acetylglucosamine-specific legume lectin, has insecticidal activity when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A cDNA clone encoding G. simplicifolia II was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, sequenced, and expressed in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein exhibited N-acetylglucosamine-binding and insecticidal activity against cowpea weevil, indicating that glycosylation and multimeric structure are not required for these properties. These results support the hypothesis that genes of the legume lectin gene family encode proteins that function in plant defense against herbivores. PMID:8587982

  16. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  17. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a member of the Poeciliidae family, is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Here, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata. The genome is 16,570 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The structure of non-coding control region was also analyzed. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata with its congener Xiphophorus maculatus revealed the high sequence similarity and the identical gene structure. The complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy would help study the evolution of Poeciliidae family.

  19. [New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

    2008-01-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

  20. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  1. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  2. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  3. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  4. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  5. Plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate in early and recent classes of fish.

    PubMed

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-10-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NO in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n=167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NO was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NO differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NO in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NO, levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  6. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-01

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. PMID:21129747

  7. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-01

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates.

  8. Metazoan parasites of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris.

  9. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Samuel P; Finarelli, John A; Coates, Michael I

    2012-06-14

    Acanthodians, an exclusively Palaeozoic group of fish, are central to a renewed debate on the origin of modern gnathostomes: jawed vertebrates comprising Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays and ratfish) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes and tetrapods). Acanthodian internal anatomy is primarily understood from Acanthodes bronni because it remains the only example preserved in substantial detail, central to which is an ostensibly osteichthyan braincase. For this reason, Acanthodes has become an indispensible component in early gnathostome phylogenies. Here we present a new description of the Acanthodes braincase, yielding new details of external and internal morphology, notably the regions surrounding and within the ear capsule and neurocranial roof. These data contribute to a new reconstruction that, unexpectedly, resembles early chondrichthyan crania. Principal coordinates analysis of a character-taxon matrix including these new data confirms this impression: Acanthodes is quantifiably closer to chondrichthyans than to osteichthyans. However, phylogenetic analysis places Acanthodes on the osteichthyan stem, as part of a well-resolved tree that also recovers acanthodians as stem chondrichthyans and stem gnathostomes. As such, perceived chondrichthyan features of the Acanthodes cranium represent shared primitive conditions for crown group gnathostomes. Moreover, this increasingly detailed picture of early gnathostome evolution highlights ongoing and profound anatomical reorganization of vertebrate crania after the origin of jaws but before the divergence of living clades. PMID:22699617

  10. Expression of Wnt signaling skeletal development genes in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Damian G; Rana, Kesha; Milley, Kristi M; MacLean, Helen E; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Bell, Justin; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Richardson, Samantha J; Danks, Janine A

    2013-11-01

    Jawed vertebrates (Gnasthostomes) are broadly separated into cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Osteichthyes). Cartilaginous fishes are divided into chimaeras (e.g. ratfish, rabbit fish and elephant shark) and elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks, rays and skates). Both cartilaginous fish and bony vertebrates are believed to have a common armoured bony ancestor (Class Placodermi), however cartilaginous fish are believed to have lost bone. This study has identified and investigated genes involved in skeletal development in vertebrates, in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Ctnnb1 (β-catenin), Sfrp (secreted frizzled protein) and a single Sost or Sostdc1 gene (sclerostin or sclerostin domain-containing protein 1) were identified in the elephant shark genome and found to be expressed in a number of tissues, including cartilage. β-catenin was also localized in several elephant shark tissues. The expression of these genes, which belong to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is required for normal bone formation in mammals. These findings in the cartilaginous skeleton of elephant shark support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of cartilaginous fishes and bony vertebrates had the potential for making bone.

  11. Lesser known aquarium fish tumor models.

    PubMed

    Harshbarger, J C; Slatick, M S

    2001-06-01

    The repeated use of particular species for experimental oncology in fish increases their future value by accumulating background information for these models and justifies the establishment of genetic stock centers. However, the wide diversity that exists within the class Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes suggests that the ideal surrogate models for studying some types of neoplasms might be found among lesser known species. To help assess cultured fish as surrogates for some other types of human neoplasia, we examined cases in the archives of the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals and reviewed reports in the literature. Spontaneous and induced neoplasms originating from a spectrum of cell types were seen in more than 215 fish species commonly raised in aquaria or cultured for study among 69 families. Prominent families include the Poeciliidae (livebearers), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Cichlidae (cichlids), Cyprinodontidae (killifish), Characidae (tetras), Adrianichthyidae (medakas), Aplocheilidae (rivulins), and Salmonidae (salmon and trout). The following are examples of potential fish tumor models that have received less consideration than some others: papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in oscar (Astronotus ocellatus); osteogenic neoplasms, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoblastoma in coho salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus kisutch); and nephroblastoma resembling Wilms' tumor in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica). PMID:14961307

  12. Placoderm fishes, pharyngeal denticles, and the vertebrate dentition.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya M

    2003-09-01

    The correlation of the origin of teeth with jaws in vertebrate history has recently been challenged with an alternative to the canonical view of teeth deriving from separate skin denticles. This alternative proposes that organized denticle whorls on the pharyngeal (gill) arches in the fossil jawless fish Loganellia are precursors to tooth families developing from a dental lamina along the jaw, such as those occurring in sharks, acanthodians, and bony fishes. This not only indicates that homologs of tooth families were present, but also illustrates that they possessed the relevant developmental controls, prior to the evolution of jaws. However, in the Placodermi, a phylogenetically basal group of jawed fishes, the state of pharyngeal denticles is poorly known, tooth whorls are absent, and the presence of teeth homologous to those in extant jawed fishes (Chondrichthyes + Osteichthyes) is controversial. Thus, placoderms would seem to provide little evidence for the early evolution of dentitions, or of denticle whorls, or tooth families, at the base of the clade of jawed fishes. However, organized denticles do occur at the rear of the placoderm gill chamber, but are associated with the postbranchial lamina of the anterior trunkshield, assumed to be part of the dermal cover. Significantly, these denticles have a different organization and morphology relative to the external dermal trunkshield tubercles. We propose that they represent a denticulate part of the visceral skeleton, under the influence of pharyngeal patterning controls comparable to those for pharyngeal denticles in other jawed vertebrates and Loganellia.

  13. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  14. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  15. Metabolism during delayed hatching in terrestrial eggs of a marine fish, the grunion Leuresthes tenuis.

    PubMed

    Darken, R S; Martin, K L; Fisher, M C

    1998-01-01

    California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Osteichthyes: Atherinidae), leave the ocean to spawn in the sand following extreme high tides in summer. Eggs develop out of water and are able to hatch within 9-13 d, the primary hatching period. Eggs hatch on immersion and agitation by waves at the next extreme high-tide series. However, if the waves do not reach them and hatching is not induced, eggs remain viable in the sand for several weeks. During this period, grunion eggs will delay hatching, but will hatch at any time if immersed and agitated in seawater. Egg metabolism during embryonic development was measured by aerial respirometry. Metabolism increased linearly until the first date at which eggs were able to hatch. At that time, metabolic rate stabilized and remained constant for two additional weeks of embryonic incubation. Larvae induced to hatch after different durations of incubation within this period were not significantly different in length; however, the amount of oil contained in the yolk decreased linearly during the delayed hatching period. We suggest that the increase in grunion egg metabolism during the time to primary hatching capability, and the steady, high metabolic rate throughout the delayed hatching period, permit reproduction in the unique niche of these marine eggs. These semiterrestrial anamniotic eggs develop quickly and remain continuously ready to hatch over an extended period in response to an environmentally dependent and somewhat unpredictable embryonic timetable. PMID:9678500

  16. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  17. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  18. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  19. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  20. Virtual Reconstruction and Prey Size Preference in the Mid Cenozoic Thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia)

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Marie R. G.; Parr, William C. H.; Wilson, Laura A. B.; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Wroe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Thylacinidae is an extinct family of Australian and New Guinean marsupial carnivores, comprizing 12 known species, the oldest of which are late Oligocene (∼24 Ma) in age. Except for the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), most are known from fragmentary craniodental material only, limiting the scope of biomechanical and ecological studies. However, a particularly well-preserved skull of the fossil species Nimbacinus dicksoni, has been recovered from middle Miocene (∼16-11.6 Ma) deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here, we ask whether N. dicksoni was more similar to its recently extinct relative or to several large living marsupials in a key aspect of feeding ecology, i.e., was N. dicksoni a relatively small or large prey specialist. To address this question we have digitally reconstructed its skull and applied three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis to compare its mechanical performance with that of three extant marsupial carnivores and T. cynocephalus. Under loadings adjusted for differences in size that simulated forces generated by both jaw closing musculature and struggling prey, we found that stress distributions and magnitudes in the skull of N. dicksoni were more similar to those of the living spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) than to its recently extinct relative. Considering the Finite Element Analysis results and dental morphology, we predict that N. dicksoni likely occupied a broadly similar ecological niche to that of D. maculatus, and was likely capable of hunting vertebrate prey that may have exceeded its own body mass. PMID:24718109

  1. Virtual reconstruction and prey size preference in the mid Cenozoic thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Attard, Marie R G; Parr, William C H; Wilson, Laura A B; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J; Rogers, Tracey L; Wroe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Thylacinidae is an extinct family of Australian and New Guinean marsupial carnivores, comprizing 12 known species, the oldest of which are late Oligocene (∼24 Ma) in age. Except for the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), most are known from fragmentary craniodental material only, limiting the scope of biomechanical and ecological studies. However, a particularly well-preserved skull of the fossil species Nimbacinus dicksoni, has been recovered from middle Miocene (∼16-11.6 Ma) deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here, we ask whether N. dicksoni was more similar to its recently extinct relative or to several large living marsupials in a key aspect of feeding ecology, i.e., was N. dicksoni a relatively small or large prey specialist. To address this question we have digitally reconstructed its skull and applied three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis to compare its mechanical performance with that of three extant marsupial carnivores and T. cynocephalus. Under loadings adjusted for differences in size that simulated forces generated by both jaw closing musculature and struggling prey, we found that stress distributions and magnitudes in the skull of N. dicksoni were more similar to those of the living spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) than to its recently extinct relative. Considering the Finite Element Analysis results and dental morphology, we predict that N. dicksoni likely occupied a broadly similar ecological niche to that of D. maculatus, and was likely capable of hunting vertebrate prey that may have exceeded its own body mass.

  2. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  3. A three year study on distribution and ecology of Anophelines in Thenzawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Zomuanpuii, Rita; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A systematic survey on Anopheline species abundance, bionomics and habitat preference was conducted for three years in Thenzawl, Mizoram. A scoop-net method was employed for larval collection and a local made killing-jar for adults. A total of 10 species Anopheles campestris (25.8%), An. nivipes (24.0%), An. vagus (20.6%), An. jamesii (15.1%), An. jeyporiensis (11.4%), An. maculatus (1.7%), An. philippinensis (0.7%), An. annularis (0.26%), An. sinensis (0.23%) and An. peditaeniatus (0.22%) were collected. The survey site having thick tall grasses, numerous rural-huts as residents, small to relatively larger ponds and very slow running water bodies well shaded from sunlight with floating aquatic plants provided the largest area for Anopheles larvae breeding and accounted for 40% of all Anopheles larva and 25.4% total Anopheles spp. collected. An. campestris (NSK01), maculatus (NSK04), philippinensis (NSK06), nivipes (NSK10) and jeyporiensis (NSK09) were strongly anthropogenic and endophagic while vagus (NSK18) and jamesii (NSK03) were found to be highly zoophilic and exophilic and An. peditaeniatus (NSK02), annularis (NSK07) and sinensis (NSK15) were found to be highly zoophilic. Because of its abundance and bionomics, An. campestris, jeyporiensis and nivipes may have played a role in malarial transmission throughout the year. This is the first study reported on Anopheline distribution and abundance in Thenzawl, Mizoram. PMID:24665764

  4. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed. PMID:19769365

  5. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests.

  6. An assessment of the antibacterial activity in larval excretion/secretion of four species of insects recorded in association with corpses, using Lucilia sericata Meigen as the marker species.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K M; Gennard, D E; Dixon, R A

    2010-12-01

    The relative antibacterial activities of excretion/secretion (ES) from two carrion-feeding insects, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, and a detritivore, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, were compared to that of Lucilia sericata Meigen, a species with ES of known antibacterial capacity, in order to explore the antimicrobial potential of other carrion and detritivore species. Viable counts were used to assess time-kill of ES against five bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity was recorded in all four insect species although T. molitor and D. maculatus were the most effective in controlling growth of P. mirabilis. The blowflies were more effective in controlling a wider range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The larval ES from all species was shown to reduce bacterial growth rate although differences in antibacterial spectrum were noted and the degree of potency varied between the four species. These differences may be explained ecologically by the different colonisation times of each insect species on the corpse. Overall, this study demonstrates that research into other carrion-feeding insect species has potential to provide an increased source of antimicrobial chemicals to broaden the range of bacterial species beyond that currently controlled using L. sericata. PMID:20307342

  7. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in

  8. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  9. First Shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia Sheds New Light on the Development of Tessellated Calcified Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Long, John A.; Burrow, Carole J.; Ginter, Michal; Maisey, John G.; Trinajstic, Kate M.; Coates, Michael I.; Young, Gavin C.; Senden, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods). Most of the early chondrichthyan (‘shark’) record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group—prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males—being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380–384 Mya) Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel’s cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp. Conclusions/Significance The Meckel’s cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the ‘primitive’ ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers

  10. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  11. Australian lungfish neurohypophysial hormone genes encode vasotocin and [Phe2]mesotocin precursors homologous to tetrapod-type precursors.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, S; Ishii, S; Joss, J M

    1997-11-25

    In view of the well-established role of neurohypophysial hormones in osmoregulation of terrestrial vertebrates, lungfishes are a key group for study of the molecular and functional evolution of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Here we report on the primary structure of the precursors encoding vasotocin (VT) and [Phe2]mesotocin ([Phe2]MT) of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Genomic sequence analysis and Northern blot analysis confirmed that [Phe2]MT is a native oxytocin family peptide in the Australian lungfish, although it has been reported that the lungfish neurohypophysis contains MT. The VT precursor consists of a signal peptide, VT, that is connected to a neurophysin by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence, and a copeptin moiety that includes a Leu-rich core segment and a glycosylation site. In contrast, the [Phe2]MT precursor does not contain a copeptin moiety. These structural features of the lungfish precursors are consistent with those in tetrapods, but different from those in teleosts where both VT and isotocin precursors contain a copeptin-like moiety without a glycosylation site at the carboxyl terminals of their neurophysins. Comparison of the exon/intron organization also supports homology of the lungfish [Phe2]MT gene with tetrapod oxytocin/MT genes, rather than with teleost isotocin genes. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that neurohypophysial hormone genes of the lungfish are closely related to those of the toad. The present results along with previous morphological findings indicate that the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the lungfish has evolved along the tetrapod lineage, whereas the teleosts form a separate lineage, both within the class Osteichthyes.

  12. Trophodynamics of a deep-sea demersal fish assemblage from the bathyal eastern Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Cartes, J. E.

    2005-11-01

    Daily food consumption of the eight dominant demersal fish species of the bathyal eastern Ionian Sea were determined from field data on four seasonal cruises (April 1999, July August 1999, November 1999 and February 2000). Daily ration (DR) estimates ranged from 0.198 to 4.273% WW/WW. Overall, DR estimates were independent of the model used, and they were comparable to the daily consumption of other deep-sea fauna (e.g. fish and crustaceans). Both sharks studied ( Galeus melastomus and Etmopterus spinax) exhibited the highest values of DRs, together with the macrourid Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus in August. Among osteichthyes, DR estimates were related (in a multi-linear regression model) to the nature of their diet (i.e. their trophic level deduced from δ15N isotopic composition, the mean number of prey and trophic diversity). Thus, species feeding at a lower trophic level, ingesting a large number of prey items and with a very diversified diet had higher DR than species from higher trophic level and feeding fewer prey items. By season, the DR of species feeding mainly on mesopelagic prey ( Hoplostethus mediterraneus and Helicolenus dactylopterus) were higher in summer, while DR for benthos/suprabenthos feeders (i.e. C. coelorhynchus and Nezumia sclerorhynchus) were higher in spring. Higher food consumption coincides with maximum food availability, both among mesopelagic feeders (higher availability of euphausiids, Pasiphaea sivado and Sergestes arcticus in summer) and among Macrouridae (higher suprabenthos densities in spring). In a tentative estimate the energy intake deduced from diet (i.e. mean energy value of food ingested) was constant in all seasons for each species studied. Results for the energy intake also indicate higher energy intake in the diet of mesopelagic feeders than in the diet of benthic feeders. Overall results are discussed in relation to the deep-sea ecosystem structure and functioning.

  13. PCNA immunoreactivity revealing normal proliferative activity in the brain of adult Lampetra planeri (Bloch, 1784).

    PubMed

    Margotta, Vito; Caronti, Brunella; Colombari, Paolo Tito; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    It is now well known that the Teleosts among Osteichthyes, Urodele and Anuran Amphibians, Lacertilian Reptiles possess encephalic natural proliferative activities even into adulthood, as demonstrated by a great number of researches performed both under normal and various experimental conditions. Few years ago we have undertaken in adult heterothermic vertebrates a reappraisal on spontaneous cerebral proliferative events involving some organisms (Podarcis sicula, Triturus carnifex, Rana esculenta, Carassius carassius) representative of these vertebrates and belonging to the same or phylogenetically similar species used by previous researchers in studies having the same object. In our investigations, these performances were revealed by a proliferative immunocytochemical marker, the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). At this point of our study in the scenario emerging from findings a missing piece is represented by Petromyzontidae. To fill up this gap in the present investigation, using our usual test, we have paid attention to adult specimens of Lampetra planeri. The obtained immunostaining panorama has revealed the presence of a considerable number of spontaneous proliferative activities. These events might differ in quantity, in various encephalic districts. PCNA-labelled cells appeared scattered in the cranial portion of olfactory bulbs, while the PCNA expression has been observed steadily localized with a distinctly continous distribution in cells interposed among the ependymal epithelium which lines the cavities of the proximal portion of the olfactory region and of the cerebral ventricles. DNA synthesis activity has been also found in cells scattered in the telencephalic, diencephalic, mesencephalic and medulla oblongata periventricular grey. This immunoreactivity was not revealable in the cerebellum. Our findings are discussed in the light of bibliographic news.

  14. New host and locality records of two nematode parasites Dujardinnascaris mujibii (Heterocheilidae) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Anisakidae) from the common seabream Pagrus pagrus: a light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mostafa, Nesma

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Dujardinnascaris mujibii (Heterocheilidae) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Anisakidae), new nematode parasites infecting the sea bream Pagrus pagrus (Osteichthyes, Sparidae), were described for the first time from the Gulf of Suez and Hurghada City of the Red Sea, Egypt. Ninety-eight (70 %) and 62 (44.2 %) out of 140 of the examined fish were naturally infected with these nematodes, respectively. The infection was investigated macroscopically by the occurrence of these parasites in the flesh, stomach, intestines, as well as their body cavities as adult and larval stages. D. mujibii is characterized by an elongated body with a length of 36.4 ± 3 (23-38) mm (female) and 20 ± 3.0 (17-24) mm (males); the head is provided with three prominent lips each with four teeth like structures and the apical lip is embossed with a regular zigzag pattern as revealed by SEM. Interlabia were present, with prominent grooves. Juvenile stage is smaller than adults and provided with a spiny mucron. H. aduncum was small, measured 22.5 ± 2.0 (20.0-24.3) mm in length (female) and 16.3 ± 2.0 (14.5-17.4) mm (male). The head region bears three large lips which were clearly separated from each other, with the apical one having two rounded ends and the space between the two adjacent lips occupied by very prominent interlabia. The present study represents new host and locality records from P. pagrus fish in Egypt. PMID:23315190

  15. History and phylogeny of intermediate filaments: Now in insects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Intermediate filaments include the nuclear lamins, which are universal in metazoans, and the cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, which are much more varied and form cell type-specific networks in animal cells. Until now, it has been thought that insects harbor lamins only. This view is fundamentally challenged by the discovery, reported in BMC Biology, of an intermediate filament-like cytoplasmic protein, isomin, in the hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. Here we briefly review the history of research on intermediate filaments, and discuss the implications of this latest finding in the context of what is known of their structure and functions. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/17 PMID:21356127

  16. Arthropod symbiotes of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Abramov, A V; Durden, L A; Apanaskevich, D A; Stekolnikov, A A; Stanyukovich, M K; Gnophanxay, S; Tikhonov, A N

    2011-04-01

    Arthropod symbiotes of the Laotian rock-rat, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae), from Laos are examined. This host is a member of Diatomyidae previously thought to have gone extinct >10 million yr ago. Permanent symbiotes are represented by 2 species, a new species of sucking louse, Polyplax sp., near rhizomydis (Phthiraptera:Polyplacidae), and a new species of fur mite, Afrolistrophorus sp., near maculatus (Acariformes:Listrophoridae). The temporary parasites are represented by 18 species, i.e., 1 mesostigmatan species, i.e., a new species of Androlaelaps near casalis (Parasitiformes:Laelapidae); immature stages of 2 tick species, Ixodes granulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. (Parasitiformes:Ixodidae); and a rich fauna of chiggers (Acariformes:Trombiculidae) comprising 8 genera and 15 species. It is hypothesized that this host completely lost its initial fauna of ectosymbiotes and that ancestors of the recorded symbiotes switched to this host from rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

  17. Competitive environments induce shifts in host fidelity.

    PubMed

    Rova, E; Björklund, M

    2010-08-01

    Recent models support the idea of sympatric speciation as a result of the joint effects of disruptive selection and assortative mating. We present experimental data, testing models of speciation through frequency-dependent selection. We show that under high competition on a mixture of resources/hosts, strains of the Seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, change their host fidelity and evolve a more generalistic behaviour in resource utilization among females. The change in host fidelity did not result in disruptive selection and was not followed by assortative mating. This means that only one of three fundamental prerequisites for sympatric speciation evolved as a result of the frequency-dependent selection. We conclude that for this process to work, a shift to a novel food resource as a result of selection must also lead to a loss of preference for the original resource such that individuals are only able to use either one of the two.

  18. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  19. A comparison of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic effects on sperm competitiveness and female remating in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Dowling, D K; Friberg, U; Arnqvist, G

    2007-11-01

    It is widely assumed that male sperm competitiveness evolves adaptively. However, recent studies have found a cytoplasmic genetic component to phenotypic variation in some sperm traits presumed important in sperm competition. As cytoplasmic genes are maternally transmitted, they cannot respond to selection on sperm and this constraint may affect the scope in which sperm competitiveness can evolve adaptively. We examined nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic contributions to sperm competitiveness, using populations of Callosobruchus maculatus carrying orthogonal combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic lineages. Our design also enabled us to examine genetic contributions to female remating. We found that sperm competitiveness and remating are primarily encoded by nuclear genes. In particular, a male's sperm competitiveness phenotype was contingent on an interaction between the competing male genotypes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic effects were detected on remating but not sperm competitiveness, suggesting that cytoplasmic genes do not generally play a profound evolutionary role in sperm competition.

  20. Survey of demersal fishes from southern Saudi Arabia, with five new records for the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Alpermann, Tilman J; Mal, Ahmad O; Gabr, Mohamed H

    2014-08-18

    During a survey of demersal fishes of the southern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia off Jizan, 98 species were collected by trawling. Five of these represent new records for the Red Sea: Saurida longimanus, Dactyloptena gilberti, Jaydia novaeguineae, Pomadasys maculatus and Parapercis maculata. Additionally a specimen of the rare moray Gymnothorax reticularis, previously known from only three specimens, was collected. Records of two species, Parastromateus niger and Pseudorhombus arsius, that formerly were considered questionable, are confirmed by collection of new voucher specimens. Validity of Laeops sinusarabici is confirmed. This study documents parts of the diversity of the demersal fish communities on sandy areas of the southern Red Sea, but also emphasizes that a large proportion of this area has not been explored. 

  1. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  2. Transcriptomic response of cowpea bruchids to N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hua; Chi, Yong Hun; Guo, Feng-Guang; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Balfe, Susan; Fang, Ji-Chao; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-02-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) are N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectins. Previous studies demonstrated that they have anti-insect activity, a property potentially useful in pest control. To gain some insight into the insect response to dietary lectins, we performed transcriptomic analysis using the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) midgut microarray platform we built. Compared to the nonnutritional cellulose treatment, dietary lectins induced more profound changes in gene expression. Ingestion of relatively high doses of lectins for 24 h resulted in alteration of gene expression involved in sugar and lipid metabolism, transport, development, defense, and stress tolerance. Metabolic genes were largely downregulated. Moreover, we observed disorganized microvilli resulting from ingestion of WGA. This morphological change is consistent with the lectin-induced changes in genes related to midgut epithelial cell repair. In addition, suboptimal nutrient conditions may serve as a stress signal to trigger senescence processes, leading to growth arrest and developmental delay.

  3. New or little-known species of the genus Amphimenes Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiinae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Dmitry N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Twelve new species of the genus Amphimenes Bates, 1873 are described from Vietnam: Amphimenes maculatus sp. n., Amphimenes bidoupensis sp. n., Amphimenes gracilis sp. n., Amphimenes montanus sp. n., Amphimenes giganteus sp. n., Amphimenes medius sp. n., Amphimenes minutus sp. n., Amphimenes rufipes sp. n., Amphimenes reflexicollis sp. n., Amphimenes planicollis sp. n., Amphimenes nitidus sp. n., and Amphimenes kabakovi sp. n.. Amphimenes rugulipennis Bates, 1892, comb. n., is transferred from the genus Brachichila Chaudoir, 1869 and is redescribed from fresh material. A key to all congeners is provided, these being arranged into five new species-groups. Adults of the rugulipennis- and piceolus-groups show subcortical habits, while those of the medius-, rufipes- and planicollis- groupsare herpetobiotic, resulting in such morphological adaptations as partly reduced eyes, missing wings and adnate elytra. PMID:21594026

  4. Designation and description of a neotype of Sclerophrys maculata (Hallowell, 1854), and reinstatement of S. pusilla (Mertens, 1937) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Poynton, John C; Loader, Simon P; Conradie, Werner; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Liedtke, H Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis indicates that African material previously referred to Amietophrynus maculatus (Hallowell, 1854; now Sclerophrys maculata), is divisible into two distinct clades: a Western Clade from Cameroon westwards and an Eastern Clade from Central African Republic eastwards, and Uganda southwards to South Africa, extending to Angola-Namibia. Preliminary morphological and bioacoustic data support this division. The two clades are recognised here as two separate species. The Western species retains the name S. maculata, with Hallowell's designated type locality of Liberia. The Eastern Clade retains the name published by Mertens (1937), S. pusilla. It is noted that a type specimen of S. maculata cannot be traced and is presumed lost; the so-called syntypes in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences are not the material described by Hallowell. None of these have been designated as a neotype, consequently a specimen from Liberia in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, is designated here as the neotype of S. maculata. PMID:27394575

  5. Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-05-27

    During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present.

  6. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region.

  7. Osteology and ontogeny of the wrymouths, genus Cryptacanthodes (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Cryptacanthodidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    The four species included in the family Cryptacanthodidae are eel-like, burrowing fishes distributed in the cold-temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. This study describes the osteology and aspects of the ontogenetic skeletal development of two species, Cryptacanthodes maculatus from the western North Atlantic and C. aleutensis from the eastern North Pacific. We discuss the relationships of Cryptacanthodidae among other zoarcoid families. The Cryptacanthodidae have been previously included in the Stichaeidae, but removed and classified as a separate family based on the skull, pectoral radial, and cephalic lateral-line morphology. Our observations (similarities in gill arch and pectoral girdle morphology; specifically, a thin sheet-like flange of bone from the posterior margin of the supracleithrum) suggest a close relationship to at least some of the members of the family Stichaeidae. PMID:25327966

  8. Intragenic sex-chromosomal crossovers of Xmrk oncogene alleles affect pigment pattern formation and the severity of melanoma in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, H; Schartl, M

    1999-01-01

    The X and Y chromosomes of the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) contain a region that encodes several important traits, including the determination of sex, pigment pattern formation, and predisposition to develop malignant melanoma. Several sex-chromosomal crossovers were identified in this region. As the melanoma-inducing oncogene Xmrk is the only molecularly identified constituent, its genomic organization on both sex chromosomes was analyzed in detail. Using X and Y allele-specific sequence differences a high proportion of the crossovers was found to be intragenic in the oncogene Xmrk, concentrating in the extracellular domain-encoding region. The genetic and molecular data allowed establishment of an order of loci over approximately 0.6 cM. It further revealed a sequence located within several kilobases of the extracellular domain-encoding region of Xmrk that regulates overexpression of the oncogene. PMID:9927468

  9. Cladistic analysis of the subgenus Anopheles (Anopheles) Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Collucci, Eliana; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, we used morphological characters to estimate phylogenetic relationships among members of the subgenus Anopheles Meigen. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out for 36 species of Anopheles (Anopheles). An. (Stethomyia) kompi Edwards, An. (Lophopodomyia) gilesi (Peryassú), Bironella hollandi Taylor, An. (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassú) and An. (Cellia) maculatus Theobald were employed as outgroups. One hundred one characters of the external morphology of the adult male, adult female, fourth-instar larva, and pupa were scored and analyzed under the parsimony criterion in PAUP. Phylogenetic relationships among the series and several species informal groups of Anopheles (Anopheles) were hypothesized. The results suggest that Anopheles (Anopheles) is monophyletic. Additionally, most species groups included in the analysis were demonstrated to be monophyletic.

  10. Caribbean Sea Region Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C W; Stehlík, J L

    2013-08-01

    A synopsis of the Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae (Pyrrhocoroidea) of the Caribbean Sea Region is given. Three new taxa are described: Dysdercus jamaicensis jindrai Stehlík n. subsp. (Dominican Republic); Largus fumosus fumosus Stehlík n. sp. (Panama-Barro Colorado Island); and Largus fumosus nigromembranaceus Stehlík n. subsp. (Panama). Largus pallidus Halstead is downgraded to a subspecies of Largus davisi Barber, i.e., L. davisi pallidus Halstead n. stat. The following new records are provided: Dysdercus (Dysdercus) andreae (Linnaeus) from Cayman Islands; Acinocoris elegans van Doesburg from Trinidad; Fibrenus pehlkei Schmidt and Largus maculatus Schmidt from Panama; and Largus obovatus (Barber) from Haiti. Altogether, we report 20 species and 3 subspecies of Pyrrhocoridae and 13 species and 2 subspecies of Largidae from the Caribbean Sea Region.

  11. Osteology and ontogeny of the wrymouths, genus Cryptacanthodes (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Cryptacanthodidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    The four species included in the family Cryptacanthodidae are eel-like, burrowing fishes distributed in the cold-temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. This study describes the osteology and aspects of the ontogenetic skeletal development of two species, Cryptacanthodes maculatus from the western North Atlantic and C. aleutensis from the eastern North Pacific. We discuss the relationships of Cryptacanthodidae among other zoarcoid families. The Cryptacanthodidae have been previously included in the Stichaeidae, but removed and classified as a separate family based on the skull, pectoral radial, and cephalic lateral-line morphology. Our observations (similarities in gill arch and pectoral girdle morphology; specifically, a thin sheet-like flange of bone from the posterior margin of the supracleithrum) suggest a close relationship to at least some of the members of the family Stichaeidae.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jarosław; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, Soňa; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vyskočilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2013-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. PMID:23521844

  13. Cone monochromacy and visual pigment spectral tuning in wobbegong sharks.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Susan M; Davies, Wayne I L; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-12-23

    Much is known regarding the evolution of colour vision in nearly every vertebrate class, with the notable exception of the elasmobranchs. While multiple spectrally distinct cone types are found in some rays, sharks appear to possess only a single class of cone and, therefore, may be colour blind. In this study, the visual opsin genes of two wobbegong species, Orectolobus maculatus and Orectolobus ornatus, were isolated to verify the molecular basis of their monochromacy. In both species, only two opsin genes are present, RH1 (rod) and LWS (cone), which provide further evidence to support the concept that sharks possess only a single cone type. Examination of the coding sequences revealed substitutions that account for interspecific variation in the photopigment absorbance spectra, which may reflect the difference in visual ecology between these species.

  14. Exposure to fluorescent light triggers down regulation of genes involved with mitotic progression in Xiphophorus skin.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ronald B; Walter, Dylan J; Boswell, William T; Caballero, Kaela L; Boswell, Mikki; Lu, Yuan; Chang, Jordan; Savage, Markita G

    2015-12-01

    We report RNA-Seq results from skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B after exposure to various doses of "cool white" fluorescent light (FL). We show that FL exposure incites a genetic transcriptional response in skin nearly as great as observed for UVB exposure; however, the gene sets modulated due to exposure to the two light sources are quite different. Known light responsive genes involved in maintaining circadian cycling (e.g., clock, cry2a, cry1b, per1b, per2, per3, and arntl1a) exhibited expected shifts in transcriptional expression upon FL exposure. Exposure to FL also resulted in down-regulated transcription of many genes involved with cell cycle progression (e.g., cdc20, cdc45, cdca7b, plk1, cdk1, ccnb-3, and cdca7a) and chromosome segregation (e.g., cenpe, cenpf, cenpi, cenpk, cenpo, cenpp, and cenpu; cep70; knstrm, kntc, mcm2, mcm5; smc2). In addition, several DNA replication and recombination repair genes (e.g., pola1, pole, rec52, rad54l, rpa1, and parpbp) exhibit reduced expression in FL exposed X. maculatus skin. Some genes down modulated by FL are known to be associated with DNA repair and human diseases (e.g., atm2, brip1, fanc1, fancl, and xrcc4). The overall suppression of genes involved with mitotic progression in the skin of adult fish is consistent with entry into the light phase of the circadian cycle. Current efforts are aimed at determining specific wavelengths that may lead to differential expression among the many genes affected by fluorescent light exposure.

  15. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Stevenson, Philip C; Belmain, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  16. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  17. [Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, a new species of golden-line fish from the Red River drainage in Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Fu; Li, Lie; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus Fang 1936, Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, was described from the Ganhaizi tributary of Chouyang River, Red River drainage, located in southeast Yunnan, China. This species has normal eyes and a strong dorsal spine with serrations on the lower 3/5 part. In general, this species is similar in morphology to S. macrophthalmus, S. guishanensis, S. angustiporus, S. lateristritus, S. qiubeiensis, S. grahami, S. qujingensis, S. maculatus and S. purpureus distributed in the Nanpanjiang River, and S. qiubeiensis distributed in the Red River. It is distinguished from S. macrophthalmus by possessing fewer than 9 gill rakers. However, S. xichouensis can be distinguished from S. guishanensis by its interorbital width/SL of 8.1~9.9%, rostral barbels extended to posterior margin of eye and maxillary barbels extended to posterior preopercular. It is distinct from S. lateristritus by dorsal-fin origin opposite of pelvic fin origin, with no a black stripe along the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. grahami by 74~88 lateral-line scales, 20 scale rows above the lateral line, and 16 scale rows below the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. qujingensis by a curved lateral line, 74-88 lateral-line scales, 48 circumpeduncular scales. It can be distinguished from S. yimenensis by the ratio of predorsal length, dorsal-fin base length, preanal length, anal fin length, prepectoral length, caudal-peduncle length and lower jaw length to SL, 47.1%-53.7%, 12.8%-15.8%, 66.0%-71.0%, 13.7%-17.1%, 26.0%-29.5%, 19.3%-24.7%, 4.7%-7.0%, respectively. It is distinguished from S. maculatus and S. purpureus by possession of lateral line and scaled body and distinguished from S. angustiporus and S. qiubeiensis by 35~39 predorsal scales, 6 gill rakers, and interorbital width/SL of 8.1%-9.9%. PMID:23913886

  18. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  19. Monitoring water quality in reservoirs for human supply through multi-biomarker evaluation in tropical fish.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Brito, Izabella; Arruda Freire, Carolina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Rodrigues Souza-Bastos, Luciana; Cestari, Marta Margarete; de Castilhos Ghisi, Nédia; Prodocimo, Viviane; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Paraíba do Sul River is located at a very densely inhabited region of Brazil crossing the three most industrialized states of the country (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states). As a result, industrial and farming residues as well as urban sewage are frequently disposed without appropriate treatment. The current study aimed at investigating the water quality in three reservoirs along the Paraíba do Sul River (Ilha dos Pombos, Santa Cecília and Santa Branca), through physiological, morphological, biochemical, and genetic biomarkers. The bioindicator chosen was the catfish Pimelodus maculatus, sampled during the dry (June 2008) and rainy (February 2009) seasons. Also, some water physicochemical parameters were analyzed from the sampling sites, but displayed no alterations according to the Brazilian Agency for Water Quality Legislation. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the dry season, while renal carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the rainy season in the Santa Branca reservoir, indicating disturbance of osmoregulatory and acid-base regulation processes. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gills (neoplasic and tissue hyperplasia processes) and liver (necrosis), indicating serious damage to the functional integrity of these organs. A high incidence of melanomacrophage centers was observed in the liver, suggesting an intense immune response in all reservoirs. Acetylcholinesterase and catalase activity showed also differences corroborating some morphological results. Likewise, the induction of the micronucleus and DNA damage indicate genotoxicity, but mainly in the Santa Branca reservoir. Thus, the health status of P. maculatus warrants caution in the use of the water from the 3 reservoirs for direct human consumption, particularly after the accidental spill of endosulfan in November 2008, three months before the rainy season sampling.

  20. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  1. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  2. Phylogeography of the trumpetfishes (Aulostomus): ring species complex on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W; Bass, A L; Rocha, L A; Grant, W S; Robertson, D R

    2001-05-01

    The distribution of circumtropical marine species is limited by continental boundaries, cold temperate conditions, and oceanic expanses, but some of these barriers are permeable over evolutionary time scales. Sister taxa that evolved in separate ocean basins can come back into contact, and the consequences of this renewed sympatry may be a key to understanding evolutionary processes in marine organisms. The circumtropical trumpetfishes (Aulostomus) include a West Atlantic species (A. maculatus), an Indian-Pacific species (A. chinensis), and an East Atlantic species (A. strigosus) that may be the product of a recent invasion from the Indian Ocean. To resolve patterns of divergence and speciation, we surveyed 480 bp of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b in 196 individuals from 16 locations. Based on a conventional molecular clock of 2% sequence divergence per million years, the deepest partitions in a neighbor-joining tree (d = 0.063-0.082) are consistent with separation of West Atlantic and Indian-Pacific species by the Isthmus of Panama, 3-4 million years ago. By the same criteria, trumpetfish in the East Atlantic were isolated from the Indian Ocean about 2.5 million years ago (d = 0.044-0.054), coincident with the advent of glacial cycles and cold-water upwelling around South Africa. Continental barriers between tropical oceans have only rarely been surmounted by trumpetfishes, but oceanic barriers do not appear to be substantial, as indicated by weak population partitioning (phiST = 0.093) in A. chinensis across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Finally, morphological and mitochondrial DNA data indicate hybridization of A. strigosus and A. maculatus in Brazil. After 3-4 million years and a globe-spanning series of vicariant and dispersal events, trumpetfish lineages have come back into contact in the southwest Atlantic and appear to be merging. This ring species phenomenon may occur in a broad array of marine organisms, with clear implications for the production and

  3. Global Genetic Differentiation in a Cosmopolitan Pest of Stored Beans: Effects of Geography, Host-Plant Usage and Anthropogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  4. LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF MALARIA EPIDEMIOLOGY IN AN ISOLATED VILLAGE IN WESTERN THAILAND: I. STUDY SITE AND ADULT ANOPHELINE BIONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Gabriela; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Kankaew, Prasan; Robert, Leon L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Coleman, Russell E

    2016-05-01

    This is the first in a series of papers describing the epidemiology of malaria in an isolated village in western Thailand. The study site was the village of Kong Mong Tha, located in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In this paper we present an overview of the study site and results from our adult anopheline mosquito surveillance conducted over 56 consecutive months from June 1999 until January 2004. The collection site, indoor/outdoor location, parity, biting activity and Plasmodiumfalciparum (Pf) and P. vivax (Pv) infection rates were used to calculate seasonal entomological inoculation rates for the predominant four Anopheles species. A total of 21,566 anophelines representing 28 distinct species and 2 groups that were not identified to species were collected using human bait, with almost 95% of the collection consisting of Anopheles minimus, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris. Mosquitoes generally peaked during the wet season, were collected throughout the night, and were collected most often outside (ca. 75%) versus inside (ca. 25%) of houses. Approximately 50% of collected mosquitoes were parous. Overall Plasmodium infection rates were 0.27%, with a total of 16 and 42 pools of Pf- and Pv-positive mosquitoes, respectively. Annual EIRs were 2.3 times higher for Pv than for Pf, resulting in approximately 5.5 and 2.6 infective bites per person per year, respectively. The results suggest An. minimus and An. maculatus are the primary and secondary vectors of Pf and Pv transmission in Kong Mong Tha, while An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris also appear to play a role based on the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in the head/thorax of the specimens tested. PMID:27405117

  5. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the

  6. PCNA immunoreactivity revealing normal proliferative activity in the brain of an adult Elasmobranch, Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Margotta, Vito

    2007-01-01

    The brain of adult heterothermic vertebrates can be already provided of quiescent cells, scattered ("matrix cells") and/or clustered ("matrix areas"). These typical cells, in some regions located at or near ventricular surfaces and at peri-ependymal layers, in other territories populating their framework, maintain some embryonic properties and are responsible of normal or variously experimentally induced proliferative activities. On these topics there are a great number of reports concerning Teleostean Osteichthyes, Urodele and Anuran Amphibians, Lacertilian Reptiles. At the contrary, only few are the contributions regarding the Petromyzontidae. Involving an immunocytochemical marker, the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), revealing proliferative events, in the last years we have undertaken a reappraisal focused on these encephalic performances in normal adult poikilothermal vertebrates. To provide a valid comparison between our results and the literature data, our choice of the specimens was based on the desire to employ organisms belonging to the same or phylogenetically close species used by previous Authors in similar studies. In our immunocytochemical panorama there is a substantial agreement between our contributions and bibliographic references concerning natural encephalic proliferative phenomena in these vertebrates. At this point of our study, the last missing piece was represented by the Chondrichthyes about which the literature data are lacking. In order to fill this gap, the aim of the present research is to investigate, involving the same PCNA test, whether proliferative events also persist in the brain of adult cartilaginous fishes. The immunostaining images obtained in the Elasmo branch Torpedo marmorata, well-known for the emission of high electrical discharges, exhibit undifferentiated cells in relationship with the ependymal epithelium lining the cavities of all cerebral districts; some other neuroblasts are scattered in the mesencephalic

  7. Influence of host origin on host choice of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: does upbringing influence choices later in life?

    PubMed

    Sankara, F; Dabiré, L C B; Ilboudo, Z; Dugravot, S; Cortesero, A M; Sanon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4(th)instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cow-pea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4(th)instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the

  8. Influence of Host Origin on Host Choice of the Parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: Does Upbringing Influence Choices Later in Life?

    PubMed Central

    Sankara, F.; Dabiré, L. C. B.; Ilboudo, Z.; Dugravot, S.; Cortesero, A. M.; Sanon, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4th instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4th instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the

  9. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against α-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    PubMed

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of α-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100% identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus α-amylases as well as serine proteinases.

  10. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected.

  11. Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Michele B; Casper, Brandon M; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2012-12-01

    Pile-driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage, a specially designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile-driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)--with an open (physostomous) swim bladder, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)--with a closed (physoclistous) swim bladder and the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus)--a flatfish without a swim bladder. There were no visible injuries in any of the exposed hogchokers, whereas a variety of injuries were observed in the lake sturgeon and Nile tilapia. At the loudest cumulative and single-strike sound exposure levels (SEL(cum) and SEL(ss) respectively), the Nile tilapia had the highest total injuries and the most severe injuries per fish. As exposure levels decreased, the number and severity of injuries were more similar between the two species. These results suggest that the presence and type of swim bladder correlated with injury at higher sound levels, while the extent of injury at lower sound levels was similar for both kinds of swim bladders.

  12. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations. PMID:23413702

  13. Multivariate intralocus sexual conflict in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Berg, Elena C; Widegren, William; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-12-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) is pervasive because males and females experience differences in selection but share much of the same genome. Traits with integrated genetic architecture should be reservoirs of sexually antagonistic genetic variation for fitness, but explorations of multivariate IaSC are scarce. Previously, we showed that upward artificial selection on male life span decreased male fitness but increased female fitness compared with downward selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Here, we use these selection lines to investigate sex-specific evolution of four functionally integrated traits (metabolic rate, locomotor activity, body mass, and life span) that collectively define a sexually dimorphic life-history syndrome in many species. Male-limited selection for short life span led to correlated evolution in females toward a more male-like multivariate phenotype. Conversely, males selected for long life span became more female-like, implying that IaSC results from genetic integration of this suite of traits. However, while life span, metabolism, and body mass showed correlated evolution in the sexes, activity did not evolve in males but, surprisingly, did so in females. This led to sexual monomorphism in locomotor activity in short-life lines associated with detrimental effects in females. Our results thus support the general tenet that widespread pleiotropy generates IaSC despite sex-specific genetic architecture.

  14. Effects of cytoplasmic genes on sperm viability and sperm morphology in a seed beetle: implications for sperm competition theory?

    PubMed

    Dowling, D K; Nowostawski, A Larkeson; Arnqvist, G

    2007-01-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that sperm traits influencing male fertilizing ability will evolve adaptively. However, it has been suggested that some sperm traits may be at least partly encoded by mitochondrial genes. If true, this may constrain the adaptive evolution of such traits because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited and there is thus no selection on mtDNA in males. Phenotypic variation in such traits may nevertheless be high because mutations in mtDNA that have deleterious effects on male traits, but neutral or beneficial effects in females, may be maintained by random processes or selection in females. We used backcrossing to create introgression lines of seed beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus), carrying orthogonal combinations of distinct lineages of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and then assayed sperm viability and sperm length in all lines. We found sizeable cytoplasmic effects on both sperm traits and our analyses also suggested that the cytoplasmic effects varied across nuclear genetic backgrounds. We discuss some potential implications of these findings for sperm competition theory.

  15. The evolution of harm--effect of sexual conflicts and population size.

    PubMed

    Gay, Laurène; Hosken, David J; Eady, Paul; Vasudev, Ram; Tregenza, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Conflicts of interest between mates can promote the evolution of male traits that reduce female fitness and that drive coevolution between the sexes. The rate of adaptation depends on the intensity of selection and its efficiency, which depends on drift and genetic variability. This leads to the largely untested prediction that coevolutionary adaptations such as those driven by sexual conflict should evolve faster in large populations. We tested this using the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where harm inflicted by males is well documented. Although most experimental evolution studies remove sexual conflict, we reintroduced it in populations in which it had been experimentally removed. Both population size and standing genetic variability were manipulated in a factorial experimental design. After 90 generations of relaxed conflict (monogamy), the reintroduction of sexual conflicts for 30 generations favored males that harmed females and females that were more resistant to the genital damage inflicted by males. Males evolved to become more harmful when population size was large rather than when initial genetic variation was enriched. Our study shows that sexual selection can create conditions in which males can benefit from harming females and that selection may tend to be more intense and effective in larger populations.

  16. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  17. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  18. Rapid loss of behavioral plasticity and immunocompetence under intense sexual selection.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to maximize fitness by conditionally expressing the phenotype best adapted to their environment. Although evidence for such adjustment in reproductive tactics is common, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves in response to sexual selection. We examined the effect of sexual selection intensity on phenotypic plasticity in mating behavior using the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Male genital spines harm females during mating and females exhibit copulatory kicking, an apparent resistance trait aimed to dislodge mating males. After exposing individuals from male- and female-biased experimental evolution lines to male- and female-biased sociosexual environments, we examined behavioral plasticity in matings with standard partners. While females from female-biased lines kicked sooner after exposure to male-biased sociosexual contexts, in male-biased lines this plasticity was lost. Ejaculate size did not diverge in response to selection history, but males from both treatments exhibited plasticity consistent with sperm competition intensity models, reducing size as the number of competitors increased. Analysis of immunocompetence revealed reduced immunity in both sexes in male-biased lines, pointing to increased reproductive costs under high sexual selection. These results highlight how male and female reproductive strategies are shaped by interactions between phenotypically plastic and genetic mechanisms of sexual trait expression.

  19. Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

  20. Molecular confirmation of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in farmed and imported ornamental fish in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Cummins, David M; Davies, Kelly R; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-10-16

    Viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus have not been detected in wild populations of fish in Australia but circulate in imported ornamental fish. In 2012, detection of a megalocytivirus in healthy platys Xiphophorus maculatus was reported from a farm in Australia during surveillance testing as part of a research project undertaken at the University of Sydney. Confirmatory testing of the original samples at the AAHL Fish Diseases Laboratory verified the presence of an infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-like virus. Additional sampling at the positive farm confirmed the persistence of the virus in the platys, with 39 of 265 (14.7%) samples testing positive. Comparison of 3 separate gene regions of the virus with those of ISKNV confirmed the detection of a virus indistinguishable from ISKNV. Subsequently, ISKNV was also detected in a range of imported ornamental fish from several countries between 2013 and 2014, by screening with real-time PCR and confirmation by conventional PCR and sequence analysis. Accordingly, the current importation of live ornamental fish acts as a potential perpetual source for the establishment of ISKNV viruses within Australia. The testing of the farmed and imported ornamental fish verified the utility of the probe-based real-time PCR assay for screening of ornamental fish for Megalocytivirus.

  1. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.A.; Zabrecky, J.; Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces Invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden.

  2. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-01

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

  3. Extreme diversity of scorpion venom peptides and proteins revealed by transcriptomic analysis: implication for proteome evolution of scorpion venom arsenal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibao; He, Yawen; Zhao, Ruiming; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2012-02-16

    Venom is an important genetic development crucial to the survival of scorpions for over 400 million years. We studied the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by means of comparative transcriptome analysis of venom glands and phylogenetic analysis of shared types of venom peptides and proteins between buthids and euscorpiids. Fifteen types of venom peptides and proteins were sequenced during the venom gland transcriptome analyses of two Buthidae species (Lychas mucronatus and Isometrus maculatus) and one Euscorpiidae species (Scorpiops margerisonae). Great diversity has been observed in translated amino acid sequences of these transcripts for venom peptides and proteins. Seven types of venom peptides and proteins were shared between buthids and euscorpiids. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least five of the seven common types of venom peptides and proteins were likely recruited into the scorpion venom proteome before the lineage split between Buthidae and Euscorpiidae with their corresponding genes undergoing individual or multiple gene duplication events. These are α-KTxs, βKSPNs (β-KTxs and scorpines), anionic peptides, La1-like peptides, and SPSVs (serine proteases from scorpion venom). Multiple types of venom peptides and proteins were demonstrated to be continuously recruited into the venom proteome during the evolution process of individual scorpion lineages. Our results provide an insight into the recruitment pattern of the scorpion venom arsenal for the first time.

  4. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked.

  5. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  6. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established.

  7. [Electron microscopic observation of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocytes of six species of fishes].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Yu, Q X

    1991-01-01

    The synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in spermatocytes of six species of fishes were detected with a combination of surface spreading and silver staining technique and observed under both light and electron microscopes. These fishes are Tilapia nilotica, T. mossambica and Mastacembelus sinensis of Perciformes. Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis, Pseudorasbora parva and Hemibarbus maculatus of Gobioninae in Cypriniformes. The formation of SCs started in Zygotene and completed at Pachytene. During the pachytene, each SC was morphologically intact, preferentially stained and attached to the nuclear envelope by a dense terminal plaque. Interlock in SCs frequently occurred in Zygotene. In several cases breakage and disentangling of interlocked lateral elements were observed. SCs disappeared in diplotene. The pairing of the SCs started at telomeres and stretched towards kinetochore. The sex determination of Mastacembelus sinensis was xx/xy. The X and Y chromosomal SCs' axes had a distinctive morphology at pachytene and were clearly distinguishable from autosomal SCs. The X and Y chromosomes begain to pair at early pachytene. The X and Y chromosome axes paired to form a length of SC that is somewhat longer than the unpaired portion at the mid-pachytene. There was a dense substance at unpaired portion. Quantitatine evaluation demonstrated that relative length and arm ratio were distinctive characteristics for each autosomal SC. The consistency of relative length and arm ratio indicates the stability of the techniques. The idiograms of SC karyotypes of three species (Tilapia niloticus, T. mossambicus and Mastacembelus sinensis) have been constructed.

  8. Two novel elements (CFG1 and PYG1) of Mag lineage of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons from Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) and Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Xiaoli; Shao, Mingyu; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Jingjie

    2008-05-01

    Two novel elements (CFG1 and PYG1) of Mag lineage of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons were cloned from Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) and Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). The total length of the CFG1 element is 4826 bp, including 5'-LTR (192 bp), the entire ORF (4047 bp) and 3'-LTR (189 bp). The entire ORFs of both CFG1 and PYG1 elements are composed of 1348 aa and do not have any frameshifts. Their closest relative is Jule element from the poeciliid fish (Xiphophorus maculatus). On average, the diploid genome of C. farreri contains approximately 84 copies of CFG1 elements. We summarize the major features of CFG1, PYG1 and other elements of Mag lineage of the Ty3/Gypsy group. mRNA expression of CFG1 element in larvae increases gradually before the gastrulae stage and decreases gradually afterward, whereas in adductor such expression in adductor muscle and digestive gland are lower than those in other tissues. Overall, mRNA expression of CFG1 element in the early larvae is significantly higher than that in adult tissues. In muscle tissue, while the promoter and partial GAG domain of CFG1 element are unmethylated, the partial RT domain is highly methylated. These results suggest that CFG1 expression may be controlled by a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that is associated with coding-region (RT domain) methylation. PMID:17694394

  9. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. PMID:26991346

  10. Genomic survey provides insights into the evolutionary changes that occurred during European expansion of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Díez-del-Molino, David; García-Marín, José-Luis

    2016-03-01

    Biological invasions rank among the main global threats for biodiversity. The Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is considered one of the 100 world worst invasive species due to its high adaptation capability to new environments. Using the restriction-site-associated DNA tags (RADtags), introduced European locations were compared against native US mosquitofish populations to analyse genomic changes that occurred during invasive process of European locations. After filtering, 7724 RADtags containing only one SNP were retained for population studies. Comparative genomics indicated that 186 of these RADtags matched sequences in the transcriptome of Xyphophorus maculatus, the most closely related genome available. Genomic analyses showed that invasive populations show high reductions in diversity. Further, analyses of population structuring based on these data are concordant with previous analyses based on microsatellites. It is concluded that during the invasion process genetic drift was the main evolutionary force affecting patterns of diversity and population structure. While recognizing that positive selection could be masked by the strong drift during founder events, adaptive processes were evidenced in a reduced number of RADtags (<2%), with only one of these in a putative coding region. Surprisingly, balancing selection was detected in several coding RADtags, suggesting that the preservation of polymorphism in specific genes could be more important than the average population diversity for the population maintenance at any location, particularly for the survival of introduced populations. PMID:26825431

  11. A Transcriptome Derived Female-Specific Marker from the Invasive Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    PubMed Central

    Lamatsch, Dunja K.; Adolfsson, Sofia; Senior, Alistair M.; Christiansen, Guntram; Pichler, Maria; Ozaki, Yuichi; Smeds, Linnea; Schartl, Manfred; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Sex-specific markers are a prerequisite for understanding reproductive biology, genetic factors involved in sex differences, mechanisms of sex determination, and ultimately the evolution of sex chromosomes. The Western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, may be considered a model species for sex-chromosome evolution, as it displays female heterogamety (ZW/ZZ), and is also ecologically interesting as a worldwide invasive species. Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression). Subsequently, 129 primer pairs spanning 79 contigs were tested by PCR to identify sex-specific transcripts. Of those primer pairs, one female-specific DNA marker was identified, Sanger sequenced and subsequently validated in 115 fish. Sequence analyses revealed a high similarity between the identified sex-specific marker and the 3´ UTR of the aminomethyl transferase (amt) gene of the closely related platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). This is the first time that RNA-seq has been used to successfully characterize a sex-specific marker in a fish species in the absence of a genome map. Additionally, the identified sex-specific marker represents one of only a handful of such markers in fishes. PMID:25707007

  12. Assessing the alignment of sexual and natural selection using radiomutagenized seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Power, D J; Holman, L

    2015-05-01

    A major unsolved question in evolutionary biology concerns the relationship between natural and sexual selection. Sexual selection might augment natural selection, for example if mutations that harm female fecundity also reduce male mating success. Conversely, sexual selection might favour traits that impair naturally selected fitness components. We induced detrimental mutations in Callosobruchus maculatus beetles using X-ray irradiation and then experimentally measured the effect of precopulatory sexual selection on offspring number and survival rate. Sexual selection treatment had a negative effect on egg-to-adult survivorship, although the number of progeny reaching adulthood was unaffected, perhaps because eggs and juveniles that failed to develop lessened competition on the survivors. We hypothesize that the negative effect of sexual selection arose because sexually competitive males transmitted a smaller nuptial gift or carried alleles that conferred reduced survival. Although we found no evidence that sexual selection on males can purge alleles that are detrimental to naturally selected fitness components, such benefits might exist in other environmental or genetic contexts.

  13. Sexes suffer from suboptimal lifespan because of genetic conflict in a seed beetle

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Elena C.; Maklakov, Alexei A.

    2012-01-01

    Males and females have different routes to successful reproduction, resulting in sex differences in lifespan and age-specific allocation of reproductive effort. The trade-off between current and future reproduction is often resolved differently by males and females, and both sexes can be constrained in their ability to reach their sex-specific optima owing to intralocus sexual conflict. Such genetic antagonism may have profound implications for evolution, but its role in ageing and lifespan remains unresolved. We provide direct experimental evidence that males live longer and females live shorter than necessary to maximize their relative fitness in Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Using artificial selection in a genetically heterogeneous population, we created replicate long-life lines where males lived on average 27 per cent longer than in short-life lines. As predicted by theory, subsequent assays revealed that upward selection on male lifespan decreased relative male fitness but increased relative female fitness compared with downward selection. Thus, we demonstrate that lifespan-extending genes can help one sex while harming the other. Our results show that sexual antagonism constrains adaptive life-history evolution, support a novel way of maintaining genetic variation for lifespan and argue for better integration of sex effects into applied research programmes aimed at lifespan extension. PMID:22915670

  14. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG.

  15. Factors influencing movement of two migratory fishes within the tailrace of a large neotropical dam and their implications for hydropower impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suzuki, F. M.; Dunham, Jason; Silva, L. G. M.; Alves, C. B. M.; Pompeu, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish attempting to move upstream through hydroelectric dams can be trapped and killed in turbines. Understanding fish movement patterns can provide useful insights for how to manage dam operations to minimize fish kill in turbines. We evaluated the movements of two migratory fish (Curimba—Prochilodus argenteus and Mandi—Pimelodus maculatus) using acoustic telemetry in the tailrace of Três Marias Dam (São Francisco River, Brazil) from 31 October 2011 to 16 February 2012. The majority of tagged fish left the tailrace in less than one week; however, some individuals returned, performing several visits to the tailrace. Mandi remained longer in the tailrace than Curimba. The number of visits was influenced by diel period, turbine and spillway discharge. Although the diel period was the only important contributor to the visits performed by Curimba, the movements of Mandi were significantly influenced by three factors. We found that whereas Curimba was predominantly diurnal, Mandi showed nocturnal habits. Additionally, visits of Mandi were significantly greater during higher turbine and spillway discharge. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding fish movements in the Três Marias Dam tailrace and their potential implications for adapting hydroelectric operations to minimize fish kills.

  16. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species.

  17. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity.

  18. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Fu, Cuizhang; Zhong, Junsheng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Wu, Jihua

    2007-07-01

    The structure and temporal variations of the fish community in salt marshes of Chinese estuaries are poorly understood. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary was studied based on quarterly sampling surveys in July and November, 2004, and February and May, 2005. Fishes were collected by consecutive day and night samplings using fyke nets during the ebbing spring tides. A total of 25,010 individuals were caught during the study. 17 families and 33 species were documented, and the most species-rich family was Gobiidae. Three species, Synechogobius ommaturus, Chelon haematocheilus and Lateolabrax maculatus together comprised 95.65% of the total catch, which were also the most important commercial fishery species in the Yangtze River estuary. The fish community was dominated by juvenile individuals of estuarine resident species. Time of year significantly affected fish use of salt marshes, but no significant effects of diel periodicity on the fish community were found except for fish sampling in July. These findings indicate that salt marshes in the Yangtze River estuary may play important nursery roles for fish community.

  19. Two new species of Ornithodoros (Ixodida; Argasidae) from the Southern Cone of South America.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Ornithodoros were described from larvae collected in Argentina and Chile. Ornithodoros xerophylus n. sp. was described from specimens collected on the small rodent Graomys centralis in Argentina. The diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of dorsal plate slightly oval with a length of approximately 250 µm, 16 pairs of dorsal setae, hypostome with apex rounded and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Larvae of Ornithodoros lahillei n. sp. were collected on the reptiles Philodryas chamissonis and Callopistes maculatus in Chile. The diagnostic characters for O. lahillei are a combination of dorsal plate subtriangular with margins corrugated and posterior margin convex, dorsal surface with 14 pairs of setae, absence of postcoxal setae, and hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 3/3 in anterior third and 2/2 in the middle and basal portion. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provided additional support to the description of O. lahillei and O. xerophylus as two independent lineages within the genus Ornithodoros. PMID:25702203

  20. Isolation and analysis of mannose/trehalose/maltose specific lectin from jack bean with antibruchid activity.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Velayutham, Veeramani; Kamalanathan, Tamilarasan; Periasamy, Mullainadhan; Munusamy, Arumugam; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-10-01

    A lectin with insecticidal property against the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus was successfully isolated from the seeds of Canavalia virosa using standard affinity chromatography. The isolated molecule typically behaved like a lectin in its characteristics. It agglutinated indicator red blood cells (RBC) in its native as well as enzyme treated conditions. The enzyme treated RBC types exhibited a very high hemagglutination (HA) titre values and this property of isolated molecule behaved like arcelin, the lectin-like molecules reported from several species of Phaseolus. As a characteristic feature of a lectin, the isolated molecule effectively inhibited the agglutination of indicator RBC types with simple and complex carbohydrates including glycoproteins. This nature of the isolated molecule also relate with characteristic feature of arcelin isoforms in inhibiting HA activity with complex glycoproteins as reported in many studies. Most interestingly, the present study disclosed trehalose as a potent inhibitor of C. virosa lectin. Therefore, feeding insect pests on the lectin like arcelin could serve as antibiosis factor/anti-insect activity. The molecular characteristics of this isolated molecule and its mass studies too revealed its homology with arcelin, arcelin-1, 2 and 6 isoforms of P. vulgaris and lectin from Canavalia cathartica, C. lineata and C. brasiliensis. PMID:27238584

  1. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs.

  2. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  3. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    PubMed

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities.

  4. Altered transcription levels of endocrine associated genes in two fisheries species collected from the Great Barrier Reef catchment and lagoon.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Henderson, Brent; Smith, Rachael; Warne, Michael St J; Turner, Ryan D; McKeown, Adam; Westcott, David A

    2015-03-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is chronically exposed to agricultural run-off containing pesticides, many of which are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here, we measure mRNA transcript abundance of two EDC biomarkers in wild populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Transcription levels of liver vitellogenin (vtg) differed significantly in both species amongst sites with different exposures to agricultural run-off; brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) revealed some differences for barramundi only. Exposure to run-off from sugarcane that contains pesticides is a likely pathway given (i) significant associations between barramundi vtg transcription levels, catchment sugarcane land use, and river pesticide concentrations, and (ii) consistency between patterns of coral trout vtg transcription levels and pesticide distribution in the GBR lagoon. Given the potential consequences of such exposure for reproductive fitness and population dynamics, these results are cause for concern for the sustainability of fisheries resources downstream from agricultural land uses.

  5. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World's Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  6. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  7. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Zabrecky, J; Kiryu, Y; Shields, J D

    2004-05-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden. PMID:15139907

  9. The macromelanophore locus and the melanoma oncogene Xmrk are separate genetic entities in the genome of Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Weis, S; Schartl, M

    1998-08-01

    Fish of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for black pigmentation patterns. Certain intra- or interspecific hybrids exhibit enhanced expression of these patterns, leading in many cases to malignant melanoma. Because no recombination was ever observed between the pattern information and the genetic predisposition to develop melanoma after hybridization, a "tumor gene" (Tu) was postulated that encodes both phenotypes. A dominant oncogene, ONC-Xmrk, was then found to be necessary and sufficient for the transforming function of Tu. Here we present molecular evidence that ONC-Xmrk and the pigment pattern information are encoded by separate, although intimately linked loci. No ONC-Xmrk gene was present in the 15 Xiphophorus strains investigated which exhibit no black pigmentation pattern. Five different patterns from Xiphophorus maculatus, X. evelynae, X. milleri, X. cortezi, and X. montezumae were associated with ONC-Xmrk and were melanomagenic, while fish of X. helleri, X. variatus, X. nezahualcoyotl, and X. montezumae with five other patterns had no ONC-Xmrk and consequently did not produce hybrid melanoma. These data provide evidence that ONC-Xmrk is sufficient for tumorigenesis in Xiphophorus hybrids, and that a separate, pigment pattern-encoding locus is closely linked to it. PMID:9691046

  10. A Sex Chromosomal Restriction-Fragment-Length Marker Linked to Melanoma-Determining Tu Loci in Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1988-01-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  11. A sex chromosomal restriction-fragment-length marker linked to melanoma-determining Tu loci in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Schartl, M

    1988-07-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  12. Protein Polymorphisms, Segregation in Genetic Crosses and Genetic Distances among Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Don C.; Siciliano, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The products of 49 protein-coding loci were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for populational variation in six species of Xiphophorus fishes and/or segregation in intra- and interspecific backcross and intercross hybrids. Electrophoretic variation was observed for 29 of the 35 locus products in a survey of 42 population samples. The highest frequency of polymorphic loci observed in noninbred populations was 0.143. After ten or more generations of inbreeding, all loci studied were monomorphic. Inbred strains generally exhibited the commonest electrophoretic alleles of the population from which they were derived. An assessment of genetic distances among Xiphophorus populations reflected classical systematic relationships and suggested incipient subspeciation between X. maculatus from different drainages as well as several species groups. Thirty-three loci were analyzed with respect to segregation in hybrids. The goodness of fit of segregations to Mendelian expectations at all loci analyzed (except loci in linkage group I) is interpreted as evidence for high genetic compatibility of the genomes of Xiphophorus species. It is anticipated that these data will result in a rapid expansion of the assignment of protein-coding loci to linkage groups in these lower vertebrate species. PMID:7173606

  13. Expansion of the Known Host Range of the Microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Justin L; Watral, Virginia; Stidworthy, Mark F; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. Many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of P. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. However, as P. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether P. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. The pooling of fish of different species in the aquarium fish trade is common and a generalist parasite could be transmitted to novel hosts in this scenario. We determined that P. neurophilia can infect seven species of fishes from five families by cohabitation with infected zebrafish: Betta splendens, Xiphophorus maculatus, Devario aequipinnatus, Pimephales promelas, Oryzias latipes, Carassius auratus and Paracheirodon innesi. Infections in these fishes were histologically similar to those of zebrafish. We include a case report of a laboratory population of fathead minnows with naturally acquired P. neurophilia infections. With such a broad host range, including several fish families, other laboratory fishes should be screened routinely for this and other microsporidian parasites.

  14. Cross matching of blood in carcharhiniform, lamniform, and orectolobiform sharks.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Haines, Ashley N; Clayton, Leigh A; Whitaker, Brent R

    2010-09-01

    The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), sandtiger shark (Carcharias taurus), white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), brown-banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum), and spotted wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus). Negative cross-matches showed no agglutination or hemolysis, suggesting that donor and recipient would be compatible. Cross-matches between conspecifics were all negative (sandbar, sandtiger, nurse, and white-spotted bamboo sharks). All cross-matches between sandbar and sandtiger sharks were also negative. Positive crossmatches consisted of agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells, suggesting that the donor and recipient would be incompatible. Strong positive reactions occurred, for example, with red blood cells from sandtiger and sandbar sharks and serum from nurse sharks. Cross matching should be carried out in elasmobranchs prior to any blood transfusion.

  15. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history and morphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individual-level sex-specific selection and population demography and places life-history traits at the epicenter of these dynamics. PMID:27622882

  16. Ecological Divergence, Adaptive Diversification, and the Evolution of Social Signaling Traits: An Empirical Study in Arid Australian Lizards.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Danielle L; Melville, Jane; Joseph, Leo; Keogh, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Species diversification often results from divergent evolution of ecological or social signaling traits. Theoretically, a combination of the two may promote speciation, however, empirical examples studying how social signal and ecological divergence might be involved in diversification are rare in general and typically do not consider range overlap as a contributing factor. We show that ecologically distinct lineages within the Australian sand dragon species complex (including Ctenophorus maculatus, Ctenophorus fordi, and Ctenophorus femoralis) have diversified recently, diverging in ecologically relevant and social signaling phenotypic traits as arid habitats expanded and differentiated. Diversification has resulted in repeated and independent invasion of distinct habitat types, driving convergent evolution of similar phenotypes. Our results suggest that parapatry facilitates diversification in visual signals through reinforcement as a hybridization-avoidance mechanism. We show that particularly striking variation in visual social signaling traits is better explained by the extent of lineage parapatry relative to ecological or phylogenetic divergence, suggesting that these traits reinforce divergence among lineages initiated by ecologically adaptive evolution. This study provides a rare empirical example of a repeated, intricate relationship between ecological and social signal evolution during diversification driven by ecological divergence and the evolution of new habitats, thereby supporting emergent theories regarding the importance of both ecological and social trait evolution throughout speciation.

  17. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  18. Mode of inheritance of increased host acceptance in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Messina, F J; Peña, N M

    2012-10-01

    Colonization of a novel plant by herbivorous insects is frequently accompanied by genetic changes that progressively improve larval or adult performance on the new host. This study examined the genetic basis of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Quasi-natural selection in the laboratory rapidly increased the tendency to oviposit on lentil. The mode of inheritance of this increase in host acceptance was determined from crosses between three lentil-adapted lines and a line maintained on the ancestral host, mung bean. In each set of crosses, females from the lentil lines laid two to three times more eggs on lentil than did females from the mung-bean line. Hybrid females consistently displayed an intermediate level of host acceptance, which did not differ between reciprocal crosses. Alleles promoting greater oviposition on lentil thus were inherited additively, with no evidence of sex-linkage or cytoplasmic effects. In a time-course study, hybrid females initially resembled the parent from the mung-bean line, as few eggs were laid on lentil during the first 24 h. However, oviposition rates on lentil after 72 h were closer to the rate observed in the lentil-line parent. Inferences about additivity vs. dominance in genes affecting oviposition may, therefore, depend on experimental protocol. Comparison with earlier work suggests that inheritance patterns observed in crosses between recently derived selection lines (as in this study) may differ from those obtained in crosses between long-divergent geographic populations.

  19. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  20. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  1. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365

  2. [Biogeographical distribution of snakes in Cameroon: the case of venomous snakes].

    PubMed

    Gonwouo, N L; LeBreton, M; Chirio, L; Ngassam, P; Ngoa, L E; Dzikouk, G

    2005-11-01

    A preliminary analysis of the distribution of snakes captured in Cameroon between 1999 and 2004 is presented in this study. This work helps to provide a better understanding of the distribution of the venomous snakes. The main focus of this study was to identify regions of high diversity of venomous species, a useful step towards developing a national strategy of snakebite care and antivenom distribution. We recorded 4,910 specimens of 150 species from 361 localities throughout Cameroon. Among the ten provinces in Cameroon, the southwest province recorded the highest number of venomous snakes. Diversity was less in the far-north province, but the high abundance of Echis ocellatus seems to be responsible for many snake bites in the region. Of all venomous snakes, the forest cobra Naja melanoleuca was the most abundant in the forest region. The humid savannah region was dominated by Causus maculatus while the Sahelian part by Echis ocellatus. Given the abundance and high snake bite cases of the latter in the region, snakebite care from a national point of view should begin from the far-north towards the forest region of the south-west Cameroon.

  3. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history and morphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individual-level sex-specific selection and population demography and places life-history traits at the epicenter of these dynamics.

  4. The life cycle of Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae).

    PubMed

    Sheena, P; Manjula, K T; Subair, K T; Janardanan, K P

    2007-09-01

    The life cycle of the cyathocotylid fluke, Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 infecting the pariah kite, Milvus migrans govinda (Accipitridae), is elucidated. The species, reported by Mehra (Proc Nat Acad Sci India 17:1-52, 1947) from Buteo rufinus rufinus (Accipitridae), was transferred to the genus Prohemistomum by Dubois (Rev Suiss de Zool 58:639-691, 1951). However, it is retained in the genus Mesostephanus because of the presence of vaginal sphincter and caudal appendage, which are the characters of the genus. Its first intermediate host is the gastropod snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Viviparidae), which released the furcocercous cercariae. The prohemistomulum-type metacercariae encysted in the muscle tissues of the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius and Puntius sophore (Cyprinidae), Mystus malabaricus (Bagridae), Heteropneustes fossilis (Heteropneustidae), Aplocheilus lineatus (Cyprinodontidae), Etroplus maculatus and E. suratensis (Cichlidae), and Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Belontidae). Recovery of M. indicum from M. m. govinda forms a new host record, and this is the first report of the life cycle of the genus from India. PMID:17514481

  5. Sexually dimorphic development and binding characteristics of NMDA receptors in the brain of the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Yablonsky-Alter, E.; Banerjee, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated age- and gender-specific variations in properties of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in a freshwater teleost, the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Prior localization of the immunoreactive (ir)-R1 subunit of the NMDAR protein (R1) in cells of the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus in the platyfish, suggests that NMDAR, as in mammals, is involved in modulation of the platyfish brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The current study shows that the number of cells in the NOR displaying ir-R1 is significantly increased in pubescent and mature female platyfish when compared to immature and senescent animals. In males, there is no significant change in ir-R1 expression in the NOR at any time in their lifespan. The affinity of the noncompetitive antagonist ((3)H)MK-801 for the NMDAR is significantly increased in pubescent females while maximum binding of ((3)H)MK-801 to the receptor reaches a significant maximum in mature females. In males, both MK-801 affinity and maximum binding remain unchanged throughout development. This is the first report of gender differences in the association of NMDA receptors with neuroendocrine brain areas during development. It is also the first report to suggest NMDA receptor involvement in the development of the BPG axis in a nonmammalian vertebrate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Complex mitonuclear interactions and metabolic costs of mating in male seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Rönn, J; Watson, C; Berger, D; Arnqvist, G

    2016-02-01

    The lack of evolutionary response to selection on mitochondrial genes through males predicts the evolution of nuclear genetic influence on male-specific mitochondrial function, for example by gene duplication and evolution of sex-specific expression of paralogs involved in metabolic pathways. Intergenomic epistasis may therefore be a prevalent feature of the genetic architecture of male-specific organismal function. Here, we assess the role of mitonuclear genetic variation for male metabolic phenotypes [metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (RQ)] associated with ejaculate renewal, in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, by assaying lines with crossed combinations of distinct mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear lineages. We found a significant increase in metabolic rate following mating relative to virgin males. Moreover, processes associated with ejaculate renewal showed variation in metabolic rate that was affected by mitonuclear interactions. Mitochondrial haplotype influenced mating-related changes in RQ, but this pattern varied over time. Mitonuclear genotype and the energy spent during ejaculate production affected the weight of the ejaculate, but the strength of this effect varied across mitochondrial haplotypes showing that the genetic architecture of male-specific reproductive function is complex. Our findings unveil hitherto underappreciated metabolic costs of mating and ejaculate renewal, and provide the first empirical demonstration of mitonuclear epistasis on male reproductive metabolic processes. PMID:26548644

  7. Cross matching of blood in carcharhiniform, lamniform, and orectolobiform sharks.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Haines, Ashley N; Clayton, Leigh A; Whitaker, Brent R

    2010-09-01

    The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), sandtiger shark (Carcharias taurus), white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), brown-banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum), and spotted wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus). Negative cross-matches showed no agglutination or hemolysis, suggesting that donor and recipient would be compatible. Cross-matches between conspecifics were all negative (sandbar, sandtiger, nurse, and white-spotted bamboo sharks). All cross-matches between sandbar and sandtiger sharks were also negative. Positive crossmatches consisted of agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells, suggesting that the donor and recipient would be incompatible. Strong positive reactions occurred, for example, with red blood cells from sandtiger and sandbar sharks and serum from nurse sharks. Cross matching should be carried out in elasmobranchs prior to any blood transfusion. PMID:20945647

  8. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  9. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Williamson, David H; Evans, Richard D; Almany, Glenn R; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Feldheim, Kevin A; van Herwerden, Lynne; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves, the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km(2) study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. PMID:22633811

  10. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established. PMID:27225207

  11. Molecular confirmation of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in farmed and imported ornamental fish in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Cummins, David M; Davies, Kelly R; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-10-16

    Viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus have not been detected in wild populations of fish in Australia but circulate in imported ornamental fish. In 2012, detection of a megalocytivirus in healthy platys Xiphophorus maculatus was reported from a farm in Australia during surveillance testing as part of a research project undertaken at the University of Sydney. Confirmatory testing of the original samples at the AAHL Fish Diseases Laboratory verified the presence of an infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-like virus. Additional sampling at the positive farm confirmed the persistence of the virus in the platys, with 39 of 265 (14.7%) samples testing positive. Comparison of 3 separate gene regions of the virus with those of ISKNV confirmed the detection of a virus indistinguishable from ISKNV. Subsequently, ISKNV was also detected in a range of imported ornamental fish from several countries between 2013 and 2014, by screening with real-time PCR and confirmation by conventional PCR and sequence analysis. Accordingly, the current importation of live ornamental fish acts as a potential perpetual source for the establishment of ISKNV viruses within Australia. The testing of the farmed and imported ornamental fish verified the utility of the probe-based real-time PCR assay for screening of ornamental fish for Megalocytivirus. PMID:26480913

  12. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations.

  13. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:11579888

  14. [Mortality from snake bites, wild and domestic animal bites and arthropod stings in the savannah zone of eastern Senegal].

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2002-08-01

    From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:12404858

  15. Expansion of the Known Host Range of the Microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Justin L; Watral, Virginia; Stidworthy, Mark F; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. Many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of P. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. However, as P. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether P. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. The pooling of fish of different species in the aquarium fish trade is common and a generalist parasite could be transmitted to novel hosts in this scenario. We determined that P. neurophilia can infect seven species of fishes from five families by cohabitation with infected zebrafish: Betta splendens, Xiphophorus maculatus, Devario aequipinnatus, Pimephales promelas, Oryzias latipes, Carassius auratus and Paracheirodon innesi. Infections in these fishes were histologically similar to those of zebrafish. We include a case report of a laboratory population of fathead minnows with naturally acquired P. neurophilia infections. With such a broad host range, including several fish families, other laboratory fishes should be screened routinely for this and other microsporidian parasites. PMID:27182659

  16. Revision of the monogenean subfamily Neothoracocotylinae Lebedev, 1969 (Polyopisthocotylea: Thoracocotylidae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, C J; Rohde, K

    1999-11-01

    Members of the subfamily Neothoracocotylinae are gastrocotylinean monogeneans on the gills of scombrid fishes of the genera Scomberomorus and Acanthocybium, and reportedly of a coryphaenid fish belonging to the genus Coryphaena. We revise the diagnosis of the subfamily and its two genera and accept only two species as valid. Neothoracocotyle acanthocybii (Meserve, 1938) Hargis, 1956 is known from Acanthocybium solandri throughout the Pacific Ocean and in the western Atlantic. N. coryphaenae (Yamaguti, 1938) Hargis, 1956, known only from a single specimen and described from Coryphaena hippurus in Japan, is synonymised with N. acanthocybii. The sole member of Scomberocotyle, S. scomberomori (Koratha, 1955) Hargis, 1956, infects five species of Scomberomorus in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the western and castern Atlantic. We record this worm from several new hosts and/or localities, including S. sierra and S. concolor in the eastern Pacific (Mexico to Colombia), S. maculatus and S. cavalla in the western Atlantic (USA to Brazil), and S. tritor in the eastern Atlantic (Sierra Leone to Nigeria). PMID:10629726

  17. Inhibitory effects of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum (Benth) seeds against insect-pests' digestive proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Fabiola P S; Pedroso, Vanessa M A; Araujo, Jonalson N; França, Anderson F J; Rabêlo, Luciana M A; Migliolo, Ludovico; Kiyota, Sumika; Santos, Elizeu A; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Adeliana S

    2013-02-01

    Pithecellobium dumosum is a tree belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily that presents various previously characterized Kunitz-type inhibitors. The present study provides a novel Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor isoform purified from P. dumosum seeds. Purification procedure was performed by TCA precipitation followed by a trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and a further reversed-phase HPLC. Purified inhibitor (PdKI-4) showed enhanced inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, PdKI-4 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against serine proteases from the coleopterans Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, and the lepidopterans Alabama argillacea and Telchin licus. However, PdKI-4 was unable to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, pineapple bromelain and Carica papaya papain. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI-4 consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of 21 kDa. Kinetic studies demonstrated that PdKI-4 is probably a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 5.7 × 10(-10) M for bovine trypsin. PdKI-4 also showed higher stability over a wide range of temperature (37-100 °C) and pH (2-12). N-termini sequence was obtained by Edman degradation showing higher identity with other Mimosoideae subfamily Kunitz-type inhibitor members. In summary, data here reported indicate the biotechnological potential of PdKI-4 for development of products against insect-pests.

  18. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  19. Observations on cucullanid nematodes from freshwater fishes in Mexico, including Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n.

    PubMed

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1999-01-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters.

  20. Confronting two-sex demographic models with data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Inouye, Brian D

    2011-11-01

    Most population dynamics models explicitly track the density of a single sex. When the operational sex ratio can vary, two-sex models may be needed to understand and predict population trajectories. Various functions have been proposed to describe the relative contributions of females and males to recruitment, and these functions can differ qualitatively in the patterns that they generate. Which mating function best describes the dynamics of real populations is not known, since alternative two-sex models have not been confronted with experimental data. We conducted the first such comparison, using laboratory populations of the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Manipulations of the operational sex ratio and total density provided strong support for a demographic model in which the birth rate was proportional to the harmonic mean of female and male densities, and females, males, and their offspring made unique contributions to density dependence. We offer guidelines for transferring this approach to other, less tractable systems in which possibilities for sex ratio manipulations are more limited. We show that informative experimental designs require strong perturbations of the operational sex ratio. The functional form of density dependence (saturating vs. over-compensatory) and the relative contributions of each sex to density dependence can both determine in which direction and at which population densities such perturbations would be most informative. Our experimental results and guidelines for design strategies promote synthesis of two-sex population dynamics theory with empirical data.

  1. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Collet, M.; Goenaga, J.; Arnqvist, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes, which should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  2. Divergence in replicated phylogenies: the evolution of partial post-mating prezygotic isolation in bean weevils.

    PubMed

    Fricke, C; Arnqvist, G

    2004-11-01

    By tradition, speciation research has been focused on processes leading to either premating or post-zygotic reproductive isolation. The processes which generate isolation after mating but before zygote formation are less well understood. Here, we study divergence in characters which contribute to post-mating prezygotic isolation, such as egg production and remating rate. We propose that 'replicated' laboratory phylogenies with known histories can be used to yield insights into the processes of divergence. We performed a series of cross-matings between populations within two strains of the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Each strain has a unique and independent origin and both have been kept in the same set of laboratories during the last few decades. Our results show that divergence has occurred between laboratory populations within strains with regards to the effects that mating has on female reproductive behaviour, showing that the evolution of partial post-mating prezygotic isolation can be rapid. More importantly, the pattern of divergence across populations was distinct in the two strains, suggesting that coevolutionary trajectories are not determined by environmental factors but are to some extent arbitrary. We discuss the limitations of the novel empirical strategy employed here, and conclude that our results lend support to the hypothesis that post-mating sexual selection is capable of rapidly generating post-mating prezygotic isolation.

  3. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  4. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  5. Selection in a fluctuating environment leads to decreased genetic variation and facilitates the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the environment are expected to induce changes in the quantitative genetic variation, which influences the ability of a population to adapt to environmental change. Furthermore, environmental changes are not constant in time, but fluctuate. Here, we investigate the effect of rapid, continuous and/or fluctuating temperature changes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using an evolution experiment followed by a split-brood experiment. In line with expectations, individuals responded in a plastic way and had an overall higher potential to respond to selection after a rapid change in the environment. After selection in an environment with increasing temperature, plasticity remained unchanged (or decreased) and environmental variation decreased, especially when fluctuations were added; these results were unexpected. As expected, the genetic variation decreased after fluctuating selection. Our results suggest that fluctuations in the environment have major impact on the response of a population to environmental change; in a highly variable environment with low predictability, a plastic response might not be beneficial and the response is genetically and environmentally canalized resulting in a low potential to respond to selection and low environmental sensitivity. Interestingly, we found greater variation for phenotypic plasticity after selection, suggesting that the potential for plasticity to evolve is facilitated after exposure to environmental fluctuations. Our study highlights that environmental fluctuations should be considered when investigating the response of a population to environmental change.

  6. Detection of mycobacteria in aquarium fish in Slovenia by culture and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Pate, M; Jencic, V; Zolnir-Dovc, M; Ocepek, M

    2005-04-01

    Thirty-five aquarium fish were investigated for the presence of mycobacteria by culture and molecular methods. The following species were examined: goldfish Carassius auratus auratus, guppy Poecilia reticulata, 4 three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, dwarf gourami Colisa lalia, Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens, freshwater angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, African cichlid fish Cichlidae spp., cichlid fish Microgeophagus altispinosus, cichlid fish Pseudotropheus lombardoi, blue streak hap Labidochromis caeruleus, sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and catfish Corydoras spp. Isolates of mycobacteria were obtained in 29 cases (82.9%). Two specimens were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, but the cultivation failed. Four specimens were both ZN- and culture-negative. On the basis of GenoType Mycobacterium assay (Hain Life-science) and restriction enzyme analysis of the amplified products (PCR-RFLP), 23 isolates (79.3%) were identified: 7 as Mycobacterium fortuitum, 6 as M. gordonae, 6 as M. marinum, 3 as M. chelonae, and 1 as M. peregrinum. Five isolates remained unidentified (Mycobacterium spp.). One case probably represented a mixed infection (M. marinum/M. fortuitum). Since M. marinum infections are also detected in humans, the significance of mycobacteria in aquarium fish should not be overlooked. PMID:15900685

  7. Toxicological assessment of spinosad: Implications for integrated control of Aedes aegypti using larvicides and larvivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Freitas, Priscila Costa; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Campos, Carlos Fernando; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Rodrigues, Tamiris Sabrina; Morelli, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Integration of larvivorous fish and biolarvicides at low concentrations to control of mosquito larvae in field situations may result in a safer and more effective tool. However, the usefulness of integrated approach depends upon survival and ecological fitness of fish employed. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic effects of combining different sublethal concentrations of spinosad, a naturally occurring neurotoxic insecticide, with male adult poecilid larvivorous guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) fish on Aedes larvae mosquitos. Both fish species have been used for biological control of Aedes larvae in Brazil. Sublethal spinosad exposures were predetermined based on CL50-96hr. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill cells were measured after 14 d of exposure. Behavioral changes were monitored over 96 h. Although genotoxic effects were not markedly different from control, behavioral changes evaluated based upon the no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC). Adverse effects were noted at concentrations of 12.6 mg/L (NOEC) and 25.3 mg/L (LOEC) spinosad. Therefore, these insecticide concentrations may be considered as being safe to these fish species and have important implications for integrated approach to control Aedes larvae using natural larvicides and larvivorous fish. PMID:27294296

  8. Fishborne Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2009-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 307 freshwater fish of 31 species were collected from 5 administrative regions of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were examined by artificial digestion method from July 2003 to August 2004. No metacercariae were detected in fish from Fusui-xian. In fish from Mashan-xian and a market in Nanning, 3 species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus, were mainly detected. Metacercariae (8 in number) of Clonorchis sinensis were found in 1 Chanodichthys dabryi purchased from a market in Nanning. In fish from Yangshuo, Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae were detected from all 18 fish species examined. Total 13 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 3 out of 10 Hemibarbus maculatus from Yangshuo. All 7 Zacco platypus from Yangshuo were infected with 8-112 Echinochasmus perfoliatus metacercariae. In fish from Binyang-xian, H. pumilo metacercariae were mainly detected in all 5 fish species examined, and only 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis was found in a Hemiculter leucisculus. From the above results, it was confirmed that some species of freshwater fish play a role of second intermediate hosts for FBT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. In particular, 4 species of intestinal flukes, M. yokogawai, H. taichui, H. pumilio, and C. formosanus, were prevalent in fish hosts, whereas C. sinensis metacercariae were detected only in 3 fish species. PMID:19724698

  9. A ZFY-like sequence in fish, with comments on the evolution of the ZFY family of genes in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerer, E.J.; Threlkeld, L.

    1995-08-01

    ZFY-like genes have been observed in a variety of vertebrate species. Although originally implicated as the primary testis-determining gene in humans and other placental mammals, more recent evidence indicates a role(s) outside that of testis determination. In this study, DNA from five species of fish, Carasius auratus, Rivulus marmoratus, Xiphophorus maculatus, X. milleri, and X. nigrensis was subjected to Southern blot analysis using a PCR-amplified fragment of mouse ZFY-like sequence as a probe. Restriction fragment patterns were not polymorphic between sexes in any one species but showed a different pattern for each species. With one exception, Rivulus, a 3.1-kb band from the EcoRI digestion was common to all. Sequence and open reading frame analysis of this fragment showed a strong homology to other known vertebrate ZFY-like genes. Of particular interest in this gene is a novel third finger domain similar to one human and one alligator ZFY-like gene. Our studies and others provide evidence for a family of vertebrate ZFY genes, with those having this novel third finger being representative of the ancestral condition. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Homology of Melanoma-Inducing Loci in the Genus Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several species of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for specific pigment patterns. Some of these give rise to malignant melanoma following the appropriate crossings. For one of these pattern loci from the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus the melanoma-inducing gene has been cloned and found to encode a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, designated Xmrk. Using molecular probes from this gene in Southern blot analyses on single fish DNA preparations from 600 specimens of different populations of various species of the genus Xiphophorus and their hybrids, either with or without melanoma-predisposing pattern, it was shown that all individuals contain the Xmrk gene as a proto-oncogene. It is located on the sex chromosome. All fish that carry a melanoma-predisposing locus which has been identified by Mendelian genetics contain an additional copy of Xmrk, closely linked to a specific melanophore pattern locus on the sex chromosome. The melanoma-inducing loci of the different species and populations are homologous. The additional copy of Xmrk obviously arose by a gene-duplication event, thereby acquiring the oncogenic potential. The homology of the melanoma-inducing loci points to a similar mechanism of tumor suppression in all feral fish populations of the different species of the genus Xiphophorus. PMID:1981761

  11. The macromelanophore locus and the melanoma oncogene Xmrk are separate genetic entities in the genome of Xiphophorus.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, S; Schartl, M

    1998-01-01

    Fish of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for black pigmentation patterns. Certain intra- or interspecific hybrids exhibit enhanced expression of these patterns, leading in many cases to malignant melanoma. Because no recombination was ever observed between the pattern information and the genetic predisposition to develop melanoma after hybridization, a "tumor gene" (Tu) was postulated that encodes both phenotypes. A dominant oncogene, ONC-Xmrk, was then found to be necessary and sufficient for the transforming function of Tu. Here we present molecular evidence that ONC-Xmrk and the pigment pattern information are encoded by separate, although intimately linked loci. No ONC-Xmrk gene was present in the 15 Xiphophorus strains investigated which exhibit no black pigmentation pattern. Five different patterns from Xiphophorus maculatus, X. evelynae, X. milleri, X. cortezi, and X. montezumae were associated with ONC-Xmrk and were melanomagenic, while fish of X. helleri, X. variatus, X. nezahualcoyotl, and X. montezumae with five other patterns had no ONC-Xmrk and consequently did not produce hybrid melanoma. These data provide evidence that ONC-Xmrk is sufficient for tumorigenesis in Xiphophorus hybrids, and that a separate, pigment pattern-encoding locus is closely linked to it. PMID:9691046

  12. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  13. Origin and evolution of gnathostome dentitions: a question of teeth and pharyngeal denticles in placoderms.

    PubMed

    Zerina, Johanson; Smith, Moya M

    2005-05-01

    The fossil group Placodermi is the most phylogenetically basal of the clade of jawed vertebrates but lacks a marginal dentition comparable to that of the dentate Chondrichthyes, Acanthodii and Osteichthyes (crown-group Gnathostomata). The teeth of crown-group gnathostomes are part of an ordered dentition replaced from, and patterned by, a dental lamina, exemplified by the elasmobranch model. A dentition recognised by these criteria has been previously judged absent in placoderms, based on structural evidence such as absence of tooth whorls and typical vertebrate dentine. However, evidence for regulated tooth addition in a precise spatiotemporal order can be observed in placoderms, but significantly, only within the group Arthrodira. In these fossils, as in other jawed vertebrates with statodont, non-replacing dentitions, new teeth are added at the ends of rows below the bite, but in line with biting edges of the dentition. The pattern is different on each gnathal bone and probably arises from single odontogenic primordia on each, but tooth rows are arranged in a distinctive placoderm pattern. New teeth are made of regular dentine comparable to that of crown-gnathostomes, formed from a pulp cavity. This differs from semidentine previously described for placoderm gnathalia, a type present in the external dermal tubercles. The Arthrodira is a derived taxon within the Placodermi, hence origin of teeth in placoderms occurs late in the phylogeny and teeth are convergently derived, relative to those of other jawed vertebrates. More basal placoderm taxa adopted other strategies for providing biting surfaces and these vary substantially, but include addition of denticles to the growing gnathal plates, at the margins of pre-existing denticle patches. These alternative strategies and apparent absence of regular dentine have led to previous interpretations that teeth were entirely absent from the placoderm dentition. A consensus view emerged that a dentition, as developed

  14. Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 μg g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 μg g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems.

  15. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. Results Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. Conclusions The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  17. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Michael; Williamson, David H.; Weeks, Rebecca; Jones, Geoff P.; Almany, Glenn R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Hopf, Jess K.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus). We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it difficult to

  18. Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia: comparing the vectors and the strategies.

    PubMed

    Meek, S R

    1995-04-01

    The use of information on malaria vector behaviour in vector control is discussed in relation to the area of Southeast Asia comprising Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The major vectors in the region are Anopheles dirus, An. minimus, An. maculatus and An. sundaicus, of which An. dirus is the most important. Options for vector control and the biological features of mosquitoes, which would make them amenable to control by these measures, are listed. The methods with the greatest potential for controlling each of the four vector species are described. Experiences of vector control by residual spraying, insecticide-treated nets and larva control and of personal protection against the four vectors are outlined, and it is noted that choice of control strategy is often determined by epidemiological, economic and political considerations, whilst entomological observations may help to explain failures of control and to indicate alternative strategies. Future research needs include basic entomological field studies using the most appropriate indicators to detect changes related to rapidly changing environmental conditions, such as loss of forest and climate change. Further studies of the efficacy of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, with greater attention to study design, are needed before it can be assumed that they will work in Southeast Asia. At the same time, research to improve sustainable utilization of nets is important, bearing in mind that nets are not the only means to control malaria and should not drain resources from supervision and training, which improve access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria and other diseases. Research is needed to make decisions on whether vector control is appropriate in different environments, and, if so, how to carry it out in different health systems. Researchers need to play a greater role in making operational research (entomological, epidemiological, social, economic and health systems research) of good quality

  19. Sperm cryopreservation of a live-bearing fish, Xiphophorus couchianus: Male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility and production of F1 hybrid offspring☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Walter, Ronald B.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2015-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Xiphophorus are well-studied biomedical research models, and some species, such as X. couchianus, are currently listed as endangered in the wild. Sperm cryopreservation in these live-bearing fishes has begun recently. Thus far, live young have been produced with cryopreserved sperm only in one species (Xiphophorus helleri). In this study, the goal was to develop a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation of Xiphophorus couchianus, and to produce live young with cryopreserved sperm. Sperm were collected by crushing of testis in Hanks’ balanced salt solution at an osmolality of 500 mOsmol/kg (HBSS500), and were cryopreserved with 14% glycerol (v/v) as cryoprotectant at a cooling rate of 20 °C/min from 5 to −80 °C in 250-μL French straws. For artificial insemination, samples were thawed at 40 °C for 5 s in a water bath, washed once using fresh HBSS500 by centrifuging at 1000 g for 5 min at 4 °C, concentrated into ~5 μL, and injected into virgin females of Xiphophorus maculatus. The inseminated females were monitored for 90 days for subsequent discharge of live young. Results from 2006 and 2007 showed considerable male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility (from 1 to 70%). Offspring were produced by cryopreserved sperm in two tanks (of three) at 36 and 66 days after insemination in 2007. Paternity was confirmed via phenotypes (body color) and genotypes (microsatellite genetic marker) of the hybrid offspring. Overall, a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination is provided to preserve X. couchianus, which is an important biomedical research model, and also currently listed as an endangered species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. PMID:19027087

  20. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Williamson, David H; Weeks, Rebecca; Jones, Geoff P; Almany, Glenn R; Harrison, Hugo B; Hopf, Jess K; Pressey, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus). We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it difficult to

  1. Sperm cryopreservation of a live-bearing fish, Xiphophorus couchianus: male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility and production of F(1) hybrid offspring.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2009-03-01

    Fishes of the genus Xiphophorus are well-studied biomedical research models, and some species, such as X. couchianus, are currently listed as endangered in the wild. Sperm cryopreservation in these live-bearing fishes has begun recently. Thus far, live young have been produced with cryopreserved sperm only in one species (Xiphophorus helleri). In this study, the goal was to develop a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation of Xiphophorus couchianus, and to produce live young with cryopreserved sperm. Sperm were collected by crushing of testis in Hanks' balanced salt solution at an osmolality of 500 mOsmol/kg (HBSS500), and were cryopreserved with 14% glycerol (v/v) as cryoprotectant at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min from 5 to -80 degrees C in 250-microL French straws. For artificial insemination, samples were thawed at 40 degrees C for 5 s in a water bath, washed once using fresh HBSS500 by centrifuging at 1000 g for 5 min at 4 degrees C, concentrated into approximately 5 microL, and injected into virgin females of Xiphophorus maculatus. The inseminated females were monitored for 90 days for subsequent discharge of live young. Results from 2006 and 2007 showed considerable male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility (from 1 to 70%). Offspring were produced by cryopreserved sperm in two tanks (of three) at 36 and 66 days after insemination in 2007. Paternity was confirmed via phenotypes (body color) and genotypes (microsatellite genetic marker) of the hybrid offspring. Overall, a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination is provided to preserve X. couchianus, which is an important biomedical research model, and also currently listed as an endangered species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. PMID:19027087

  2. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    PubMed

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  3. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  4. Oxygen isotopic distribution along the otolith growth axis by secondary ion mass spectrometry: Applications for studying ontogenetic change in the depth inhabited by deep-sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2014-02-01

    This study using tuna otoliths as working standards established a high lateral resolution and precision analysis to measure δ18Ootolith by secondary ion mass spectrometry. This analytical approach of the ion probe was applied to deep-sea fishes to reconstruct the likely depths inhabited by the fishes at different life history stages based on the measured δ18Ootolith values as a proxy of water temperature. Dramatic increases up to 5-6‰ in δ18Ootolith, representing a temperature decrease of approximately 20 °C, were detected in a blind cusk eel (Barathronus maculatus) otolith and in the otoliths of Synaphobranchus kaupii during leptocephalus metamorphosis to glass eel, inferred from the drop of otolith Sr/Ca ratios and increase of otolith growth increment width. δ18Ootolith profiles clearly divided the fish's life history into a planktonic stage in the mixed layer of the ocean and a benthic stage on the deep-sea ocean bottom. The habitat shift signal was recorded within a 150 μm width of otolith growth zone, which was too narrow to be clearly detected by mechanical drilling and conventional isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. However, variations down to -7‰ were found in δ18Ootolith profiles as the result of Cs2+ beam sputter in the core and larval portions of the otoliths. Carbon mapping by electron probe microanalyzer and staining by toluidine blue suggested abundant proteins existed in the areas with anomaly negative δ18Ootolith values, which cannot be interpreted as a habitat change but due to the isotopic fractionation by O emission from the proteins. These results implied that careful design and understanding of the chemical composition of the analytical areas or tracks on the heterogeneous otolith was essential for highly accurate and precise analysis.

  5. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale

  6. Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Hollings, Tracey; Jones, Menna; Mooney, Nick; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Changing ecosystem dynamics are increasing the threat of disease epidemics arising in wildlife populations. Several recent disease outbreaks have highlighted the critical need for understanding pathogen dynamics, including the role host densities play in disease transmission. In Australia, introduced feral cats are of immense concern because of the risk they pose to native wildlife through predation and competition. They are also the only known definitive host of the coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, the population-level impacts of which are unknown in any species. Australia’s native wildlife have not evolved in the presence of cats or their parasites, and feral cats may be linked with several native mammal declines and extinctions. In Tasmania there is emerging evidence that feral cat populations are increasing following wide-ranging and extensive declines in the apex predator, the Tasmanian devil, from a consistently fatal transmissible cancer. We assess whether feral cat density is associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii in native wildlife to determine whether an increasing population of feral cats may correspond to an increased level of risk to naive native intermediate hosts. We found evidence that seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tasmanian pademelons was lower in the north-west of Tasmania than in the north-east and central regions where cat density was higher. Also, samples obtained from road-killed animals had significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii than those from culled individuals, suggesting there may be behavioural differences associated with infection. In addition, seroprevalence in different trophic levels was assessed to determine whether position in the food-web influences exposure risk. Higher order carnivores had significantly higher seroprevalence than medium-sized browser species. The highest seroprevalence observed in an intermediate host was 71% in spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus), the largest mammalian

  7. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Fox, Charles W; Johnston, J Spencer; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) is the most important storage pest of grain legumes and comprises geographically distinct strains. Storage under a modified atmosphere with decreased O2 content represents an alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control of stored grains. In this study, we compared reproduction, development and survival, as well as genome size of bruchid strains from South India (SI), Burkina Faso (BF), Niger (CmNnC) and the United States (OH), reared on mung bean (Vigna radiata). Fecundity and egg-to-adult duration varied significantly among these strains. Notably, strain BF had the highest fecundity, and strain SI displayed the fastest development whereas strain OH was the slowest. Differences in adult lifespan among strains were only detected in unmated but not in the mated group. Genome size of SI females was significantly larger than that of OH females, and for all four strains, the female genomes were larger than those of their corresponding males. Furthermore, we studied effects of exposure to 1% O2+99% N2 on strains SI and BF. Mortality caused by hypoxia was influenced by not only developmental stage but also by insect strain. Eggs were most sensitive, particularly at the early stage, whereas the 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most tolerant and could survive up to 15 days of low O2. Strain SI was slightly more resistant than BF in egg and larval stages. Proteolytic activity prior to, during and after hypoxia treatment revealed remarkable metabolic plasticity of cowpea bruchids in response to modified atmosphere.

  8. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  9. Mitogenomic analysis of decapod crustacean phylogeny corroborates traditional views on their relationships.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Braband, Anke; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within decapod crustaceans are highly controversial. Even recent analyses based on molecular datasets have shown largely contradictory results. Previous studies using mitochondrial genomes are promising but suffer from a poor and unbalanced taxon sampling. To fill these gaps we sequenced the (nearly) complete mitochondrial genomes of 13 decapod species: Stenopus hispidus, Polycheles typhlops, Panulirus versicolor, Scyllarides latus, Enoplometopus occidentalis, Homarus gammarus, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, Upogebia major, Neaxius acanthus, Calocaris macandreae, Corallianassa coutierei, Cryptolithodes sitchensis, Neopetrolisthes maculatus, and add that of Dromia personata. Our new data allow for comprehensive analyses of decapod phylogeny using the mitochondrial genomes of 50 species covering all major taxa of the Decapoda. Five species of Stomatopoda and one species of Euphausiacea serve as outgroups. Most of our analyses using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) of nucleotide and amino acid datasets revealed congruent topologies for higher level decapod relationships: (((((((Anomala, Brachyura), Thalassinida: Gebiidea), Thalassinida: Axiidea), (Astacidea, Polychelida), Achelata), Stenopodidea), Caridea), Dendrobranchiata). This result corroborates several traditional morphological views and adds new perspectives. In particular, the position of Polychelida is surprising. Nevertheless, some problems can be identified. In a minority of analyses the basal branching of Reptantia is not fully resolved, Thalassinida are monophyletic; Polychelida are the sister group to Achelata, and Stenopodidea are resolved as sister group to Caridea. Despite this and although some nodal supports are low in our phylogenetic trees, we think that the largely stable topology of the trees regardless of different types of analyses suggests that mitochondrial genomes show good potential to resolve the relationship within Decapoda. PMID:23202543

  10. Spontaneous melanoma formation in nonhybrid Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Schartl, A; Malitschek, B; Kazianis, S; Borowsky, R; Schartl, M

    1995-01-01

    Melanoma in hybrids of Xiphophorus is due to the unrestricted activity of a cellular oncogene locus, Tu, encoding the growth factor receptor gene Xmrk. In nonhybrid parental fish, Tu is controlled by a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, its restricted activity leads there only to a nonmalignant, species- and population-specific macromelanophore spot pattern. Prompted by enigmatic reports on nonhybrid Xiphophorus with pigmentation abnormalities resembling melanoma, we have studied pigmentation in descendants of wild-caught fish and purebred laboratory stocks derived from wild populations. Whereas most stocks exhibiting macromelanophore patterns never developed pigmentation abnormalities, an exceptional situation for some nonhybrids was found. In X. variatus carrying the macromelanophore pattern "punctatus-2" and in X. cortezi with "spotted caudal," expressivity of the pigmentation gene ranges from a few black spots to extreme melanosis and eventually to malignant melanoma. In X. maculatus with the mutant pigmentation gene striped" carrying in addition the micromelanophore pattern "anal fin black" or "lower comet," testosterone-dependent melanoma develop originating from the corresponding micromelanophore pattern. The tumors are highly malignant and express a melanoma-associated antigen. Overexpression of the Xmrk oncogene appears as the underlying molecular mechanism for tumor induction. These findings clearly demonstrate that tumors can also develop in purebred wild-type fish. The classical model for formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus hybrids does not explain the development of melanoma in the absence of hybridization. However, their existence gives additional support to the reasoning that the Xmrk oncogene associated with the macromelanophore locus is potentially injurious. PMID:7805027

  11. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses. PMID:22924335

  12. Sperm Cryopreservation in Live-Bearing Xiphophorus Fishes: Offspring Production from Xiphophorus variatus and Strategies for Establishment of Sperm Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G.; Walter, Ronald B.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×109 cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%–80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses. PMID:22924335

  13. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed onPercina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, orGambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  14. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  15. Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-05-01

    Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts.

  16. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity). Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14%) is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We

  17. Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, A. R. A.; Barletta, M.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The seasonal migration of a salt wedge and rainfall were the major factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of ichthyoplankton and microplastics along the main channel of the Goiana Estuary, NE Brazil. The most abundant taxa were the clupeids Rhinosardinia bahiensis and Harengula clupeola, followed by the achirid Trinectes maculatus (78.7% of the catch). Estuarine and mangrove larvae (e.g. Anchovia clupeoides, Gobionellus oceanicus), as well as microplastics were ubiquitous. During drier months, the salt wedge reaches the upper estuary and marine larvae (e.g. Cynoscion acoupa) migrated upstream until the zones of coastal waters influence. However, the meeting of waterfronts in the middle estuary forms a barrier that retains the microplastics in the upper and lower estuary most part of the year. During the late dry season, a bloom of zooplankton was followed by a bloom of fish larvae (12.74 ind. 100 m-3) and fish eggs (14.65 ind. 100 m-3) at the lower estuary. During the late rainy season, the high freshwater inflow flushed microplastics, together with the biota, seaward. During this season, a microplastic maximum (14 items 100 m-3) was observed, followed by fish larvae maximum (14.23 ind. 100 m-3) in the lower estuary. In contrast to fish larvae, microplastics presented positive correlation with high rainfall rates, being more strictly associated to flushing out/into the estuary than to seasonal variation in environmental variables. Microplastics represented half of fish larvae density. Comparable densities in the water column increase the chances of interaction between microplastics and fish larvae, including the ingestion of smaller fragments, whose shape and colour are similar to zooplankton prey.

  18. The impact of organochlorines and metals on wild fish living in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir: bioaccumulation and histopathological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Marcelo Gustavo; Benze, Tayrine Paschoaletti; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise Margareth; Fernandes, João Batista; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the contaminants in water and their bioaccumulation in the gills and liver of two ecologically distinct fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, living in the reservoir of the Furnas hydroelectric power station located in Minas Gerais in the southeastern Brazil. The histological alterations in these organs are also examined. Water and fish were collected in June and December from five sites (site 1: FU10, site 2: FU20, site 3: FU30, site 4: FU40 and site 5: FU50) in the reservoir, and agrochemicals and metals selected based on their use in the field crops surrounding the reservoir were analyzed in the water and in the fish gills and livers. The concentrations of the organochlorines aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide as well as the metals copper, chromium, iron and zinc in the gills and livers of both fish species were higher in June than in December; the liver accumulated higher concentrations of contaminants than the gills. The organochlorine metolachlor was detected only in the liver. The histological pattern of changes was similar in both species with regard to contaminant accumulation in the gills and liver. Fish from FU10, the least contaminated site, exhibited normal gill structure and moderate to heavy liver damage. Fish collected at FU20 to FU50, which were contaminated with organochlorines and metals, showed slight to moderate gill damage in June and irreparable liver damage in the livers in June and December. The histological changes in the gills and liver were suitable to distinguishing contaminated field sites and are therefore useful biomarkers for environmental contamination representing a biological end-point of exposure.

  19. New Zealand geckos (Diplodactylidae): Cryptic diversity in a post-Gondwanan lineage with trans-Tasman affinities.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Stuart V; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Hitchmough, Rod A; Daugherty, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    We used a multi-gene approach to assess the phylogenetic relationships of New Zealand diplodactylid geckos to their Australian and New Caledonian relatives and to one another. Data from nuclear (RAG-1, PDC) and mitochondrial (ND2, 16S) genes from >180 specimens representing all 19 recognized New Zealand taxa and all but two of 20 putatively new species suggested by previous studies were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. All analyses retrieved a monophyletic New Zealand clade, most closely related to the Australian Diplodactylidae exclusive of Pseudothecadactylus. Hoplodactylus is paraphyletic and composed of two morphological groups: a broad-toed clade, consisting of the island-restricted, largest extant species, Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, and the species-rich, wide-ranging Hoplodactylus maculatus clade; and a narrow-toed clade, comprising five monophyletic subgroups: Naultinus, the Hoplodactylus pacificus and Hoplodactylus granulatus clades, and the distinctive species Hoplodactylus rakiurae and Hoplodactylus stephensi. Each of these lineages is here recognized at the generic level. Our data support recognition of 16 new species (36 total), and five new or resurrected genera (seven total). The New Zealand diplodactylid radiation split from its Australian relatives 40.2mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 28.9-53.5), after the opening of the Tasman Sea. Their distribution cannot, therefore, be regarded as derived as a result of Gondwanana vicariance. The age of the New Zealand crown group, 24.4mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 15.5-33.8), encompasses the period of the 'Oligocene drowning' of New Zealand and is consistent with the hypothesis that New Zealand was not completely inundated during this period. Major lineages within New Zealand geckos diverged chiefly during the mid- to late Miocene, probably in association with a suite of geological and climatological factors that have characterized the region

  20. The effect of direct interspecific competition on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Rihab; Wajnberg, Eric; Monge, Jean-Paul; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-01-01

    The presence of competitors may affect the pay-off of individuals' foraging strategies. They should therefore modify their resource exploitation decisions accordingly. In such a direct competition situation, theory predicts that individuals should stay longer on a resource patch than when foraging alone. However, models predicting patch residence time focus on intraspecific competition without agonistic interactions. Here, we investigate the patch use strategies of females of two parasitoid species, Eupelmus vuilleti and Dinarmus basalis, attacking the same host, Callosobruchus maculatus, knowing that D. basalis is more aggressive and can exclude E. vuilleti during pairwise contests for single hosts. Our results showed that time allocation and oviposition strategies differed in relation to the species and type of competition (i.e., presence/absence of competitor, simultaneous/sequential female introduction or resident/intruder female). Eupelmus vuilleti females tended to wait in the patch surroundings for D. basalis females' departure to return and exploit hosts parasitized by the opponent (after destruction of her eggs). In contrast, D. basalis females tended to self-superparasitize and stay motionless near the hosts. After detecting an E. vuilleti female entering the patch, they attacked and chased her permanently from the patch. Females of both species spent less time in the patch when faced with a competitor than when alone. This study is the first to test the influence of direct interspecific competition and arrival order on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid species, and highlights the necessity to include agonistic behaviors in theoretical models predicting optimal patch residence time in competitive situations.

  1. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  2. Insecticidal and vertebrate toxicity associated with ethnobotanicals used as post-harvest protectants in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Belmain, S R; Neal, G E; Ray, D E; Golob, P

    2001-03-01

    Six plant species (Cassia sophera, Chamaecrista nigricans, Mitragyna inermis, Ocimum americanum, Securidaca longepedunculata and Synedrella nodiflora) traditionally used in Ghana to control insect pests of stored grain and legumes were screened in the laboratory at three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5%, w/w) against four common storage pests (Rhyzopertha dominica, Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus). All the plants showed some ability to control all or some of the test insect species. Levels of efficacy varied according to test concentration with the highest concentration tested providing the best control. The S. longepedunculata plant induced the highest percent mortality and was the best at reducing emergence of the F(1) generation. The six plants were also incorporated into standard rat diet at two concentrations (1 and 5%, w/w) and fed to rats over a 6-week period to assess potential deleterious effects against vertebrates. None of the plants demonstrated any neurotoxicological or neurobehavioural effects to the rats over the course of the trial. However, S. longepedunculata and C. nigricans caused a significant reduction in rat growth rate when incorporated at 5% in the diet, induced cell hyperplasia in the liver, and reduced the mean weight of the liver and kidneys, compared to the control group of rats. Kidney pathology was affected only by the 5% concentration of S. longepedunculata which caused a reduced accumulation of alpha2mu-globulin. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of farmer usage of insecticidal plants for stored product protection. PMID:11278061

  3. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  4. New Zealand geckos (Diplodactylidae): Cryptic diversity in a post-Gondwanan lineage with trans-Tasman affinities.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Stuart V; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Hitchmough, Rod A; Daugherty, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    We used a multi-gene approach to assess the phylogenetic relationships of New Zealand diplodactylid geckos to their Australian and New Caledonian relatives and to one another. Data from nuclear (RAG-1, PDC) and mitochondrial (ND2, 16S) genes from >180 specimens representing all 19 recognized New Zealand taxa and all but two of 20 putatively new species suggested by previous studies were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. All analyses retrieved a monophyletic New Zealand clade, most closely related to the Australian Diplodactylidae exclusive of Pseudothecadactylus. Hoplodactylus is paraphyletic and composed of two morphological groups: a broad-toed clade, consisting of the island-restricted, largest extant species, Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, and the species-rich, wide-ranging Hoplodactylus maculatus clade; and a narrow-toed clade, comprising five monophyletic subgroups: Naultinus, the Hoplodactylus pacificus and Hoplodactylus granulatus clades, and the distinctive species Hoplodactylus rakiurae and Hoplodactylus stephensi. Each of these lineages is here recognized at the generic level. Our data support recognition of 16 new species (36 total), and five new or resurrected genera (seven total). The New Zealand diplodactylid radiation split from its Australian relatives 40.2mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 28.9-53.5), after the opening of the Tasman Sea. Their distribution cannot, therefore, be regarded as derived as a result of Gondwanana vicariance. The age of the New Zealand crown group, 24.4mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 15.5-33.8), encompasses the period of the 'Oligocene drowning' of New Zealand and is consistent with the hypothesis that New Zealand was not completely inundated during this period. Major lineages within New Zealand geckos diverged chiefly during the mid- to late Miocene, probably in association with a suite of geological and climatological factors that have characterized the region

  5. Insects breeding in pig carrion in two environments of a rural area of the state of minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, L S; Paseto, M L; Franco, F T; Perdigão, V C; Capel, G; Mendes, J

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify potential forensic indicators in the insect fauna associated with pig carrion and the pattern of insect succession during the decomposition process in two environments of a rural area in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was conducted at two locations: in a pasture and in a fragment of a semi-deciduous forest (vegetation profile of the Cerrado biome) in two different seasons (rainy and dry) of 2010. The decomposition process was more rapid in the rainy season. More than 32,000 insects belonging to 17 species of 6 families of Diptera and 2 species of Coleoptera bred in the carcasses. The majority of Diptera bred in the first three stages of decomposition. However, Phoridae and Coleoptera bred mainly in the last two stages. The insects bred more abundantly in the pasture and in the humid season. The exceptions were the Fanniidae (Diptera), which bred more abundantly in the forest and the Dermestidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera), which did not demonstrate any preference in terms of environments and were more abundant in the dry season, respectively. Species such as Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Peckia (Patonella) intermutans (Walker), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer), and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) may be potential indicators of post-mortem interval. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius) and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) may be indicators of localization of the natural environment, while Musca domestica Linnaeus may be an indicator of the anthropic environment. The study thus presented many species of potential forensic indicators in rural areas of this region.

  6. Seasonal structure and dynamics of sarcosaprophagous fauna on pig carrion in a rural area of Cordoba (Argentina): their importance in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Battán Horenstein, Moira; Rosso, Beatriz; García, M Dolores

    2012-04-10

    Four experiments, one in each season, were carried out during 2004 in a rural area of Córdoba, central Argentina. Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.), weighing approximately 8 kg each, were used in each of the four experiments. The animals were killed by a sharp blow to the head and immediately placed in an appropriate arthropod trap. One pig was placed in the shade and the other under direct sunlight. This research was conducted to determine the seasonal structure and dynamics of arthropods that constitute the sarcosaprophagous community in a given area of the central region of Argentina. The decomposition process was divided into five stages: fresh, bloated, decay, advanced decay and dry. The duration of each stage varied in different seasons, showing that the temperature and humidity are the most important variables that influence this process. A total of 51,500 adults and 36,909 immature were collected. More than 80% of the specimens collected belong to Insecta, and within this, Diptera were the most abundant order. The flies were mainly represented by adults and immature of the following species: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Musca domestica Linnaeus (Muscidae) and Fannia femoralis (Stein) (Fanniidae). Coleoptera were mainly represented by adults and immature of the species Creophilus maxillosus (Linnaeus) (Staphylinidae) and Dermestes maculatus (Geer) (Dermestidae). More than 50% of hymenopteran fauna collected belong to Formicidae. The trophic levels associated with the decomposition of the remains included five categories: necrophagous, parasites and predators of the necrophagous species, omnivores, opportunists and adventives. During faunal succession a strong dominance of the necrophagous species of the family Calliphoridae and Muscidae was observed, mainly during the early stages of decay process in all seasons.

  7. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

    2003-03-31

    A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only

  8. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed. PMID:16334349

  9. Two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013 (Cestoda, Diphyllidea) from Indo-Pacific rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Verónica A; Caira, Janine N

    2013-09-01

    Recent collections of cestode parasites from two species of the myliobatid genus Aetomylaeus Garman from several localities in the Pacific Ocean resulted in the discovery of two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013. Halysioncum gibsoni sp. n. from Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) in the South China Sea off Borneo differs from all of its congeners in having the following combination of characters: 27 apical hooks (14 type A and 13 type B hooks), 11-12 lateral hooklets, 22-28 spines per column on the cephalic peduncle, testes distributed in a single column and an internal seminal vesicle. Halysioncum arafurense sp. n., recovered from Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 (sensu Naylor et al. 2012b) in the Arafura Sea off the Wessel Islands, Northern Territory, Australia, can be distinguished from its congeners based on the following combination of characters: 23 apical hooks (12 type A and 11 type B hooks), the number of lateral hooklets (9-11), the number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle (20-24), the number and distribution of the testes (13-15 testes in two irregular columns), and the distribution of vitelline follicles (interrupted dorsally at the level of the ovarian lobes). Both species represent the first verified records of diphyllideans from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus and formally extend the host associations of diphyllideans to include a third genus of Myliobatiformes. The myliobatiforms are indeed an understudied group of available hosts for diphyllideans and represent interesting target hosts if the diversity of diphyllidean tapeworms is to be fully estimated and understood.

  10. A Microsatellite Genetic Linkage Map for Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R. B.; Rains, J. D.; Russell, J. E.; Guerra, T. M.; Daniels, C.; Johnston, Dennis A.; Kumar, Jay; Wheeler, A.; Kelnar, K.; Khanolkar, V. A.; Williams, E. L.; Hornecker, J. L.; Hollek, L.; Mamerow, M. M.; Pedroza, A.; Kazianis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecies hybrids between distinct species of the genus Xiphophorus are often used in varied research investigations to identify genomic regions associated with the inheritance of complex traits. There are 24 described Xiphophorus species and a greater number of pedigreed strains; thus, the number of potential interspecies hybrid cross combinations is quite large. Previously, select Xiphophorus experimental crosses have been shown to exhibit differing characteristics between parental species and among the hybrid fishes derived from crossing them, such as widely differing susceptibilities to chemical or physical agents. For instance, genomic regions harboring tumor suppressor and oncogenes have been identified via linkage association of these loci with a small set of established genetic markers. The power of this experimental strategy is related to the number of genetic markers available in the Xiphophorus interspecies cross of interest. Thus, we have undertaken the task of expanding the suite of easily scored markers by characterization of Xiphophorus microsatellite sequences. Using a cross between Xiphophorus maculatus and X. andersi, we report a linkage map predominantly composed of microsatellite markers. All 24 acrocentric chromosome sets of Xiphophorus are represented in the assembled linkage map with an average intergenomic distance of 7.5 cM. Since both male and female F1 hybrids were used to produce backcross progeny, these recombination rates were compared between “male” and “female” maps. Although several genomic regions exhibit differences in map length, male- and female-derived maps are similar. Thus Xiphophorus, in contrast to zebrafish, Danio rerio, and several other vertebrate species, does not show sex-specific differences in recombination. The microsatellite markers we report can be easily adapted to any Xiphophorus interspecies and some intraspecies crosses, and thus provide a means to directly compare results derived from independent

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of the avian genus Pipilo and a biogeographic argument for taxonomic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zink, R M; Weller, S J; Blackwell, R C

    1998-10-01

    We sequenced 1709 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA including parts of cytochrome b, ND 2, and the control region (CR I, II) for seven members of the avian genus Pipilo (towhees), Melozone kieneri (rusty-crowned ground-sparrow), and Arremonops rufivirgatus (olive sparrow). A total of 457 bp was variable and 257 bp were potentially phylogenetically informative. All gene regions were similarly variable (20.2 to 28.4%) except for CR II (38.4%); third position transitions were as common as substitutions in the CR. Tree topology was sensitive to choice of outgroup(s) and individual sequences used as exemplars. Six trees were considered viable phylogenetic hypotheses based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. These trees generally supported two groups of towhees (rufous-sided group, brown towhee group), a sister taxon relationship for P. aberti and P. crissalis, and a sister taxon relationship for P. ocai and P. maculatus. The occurrence of M. kiernei within Pipilo in three trees challenges the monophyly of the latter; the other species of Melozone and other outgroups require study to resolve Pipilo monophyly. The relationships of P. albicollis and P. fuscus were ambiguous, as they were with previous data sets (allozymes, mtDNA restriction sites); they could be sister species or either one could be the basal species in the brown towhee group. We suggest that this taxonomic uncertainty obtains from the contemporaneous origin of P. fuscus, P. albicollis, and the ancestor of P. aberti/P. crissalis. We favor a "star" phylogeny because species in unrelated lineages found in the same region as P. albicollis are similarly difficult to resolve phylogenetically. Synapomorphies from coding genes and the CR did not preferentially support basal and terminal nodes, and hence did not provide different windows of taxonomic resolution, which might be expected from the apparent rapid rate of CR evolution. Phylogenetic trees inferred from allozymes, restriction sites

  12. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  13. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  14. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Meyer, Christopher P; Mills, Suzanne C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators' diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  15. Epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea and associated with the Jones Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Martinez, I.; Burt, G. J.; Scott, B. E.

    2013-10-01

    The epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea are described from the catches from 2 m beam trawl surveys undertaken from 2000 to 2009. During this period 154 samples were collected. The most ubiquitous species in the study area were the natantid shrimps Processa spp. and Crangon allmanni, the hermit crabs Pagurus prideaux and Anapagurus laevis, sand star Astropecten irregularis and spotted dragonet Callionymus maculatus. Multivariate community analyses indicated that catches (numbers per tow) were distributed across six assemblages, two of which were predominant in the study area. Most catches were attributed to either a 'shelf edge assemblage', which was widespread in deeper waters (114-423 m water depth) or an 'outer shelf assemblage' that occurred across much of the Celtic Sea north of 49°N in waters 49-175 m deep. The dominant species along the edge of the continental shelf were the hormathid anemome Actinauge richardi, sea spider Pycnogonum littorale (which associated with A. richardi), Devonshire cup coral Caryophyllia smithii and the swimming crab Macropipus tuberculatus. The dominant species in the outer shelf assemblage included P. prideaux, C. allmanni, A. laevis and common starfish Asterias rubens. Stations closer to shore were relatively distinct and catches in this 'inner shelf assemblage' were composed primarily of an inshore fauna (e.g. Ophiura ophiura, C. allmanni and Liocarcinus holsatus). Stations in the southern part of the survey grid were also relatively distinct ('southern Celtic Sea assemblage'), and several large echinoderms (Porania pulvillus, Stichastrella rosea and Anseropoda placenta) dominated at these sites. Three of the deepest stations were also relatively distinct, as were a group of stations in the muddy habitat of the Celtic Deep and comparable grounds elsewhere in the region, where Nucula sulcata and Alpheus glaber were characteristic. Catches on the shallower parts of the Jones Bank (and on another bank in the region) were

  16. Reproductive capacities and development of a seed Bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a potential host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis.

    PubMed

    Effowe, T Q; Amevoin, K; Nuto, Y; Mondedji, D; Glitho, I A

    2010-01-01

    study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts.

  17. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  18. Diplectanids (Monogenea) parasitic on the gills of the coralgroupers Plectropomus laevis and P. leopardus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of five new species and the erection of Echinoplectanum n. g.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Euzet, Louis

    2006-07-01

    Echinoplectanum n. g. is erected for diplectanids which have a male copulatory organ comprising a tubular sclerotised penis with a muscular reservoir at its proximal extremity and an protrusible cirrus, often with spiny ridges, at its distal extremity, and a female copulatory organ comprising a sclerotised vaginal sac, often with two thin tubes. All species have similar squamodiscs made of rows of rodlets, with the central rows forming closed circles, and haptoral parts with a similar shape but different measurements; they are distinguished on the basis of the size and morphology of the male copulatory organ and sclerotised vagina. Five new species are included in Echinoplectanum and are all parasites of coralgroupers, Plectropomus spp., off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Two are from P. laevis (Lacépède): E. laeve n. sp. (type-species) has a large elongate penis, 53[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with spiny ridges and a spherical vagina with two long thin tubes; and E. chauvetorum n. sp. has a large elongate penis, 51[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with thin spiny ridges, and a pear-shaped vagina with two short thin tubes. Three species are from P. leopardus (Lacépède): E. leopardi n. sp. has an elongate penis, 36[Formula: see text]m in length, an unspiny cirrus and a triangular vagina; E. pudicum n. sp. has a very small elongate penis 14[Formula: see text]m in length and no visible vagina; and E. rarum n. sp. has a short thick penis 18[Formula: see text]m in length and a ring-shaped vagina with two thin tubes. In addition, Diplectanum plectropomi Young, 1969, from P. maculatus off Western Australia, and D. echinophallus Euzet & Oliver, 1965 from Epinephelus marginatus in the Mediterranean Sea and Senegal, West Africa, both herein redescribed from the type-specimens, are transferred to Echinoplectanum, as E. plectropomi n. comb. and E. echinophallus n. comb., respectively. Six of the seven species of Echinoplectanum are parasitic in members of

  19. The Anopheles community and the role of Anopheles minimus on malaria transmission on the China-Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria around the China-Myanmar border is a serious health problem in the countries of South-East Asia. An. minimus is a principle malaria vector with a wide geographic distribution in this area. Malaria is endemic along the boundary between Yunnan province in China and the Kachin State of Myanmar where the local Anopheles community (species composition) and the malaria transmission vectors have never been clarified. Methods Adult Anopheles specimens were collected using CDC light traps in four villages along the border of China and Myanmar from May 2012 to April 2013. Morphological and molecular identification of mosquito adults confirmed the species of Anopheles. Blood-meal identification using the female abdomens was conducted using multiplex PCR. For sporozoite detection in An. minimus, sets of 10 female salivary glands were pooled and identified with SSU rDNA using nested PCR. Monthly abundance of An. minimus populations during the year was documented. The diversity of Anopheles and the role of An. minimus on malaria transmission in this border area were analyzed. Results 4,833 adult mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles were collected and morphologically identified to species or species complex. The Anopheles community is comprised of 13 species, and 78.83% of our total specimens belonged to An. minimus s.l., followed by An. maculatus (5.55%) and the An. culicifacies complex (4.03%). The quantity of trapped An. minimus in the rainy season of malaria transmission was greater than during the non-malarial dry season, and a peak was found in May 2012. An. minimus fed on the blood of four animals: humans (79.8%), cattle (10.6%), pigs (5.8%) and dogs (3.8%). 1,500 females of An. minimus were pooled into 150 samples and tested for sporozoites: only 1 pooled sample was found to have sporozoites of Plasmodium vivax. Conclusion Anopheles is abundant with An. minimus being the dominant species and having a high human blood index along the China-Myanmar border

  20. Responses in bird communities to wildland fires in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendelsohn, Mark B.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Stokes, Drew C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    [Psaltriparus minimus]). We detected mixed results for the spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus), which increased in burned chaparral and declined in burned coastal sage scrub within the low-elevation site. We suggest that the observed responses of birds to these fires may be attributed to: (1) the availability of nearby unburned refugia, (2) the continued suitability of post-fire vegetation at the study sites, and (3) the generally high mobility of this taxon.

  1. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Morphological examination of novel specimens of paruterinid cestodes from passerine birds from Brazil and Chile and of museum specimens from Paraguay revealed two new species: Anonchotaenia prolixa sp. n. from Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr from Chile, and Anonchotaenia vaslata sp. n. from Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot) (type host) and Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller) from Paraguay. The generic diagnosis of Anonchotaenia Conn, 1900 is amended, prompted by the presence of the armed cirrus and the elongated cirrus sac of A. prolixa. Two species were redescribed: Anonchotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) and Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) (new host records) from Brazil, and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus) and Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus) from Paraguay (new host and geographic records); and Anonchotaenia macrocephala Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot) (new host record) from Brazil, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis) from Chile (new host and geographic record) and Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot) from Paraguay (new host and geographic record). Scanning electron microscopy of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala revealed less microthrix variation than has been reported for other cyclophyllidean taxa. Sequence data were generated for nuclear ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial rrnL and cox1 for A. prolixa, A. brasiliensis, and A. macrocephala. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses supported each species as distinct, but revealed cryptic diversity among A. brasiliensis specimens from different host families. New host records of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala prompted a formal assessment of host specificity. Anonchotaenia prolixa was found to be oioxenous (HS(S) = 0), A. vaslata and A. macrocephala were found to be metastenoxenous (HS(S) = 3.000 and 3.302, respectively), whereas A. brasiliensis was found to be euryxenous (HS(S) = 5.876). Anonchotaenia brasiliensis has been found parasitising

  2. CRITICAL ILLUMINATION AND FLICKER FREQUENCY IN RELATED FISHES.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J; Wolf, E; Zerrahn-Wolf, G

    1937-09-20

    Flicker response curves have been obtained at 21.5 degrees C. for three genera of fresh water teleosts: Enneacanthus (sunfish), Xiphophorus (swordtail), Platypoecilius (Platy), by the determination of mean critical intensities for response at fixed flicker frequencies, and for a certain homogeneous group of backcross hybrids of swordtail x Platy (Black Helleri). The curves exhibit marked differences in form and proportions. The same type of analysis is applicable to each, however. A low intensity rod-governed section has added to it a more extensive cone portion. Each part is accurately described by the equation F = F(max.)/(1 + e(-p log(-p logI/I(i) ) )), where F = flicker frequency, I = associated mean critical intensity, and I(i) is the intensity at the inflection point of the sigmoid curve relating F to log I. There is no correlation between quantitative features of the rod and cone portions. Threshold intensities, p, I(i), and F(max.) are separately and independently determined. The hybrid Black Helleri show quantitative agreement with the Xiphophorus parental stock in the values of p for rods and cones, and in the cone F(max.); the rod F(max.) is very similar to that for the Platy stock; the general level of effective intensities is rather like that of the Platy form. This provides, among other things, a new kind of support for the duplicity doctrine. Various races of Platypoecilius maculatus, and P. variatus, give closely agreeing values of I(m) at different flicker frequencies; and two species of sunfish also agree. The effect of cross-breeding is thus not a superficial thing. It indicates the possibility of further genetic investigation. The variability of the critical intensity for response to flicker follows the rules previously found to hold for other forms. The variation is the expression of a property of the tested organism. It is shown that, on the assumption of a frequency distribution of receptor element thresholds as a function of log I, with

  3. Expression of genes related to the human erbB, erbA, pdgf and pdgf-r in tumors of different etiology in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Zechel, C; Peters, H; Schleenbecker, U; Anders, F

    1992-08-19

    The melanoma determining Tu locus of the teleost Xiphophorus contains an accessory gene, x-erbB*a, which is closely related to the EGF receptor gene family, and is probably oncogenic. x-erbB*a exists in allelic forms that are specific for distinct Tu-loci, and shows high homology to a non-allelic non-oncogenic counterpart x-erbB*i which is transcribed into mRNA of 4.6 kb in non-tumorous and tumorous tissues of fish harboring and lacking Tu. Expression of a 4.0-kb mRNA in tumors (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) of different etiology is strictly correlated with the inheritance of X. maculatus x-erbB*a alleles; transcripts of 8.0 kb were detected in melanoma and carcinoma of fish harboring a certain x-erbB*a of X. variatus. The expression of the putative x-erbB*a transcripts parallels the stage of malignancy of the tumor. The expression of the xiphophorine EGF receptor gene (x-erbB) was detected in almost all tumors, is strongly enhanced in carcinoma, and is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy of melanoma and fibrosarcoma. Some tumors show expression of erbA-related genes. The PDGF receptor mRNA is expressed in all tumors analyzed and shows enhanced expression in malignant tumors of neurogenic, epithelial and mesenchymal origin. Expression of x-pdgf was observed in several cases of melanoma, but more frequently in carcinoma and fibrosarcoma. We conclude that x-erbB*a might be involved in initiation of tumors of different cellular origin and etiology in fish harboring Tu, as well as in the determination of the malignancy of the tumor. Furthermore, we assume that x-erbB*i, x-erbB, x-pdgf and x-pdgf-r play a role in secondary events in tumorigenesis by, e.g., conferring a selective growth advantage to the tumor cells. PMID:1323541

  4. CRITICAL ILLUMINATION AND FLICKER FREQUENCY IN RELATED FISHES

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, W. J.; Wolf, E.; Zerrahn-Wolf, Gertrud

    1937-01-01

    Flicker response curves have been obtained at 21.5°C. for three genera of fresh water teleosts: Enneacanthus (sunfish), Xiphophorus (swordtail), Platypoecilius (Platy), by the determination of mean critical intensities for response at fixed flicker frequencies, and for a certain homogeneous group of backcross hybrids of swordtail x Platy (Black Helleri). The curves exhibit marked differences in form and proportions. The same type of analysis is applicable to each, however. A low intensity rod-governed section has added to it a more extensive cone portion. Each part is accurately described by the equation F = Fmax./(1 + e-p log-p logI/Ii), where F = flicker frequency, I = associated mean critical intensity, and Ii is the intensity at the inflection point of the sigmoid curve relating F to log I. There is no correlation between quantitative features of the rod and cone portions. Threshold intensities, p, Ii, and Fmax. are separately and independently determined. The hybrid Black Helleri show quantitative agreement with the Xiphophorus parental stock in the values of p for rods and cones, and in the cone Fmax.; the rod Fmax. is very similar to that for the Platy stock; the general level of effective intensities is rather like that of the Platy form. This provides, among other things, a new kind of support for the duplicity doctrine. Various races of Platypoecilius maculatus, and P. variatus, give closely agreeing values of Im at different flicker frequencies; and two species of sunfish also agree. The effect of cross-breeding is thus not a superficial thing. It indicates the possibility of further genetic investigation. The variability of the critical intensity for response to flicker follows the rules previously found to hold for other forms. The variation is the expression of a property of the tested organism. It is shown that, on the assumption of a frequency distribution of receptor element thresholds as a function of log I, with fluctuation in the excitabilities

  5. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  6. Settlement, abundance, growth and mortality of juvenile flatfish in a subtropical tidal estuary (Georgia, U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    The population dynamics of juveniles of some flatfish species were studied in the Duplin River, a tidal creek in a subtropical salt-marsh area in Georgia, U.S.A. from April until September 1990. Seven species were found. Paralichthys dentatus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Paralichthys oblongus and Trinectus maculatus were relatively rare. Etropus crossotus, Citharichthys spilopterus and Symphurus plagiusa were abundant and settled during the period studied. E. crossotus was the most abundant species with a mean abundance of 18 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 287). Demersal settlement of E. crossotus took place in shallow areas and over sandy bottoms from mid-May to August. Prolonged settlement hampered the calculation of growth rate and instantaneous mortality rate. However, laboratory growth experiments indicated a mean growth of about 0.50 mm·d -1 at 24-28°C. Juveniles of C. spilopterus were already present in the Duplin River in March. Settling continued until the end of April with a mean abundance of 3.5 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 183). With increasing size the juveniles of this species tended to migrate to deeper waters and to the mouth of the river, possibly as a reaction to increasing water temperatures. Maximum growth rate was 1.4 mm·d -1 at about 26°C. The mean instantaneous mortality rate (z) was estimated at 0.03·d -1. Settling of S. plagiusa occurred from mid-May onwards. The mean abundance was 10.3 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 98.3). Newly settled juveniles were most abundant on muddy sediments in the shallow river areas. The maximum growth rate was 1.3 mm·d -1 at about 28°C. The mean instantaneous mortality rate (Z) decreased from 0.04·d -1 in April to 0.01·d -1 in August. At all sites the abundance of juveniles of this species decreased with increasing water depth. Predation experiments indicated that blue crabs ( Callinectes similis and C. sapidus) and sea robins ( Prionotus sp.) are potential predators on juvenile flatfish. The high abundances of juvenile flatfish

  7. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of the avian genus Pipilo and a biogeographic argument for taxonomic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zink, R M; Weller, S J; Blackwell, R C

    1998-10-01

    We sequenced 1709 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA including parts of cytochrome b, ND 2, and the control region (CR I, II) for seven members of the avian genus Pipilo (towhees), Melozone kieneri (rusty-crowned ground-sparrow), and Arremonops rufivirgatus (olive sparrow). A total of 457 bp was variable and 257 bp were potentially phylogenetically informative. All gene regions were similarly variable (20.2 to 28.4%) except for CR II (38.4%); third position transitions were as common as substitutions in the CR. Tree topology was sensitive to choice of outgroup(s) and individual sequences used as exemplars. Six trees were considered viable phylogenetic hypotheses based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. These trees generally supported two groups of towhees (rufous-sided group, brown towhee group), a sister taxon relationship for P. aberti and P. crissalis, and a sister taxon relationship for P. ocai and P. maculatus. The occurrence of M. kiernei within Pipilo in three trees challenges the monophyly of the latter; the other species of Melozone and other outgroups require study to resolve Pipilo monophyly. The relationships of P. albicollis and P. fuscus were ambiguous, as they were with previous data sets (allozymes, mtDNA restriction sites); they could be sister species or either one could be the basal species in the brown towhee group. We suggest that this taxonomic uncertainty obtains from the contemporaneous origin of P. fuscus, P. albicollis, and the ancestor of P. aberti/P. crissalis. We favor a "star" phylogeny because species in unrelated lineages found in the same region as P. albicollis are similarly difficult to resolve phylogenetically. Synapomorphies from coding genes and the CR did not preferentially support basal and terminal nodes, and hence did not provide different windows of taxonomic resolution, which might be expected from the apparent rapid rate of CR evolution. Phylogenetic trees inferred from allozymes, restriction sites

  9. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an “accommodating” type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that ‘steer’ the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be

  10. [Ichthyofauna of karstic wetlands under anthropic impact: the "petenes" of Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Ivette Liliana; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia; Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacobo; Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío

    2009-01-01

    "Petenes" are small springs and associated streams that drain into wetlands near the coast in karstic areas. We studied composition, distribution, and abundance of the ichthyofauna in Los Petenes region (northwest Campeche). Two petenes displaying different degrees and types of anthropic impact were selected, Hampolol and El Remate. Hampolol has a smaller area but a longer derived stream; it is located within a protected area, but has been invaded by tilapia. El Remate is a popular spa, with no tilapia; it has a larger area but a shorter derived stream. At each "petén", several sites in the main spring, the associated stream, and secondary (temporary) springs were sampled in the rainy and dry seasons. Fishing gear was variable (throw net, gill net, small and large seine nets), but effort was uniform. We recorded temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth at each site and season; also, we noted the different types and intensities of anthropic impact (channelization, presence of exotic species, recreational use, etc.) at each petén. We compared the petenes in terms of their environmental quality and fish fauna (composition, distribution, abundance, biomass); we also tested for effects of season and site within each petén. The study found 27 species of fishes, included in 18 genera and eight families, 24 species in Hampolol and 20 in El Remate. The geographical range of 'Cichlasoma' salvini, Rivulus tenuis, Phallichthys fairweatheri, Xiphophorus hellerii, and X maculatus is extended. The dominant species in both seasons was Astyanax (probable hybrids A. aeneus x altior at Hampolol, pure A. altior at El Remate), which contributed most of the abundance and biomass, together with Vieja synspila and Poecilia velifera. A significantly greater overall diversity (H'n=3.31) was recorded in Hampolol compared to El Remate (H'n=2.10). Cluster analysis of sites by species presence allowed distinction of two groupings within each petén: permanent waters (i.e., main

  11. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  12. Entomological fauna from Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brazil: I. Morphospecies composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida; Marchon-Silva; Ribeiro; Serpa-Filho; Almeida; Costa

    2000-05-01

    . Salticidae (two morphospecies) and 3. Segestriidae (Ariadna sp.); 4. Theridiidae (Achaearanea sp. and Latrodectus geometricus). For the Order Scorpionida, only samples of Buthidae (Isometrus maculatus) were collected. Through field observations, it was concluded the most insects are detritophagous and/or necrophagous. It is suggested that which the dimension of ecological niches of the insects are a function of the droppings, trash and corpses of birds. A low diversity in the entomofauna of atoll, with its 25 morphospecies, was ascertained.

  13. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The calculated values of life time

  14. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n