Flores, Verónica R; Brugni, Norma; Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita
Allocreadium pichi n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of Galaxias maculatus (Osteichthyes: Galaxiidae) from Moreno Lake in Patagonia, Argentina. This species is distinguished from A. patagonicum Shimazu, Urawa & Coria, 2000, the other species recorded in the area, by its smaller body size, the diagonal position of the testes and different ratios of the suckers, testes and cirrus-sac in relation to body size. In addition, the synonymy of A. patagonicum with Polylekithum percai Ostrowski de Núñez, Brugni & Viozzi, 2000 is proposed herein.
Arantes, F P; Borçato, F L; Sato, Y; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N
To study reproduction and embryogenesis, Pimelodus maculatus specimens were kept in captivity and captured bimonthly during 1 year. Gonads samples (211 specimens) were collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Pimelodus maculatus prepared to reproduce when water temperature was high, and even reached advanced maturation but did not spawn in captivity. Spent fish gonads were not documented, and atretic follicles were frequent (60%) in late maturation females. When then submitted to hypophysation, 70% of the females responded positively to hormonal treatment. Oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after a second hormonal injection at 26°C. The fertilisation rate was 65.1 ± 9.2% at 24°C. Recently spawned oocytes of P. maculatus were spherical, non-adhesive, yellow in colour, with an average diameter of 1113.92 ± 37.02 μm and covered by a thick gelatinous layer. Blastopore closure occurred 7 h and 30 min after fertilisation. Embryonic development was completed within 18 h after fertilisation. The results of this work provide important knowledge for the handling and cultivation of not only P. maculatus, but other species of potential value for fish culture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy
Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936
Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy
Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species.
Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos
Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length.
Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Verani, J R
Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG). The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007). Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm) while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm).The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851) and females (K=0.1708), however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry.
Orientatractis moraveci n. sp. and Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 (Nematoda: Atractidae), parasites of Pimelodus blochii (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae) from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers, Western Amazon, Brazil.
Cavalcante, Pedro H O; Silva, Maralina T; Santos, Everton G N; Chagas-Moutinho, Vanessa A; Santos, Claudia P
The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n. sp. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having: 10 pairs of caudal papillae (3 pairs pre-cloacal, 2 pairs ad-cloacal and 5 pairs post-cloacal); unequal spicules of 161-198 and 69-100 µ m long; and a gubernaculum 38-58 µ m long with an antero-lateral process. Morphological and ultrastructural data on O. moraveci n. sp. and R. rondoni are presented, in addition to new genetic data based on partial 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. The taxonomic status of Labeonema synodontisi (Vassiliadès, 1973) is discussed, suggesting that it should be returned to the genus Raillietnema.
Rangel-Medrano, Jose D; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J
The Neotropical freshwater fish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum is a trans-Andean species that belongs to the family of long-whiskered catfishes (family Pimelodidae). In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. magdaleniatum was sequenced using the MiSeq Illumina platform. The complete circular mitogenome is 16,568 bp in length, exhibiting an average GC content of 44.19% and codes for 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Additionally, it exhibits perfect synteny and similar length with the mitogenome of Pimelodus pictus.
Laurenson, L J B; French, R P; Jones, P; Ierodiaconou, D; Gray, S; Versace, V L; Rattray, A; Brown, S; Monk, J
The biology of three landlocked and a riverine population of Galaxias maculatus were examined in western Victoria, Australia. All systems supported reproducing populations of these fish, including Lake Corangamite which had salinities that on occasion reached 82. Spawning sites in Lake Corangamite were located in adjacent tributaries and not in the main lake as was the case for other populations. The smallest fish were found in the fresh water Lake Purrumbete and the largest in the hypersaline Lake Corangamite. The size at which 50% of the population attained sexual maturity varied across sites, with fish maturing at a smaller size in Lake Purrumbete, followed by the Merri River, Lake Bullen Merri and Lake Corangamite. Condition was higher in the freshwater Lake Purrumbete and there was no relationship between condition and temperature, conductivity, turbidity and pH; but there was a positive relationship between condition and dissolved oxygen. Length frequency analysis suggested that the majority of fishes live for a year. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Souza, Amanda Jardim; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Lemos, Francisco José Alves; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio; Xavier-Filho, José
Studies have shown that vicilins (7S storage proteins) from seeds were able to bind to the surface of the Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut and to the peritrophic matrices of the midguts of Diatraea saccharalis and Tenebrio molitor , inhibiting larval development. Vicilins were also shown to inhibit yeast growth and bind to yeast cells through the association with chitin-containing structures. The present work studies the association of peptides from vicilins of genotypes of Vigna unguiculata (susceptible and resistant to bruchid) with acetylated chitin and the toxicity of vicilin fragments and chitin-binding vicilin fragments to C. maculatus and phytopathogenic fungi. Hydrolysis of vicilins with alpha-chymotrypsin results in a complex mixture of fragments that were separated by chitin-affinity chromatography. Chitin-binding peptides from both genotypes were toxic to C. maculatus larvae, and alpha-chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed vicilins were deleterious to the above insect and to Fusarium oxysporum , Colletotrichum musae , and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi.
Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed.
Pagotto, J P A; Goulart, E; Oliveira, E F; Yamamura, C B
The present study analysed the relationship between morphology and trophic structure of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from the Caracu Stream (22º 45' S and 53º 15' W), a tributary of the Paraná River (Brazil). Sampling was carried out at three sites using electrofishing, and two species of Loricariidae and four of Heptapteridae were obtained. A cluster analysis revealed the presence of three trophic guilds (detritivores, insectivores and omnivores). Principal components analysis demonstrated the segregation of two ecomorphotypes: at one extreme there were the detritivores (Loricariidae) with morphological structures that are fundamental in allowing them to fix themselves to substrates characterised by rushing torrents, thus permitting them to graze on the detritus and organic materials encrusted on the substrate; at the other extreme of the gradient there were the insectivores and omnivores (Heptapteridae), with morphological characteristics that promote superior performance in the exploitation of structurally complex habitats with low current velocity, colonised by insects and plants. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed an ecomorphological divergence between insectivores, which have morphological structures that permit them to capture prey in small spaces among rocks, and omnivores, which have a more compressed body and tend to explore food items deposited in marginal backwater zones. Mantel tests showed that trophic structure was significantly related to the body shape of a species, independently of the phylogenetic history, indicating that, in this case, there was an ecomorphotype for each trophic guild. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the Siluriformes of the Caracu Stream were ecomorphologically structured and that morphology can be applied as an additional tool in predicting the trophic structure of this group.
Bennett, M. V. L.; Crain, S. M.; Grundfest, H.
This series of three papers presents data on a system of neurons, the large supramedullary cells (SMC) of the puffer, Spheroides maculatus, in terms of the physiological properties of the individual cells, of their afferent and efferent connections, and of their interconnections. Some of these findings are verified by available anatomical data, but others suggest structures that must be sought for in the light of the demonstration that these cells are not sensory neurons. Analysis on so broad a scale was made possible by the accessibility of the cells in a compact cluster on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord. Simultaneous recordings were made intracellularly and extracellularly from individual cells or from several, frequently with registration of the afferent or efferent activity as well. The passive and active electrical properties of the SMC are essentially similar to those of other neurons, but various response characteristics have been observed which are related to different excitabilities of different parts of the neuron, and to specific anatomical features. The SMC produce spikes to direct stimuli by intracellular depolarization, or by indirect synaptic excitation from many afferent paths, including tactile stimulation of the skin. Responses that were evoked by intracellular stimulation of a single cell cause an efferent discharge bilaterally in many dorsal roots, but not in the ventral. Sometimes several distinct spikes occurred in the same root, and behaved independently. Thus, a number of axons are efferent from each neuron. They are large unmyelinated fibers which give rise to the elevation of slowest conduction in the compound action potential of the dorsal root. A similar component is absent in the ventral root action potential. Antidromic stimulation of the axons causes small potentials in the cell body, indicating that the antidromic spikes are blocked distantly to the soma, probably in the axon branches. The failure of antidromic invasion is
Tian, Pu-yu; Kang, Wen-yi
To study the inhibitory activity of Aeschynanthus maculatus on alpha-glucosidase. The inhibilitory model of in vitro alpha-glucosidase was established. Active extracts of A. maculatus were isolated and identified bymultiple chromatographic methods, and their molecular structures were identifiied by spectral techniques. Seven coumpounts were isolated from A. maculatus and isolated as lupeol(1), stigmasterol(2), ursolic acid(3), stigmast-5,22(E)-diene-3beta-ol(4), beta-daucosterol(5), 3-hydroxy-12-taraxasten-28-oic-acid(6) and oleanic acid(7). Compounds 1 (IC50 25.41 mg x L(-1)),3(IC0 4.42 mg L(-1)),4(IC50 11.50 mg x L(-1)),6(IC50 14.17 mg x L(-1)) and 7(IC50 2.88 mg x L(-1)) had higher inhibitory activities than that of acarbose (IC50 1103.01 mg x L(-1)) as the positive control drug. Compound 1-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 6 was isolated from Gesneriaceae family for the first time. Compound 7 was isolated from Aeschynanthus genus for the first time.
Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R
The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.
Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F
Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.
Casal, G; Matos, E; Azevedo, C
Light and electron microscopy studies of a myxosporean, parasitic in the intertubular interstitial tissue of the kidney of the freshwater teleost fish Metynnis maculatus Kner, 1860 (Characidae) from the lower Amazon River (Brazil), are described. We observed polysporic histozoic plasmodia delimited by a double membrane and with several pinocytic channels and containing several life cycle stages, including mature spores. The spore body was of pyriform shape and was 21.0 microm long, 8.9 microm wide and 7.5 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size (12.7 x 3.2 microm) and contained a polar filament with 14 or 15 coils. The spore features fit those of the genus Myxobolus. Densification of the capsular primordium matrix, which increased in density from the inner core outwards, differentiating at the periphery into small microfilaments measuring 45 nm each, and tubuli arranged in aggregates and dispersed within the capsular matrix of the mature spores, are described. Based on the morphological differences and specificity of the host, we propose the creation of a new species named Myxobolus maculatus n. sp.
Nattudurai, Gopal; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Paulraj, Micheal Gabrial; Islam, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu
The hydrodistillated essential oil of Atalantia monophylla was subjected to GC-MS. Forty compounds were presented in the essential oil. Eugenol (19.76 %), sabinene (19.57 %), 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene (9.84 %), beta-asarone (7.02 %) and methyl eugenol (5.52 %) were found the predominant compounds. The oil was tested for fumigant toxicity and repellent activity against Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae. The development stage of C. maculatus fecundity, adult emergence and also ovicidal activities were studied by the treatment of A. monophylla oil. The oil exhibited considerable fumigation toxicity (70.22 %), repellent activity (85.24 %) and ovicidal activity (100 %) against C. maculatus. The oil significantly reduced the protein, esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase on C. maculatus and S. oryzae. It can be considered that A. monophylla has a potential insecticide against stored product pests.
Swarça, Ana Claudia; Dias, Ana Lucia; Fenocchio, Alberto Sergio
The objective of this study was to cytogenetically analyze Phractocephalus hemioliopterus comparing the findings with other data to infer relationships among Pimelodidae species. The results revealed a diploid number of 2n = 56 and the karyotype composed of 16 metacentric, 20 submetacentric, 6 subtelocentric and 14 acrocentric chromosomes (FN = 98). The Ag-NORs, 18S rDNA and CMA3 signals were coincident in location occupying the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome pair (23(th)), in a secondary constriction. The 5S rDNA genes were localized near the centromere on the short arms of one submetacentric chromosome pair. C-bands were localized predominantly in the terminal regions of chromosomes, including the AgNORs and a small metacentric pair with a conspicuous positive band on interstitial region. This chromosome pair could be considered a species-specific cytogenetic marker.
Al Gil de Pertierra, Alicia; de Chambrier, Alain
The proteocephalidean cestode Harriscolex nathaliae n. sp. (Proteocephalidae: Zygobothriinae) is described from the intestine of the spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Paraná River basin in Argentina. This new species differs from the only species of the genus, Harriscolex kaparari (Woodland, 1935), which is a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Linnaeus) from the Amazon River in Brazil, by its larger scolex (width of 450-750 μm vs. 305-340 μm), the position of the vagina in relation to the cirrus sac (anterior and posterior vs. only anterior), an asymmetrical vaginal sphincter, the arrangement of vitelline follicles (1 narrow longitudinal band on each side of the proglottid vs. 2 pairs of wide longitudinal bands on dorsal and ventral sides), and a higher number of uterine diverticula (22-45 vs. 16-20). Harriscolex nathaliae is covered with 2 types of microtriches, acicular filitriches and gladiate spinitriches.
Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik
Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics.
Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik
Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics. PMID:27347683
Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N; Forster, Malcolm E
How fish oxygen consumption is modulated by external PO(2) has long been a matter of interest, yet is an experimentally complicated question to answer. In this study closed and semi-closed respirometry were used to evaluate the oxygen consumption rate of the scaleless galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) as a function of decreasing external PO(2). Both respirometry techniques showed that as environmental oxygen levels declined, oxygen consumption rates also decreased. At no point did inanga regulate oxygen consumption. This is strong evidence that inanga is an oxyconformer. Partitioned respirometry experiments showed that skin plays an important role in oxygen uptake in this fish species, and cutaneous oxygen uptake may have an important role in shaping the oxygen consumption response to hypoxia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamamoto, Kei; Fontaine, Romain; Pasqualini, Catherine; Vernier, Philippe
Dopamine neurotransmission regulates various brain functions, and its regulatory roles are mediated by two families of G protein-coupled receptors: the D1 and D2 receptor families. In mammals, the D1 family comprises two receptor subtypes (D1 and D5), while the D2 family comprises three receptor subtypes (D2, D3 and D4). Phylogenetic analyses of dopamine receptor genes strongly suggest that the common ancestor of Osteichthyes (bony jawed vertebrates) possessed four subtypes in the D1 family and five subtypes in the D2 family. Mammals have secondarily lost almost half of the ancestral dopamine receptor genes, whereas nonmammalian species kept many of them. Although the mammalian situation is an exception among Osteichthyes, the current classification and characterization of dopamine receptors are based on mammalian features, which have led to confusion in the identification of dopamine receptor subtypes in nonmammalian species. Here we begin by reviewing the history of the discovery of dopamine receptors in vertebrates. The recent genome sequencing of coelacanth, gar and elephant shark led to the proposal of a refined scenario of evolution of dopamine receptor genes. We also discuss a current problem of nomenclature of dopamine receptors. Following the official nomenclature of mammalian dopamine receptors from D1 to D5, we propose to name newly identified receptor subtypes from D6 to D9 in order to facilitate the use of an identical name for orthologous genes among different species. To promote a nomenclature change which allows distinguishing the two dopamine receptor families, a nomenclature consortium is needed. This comparative perspective is crucial to correctly interpret data obtained in animal studies on dopamine-related brain disorders, and more fundamentally, to understand the characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission in vertebrates.
Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...
Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.
Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.
van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.
Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530
van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W
Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.
McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N
Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments occurring both naturally, and through anthropogenic inputs. This study investigated impacts of sub-lethal Zn exposure in the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Known as inanga, this amphidromous fish is widespread throughout the Southern hemisphere, but to date almost nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to elevated environmental metals. Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of Zn (control, 8, 270 and 1000μgL(-1)) over 96h. End-points measured included those relating to ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body calcium and sodium influx), oxygen consumption (respirometry), oxidative stress (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) and whole body accumulation of Zn. Zn exposure caused increases in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation, but only at the highest exposure level tested. Zn also significantly inhibited calcium influx, but stimulated sodium influx, at 1000μgL(-1). The sub-lethal changes induced by Zn exposure in inanga appear to be conserved relative to other, better-studied species. These data are the first to explore the sensitivity of juvenile galaxiid fish to Zn, information that will be critical to ensuring adequate environmental protection of this important species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio
Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.
Firestone, K B; Elphinstone, M S; Sherwin, W B; Houlden, B A
Tiger quolls, Dasyurus maculatus, are the largest carnivorous marsupials still extant on the mainland of Australia, and occupy an important ecological niche as top predators and scavengers. Two allopatric subspecies are recognized, D.m. gracilis in north Queensland, and D.m. maculatus in the southeast of the mainland and Tasmania. D.m. gracilis is considered endangered while D.m. maculatus is listed as vulnerable to extinction; both subspecies are still in decline. Phylogeographical subdivision was examined to determine evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs) among populations of tiger quolls to assist in the conservation of these taxa. Ninety-three tiger quolls from nine representative populations were sampled from throughout the species range. Six nuclear microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (471 bp) were used to examine ESUs and MUs in this species. We demonstrated that Tasmanian tiger quolls are reciprocally monophyletic to those from the mainland using mtDNA analysis, but D.m. gracilis was not monophyletic with respect to mainland D.m. maculatus. Analysis of microsatellite loci also revealed significant differences between the Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls, and between D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus. These results indicate that Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls form two distinct evolutionary units but that D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus are different MUs within the same ESU. The two marker types used in this study revealed different male and female dispersal patterns and indicate that the most appropriate units for short-term management are local populations. A revised classification and management plan are needed for tiger quolls, particularly in relation to conservation of the Tasmanian and Queensland populations.
Lord, Jeffrey C; Omoto, Charlotte K
Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide beetle, D. maculatus. Heavy infection with eugregarines provided partial protection from two pathogenic members of Apicomplexa, M. trogodermae and A. tribolii. Infection with P. crystalligera caused lower weight in beetle larvae, but did not significantly retard pupation or adult emergence. A. tribolii infection of Lepidoptera and M. trogodermae infection of D. maculatus are reported for the first time. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E
Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity–longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional
Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E
Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional
Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen
The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a
Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E
Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship.
Torres, Elida Barros; Nóbrega, Rafaela S A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Silva, Luciana Barboza; Dos Santos Carvalho, Gabriel; Marinho, Rita de Cassia Nunes; Pavan, Bruno E
Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. In this study, the population growth of Callosobruchus maculatus reared on beans from four cowpea cultivars fertilized with different nitrogen sources was evaluated. The factors tested were beans from four cowpea cultivars and seven different nitrogen sources: mineral N fertilization, inoculation with five strains of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, and soil nitrogen (absolute control). BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars had lower cumulative emergence and instantaneous rate of population growth of the insects compared with other cultivars, indicating antixenosis resistance against C. maculatus. Inoculation of BRS Acauã cultivar with the diazotrophic bacteria strain BR 3299 resulted in higher mortality of C. maculatus. For BRS Tapaihum cultivar, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria strains BR3267, BR 3262 and BR 3299, and nitrogen fertilization resulted in higher mortality among C. maculatus. BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars showed the lowest cumulative insect emergence and instantaneous rates of population growth, and the highest insect mortality, mainly when the grains were obtained from plants inoculated with rhizobial strains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.
Fox, C W; Scheibly, K L; Smith, B P; Wallin, W G
Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among traits within populations, is poorly studied in insects other than Drosophila. Inbreeding depression was examined in two long-term laboratory colonies of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), which are used frequently as models for experiments in ecology, evolution and behaviour. Inbreeding depression in these laboratory colonies are compared with one recently field-collected population of a different seed beetle, Stator limbatus Horn. Inbreeding reduced embryogenesis, egg hatch and larval survival in both species, such that eggs produced by sib matings were >17% less likely to produce an adult offspring. Inbred larvae also took 4-6% longer to develop to emergence in both species. Inbreeding depression varied among the measured traits but did not differ between the two populations of C. maculatus for any trait, despite the large geographic distance between source populations (western Africa vs. southern India). Inbreeding depression was similar in magnitude between C. maculatus and S. limbatus. This study demonstrates that these laboratory populations of C. maculatus harbour substantial genetic loads, similar to the genetic load of populations of S. limbatus recently collected from the field.
Chellappa, S; Câmara, M R; Chellappa, N T; Beveridge, M C; Huntingford, F A
The reproductive ecology of the freshwater fish Cichla monoculus Spix, 1831 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) was investigated in the Campo Grande Reservoir, Northeast Brazil. Rainfall, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity of the water were recorded monthly. Fish collected on a monthly basis were measured, weighted, dissected, sexed and the stage of maturation of the gonads were assessed by macro and microscopic means. The semi-arid study region has short spells of rain of 2-3 months duration interspersed with dry seasons. A positive correlation was observed between rainfall and air and water temperatures and conductivity of the water. The study population had an extended spawning season, with peak reproductive activity coinciding with low water temperatures. Males were longer and heavier than females on average and were larger at onset of sexual maturity. The size frequency distributions of the oocytes indicate that C. monoculus is a multiple spawner with an estimated batch fecundity of 3100. Condition factor showed an inverse relationship in relation to gonad size during maturation in both sexes and spent fish were in poor condition. In mature males, lipid stores in the post-occipital cephalic protuberance, a secondary sexual characteristic developed during the reproductive phase, which depleted in spent individuals. The success of this fish is attributed to its reproductive capacity and to the phenotypic plasticity that allows it to adapt to the harsh ecological conditions that prevail in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil.
Taxonomic characteristics, for species identification, of metacercarie of T. barilochensis and T. crubensis found in the encephalon of the fish Galaxias maculatus, not included in the original descriptions, particularly those concerning to the excretory system, are described.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D
The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of insect activity on hacking trauma which was inflicted with a small cleaver and a razor blade under controlled conditions. Three pig hooves were each subjected to a blow with a small cleaver and a cut with a razor blade prior to insect exposure. We used Dermestes maculatus DeGeer 1774 species. These beetles made principally depressions and destruction on both wounds, and bites were observed on the edges of the wounds. As time passed and insects fed and refuge, chop marks were deformed and disappeared, taking this less than a month. Thus, D. maculatus could mask postmortem wounds and probably premortem wounds, and so the cause of death.
Sharma, S P; Jit, I; Rai, N
The mean life span of Callosobruchus maculatus male is 7 days and female is 5 days at 30 +/- 1 degrees C. Age-related study on C. maculatus shows that RNA and protein contents gradually decline with age in male bruchids, whereas in females initially these increase up to the second day of post-emergent life and subsequently decrease. DNA increases up to the third day in males and the fourth day in females representing post-emergent growth, and then declines sharply on the sixth day. The RNA and protein contents per unit DNA decrease steadily in males; however, in females both are highest during the first 2 days, which synchronizes the egg-laying peak. These observations have been found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.01) and suggest that aging is accompanied by a decrease in both RNA and protein synthesis potential.
Murad, André M; Noronha, Eliane F; Miller, Robert N G; Costa, Fabio T; Pereira, Caroline D; Mehta, Angela; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L
Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds. Entomopathogenic organisms can offer an alternative to conventional pesticides for pest control, producing hydrolases that degrade insect exoskeleton. In this study, protein secretions of the ascomycete Metarhizium anisopliae, which conferred bioinsecticidal activity against Callosobruchus maculatus, were characterized via 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteases, reductases and acetyltransferase enzymes were detected. These may be involved in degradation and nutrient uptake from dehydrated C. maculatus. Proteins identified in this work allowed description of metabolic pathways. Their potential applications in biotechnology include both novel compound development and production of genetically modified plants resistant to insect pests.
Telford, S R
Plasmodium (Fallisia) siamense n. sp. was described from the flying lizard Draco maculatus (Agamidae) collected near Bangkok, Thailand. Parasitic in thrombocytes, it produces 18-64 merozoites in schizonts that are larger than the usually oval gametocytes. Both gametocyte sexes showed a prominent nucleus, elongate in macrogametocytes and triangular in microgametocytes. This is the first Fallisia parasite described from a host outside the Neotropical Region, although presence of the genus in Australasia was reported 40 years ago, without formal taxonomic designation.
Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques
The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D
The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm. All developmental stages of D. maculatus and exuviae were positive for fluoxetine. We also quantified the drug and no significant differences were found either between the days or the stages in the general model, but at 277nm a tendency of the concentration to decrease with time was observed. Concentrations of fluoxetine at 277nm were almost equal or greater than those at 270nm. This is the first study to detect and quantify fluoxetine from entomological samples and, in particular, from D. maculatus beetles.
Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J; Downs, Kevin P; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L; Walter, Ronald B
Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj<0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure.
Zannou, E T; Glitho, I A; Huignard, J; Monge, J P
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) is a tropical beetle that develops in the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. C. maculatus adults show an imaginal polymorphism with differences in morphological, behavioral and reproductive characteristics. Adults of the flight morph that emerge in cowpea storage systems were studied under natural climatic conditions. A large number of the flight morph females were in reproductive diapause and had a long imaginal life. These females did not synthesize vitellogenin, produced a specific diapause protein and possessed significant protein reserves. This suggests that the beetles survived in the tropical ecosystem for a long time and colonized the crops during the cowpea growing and flowering phases. Analysis of reproductive activity in females captured in the V. unguiculata crops indicates that they terminated their reproductive diapause and began to lay eggs as soon as the pods were formed. Few females of the flight morph were sexually active at the beginning of imaginal life. In this paper we discuss the adaptive significance of these two reproductive strategies in females of C. maculatus.
Sood, Seema; Pajni, H R; Tewari, P K
Investigations have been carried out on the relative preference of U. mukerjii to four common species viz., C. maculatus, C. analis, C. chinensis and Zabrotes subfasciatus of store bruchids. Results show correspondence between the acceptance/contact ratio and the total number of eggs laid by the parasitoid for Callosobruchus species. U. mukerjii shows maximum preference on C. maculatus followed by C. analis, C. chinensis and Z. subfasciatus in the decreasing order. Z. subfasciatus has been the least preferred host having 2-3% parasitization in choice situation. Percentage emergence of the adults and females differ insignificantly from each other in Callosobruchus species. In no choice experiments, U. mukerjii laid sufficient number of eggs in the eggs of C. chinensis and Z. subfasciatus but less number of eggs in a choice situation due to competition with the preferred host. As is evident, U. mukerjii gives the first preference to primary host C. maculatus. Moreover, the congeneric species i.e C. analis and C. chinensis are given more preference than Z. subfasciatus.
Pereira, Jackeline L; Franco, Octávio L; Noronha, Eliane F
In the present work, Aspergillus fumigatus is described as a higher producer of hydrolytic enzymes secreted in response to the presence of the Callosobruchus maculatus bruchid pest. This fungus was able to grow over cowpea weevil shells as a unique carbon source, secreting alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. Enzyme secretion in A. fumigatus was induced by both C. maculatus exoskeleton as well as commercial chitin, and alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic activities were detected after 48 hours of growth. Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed the production of specific proteins. Among them, two extracellular alkaline proteinases from culture enriched with C. maculatus exoskeleton were purified after chromatographic procedures using ion exchange and affinity columns. These proteins, named AP15 and AP30, had apparent molecular masses of 15,500 and 30,000 Da, respectively, as estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. AP30 was classified as a serine proteinase because it was inhibited by 5 mM: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 50 microM leupeptin (67.94%).
Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y
Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity.
Erle, F.; Ceylan, F.; Erdemir, T.; Toker, C.
The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five ‘kabuli’ (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six ‘desi’ chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the ‘flap’ of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the ‘desi’ chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the ‘kabuli’ chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides. PMID:20050777
Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B
Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus.
Erle, F; Ceylan, F; Erdemir, T; Toker, C
Abstract The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five 'kabuli' (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six 'desi' chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the 'flap' of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the 'desi' chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the 'kabuli' chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides.
Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel; Samuels, Richard I; Soares, Emanoella L; Aragão, Francisco J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Domont, Gilberto B; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P
The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-β-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, α-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor.
Sales, M P; Pimenta, P P; Paes, N S; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Xavier-Filho, J
The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.
Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A
The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.
Wisessing, Anussorn; Engkagul, Arunee; Wongpiyasatid, Arunee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee
The insect Callosobruchus maculatus causes considerable damage to harvested mungbean seeds every year, which leads to commercial losses. However, recent studies have revealed that mungbean seeds contain alpha-amylase inhibitors that can inhibit the protein C. maculatus, preventing growth and development of the insect larvae in the seed, thus preventing further damage. For this reason, the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest's digestion process has become an interesting alternative biocontrolling agent. In this study, we have isolated and purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor from mungbean seeds (KPS1) using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. We found that the alpha-amylase inhibitor, isolated as a monomer, had a molecular weight of 27 kDa. The alpha-amylase inhibitor was purified 750-fold with a final yield of 0.4 mg of protein per 30 g of mungbean seeds. Its specific activity was determined at 14.5 U (mg of protein)(-1). Interestingly, we found that the isolated alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibits C. maculatus alpha-amylase but not human salivary alpha-amylase. After preincubation of the enzyme with the inhibitor, the mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibited C. maculatus alpha-amylase activity by decreasing V(max) while increasing the K(m) constant, indicating that the mungbean alpha-amylase is a mix noncompetitive inhibitor. The in vivo effect of alpha-amylase inhibitor on the mortality of C. maculatus shows that the alpha-amylase inhibitor acts on C. maculatus during the development stage, by reducing carbohydrate digestion necessary for growth and development, rather than during the end laying/hatching stage. Our results suggest that mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor could be a useful future biocontrolling agent.
Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Lima, Thaina de A; Sarmento, Rubia B C; Noronha, Eliane F; Rocha, Thales L; Valadares-Inglis, Maria C; Franco, Octávio L
Cowpea crops are severely attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus, a Coleopteran that at the larval stage penetrates into stored seeds and feeds on cotyledons. Cowpea weevil control could be based in utilization of bacteria and fungi to reduce pest development. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, are able to control insect-pests and are widely applied in biological control. This report evaluated ten M. anisopliae isolates according to their virulence, correlating chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities, as well proteomic analysis by two dimensional gels of fungal secretions in response to an induced medium containing C. maculatus shells, indicating novel biotechnological tools capable of improving cowpea crop resistance.
Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel
Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991
Boswell, William; Boswell, Mikki; Titus, James; Savage, Markita; Lu, Yuan; Shen, Jianjun; Walter, Ronald B.
In both Xiphophorus fishes and humans, males are reported to have a higher incidence of melanoma than females. To better understand sex specific differences in the molecular genetic response to UVB, we performed RNA-Seq experiments in skin of female and male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following UVB doses of 8 or 16 kJ/m2 exposure. Male X. maculatus differentially express a significantly larger number of transcripts following exposure to 16 kJ/m2 UVB (1,293 genes) compared to 8 kJ/m2 UVB (324 genes). Female skin showed differential gene expression in a larger number of transcripts following 8 kJ/m2 UVB (765) than did males; however, both females and males showed similar numbers of differentially expressed genes at 16 kJ/m2 UVB (1,167 and1,293, respectively). Although most modulated transcripts after UVB exposure represented the same dominant pathways in both females and males (e.g., DNA repair, circadian rhythm, and fatty acid biosynthesis), we identified genes in several pathways that exhibited opposite modulation in female vs. male skin (e.g., synaptic development, cell differentiation, wound healing, and glucose metabolism). The oppositely modulated genes appear related through uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) that is involved with regulation of fatty acid oxidation and serves to balance glucose and lipid metabolism. Overall, these results identify gender specific differences in UVB induced genetic profiles in the skin of females and males and show female and male X. maculatus respond to UVB differently through pathways involved in reactive oxygen species, wound healing, and energy homeostasis. PMID:26256120
Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen
Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally. PMID:27442123
Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel
Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides.
Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen; Arnqvist, Göran
Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally.
Bravo, H; Inzunza, O
The motor neurones which innervate the bursalis muscle of the lizard Callopistes maculatus were identified by means of intra-axonal retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. These neurones were distributed in the oculomotor abducens and accessory abducens nuclei. In the oculomotor nucleus one group of neurones was located in the ventral subnucleus of the contralateral side while the other group was found in the dorsolateral subnucleus of the ipsilateral side. In the abducens and accessory abducens nuclei all the neurones were in the ipsilateral side. The accessory abducens cells, although less numerous, were larger and had a prominent dendritic field in close relationship with the nucleus descendens nervi trigemini.
Garg, S K; Mahajan, S
Optimal ascorbic acid concentration (1 mM) increased the median (LT(50)) and maximum (LT(100)) life spans, decreased age-independent susceptibility to death (a(0)), reproductive period, number of eggs laid/female but prolonged the post-reproductive period in Callosobruchus maculatus. The activities of respiratory enzymes and the levels of metabolic end-products declined while the activities of antioxygenic enzymes increased. The increased longevity of insects reared on ascorbic acid soaked seeds may be interpreted in terms of conservation of energy by way of decreased reproductive potentiality and the maintenance of a homeostatic balance between pro-oxidant generation and antioxidant defences.
Zemlak, Tyler S; Habit, Evelyn M; Walde, Sandra J; Carrea, Cecilia; Ruzzante, Daniel E
The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (approximately 300 individuals from 36 locations). Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100x (60x-190x)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most ancient and most
Carrea, Cecilia; Paterson, Ian G; Cussac, Victor E; Ruzzante, Daniel E
Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers (five tetra-, one compound tetra-, one octa- and three dinucleotides) were isolated and characterized for Galaxias maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. Markers were tested in 89 individual samples from a single location and the number of alleles ranged between 2 and 28. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.910 and 0.098 to 0.935 respectively. No evidence was detected for either linkage disequilibrium (P-values > 0.05 for each locus pair) or deviations from HWE (P-values > 0.05 for every loci). © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo
The infection of Myxobolus galaxii Szidat, 1953, from the musculature and abdominal organs of northwestern Patagonian Galaxias maculatus is described. Plasmodia are histozoic and intercellular. Spores are pyriform in valvar view and biconvex in sutural view, with 4-9 edge notches in the sutural line, varying in shape within the same plasmodium. Myxobolus galaxii was detected in fish from 7 of 17 Andean Patagonian lakes, with prevalences ranging between 2 and 17%. A repeating pattern of summer increment in prevalence was observed, which could be explained by the ontogenetic migratory movements of the fish in Lake Gutiérrez. Also, accumulation of plasmodia through the life span of fish was detected.
Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most
Conrads, Kai H.; Roth, Siegfried; Lynch, Jeremy A.
Despite recent efforts to sample broadly across metazoan and insect diversity, current sequence resources in the Coleoptera do not adequately describe the diversity of the clade. Here we present deep, staged transcriptomic data for two coleopteran species, Atrachya menetriesi (Faldermann 1835) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius 1775). Our sampling covered key stages in ovary and early embryonic development in each species. We utilized this data to build combined assemblies for each species which were then analysed in detail. The combined A. menetriesi assembly consists of 228,096 contigs with an N50 of 1,598 bp, while the combined C. maculatus assembly consists of 128,837 contigs with an N50 of 2,263 bp. For these assemblies, 34.6% and 32.4% of contigs were identified using Blast2GO, and 97% and 98.3% of the BUSCO set of metazoan orthologs were present, respectively. We also carried out manual annotation of developmental signalling pathways and found that nearly all expected genes were present in each transcriptome. Our analyses show that both transcriptomes are of high quality. Lastly, we performed read mapping utilising our timed, stage specific RNA samples to identify differentially expressed contigs. The resources presented here will provide a firm basis for a variety of experimentation, both in developmental biology and in comparative genomic studies. PMID:27907180
Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M
An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.
Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D
The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.
Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.
Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D
Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J; Navarro, Kaela L; Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Savage, Markita G; Shen, Jianjun; Walter, Ronald B
It has been reported that exposure to artificial light may affect oxygen intake, heart rate, absorption of vitamins and minerals, and behavioral responses in humans. We have reported specific gene expression responses in the skin of Xiphophorus fish after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV), as well as, both broad spectrum and narrow waveband visible light. In regard to fluorescent light (FL), we have shown that male X. maculatus exposed to 4100K FL (i.e. "cool white") rapidly suppress transcription of many genes involved with DNA replication and repair, chromosomal segregation, and cell cycle progression in skin. We have also detailed sex specific transcriptional responses of Xiphophorus skin after exposure to UVB. However, investigation of gender differences in global gene expression response after exposure to 4100K FL has not been reported, despite common use of this FL source for residential, commercial, and animal facility illumination. Here, we compare RNA-Seq results analyzed to assess changes in the global transcription profiles of female and male X. maculatus skin in response to 4100K FL exposure. Our results suggest 4100K FL exposure incites a sex-biased genetic response including up-modulation of inflammation in females and down modulation of DNA repair/replication in males. In addition, we identify clusters of genes that become oppositely modulated in males and females after FL exposure that are principally involved in cell death and cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José
Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds.
Loha, Kumelachew Mulu; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra
In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed β-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 1500 (3c) and PEG - 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC(50) values (2.2 and 1.58 mg L(-1) respectively). Also, release from the commercial SC formulation was faster than developed formulations as the commercial formulation had the lowest EC(50) value on the first day (0.51 mg L(-1)). The mean EC(50) of the commercial formulation against C. maculatus was quite high as compared to those of developed formulations. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of β-cyfluthrin can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. The results described in this paper are promising and provide a comparison of developed formulations with the commercial one showing an earlier degradation of β-cyfluthrin in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former.
Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado
Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R
Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Kunz, Daniele; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Silva, Carlos P
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C. maculatus by employing ex vivo experiments. In the ex vivo approach, we incubated FITC-labelled vicilin with isolated midgut wholemounts in the absence or in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The fate of labelled or non-labelled globulins was monitored by confocal microscopy and fluorescence measurement. Our results suggest that the internalization of vicilins is due to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we report the identity of a microvillar vicilin-binding protein that was purified using affinity chromatography on a vicilin-sepharose column. The putative vicilin receptor showed high homology to proteins with the CRAL-TRIO domain, specifically the Sec14 superfamily member α-tocopherol transfer protein. The precise mechanism involved in vicilin internalization was defined through the use of specific inhibitors of the endocytosis pathway. The inhibitors filipin III and nystatin significantly inhibited the endocytosis of vicilin, while chlorpromazine and phenylarsine oxide had a much lower effect on endocytosis, suggesting that the endocytic pathway is predominantly mediated by caveolin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu
The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species.
Fox, C W; Bush, M L; Roff, D A; Wallin, W G
The age at which individuals die varies substantially within and between species, but we still have little understanding of why there is such variation in life expectancy. We examined sex-specific and genetic variation in adult lifespan and the shape of mortality curves both within and between two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, that differ in a suite of life history characters associated with adaptation to different host species. Mean adult lifespan and the shape of the logistic mortality curves differed substantially between males and females (males had lower initial mortality rates, but a faster increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age) and between populations (they differed in the rate of increase in mortality with age). Larger individuals lived longer than smaller individuals, both because they had lower initial mortality rates and a slower increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age. However, differences in body size were not adequate to explain the differences in mortality between the sexes or populations. Both lifespan and mortality rates were genetically variable within populations and genetic variance/covariance matrices for lifespan differed between the populations and sexes. This study thus demonstrated substantial genetic variation in lifespan and mortality rates within and between populations of C. maculatus.
Reece, Sarah E; Wherry, Ruth N; Bloor, Juliette M G
When a small number of females contribute offspring to a discrete mating group, sex allocation (Local Mate Competition: LMC) theory predicts that females should bias their offspring sex ratio towards daughters, which avoids the fitness costs of their sons competing with each other. Conversely, when a large number of females contribute offspring to a patch, they are expected to invest equally in sons and daughters. Furthermore, sex ratios of species that regularly experience variable foundress numbers are closer to those predicted by LMC theory than species that encounter less variable foundress number scenarios. Due to their patterns of resource use, female Callosobruchus maculatus are likely to experience a broad range of foundress number scenarios. We carried out three experiments to test whether female C. maculatus adjust their sex ratios in response to foundress number and two other indicators of LMC: ovipositing on pre-parasitised patches and ovipositing with sisters. We did not find any evidence of the predicted sex ratio adjustment, but we did find evidence of kin biased behaviour.
Benton, Matthew A; Kenny, Nathan J; Conrads, Kai H; Roth, Siegfried; Lynch, Jeremy A
Despite recent efforts to sample broadly across metazoan and insect diversity, current sequence resources in the Coleoptera do not adequately describe the diversity of the clade. Here we present deep, staged transcriptomic data for two coleopteran species, Atrachya menetriesi (Faldermann 1835) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius 1775). Our sampling covered key stages in ovary and early embryonic development in each species. We utilized this data to build combined assemblies for each species which were then analysed in detail. The combined A. menetriesi assembly consists of 228,096 contigs with an N50 of 1,598 bp, while the combined C. maculatus assembly consists of 128,837 contigs with an N50 of 2,263 bp. For these assemblies, 34.6% and 32.4% of contigs were identified using Blast2GO, and 97% and 98.3% of the BUSCO set of metazoan orthologs were present, respectively. We also carried out manual annotation of developmental signalling pathways and found that nearly all expected genes were present in each transcriptome. Our analyses show that both transcriptomes are of high quality. Lastly, we performed read mapping utilising our timed, stage specific RNA samples to identify differentially expressed contigs. The resources presented here will provide a firm basis for a variety of experimentation, both in developmental biology and in comparative genomic studies.
Thomas, Oliver R B; Barbee, Nicole C; Hassell, Kathryn L; Swearer, Stephen E
Fish, at all life stages, utilize olfactory information in the decision-making processes essential to survival. Olfaction is a sensitive sensory process, and toxicants within urban aquatic environments can have destructive or depreciating effects. In the present study, the authors exposed Galaxias maculatus, a native fish commonly found in urban waterways throughout southeastern Australia, to 1 of 5 ecologically relevant copper (II) chloride concentrations (<1 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 8 μg/L, 18 μg/L) for 16 h. After exposure, the authors tested the response of individual fish to 1 of 3 stimuli: a conspecific skin extract containing a stress-inducing alarm chemical odor, a conspecific odor, and distilled water as a control. Stress responses were quantified through behavioral assays. The authors found evidence for distinct changes in behavioral response with increasing copper concentration and a marked difference in response between control fish and fish exposed to the alarm chemical odor. Copper, even at relatively low concentrations, can have a significant effect on the stress response behavior shown by G. maculatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2209-2214. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
The hide beetle (Dermestes maculatus DeGeer) is a Dermestid beetle that can infest a wide variety of stored products, including pet foods and animal feeds, dried foods, and grains products with high protein content. Although there is published information concerning the biology and habits of D. macu...
Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses.
Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses. PMID:24773362
Viozzi, G P; Semenas, L G
Philureter trigoniopsis is the only parasite found in the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus in Patagonian Andean lakes. The dynamics of this endoparasitic monogenean were studied in Lake Gutiérrez, a body of water with scarce shoreline vegetation, where the host has an annual cycle of migration to the deep pelagic zone of the lake. To compare variations of the infection related to differences between lakes, G. maculatus specimens were sampled monthly with baited traps from September 1998 to November 1999 in Lake Moreno, which is an oligotrophic body of water with emergent shoreline vegetation and where the fish do not migrate to the deep pelagic areas of the lake. In addition, data for summer infections of P. trigoniopsis from 10 Andean Patagonian lakes that differ in aquatic vegetation, depth, and area were compared. In Lake Moreno prevalence of P. trigoniopsis showed a seasonal pattern, with 1-yr-old fish exhibiting the highest values of prevalence and mean intensity. Negative correlations between water temperature and prevalence and between age of fish and abundance were found. Our results suggest that age of fish may be the main factor structuring the distribution of P. trigoniosis in populations of G. maculatus. At the regional level the relationship between the infection and the characteristics of the lakes was also observed, with prevalence and mean intensity of P. trigoniopsis in G. maculatus higher in large deep lakes without macrophytes.
Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J
Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments.
Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos
Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 μm in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 μm in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 μm in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 μm in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 μm long and 6.1 ± 0.4 μm wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.
Obembe, O M; Kayode, J
The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.
Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo
Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.
Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati
A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066
Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati
A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F₁ progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.
Moravvej, G; Abbar, S
In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.
Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M
Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.
Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E
The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length.
Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy
A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.
Viozzi, Gustavo P; Flores, Verónica R
Myxidium biliare sp. n., a new myxosporean species parasitizing the gall bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), in Patagonia, is described. Its coelozoic plasmodia were floating free in the bile. Spores are fusiform 13.7 +/- 0.9 microm long and 6.9 +/- 0.6 microm wide, with rounded ends in frontal view and slightly pointed ends in sutural view; shell with ridges and sinuous sutural line. Both maximum prevalence and maximum percentage of immature plasmodia occurred in summer. In winter the prevalence and the percentage of immature plasmodia fell to their lowest values. Prevalence was independent of host sex but increased with host length. Prevalence in 15 Patagonian Andean lakes (situated from 39 degrees 25'S to 41 degrees 30'S) ranged between 4.2% and 70%.
Miyatake, Takahisa; Matsumura, Fumi
The effects of mating duration on female remating (exp. 1) and under different male densities (exp. 2) were examined in two strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis and in one strain of the bruchid beetle, C. maculatus. In experiment 1, the frequency of female remating was markedly different between the two strains of C. chinensis. Females of the jC strain, reared long-term in the laboratory, did not remate after being allowed to mate freely (=monogamy), whereas females of the isC strain, recently established from the field, showed high remating frequencies (=polyandry). In both strains, the frequency of female remating increased after the duration of the first mating was deliberately shortened. The relation between mating duration and remating frequency was significantly different, however, between the two strains. In a closely related species, C. maculatus, which manifests polyandry, this relation was more similar to that of the field-derived (=isC) than to that of the laboratory-derived (=jC) strain of C. chinensis. The reasons for the inter-strain variation observed in the remating frequencies of C. chinensis are also discussed. In experiment 2, the mating duration of the three strains was compared under different male densities. Only the lab-derived strain demonstrated a significantly shorter mating duration when one female was placed together with five males than when paired with one male. The shorter mating duration (approximately 26 s) was similar to that of females allowed to remate in the monogamous strain in experiment 1.
Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis
Background Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations. Results Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π) and the haplotype diversity index (H) indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), and H+-ATPase (HA) was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G
Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; González-Wevar, Claudio A; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis
Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations. Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π) and the haplotype diversity index (H) indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), and H+-ATPase (HA) was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes. These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus osmoregulatory system
Miyashita, Masahiro; Sakai, Atsushi; Matsushita, Nobuto; Hanai, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi
Scorpion venoms are composed of a number of peptides, many of which show neurotoxicity. In addition to these neurotoxins, several antimicrobial peptides have also been isolated from the venoms. The scorpion Isometrus maculatus, belonging to the Buthidae family, is found in many tropical regions including Japan, but little attention has been paid to its biological activity and chemical composition. In this study, we isolated a novel insect toxin, Im-1, by bioassay-guided fractionation of the venom of I. maculatus. Rapid and reversible paralysis was observed after injection of Im-1 into crickets. Im-1 consists of 56 amino acids, and is predicted to form an amphipathic alpha-helix. Since Im-1 shares sequence similarity to an antimicrobial peptide, parabutoporin, we evaluated its effects on several bacterial strains and found that it showed an antimicrobial activity profile similar to parabutoporin. This suggests that Im-1 and parabutoporin exert their antimicrobial effects through similar mechanisms.
Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan
The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.
Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José
We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.
Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L
The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control.
Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques
The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.
Trejo, A; Semenas, L; Viozzi, G
The seasonal distribution of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala : Echinorhynchidae) among Galaxias maculatus (Pisces : Galaxiidae) in Lake Gutiérrez was studied from March 1994 to June 1996. Acanthocephalus tumescens always occurs in the intestine, has an overdispersed frequency distribution, a similar proportion of sexes, and females are larger than males. Mean intensity and prevalence are low and increase with host length. The pattern of the infection shows seasonality, with recruitment in winter and a reproductive period during spring-summer.
Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L
In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.
Lale, N E.S.; Vidal, S
Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did not significantly reduce the mean number of eggs laid per female, the number of eggs developing to the adult stage, or the weight of emerged adults of either species. The developmental period of the two species was also not significantly affected. The adult emergence curve of C. maculatus was similar to that of C. subinnotatus and was of the scramble type. C. maculatus performed better than C. subinnotatus in interspecific competition and it achieved this through a higher egg-laying ability and a higher rate of progeny production coupled with a shorter life-cycle. The implications of these findings with respect to damage and possible loss of stored bambara groundnut are discussed.
DiStefano, Robert J.; Westhoff, Jacob T.; Ames, Catlin W.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.
The vulnerable freckled crayfish, Cambarus maculatus Hobbs and Pflieger, 1988, is endemic to only one drainage in eastern Missouri, USA, which is impacted by heavy metals mining and adjacent to a rapidly-expanding urban area. We studied populations of C. maculatus in two small streams for 25 months to describe annual reproductive cycles, and gather information about fecundity, sex ratio, size at maturity, size-class structure, and growth, capturing a monthly average of more than 50 individuals from each of the two study populations. Information about the density of the species at supplemental sampling streams was also obtained. The species exhibited traits consistent with a K-strategist life history; long-lived, slow-growing, with fewer but larger eggs than sympatric crayfish species. Breeding season occurred in mid- to late autumn, potentially extending into early winter. Egg brooding occurred primarily in May. Young of year were first observed in June. We estimated that these populations contained four to six size-classes, observed smaller individuals grew faster than larger individuals, and most became sexually mature in their second year of life. Densities of C. maculatus were low relative to several sympatric species of Orconectes Cope, 1872. Life history information presented herein will be important for anticipated future conservation efforts.
Hu, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Na; Wang, Jin-Jun
The bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are important stored-product insects of stored legume seeds. In this study, the external morphologies of the antennal sensilla on the antennae of both female and male adults of these two species were described using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of both species are made up of the scape, pedicel, and nine segments of flagellomeres. Antennae of female and male C. maculatus and female of C. chinensis are serrate in shape, while those of male C. chinensis are pectinate. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including Böhm bristles (BB), two types of sensilla trichoid (ST1, ST2), sensilla chaetica (SC), two types of sensilla basiconic (SB1, SB2), grooved pegs (GP), and sensilla cavity (SCa). The number of ST1 and SB1 of the male were significantly greater than those of the female of C. chinensis, and the number of ST2 and SB1 of the male were significantly more abundant than those of the female of C. maculatus. The possible functions of the above sensilla types are discussed in light of previously published literature.
Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A
The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ρ-cymene (3.5%), β-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010 g L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001 g L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant.
Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P
The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments.
Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Sá, Claudia Mara; Freire, Maria Das Graças Machado; Parra, José Roberto Postali
The cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the major pests of Vigna unguiculata cowpea. Digestion in the cowpea weevil is facilitated by high levels of cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases. Plants synthesize a variety of molecules, including proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors, to defend themselves against attack by insects. In this work, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds showed activity against papain. The inhibition of papain by ApTI was of the noncompetitive type, with a K(i) of 1 microM. ApTI was highly effective against digestive proteinases from C. maculatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil), and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil) and was moderately active against midgut proteinases from the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. In C. maculates fed an artificial diet containing 0.25% and 0.5% ApTI (w/w), the latter concentration caused 50% mortality and reduced larval weight gain by approximately 40%. The action of ApTI on C. maculatus larvae may involve the inhibition of ApTI-sensitive cysteine proteinases and binding to chitin components of the peritrophic membrane (or equivalent structures) in the weevil midgut.
Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Fernández, María V; Vega, Rocío M
During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) from Patagonian Andean Lakes, specimens of a new species of nematode were collected from the stomach of fish and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is described as the only member of a newly proposed genus of Cystidicolidae by having oral opening dorsoventrally elongated, 2 lateral pseudolabia, 4 cephalic papillae, stoma (vestibule) elongated, esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular sections, and caudal alae in males. Placonema n. gen. (Habronematoidea, Cystidicolidae) is characterized by the combination of the following features: oral opening dorsoventrally elongated demarcated by 4 sclerotized plates and 2 well-developed pseudolabia projected to the buccal cavity, each pseudolabium with conspicuous, conical, anterior protuberances. Four cephalic papillae and deirids simple. Male with caudal alae, area rugosa absent, 4 pairs of preanal papillae, unpaired papilla present on anterior cloacal lip, and 6 pairs of postanal papillae. Larvigerous eggs without filaments. Placonema pataguense n. gen. n. sp. infects the stomach of G. maculatus from Lake Patagua (Patagonia, Argentina) and is the first species of Cystidicolidae described from G. maculatus.
Revenga, Jorge E; Torres, Patricio F; Baiz, Miguel
The present study was conducted to determine the impact of a caged-trout farm on the helminth parasites of the wild fish puyen chico (Galaxias maculatus) in Lake Moreno, southern Argentina. Samples of water, fish (G. maculatus), and snails (Heleobia hatcheri) were taken at 4 sampling stations in January 2001. Wild fish were parasitized by 8 helminth species, all of which are endemic in the region; therefore, the farm did not introduce any helminth parasite to G. maculatus. Fish captured near the farm were not infected by the digenean Steganoderma szidati, whereas the abundance of the digenean Acanthostomoides apophalliformis in these fish was significantly lower than that in fish captured away from the farm. This lower abundance may be explained by the absence in this area of the snail H. hatcheri, the parasite's first intermediate host, because of the effect of sediments and ammonium produced by the farm. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Americas linking fish-farm pollution to helminth parasites in wild fish.
Pinisetty, D; Huang, C; Dong, Q; Tiersch, T R; Devireddy, R V
This study reports the subzero water transport characteristics (and empirically determined optimal rates for freezing) of sperm cells of live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, specifically those of the southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. These fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. Water transport during freezing of X. maculatus sperm cell suspensions was obtained using a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter technique in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol, and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder with a length of 52.35 microm and a diameter of 0.66 microm with an osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) of 0.6 V0, where V0 is the isotonic or initial cell volume. This translates to a surface area, SA to initial water volume, WV ratio of 15.15 microm(-1). By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water at 0 degrees C, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] and the activation energy, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa]) were found to range from: Lpg or Lpg [cpa] = 0.0053-0.0093 microm/minatm; E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] = 9.79-29.00 kcal/mol. By incorporating these membrane permeability parameters in a recently developed generic optimal cooling rate equation (optimal cooling rate, [Formula: see text] where the units of B(opt) are degrees C/min, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] are kcal/mol, L(pg) or L(pg) [cpa] are microm/minatm and SA/WV are microm(-1)), we determined the optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells to be 28 degrees C/min (in HBSS), 47 degrees C/min (in HBSS+14% glycerol) and 36 degrees C/min (in HBSS+10% DMSO). Preliminary empirical
Phillips, T W; Phillips, J K; Webster, F X; Tang, R; Burkholder, W E
Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus, produce a sex pheromone that elicits orientation and sexual behavior in males. Bioassay-directed isolation of the sex pheromone was conducted and compounds in the active fraction were identified and synthesized. Volatiles were collected from individual virgin females by adsorption on filter paper dises and hexane extraction. A bioassay was used in which the locomotory response of single males in glass vials was recorded upon exposure to treatments or controls. Crude extracts were subjected to silica gel column chromatography with solvents of increasing polarity; all activity eluted with methanol. Activity in the highly polar methanol fraction suggested a carboxylic acid or a compound with multiple polar functionality. Acid-base partitioning of the crude extract isolated all activity in the acid fraction, confirming that the pheromone was a carboxylic acid. The acid fraction was further fractionated by preparative GC with a Carbowax column. The most active GC fraction contained the following five 8-carbon acids identified by GC-MS and comparison with synthetic candidates: 3-methyleneheptanoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (E)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid, and (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid. Each of the synthetic acids was active individually for males, and combinations of two or more of the acid pheromones had an additive effect. Upwind flight responses to natural and synthetic pheromones were observed in a flight tunnel. (Z)-3-Methyl-2-heptenoic acid was previously identified as the sex pheromone for the relatedC. analis, but this and the other four acid pheromones fromC. maculatus were inactive for maleC. analis. There was no cross-attraction betweenC. maculatus andC. analis in reciprocal studies using extracted volatiles from females of both species, GC-MS analysis ofC. analis female volatiles failed to detect any of theC. maculatus compounds but did find an unidentified C-8 acid
von Hoermann, C; Ruther, J; Reibe, S; Madea, B; Ayasse, M
A decaying cadaver emits volatile organic compounds that are used by necrophilous and necrophagous insects in order to find their brood substrate. Although volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released by carcasses have been identified, little is known about the specific compounds that are used by these insects while searching for a brood substrate. Therefore, we have investigated the chemical ecology involved in the attraction of the necrophagous hide beetle Dermestes maculatus, which feeds as an adult and larva upon decomposing carcasses. Our aims have been to identify the responsible compounds in the odours of the carcass that are important for the attraction of the beetles. Furthermore, we have studied sex- and age-related differences in beetle attraction and tested whether the hide beetle can distinguish between various stages of decomposition by means of the emitted odours. Headspace collection of volatiles released from piglet carcasses (bloated stage, post-bloating stage, advanced decay and dry remains), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and bioassays were conducted to identify the volatiles responsible for the attraction of the beetles. Freshly emerged male beetles were attracted by the odour of piglets in the post-bloating stage (9 days after death; T(mean) = 27 °C) and the EAD-active compound benzyl butyrate. Statistical analysis revealed a higher relative proportion of benzyl butyrate in the odour bouquet of the post-bloating stage in comparison with the other stages. We therefore conclude that this compound plays an important role in the attraction of hide beetles to carcass odour. This underlines the potential use of D. maculatus for the estimation of the post mortem interval. The decomposition stage at which the female beetles are attracted to the odour of a cadaver remains unknown, as does the nature of this attraction. Pheromones (sexual or aggregation
Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; da Silva, Maria Barbosa Reis; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso
Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in flour mills. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus, Z. subfasciatus and A. kuehniella larvae. BmoLL produced ca. 50% mortality to Z. subfaciatus and C. maculatus when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.5% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively. BmoLL up to 1% did not significantly decrease the survival of A. kuehniella larvae, but produced a decrease of 40% in weight. Affinity chromatography showed that BmoLL bound to midgut proteins of the insect C. maculatus. 33 kDa subunit BmoLL was not digested by midgut preparations of these bruchids. BmoLL-fed C. maculatus larvae increased the digestion of potato starch by 25% compared with the control. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.
Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M
In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues.
Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B
Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.
Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T.; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L.; Walter, Ronald B.
Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure has been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to “cool white” fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50 nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300–600 nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350–400 nm (88 genes) and 500–550 nm (276 genes) that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50 nm regions in the 300–600 nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation. PMID:26460196
Dzul-Cauich, José F.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor
Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. PMID:25368091
Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor
Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789
Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W
Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness. PMID:24101978
Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W
Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.
Brown, D V; Eady, P E
Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice.
Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S
The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity.
Johnson, J A; Valero, K A
One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes.
Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.
Tarver, Matthew R; Shade, Richard E; Shukle, Richard H; Moar, William J; Muir, William M; Murdock, Larry M; Pittendrigh, Barry R
The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited available technologies for controlling the bruchid, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tools. An investigation was made of two different sets of potential transgenic insecticidal compounds using an artificial seed system: (i) CIP-PH-BT-J and recombinant egg white avidin, and (ii) avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor. CIP-PH-BT-J (0.1%; 1000 mg kg(-1)) and recombinant egg white avidin (0.006%; 60 mg kg(-1)) incorporated separately into artificial seeds caused 98.2 and 99% larval mortality rates respectively. Combining CIP-PH-BT-J and avidin in the same artificial seed provided additional mortality compared with each factor incorporated singly; no insects survived in seeds with the combined toxins. Similarly, when avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) (1%; 10 g kg(-1)) were incorporated separately into artificial seeds, this caused 99.8 and 98% mortality respectively. However, in combination, avidin and alphaAI did not increase mortality, but they did cause a significant increase in developmental time of the cowpea bruchids. These results emphasize that the joint action of potential insecticidal compounds cannot be predicted from results obtained separately for each compound, and they suggest potential transgenes for further consideration.
Gay, L; Brown, E; Tregenza, T; Pincheira-Donoso, D; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hunt, J; Hosken, D J
Males harm females during mating in a range of species. This harm is thought to evolve because it is directly or indirectly beneficial to the male, despite being costly to his mate. The resulting sexually antagonistic selection can cause sexual arms races. For sexually antagonistic co-evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation for traits involved in female harming and susceptibility to harm, but even then intersexual genetic correlations could facilitate or impede sexual co-evolution. Male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates during copulation by damaging the female's reproductive tract. However, there have been no investigations of the genetic variation in damage or in female susceptibility to damage, nor has the genetic covariance between these characters been assessed. Here, we use a full-sib/half-sib breeding design to show that male damage is heritable, whereas female susceptibility to damage is much less so. There is also a substantial positive genetic correlation between the two, suggesting that selection favouring damaging males will increase the prevalence of susceptible females. We also provide evidence consistent with intralocus sexual conflict in this species.
Rankin, Daniel J; Arnqvist, Göran
The population consequences of sexual selection remain empirically unexplored. Comparative studies, involving extinction risk, have yielded different results as to the effect of sexual selection on population densities make contrasting predictions. Here, we investigate the relationship between sexual dimorphism (SD) and population productivity in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using 13 populations that have evolved in isolation. Geometric morphometric methods and image analysis are employed to form integrative measures of sexual dimorphism, composed of variation in weight, size, body shape, and pigmentation. We found a positive relationship between SD and adult fitness (net adult offspring production) across our study populations, but failed to find any association between SD and juvenile fitness (egg-to-adult survival). Several mechanisms may have contributed to the pattern found, and variance in sexual selection regimes across populations, either in female choice for "good genes" or in the magnitude of direct benefits provided by their mates, would tend to produce the pattern seen. However, our results suggest that evolutionary constraints in the form of intralocus sexual conflict may have been the major generator of the relationship seen between SD and population fitness.
Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats
Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.
Hallsson, L R; Chenoweth, S F; Bonduriansky, R
A trait's response to natural selection will reflect the nature of the inheritance mechanisms that mediate the transmission of variation across generations. The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic mechanisms of inheritance is predicted to be related to the degree of trait plasticity, with nongenetic inheritance playing a greater role in the cross-generational transmission of more plastic traits. However, this prediction has never been tested. We investigated the influence of genetic effects and nongenetic parental effects in two morphological traits differing in degree of plasticity by manipulating larval diet quality within a cross-generational split-brood experiment using the seed beetle Callososbuchus maculatus. In line with predictions, we found that the more plastic trait (elytron length) is strongly influenced by both maternal and paternal effects whereas genetic variance is undetectable. In contrast, the less plastic trait (first abdominal sternite length) is not influenced by parental effects but exhibits abundant genetic variance. Our findings support the hypothesis that environment-dependent parental effects may play a particularly important role in highly plastic traits and thereby affect the evolutionary response of such traits.
Fox, C W; Stillwell, R C; Amarillo-S, A R; Czesak, M E; Messina, F J
Few studies have examined the genetic architecture of population differences in behaviour and its implications for population differentiation and adaptation. Even fewer have examined whether differences in genetic architecture depend on the environment in which organisms are reared or tested. We examined the genetic basis of differences in oviposition preference and egg dispersion between Asian (SI) and African (BF) populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes (cowpea and mung bean). The two populations differed in mean oviposition preference (BF females preferred cowpea seeds more strongly than did SI females) and egg dispersion (SI females distributed eggs more uniformly among seeds than did BF females). Observations of hybrid and backcross individuals indicated that only the population difference in oviposition preference could be explained by complete additivity, whereas substantial dominance and epistasis contributed to the differences in egg dispersion. Both rearing host and test host affected the relative magnitude of population differences in egg dispersion and the composite genetic effects. Our results thus demonstrate that the relative influence of epistasis and dominance on the behaviour of hybrids depends on the behaviour measured and that different aspects of insect oviposition are under different genetic control. In addition, the observed effect of rearing host and oviposition host on the relative importance of dominance and epistasis indicates that the genetic basis of population differences depends on the environment in which genes are expressed.
González-Wevar, Claudio A; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I; Poulin, Elie
Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior).
Glover, Chris N; Urbina, Mauricio A; Harley, Rachel A; Lee, Jacqueline A
The euryhaline galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is widely spread throughout the Southern hemisphere occupying near-coastal streams that may be elevated in trace elements such as copper (Cu). Despite this, nothing is known regarding their sensitivity to Cu contamination. The mechanisms of Cu toxicity in inanga, and the ameliorating role of salinity, were investigated by acclimating fish to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW), or 100% SW and exposing them to a graded series of Cu concentrations (0-200μgL(-1)) for 48h. Mortality, whole body Cu accumulation, measures of ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body ions, sodium (Na) influx, sodium/potassium ATPase activity) and ammonia excretion were monitored. Toxicity of Cu was greatest in FW, with mortality likely resulting from impaired Na influx. In both FW and 100% SW, ammonia excretion was significantly elevated, an effect opposite to that observed in previous studies, suggesting fundamental differences in the effect of Cu in this species relative to other studied fish. Salinity was protective against Cu toxicity, and physiology seemed to play a more important role than water chemistry in this protection. Inanga are sensitive to waterborne Cu through a conserved impairment of Na ion homeostasis, but some effects of Cu exposure in this species are distinct. Based on effect concentrations, current regulatory tools and limits are likely protective of this species in New Zealand waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie
Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896
Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O
Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.
Revenga, J; Scheinert, P
The occurrence of Tylodelphys barilochensis, Acanthostomoides apophalliformis, Contracaecum sp. and Camallanus corderoi infecting Galaxias maculatus ("puyenes") was quantified for the first time in Lake Nahuel Huapi, southern Argentina. T. barilochensis was recorded in this lake for the first time. The role of G. maculatus population in transmission of parasites to the salmonids is more important for Contracaecum sp. (prevalence 14-34%) and A. apophalliformis (prevalence 30-54%) than for C. corderoi (prevalence 6-8%). The absence of Diphyllobothrium spp. in samples shows that the G. maculatus population does not play any role in the life cycles of these important zoonotic parasites. The sex of the host had no effect on T. barilochensis abundance. Statistical differences in T. barilochensis abundance between "puyenes" of the same size class between sampling stations and positive correlation between prevalence of infected snails and T. barilochensis abundance in fish suggest that different stocks have been sampled. Factors influencing T. barilochensis abundance are discussed.
Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César; Steffan, Pedro
The role of some insect populations in the transmission of Trichinella sp. has been demonstrated. However, most of the studies have been conducted under controlled conditions which may influence the real role that they could play as a paratenic host in nature. To enlight this issue, a series of studies to determine the infective capability of the muscle larva of Trichinella spiralis recovered from immature stages of insect populations that fed on infected tissues exposed to natural conditions were carried out. Mice harbouring T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) were sacrificed and deposited on a pitfall trap which was established in an open and safe area through 25 days in summer. Necrophilous and necrophagous insects that fed on corpses were recovered, identified and processed to search for live ML of T. spiralis. A complementary study in which maggots of Dermestes maculatus recovered from nature were induced to feed on muscle tissues harbouring T. spiralis larvae was also performed. The muscle larvae recovered from insects at different times of exposition were counted and inoculated to mice to determine the reproductive capability index (RCI). At day 3 of exposition, 29 live ML of T. spiralis were recovered from maggots of Phaenicia sericata. The RCI for these larvae was 133.6. On day 5 of exposition, maggots of Sarcophaga sp. were identified and 17 live T. spiralis larvae were recovered; the RCI of these larvae was 43.4. The T. spiralis ML recovered from maggots of D. maculatus obtained after 2 days of feeding on experimentally infected tissue showed a RCI of 24. The results suggest that larval stages of P. sericata, Sarcophaga sp. and D. maculatus might have an important role as a paratenic host of T. spiralis, which, in terms, may influence the epidemiology of this nematode in endemic areas of trichinellosis.
Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín
Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wang, Juan; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Jin-Xian
Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE) for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001) and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001). However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001). Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40%) significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus. PMID:27336696
Appleby, J H; Credland, P F
The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management.
Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P
A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease.
González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie
Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn
Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.
Teixeira, Fabiano M; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P
Erythrina velutina vicilin, EvV, is a dimeric glycoprotein with Mr of 124.6 kDa. EvV was tested for anti-insect activity against bean bruchid larvae. EvV had LD(50) of 0.10% and ED(50) of 0.14% for Z. subfasciatus and LD(50) of 0.26% and ED(50) of 0.19% for C. maculatus. EvV was not digested by bean larvae enzymes until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EvV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus enzymes.
Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J
We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks.
Pitts, Paul M; Volkoff, Hélène
The regulation of energy in fish, like most vertebrates, is a complex process that involves a number of brain and peripheral hormones. These signals include anorexigenic (e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)) as well as orexigenic (e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) peptides. Platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, are freshwater viviparous fish for which little is known about the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding. In order to elucidate the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of platyfish, we examined the effects of peripheral injections of CCK and orexin on feeding behavior and food intake. Injections of CCK decreased both food intake and searching behavior, while injections of orexin increased searching behavior but did not affect food consumption. In order to better characterize these peptides, we examined their mRNA tissue distribution and assessed the effects of a 10-day fast on their brain and intestine expressions in both males and females. CCK, CART, NPY and orexin all show widespread distributions in brain and several peripheral tissues, including intestine and gonads. Fasting induced decreases in both CCK and CART and an increase in orexin mRNA expressions in the brain and a decrease in CCK expression in the intestine, but did not affect either expressions of NPY. There were no significant sex-specific differences in either the behavioral responses to injections or the expression responses to fasting. The widespread distribution and the fasting-induced changes in expression of these peptides suggest that they might have several physiological roles in platyfish, including the regulation of feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nukenine, E. N.
Hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts from Gnidia kaussiana Meisn (Thymeleaceae), each at two dosages (0.2 and 1 ml/50 g grains corresponding, respectively to 1 and 5g/kg), and neem seed oil (NSO), used as standard insecticide were evaluated for repellence, toxicity to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults, F1 progeny inhibition, persistence and as grain protectant during storage. Experiments were laid out at complete randomized design with five replications for repellence test and four for others. All the extracts were effective in protecting stored Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) from insect attack; however, their bioactivities were inversely correlated with solvent polarity. No adult survival was recorded in treated grains with hexane extract at 5 g/kg dosage within 2 d exposure. Also at 5 g/kg, all extracts hindered adults emergence, grain damage and weight loss after 4 months storage. Moreover, hexane extract was more repellent and exhibited averagely repellency. The insecticidal effectiveness of hexane extract did not decreased provided that the exposure time of insects to the product was high (7 d). The potency of acetone and methanol extracts decreased with storage time, although not linearly and remained significantly toxic to C. maculatus up to 60 d of storage. Therefore, hexane and acetone extracts are good candidates for incorporation in integrated pest management programs for control of cowpea weevils in stored grains by poor-resourced farmers and store keepers in Cameroon and other developing countries. PMID:28423430
Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere
The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365
Kelly, Clint D
Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them.
Akami, Mazarin; Chakira, Hamada; Andongma, Awawing A; Khaeso, Kanjana; Gbaye, Olajire A; Nicolas, Njintang Y; Nukenine, E-N; Niu, Chang-Ying
The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations. The resistance index and biochemical parameters of grains were determined. The results from this study revealed that the survival rate and resistance index significantly increased proportionally with damage in DDVP treatments (r = 0.889; p = 0.018) while in EO treatments, those values remained low without significant variations (p = 0.0764) throughout the generations. DDVP stored grains yielded higher crude protein values, but lower carbohydrates, tannins, phenolics and minerals compared to EO. Eighteen amino acids were detected in EO treated grains and 14 in DDVP which was devoid of albumin and prolamin. Lippia adoensis EO could therefore represent a safe alternative bio-pesticide to cope with insect resistance and enhance the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea seeds.
Chakira, Hamada; Andongma, Awawing A.; Khaeso, Kanjana; Gbaye, Olajire A.; Nicolas, Njintang Y.; Nukenine, E.-N.; Niu, Chang-Ying
The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations. The resistance index and biochemical parameters of grains were determined. The results from this study revealed that the survival rate and resistance index significantly increased proportionally with damage in DDVP treatments (r = 0.889; p = 0.018) while in EO treatments, those values remained low without significant variations (p = 0.0764) throughout the generations. DDVP stored grains yielded higher crude protein values, but lower carbohydrates, tannins, phenolics and minerals compared to EO. Eighteen amino acids were detected in EO treated grains and 14 in DDVP which was devoid of albumin and prolamin. Lippia adoensis EO could therefore represent a safe alternative bio-pesticide to cope with insect resistance and enhance the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:28879012
Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu
As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere
The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.
Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu
As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. PMID:26443776
Nunes, Natalia N S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A; de Sá, Leonardo F R; de Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Correia, Maria Tereza dos S; Paiva, Patrícia Maria G; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza V
Callosobruchus maculatus is an important predator of cowpeas. Due to infestation during storage, this insect affects the quality of seed and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CrataBL, a multifunction protein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, on C. maculatus larva development. The protein, which is stable even in extreme pH conditions, showed toxic activity, reducing the larval mass 45 and 70% at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/w), respectively. Acting as an inhibitor, CrataBL decreased by 39% the activity of cysteine proteinases from larval gut. Conversely, the activity of serine proteinases was increased about 8-fold. The toxic properties of CrataBL may also be attributed to its capacity of binding to glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans. Such binding interferes with larval metabolism, because CrataBL-FITC was found in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and feces of larvae. These results demonstrate the potential of this protein for controlling larva development.
Waters, J M; Burridge, C P
Biogeographic controversies surrounding the widespread freshwater fish, Galaxias maculatus, were addressed with DNA sequence data. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from representatives of six populations of this species. Substantial levels of cytochrome b (maximum 14.6%) and 16S rRNA sequence divergence (maximum 6.0%) were detected between western Pacific (Tasmania-New Zealand) and South American (Chile-Falkland Islands) haplotypes. A considerable level of divergence was also detected between Tasmanian and New Zealand haplotypes (maximum 5.1%) and within and among Chilean and Falkland Island G. maculatus (maximum 3. 8%). The phylogenetic structure of haplotypes conflicts with the accepted pattern of continental fragmentation. Molecular clock calibrations suggest that haplotype divergences postdate the fragmentation of Gondwana. These findings point to marine dispersal rather than ancient vicariance as an explanation for the wide distribution. The phylogenetic structure of South American haplotypes was not consistent with their geographic distribution. We consider factors such as population divergence, population size, dispersal, secondary contact, and philopatry as potential causes of the high level of mtDNA nucleotide diversity in this species. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Stevens, J C B; Hickford, M J H; Schiel, D R
Gaps in understanding variability among populations of inanga Galaxias maculatus in the timing of reproduction were addressed in southern New Zealand (NZ), where G. maculatus constitutes a declining fishery. Reproductive activity was delayed by 1 month on the west coast compared with the east coast and the west coast spawning season was prolonged into winter. The evidence for post-spawning survival of some fish was unequivocal from histological studies. These older and larger fish contributed disproportionately to egg production. Estimates of fecundity were considerably lower than those previously calculated for NZ populations. The importance of quality habitats being available during critical life history periods are highlighted. It was apparent that some streams supported fish that were larger and in better condition and that this translated into greatly increased fecundity. Future research should focus on whether this is a legacy of these fish experiencing better pre-settlement marine habitat as larvae, or higher quality instream habitat enhancing the growth and development of adults. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Nakai, Tomonori; Yajima, Arata; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Kaihoku, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Miki; Nukada, Tomoo; Ohrui, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Goro
A diastereomeric mixture and the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (2), a copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, were synthesized. The stereoisomeric purities of the four synthetic isomers of 2 were determined by the HPLC analyses of their bis-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximide)-1-cyclohexyl esters.
Yang, Huiping; Savage, Markita G.; Hazlewood, Leona; Walter, Ronald B.; Tiersch, Terrence R.
Xiphophorus fishes are well-established models for biomedical research of spontaneous or induced tumors, and their use in research dates back to the 1930’s. Currently, 58 well-pedigreed lines exist among 24 Xiphophorus species housed as live animals at the Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center. The technique of sperm cryopreservation has been applied to preserve these valuable genetic resources, and production of offspring has been reported with cryopreserved sperm in two species (X. helleri and X. couchianus). The goal of this research was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination that yield live young in X. maculatus, a widely used research species. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males, and quantify the sperm production yield after crushing of dissected testis; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. maculatus by adapting as necessary the protocols for sperm cryopreservation of X. helleri and X. couchianus; 3) use cryopreserved sperm to inseminate virgin females of X maculatus and other species (X. helleri and X. couchianus), and 4) compare experimental trials over a 3-year period to identify opportunities for improving female fecundity. In total, 117 males were used in this study with a standard length of 2.5 ± 0.3 cm (mean ± SD), body weight of 0.474 ± 0.149 g, and dissected testis weight of 7.1 ± 3.7 mg. Calculation of sperm availability showed 5.9 ± 2.8 × 106 sperm cells per mg of testis weight. Offspring were produced from cryopreserved sperm. Male-to-male variation (1-70%) was observed in post-thaw motility despite little variation in motility before freezing (60-90%) or genetic variation (~100 generations of sib-mating). Comparisons of biological factors of males did not have significant correlations with the production of live young, and the influence of females on production of young were identified from the comparison of artificial insemination over the 3 yr. Overall, this study
Wen, Colin K. C.; Bonin, Mary C.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.
Acute environmental disturbances impact on habitat quality and resource availability, which can reverberate through trophic levels and become apparent in species' dietary composition. In this study, we observed a distinct dietary shift of newly settled and juvenile coral trout ( Plectropomus maculatus) following severe coral reef habitat degradation after a river flood plume affected the Keppel Islands, Australia. Hard coral cover declined by ~28 % in the 2 yr following the 2010-2011 floods, as did the abundance of young coral trout. Gut contents analysis revealed that diets had shifted from largely crustacean-based to non-preferred prey fishes following the disturbances. These results suggest that newly settled and juvenile coral trout modify their diet and foraging strategy in response to coral habitat degradation. This bottom-up effect of habitat degradation on the diet of a top coral reef predator may incur a metabolic cost, with subsequent effects on growth and survival.
Spitzen, J; van Huis, A
Development and reproductive success of the solitary egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan were examined after development in eggs of the bruchid storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius reared at either low or high densities on cowpea seeds and laid at day 1 and 4 of maternal life. Both bruchid larval competition and maternal age negatively affected egg size, but the latter more than the former. Uscana lariophaga reared in small hosts developed slower, were smaller and produced fewer eggs compared to parasitoids reared in large hosts. Fecundity of the parasitoid was heavily influenced by host egg size. This was reflected in the values for the intrinsic rate of increase of U. lariophaga, which differed for wasps that developed in host eggs laid by bruchid females of different age. Wasps allocated marginally more female offspring to larger hosts.
Viozzi, G; Flores, V; Ostrowski de Núñez, M
Steganoderma szidati n. sp. is described from the intestine of two freshwater fishes, Galaxias maculatus and G. platei (Galaxiidae), from Andean lakes in Patagonia, Argentina. This freshwater zoogonid species fits in the genus Steganoderma (sensu Bray, 1987) because of the length of the caeca and the position of the vitelline follicles. The new species is characterised by possessing 6-13 vitelline follicles situated between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and the posterior margin of the testis. The gonads are in the anterior hindbody and the ovary is anterior to the right testis. The cirrus has two conspicuous spines at its distal end, and the seminal vesicle always exhibits a constriction. The excretory vesicle never reaches the level of the posterior margin of the testes.
Alves, Dimitri R; Luque, José L; Paraguassu, Aline R
Fifty-five specimens of pink cusk-eel, Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, 1903 (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (approx. 21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W), from September 2000 to January 2001, were necropsied to study their parasites. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. Fourteen species of parasites were collected. G. brasiliensis is a new host record for nine parasite species. The larval stages of cestodes and the nematodes were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 38.4% and 36.5%, respectively. Cucullanus genypteri was the dominant species with highest prevalence and/or abundance. The parasites of G. brasiliensis showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Six parasite species showed correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence and abundance. Host sex did not influence prevalence and parasite abundance of any parasite species. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of G. brasiliensis was H= 0.364 +/- 0.103, with correlation with the host's total length and without differences in relation to sex of the host. One pair of adult endoparasites (C. genypteri and A. brasiliensis) showed positive covariations between their abundances. Negative association or covariation was not found. Differences between the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the parasite community of G. brasiliensis from Rio de Janeiro and Argentina suggest the existence of two population stocks of pink cusk-eel in the South America Atlantic Ocean.
Paracreptotrema blancoi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiformes: Allocreadiidae) in the Olomina, Priapichthys annectens (Osteichthyes: poeciliidae), from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.
Choudhury, Anindo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Brooks, Daniel R; Daverdin, Rita
A new species of allocreadiid digenean is described from Priapichthys annectens (Regan) (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae) in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. A new genus, Paracreptotrema, is proposed to accommodate this species as well as Fellodistomum mendezi Songandares-Bernal, 1955, which was previously described from another poeciliid, Brachyrhaphis episcopi, in Panama. Paracreptotrema differs from all other nominal genera of Allocreadiidae by a combination of its symmetrical testes, restricted vitellaria, and the lack of oral lappets (muscular 'papillae') or other such appendages. Paracreptotrema blancoi n. sp. resembles Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928, but differs in lacking ventral oral lappets and in having vitellaria extending posteriorly only to the level of the testes. It can be distinguished from P. mendezi n. comb. in having a relatively larger and more posteriorly placed acetabulum, vitellaria that are more restricted anteriorly, smaller testes, and a uterus that does not extend to the posterior end of the body. The genus seems to be restricted to poeciliids in Central America.
Masala, Simonetta; Piras, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Daria; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo
This study is a contribution to the molecular taxonomy and epidemiology of heterophyid (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae found in the muscle of Mugilidae (Osteichthyes) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Sixty specimens of mugilids (13 Chelon labrosus, 18 Liza aurata, 6 Liza ramada, 8 Liza saliens, 15 Mugil cephalus) were examined and 17,899 metacercariae isolated in 95 % of the hosts. Four types of metacercariae were identified: Heterophyes sp. (n = 14,113), Heterophyes sp. -small (1225), Stictodora sp. (1606), and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. (955). The experimental infection of a hamster with Heterophyes sp. metacercariae produced six adults identified as Heterophyes heterophyes and two as Heterophyes cf. nocens. The morphology of Heterophyes sp. -small metacercariae matched with that of Heterophyes dispar. The sequence analysis of the ITS2 and 28S portions of rDNA confirmed the morphological identification of metacercariae, showing four clusters. All adults grouped together with the Heterophyes sp. metacercariae, whereas adults of Heterophyes nocens from Korea clustered separately, showing that this species is distinguished from H. heterophyes, and suggesting caution in the exclusive use of the number of rodlets of the genital sucker to separate the two species. The presence of metacercariae was high in all hosts; the highest prevalence is of Heterophyes sp. (prevalence ≥78 %; mean intensity ≥135 metacercariae/100 g muscle), and the most heavily infected host is M. cephalus (prevalence = 100 %; mean intensity = 841 metacercariae/100 g muscle).
Messina, F J; Fry, J D
Environmental manipulations have consistently demonstrated a cost of reproduction in the capital-breeding seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as females deprived of seeds or mates lay fewer eggs and thereby increase their longevity. Yet fecundity and longevity tend to be positively correlated within populations, perhaps as a consequence of individual differences in resource acquisition. We conducted a split-brood experiment that combined a manipulation of seed availability (seeds present or absent) with a quantitative-genetic analysis of fecundity and lifespan in each environment. Each trait was significantly heritable in each environment. Seed availability not only altered mean fecundity and longevity between environments, but also modified how the traits were correlated within environments. The signs of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations switched from positive when seeds were present to negative when seeds were absent. This reversal persisted even after the effect of body mass (a potential indicator of resource acquisition) was statistically controlled. Cross-environment genetic correlations were positive but significantly less than one for each trait. We suggest that the reversal of the fecundity-longevity relationship depends on a shift in the relative importance of resource-acquisition and resource-allocation loci between environments. In particular, a cost of reproduction may be apparent at the individual level only when seeds are scarce or absent because differences in reproductive effort become large enough to overwhelm differences in resource acquisition. Despite their common dependence on resources acquired during larval stages, fecundity and lifespan in C. maculatus do not appear to be tightly coupled in a physiological or genetic sense.
An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M
The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry.
Kosini, D; Nukenine, E N
Hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts from Gnidia kaussiana Meisn (Thymeleaceae), each at two dosages (0.2 and 1 ml/50 g grains corresponding, respectively to 1 and 5g/kg), and neem seed oil (NSO), used as standard insecticide were evaluated for repellence, toxicity to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults, F1 progeny inhibition, persistence and as grain protectant during storage. Experiments were laid out at complete randomized design with five replications for repellence test and four for others. All the extracts were effective in protecting stored Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) from insect attack; however, their bioactivities were inversely correlated with solvent polarity. No adult survival was recorded in treated grains with hexane extract at 5 g/kg dosage within 2 d exposure. Also at 5 g/kg, all extracts hindered adults emergence, grain damage and weight loss after 4 months storage. Moreover, hexane extract was more repellent and exhibited averagely repellency. The insecticidal effectiveness of hexane extract did not decreased provided that the exposure time of insects to the product was high (7 d). The potency of acetone and methanol extracts decreased with storage time, although not linearly and remained significantly toxic to C. maculatus up to 60 d of storage. Therefore, hexane and acetone extracts are good candidates for incorporation in integrated pest management programs for control of cowpea weevils in stored grains by poor-resourced farmers and store keepers in Cameroon and other developing countries. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M
The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species.
Fox, Charles W
Maternal age influences offspring quality of many species of insects. This observed maternal age influence on offspring performance may be mediated through maternal age effects on egg size, which in turn may be directly influenced by the female's nutritional state. Thus, behaviors that influence a female's nutritional status will indirectly influence egg size, and possibly offspring life histories. Because males provide nutrients to females in their ejaculate, female mating frequency is one behavior which may influence her nutritional status, and thus the size of her eggs and the performance of her offspring. In this paper, I first quantify the influences of maternal age on egg size and offspring performance of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. I then examine whether nutrients transferred during copulation reduce the magnitude of maternal age effects on egg size and larval performance when mothers are nutrient-stressed. Egg size and egg hatchability decreased, and development time increased, with increasing maternal age. Multiple mating and adult feeding by females both resulted in increased egg size. This increase in egg size of females mated multiply did not translate into reduced development time or increased body size and egg hatchability, but did correlate with improved survivorship of offspring produced by old mothers. Thus, it appears that because the influence of mating frequency on egg size is small relative to the influence of maternal age, the influence of nutrients derived from multiple mating on offspring life history is almost undetectable (detected only as a small influence on survivorship). For C. maculatus, female multiple mating has been demonstrated to increase adult female survivorship (Fox 1993a), egg production (Credland and Wright 1989; Fox 1993a), egg size, and larval survivorship, but, contrary to the suggestion of Wasserman and Asami (1985), multiple mating had no detectable influence on offspring development time or body size.
Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P
It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo.
Rohani, A; Saadiyah, I; Walgun, A; Lee, H L
Adults of Anopheles maculatus were tested for their residual activity to wettable powders (WP) and water dispersible granule (WG) formulations of deltamethrin. The residual effectiveness and lifespan of deltamethrin WG and WP were also assessed against the mosquitoes using rough and smooth surfaces of bamboo. Tests were conducted once a month up to 14 months after spraying using WHO standard method for the bioassay of insecticidal deposits on wall surfaces. Mortality data revealed that both deltamethrin WG and WP were effective against An. maculatus up to 14 months post-spraying. Efficacy and residual activity of deltamethrin WG at 25mg/m2 had proved to be the longest on both rough and smooth surfaces of bamboo.
Paukku, Satu; Kotiaho, Janne S
One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity. There was also a positive relationship between male body size and male longevity. Females mated to males that had already copulated twice did not live as long as females mated to males that had copulated once or not at all. The third copulation of males also lasted longer than the two previous ones. We conclude that even though the cost of reproduction for males has been studied much less than that in females, there is growing evidence that male reproductive effort is more complex than has traditionally been thought.
Viozzi, Gustavo P; Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; Brugni, Norma; Mancilla, Melinka
During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Maullín Basin (Chilean Patagonia), specimens of a new species of Monogenea were collected from the gills. This species is described as the only member of a proposed new genus, Inserotrema n. gen. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), characterized by similar hooks with 2 subunits, overlapping gonads, coiled cirrus with counterclockwise rings, articulated accessory piece formed by 2 parts, a needlelike sclerite threading the distal part of the MCO, and a sclerotized midventral vagina. This new genus is proposed for dactylogyrids from gills of galaxiids (Galaxiidae). Inserotrema puyei n. sp. infects gills of G. maculatus from Llanquihue Lake, Maullín River, and Maullín Estuary. This is the first species of Ancyrocephalinae described from gills of a galaxiid.
Population dynamics of Philureter trigoniopsis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) from urinary organs of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in a cold temperate Andean Patagonian lake (Argentina).
Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G; Gutiérrez, Pablo
Philureter trigoniopsis parasitizes the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus in Patagonian Andean lakes. To investigate factors associated with variation in the prevalence and intensity of this monogenean, fish were sampled periodically over 2 yr in Lake Gutiérrez. Prevalence and mean intensity are higher in smaller fishes than in larger ones. A seasonal pattern was observed, with peak recruitment and peak mean intensity occurring in early spring (September), followed by lows in late summer (January-February). Galaxias maculatus length classes are spatially segregated due to seasonal migrations, so the annual infection cycle is characterized by higher prevalence and intensity from late winter to early summer in the smaller fish from the deep zone of the lake.
Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio
Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.
Beng, Tan Swee; Vythilingam, Indra; Lim, Lee Han
This study aimed to evaluate the bioefficacy and blood feeding inhibition of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions using the WHO tunnel test method on unwashed and washed long-lasting insecticide impregnated net with extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by 80 degrees C on the same net during washing. PermaNet exhibited fairy high durability to washing (5 washes) and had fairy long-lasting bioefficacy against Anopheles maculatus for blood feeding inhibition on both unwashed (39 months) and washed (26 months) nets. However, Perma-Net exhibited lower bioefficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus. This study also suggested that the application of extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by an increased heat at 80 degrees C on the same net exerted significant differences (p < 0.05) in mortality of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, extrinsic heat treatment did not enhance any significant increase in blood feeding inhibition of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (p > 0.05). An. maculatus exhibited significant differences in resting preference after a successful blood meal, as more blood-fed and live females preferred to rest and stay near the bait in the mouse cage, and more dead and unfed females were found in the outer cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05). Conversely, fully blood-fed and live Cx. quinquefasciatus females did not show any resting preference between the mouse cage and outer cage, but there were more dead and unfed females in the mouse cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05).
Viozzi, G P; Gutiérrez, P A
The monotypic Philureter n. gen. (Ancyrocephalinae; Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. with the following features: presence of a cuplike ventral haptor armed with 14 hooks and 2 anchor/bar complexes; dorsal pair of anchors poorly defined and variable in shape, 1 frequently absent; tandem, intercecal gonads, testis bilaterally lobulated. Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. is described from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes) in Patagonian Andean lakes, Argentina.
Coelho, Mirela Batista; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva, Desiree Soares da; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo
Legumin-like proteins from seeds of Coffea arabica (CaL-1 and CaL-2) and Coffea racemosa (CrL-1 and CrL-2) were characterized and isolated by gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. The insecticidal properties of the purified proteins were tested against Callosobruchus maculatus using artificial diets. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses indicated that CaL-1 is composed of two subunits of 33 and 24 kDa, while CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2 were monomeric with a single band of 14 kDa. The LD(50) values were 0.5% (w/w) for CaL-1 and 0.3% (w/w) for CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2. ED(50) at 0.3% was assessed for all protein concentrations. The legumin-like proteins were not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus until 8 h of incubation. CaL-1 and CaL-2 ( C. arabica ) and CrL-1 and CrL-2 ( C. racemosa ) are chitin-binding proteins, and their insecticidal properties toward C. maculatus larvae might be related to their capacity to bind chitin present in the larval gut and their associated low digestibility.
Lin, Chan; Chen, Ching-San; Horng, Shwu-Bin
Characteristics of resistance of VC6089A, a mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, bred by using a wild Vigna species, V. sublobata (Roxburgh) Verdcourt (accession no. TC1966), and containing a novel protein, VrD1, were investigated against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The seeds of VC6089A showed high level of resistance; > 96% of the bruchid eggs failed to develop into adults, whereas 85% of eggs laid on susceptible cultivar VC1973A became adults. Mortality of surviving bruchids raised for five generations on VC6089A remained higher than 96%; however, female adults maintained high fecundity and thus showed a positive population growth through these generations. We therefore cannot exclude the possibility that the beetles could develop resistance to the resistant mungbean VC6089A. The protein VrD1 purified from seeds of VC6089A showed marked toxicity to C. maculatus when beetles were reared on artificial seeds containing varying levels of VrD1. Thorough inhibition of development was observed when artificial seeds containing 0.2% (wt:wt) VrD1 was provided for insect feeding. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal activity of VC6089A mungbean seeds and VrD1 protein against C. maculatus. These results may facilitate safer control against bruchid infestation.
de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio
Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability).
Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C
Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus.
Ten local cultivars of bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt obtained directly from farmers in Potiskum, Nigeria and from the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Nigeria were compared with three improved varieties developed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria for their susceptibility to infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Three cultivars (Maifarinhaneh, Angale and Bunmonu) with a susceptibility index (SI) of 3.06-3.71 were identified as slightly susceptible to C. maculatus; four cultivars (Bagantere, Bakingangala, Ole and Bakiyawa 1) and one improved variety (TVSU 1061) with an SI of 4.39-4.93 as moderately susceptible; and three cultivars (Bidi, Uzu and Dadinkowa 1) and two improved varieties (TVSU 702 and TVSU 751) with an SI of 5.00-5.34 as susceptible. Five of the cultivars were used to examine the ability of beetle populations to overcome varietal resistance over six successive generations. Development time was significantly longer but percentage of adults that emerged and susceptibility of bambara groundnuts were significantly lower in F(4), F(5) or F(6) generations than in the F(1) or F(2) generation. The efficacy of combining insecticidal essential oils obtained from clove, Syzgium aromaticum, West African black pepper (WABP), Piper guineense, and ginger, Zingiber officinale applied at the rate of 2 mg/20 g seed and six of the local bambara groundnut cultivars (Angale, Maifarinhaneh, Bakingangala, Bagantere, Bunmonu and Bidi) with differing susceptibilities to C. maculatus (F.) was also assessed during a 3-month storage period. The three essential oils significantly reduced the percentage of C. maculatus adults that emerged from the bambara groundnut cultivars in the F(1) generation and the number of adult offspring that developed in the cultivars during the 3-month storage period. The mean number of progeny that developed in untreated seeds and seeds treated with clove, WABP and ginger
Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni
The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).
Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H
Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years.
Zhu-Salzman, K; Koiwa, H; Salzman, R A; Shade, R E; Ahn, J-E
The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor, soyacystatin N (scN), negatively impacts growth and development of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus[Koiwa et al. (1998) Plant J 14: 371-379]. However, the developmental delay and feeding inhibition caused by dietary scN occurred only during the early developmental stages (the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars) of the cowpea bruchid. The 4th instar larvae reared on scN diet (adapted) exhibited rates of feeding and development which were comparable to those feeding on an scN-free diet (unadapted) prior to pupation. Total gut proteolytic capacity at this larval stage significantly increased in the scN-adapted insects. The elevated enzymatic activity was attributed to a differential expression of insect gut cysteine proteases (representing the major digestive enzymes), and of aspartic proteases. scN degradation by the gut extract was observed only in adapted bruchids, and this activity appeared to be a combined effect of scN-induced cysteine and aspartic proteases. Thirty cDNAs encoding cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases were isolated from insect guts, and they were differentially regulated by dietary scN. Our results suggest that the cowpea bruchid adapts to the challenge of scN by qualitative and quantitative remodelling of its digestive protease complement, and by activating scN-degrading protease activity.
Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.
Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3–40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24–25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104
Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M; Glover, Chris N
Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) are a euryhaline and amphidromous Southern hemisphere fish species inhabiting waters highly contaminated in trace elements such as nickel (Ni). Ni is known to exert its toxic effects on aquatic biota via three key mechanisms: inhibition of respiration, impaired ion regulation, and stimulation of oxidative stress. Inanga acclimated to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW) or 100% SW were exposed to 0, 150 or 2000 μg Ni L(-1), and tissue Ni accumulation, metabolic rate, ion regulation (tissue ions, calcium (Ca) ion influx), and oxidative stress (catalase activity, protein carbonylation) were measured after 96 h. Ni accumulation increased with Ni exposure concentration in gill, gut and remaining body, but not in liver. Only in the gill was Ni accumulation affected by exposure salinity, with lower branchial Ni burdens in 100% and 50% SW inanga, relative to FW fish. There were no Ni-dependent effects on respiration, or Ca influx, and the only Ni-dependent effect on tissue ion content was on gill potassium. Catalase activity and protein carbonylation were affected by Ni, primarily in FW, but only at 150 μg Ni L(-1). Salinity therefore offsets the effects of Ni, despite minimal changes in Ni bioavailability. These data suggest only minor effects of Ni in inanga, even at highly elevated environmental Ni concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B.; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L.
Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332
Three similar experiments were conducted to see the effect of parental age and parental developmental speed on the production of "active-form" (i.e., capable of flight) offspring in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). In experiment I, using the adults which emerged on three different days (as fast, intermediate, and slow in development), eggs were collected on three different days (at young, middle, and old age) during the adult life span. The results showed that the older parents produced more active-form offspring irrespective of the parents' own rate of development. In experiment II, the parental rate of development was investigated in more detail by using the adults that emerged over the entire span of their emergence period. In experiment III, the effect of parental age was investigated in more detail by collecting the eggs daily during the female adult's entire life span. Both experiments confirmed the trend observed in experiment I. From these results it can be concluded that the older the parents, the higher the percentage of the active form in their offspring. However, there was no significant systematic trend due to the length of the developmental period of the parents as seen in the parental age. This trend, that more active forms emerge from older parents, seems to be related to the decreased viability of older parents. It is thought that the less viable eggs produced by older parents are more susceptible to stimuli which induce the active form.
Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F
The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.
McNamara, Kathryn B; Robinson, Stephen P; Rosa, Márta E; Sloan, Nadia S; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W
Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity.
McNamara, Kathryn B.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Rosa, Márta E.; Sloan, Nadia S.; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W.
Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351
Hallsson, Lára R; Björklund, Mats
Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (rA) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (rMF) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire () compared to dam () variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution. PMID:22408731
Hallsson, Lára R; Björklund, Mats
Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (r(A)) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF)) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire ([Formula: see text]) compared to dam ([Formula: see text]) variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution.
Bayram, H; Sayadi, A; Goenaga, J; Immonen, E; Arnqvist, G
The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating. Proteomic analysis of these spots identified 98 proteins, a majority of which were also present within ejaculates collected from females. Standard annotation workflows revealed common functional groups for SFPs, including proteases and metabolic proteins. Transcriptomic analysis found 84 transcripts differentially expressed between the sexes. Notably, genes encoding 15 proteins were highly expressed in male abdomens and only negligibly expressed within females. Most of these sequences corresponded to 'unknown' proteins (nine of 15) and may represent rapidly evolving SFPs novel to seed beetles. Our combined analyses highlight 44 proteins for which there is strong evidence that they are SFPs. These results can inform further investigation, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual conflict in seed beetles.
Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M
Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism.
Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L
Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres-2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen-and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny.
Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y
Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed.
Semmens, D; Swearer, S E
The effect of extended incubation (delayed hatching) on larval morphology in the terrestrially spawning common galaxias Galaxias maculatus was investigated by inducing larvae to hatch 1 and 2 weeks after the normal 2 week incubation period. After 1 week of extended incubation, larvae were larger (longer in standard length, L(S), and greater in body depth) compared to controls (larvae that experienced normal incubation durations). After 2 weeks of extended incubation, larvae were smaller (shorter in L(S) and smaller in body depth) than larvae that experienced 1 week of extended incubation. Furthermore, eye area increased while yolk-sac size decreased monotonically with increasing incubation duration. These results suggest that larvae experiencing long periods of extended incubation are using somatic tissue to meet their metabolic demands. Larvae that experienced 2 weeks of extended incubation succumbed to starvation sooner than control larvae, but hatching success was not significantly different. Temperature mediated the effect of extended incubation on the morphology of larvae at hatching, most likely, through its effects on developmental rate and efficiency of yolk utilization. This study demonstrates some of the consequences of terrestrial spawning with extended incubation, which will assist in determining why this intriguing behaviour has evolved several times in a diverse range of taxa. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Jung, C A; Barbee, N C; Swearer, S E
The physiological challenges incurred during the transition from sea to fresh water and the constraints they place on the rate at which the common galaxiid Galaxias maculatus and the climbing galaxiid Galaxias brevipinnis can migrate from marine to freshwater habitats were examined. The duration of the marine to freshwater transition, the relationship between post-settlement age (PSA) and standard length (L(S)) as a proxy for energetic costs incurred during settlement and the potential effects of estuary geomorphology on migratory behaviour was investigated. Rate of upstream migration after settlement was not uniform. Upstream migration rate was slowest directly after settlement and increased with increasing PSA and distance from the river mouth, indicating a delay in upstream migration by newly recruited galaxiids. L(s) did not increase with age, at least within the first 21 days post settlement. These patterns were consistent for both species, in spite of differences in their life histories, across the recruitment season, despite seasonal variation in recruit size, and among estuaries with different properties. The results suggest that the timing and speed of migratory behaviour primarily reflect physiological constraints. Given the duration of residency of these species in estuaries, this study indicates that estuaries are critical transitional habitats for diadromous fishes during their migration from marine to freshwater habitats.
Prasantha, B D Rohitha; Reichmuth, Ch; Büttner, C
The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is a destructive pest of pulses in both storage and field. It is well known that diatomaceous earth (DE) kill the insects by locally absorbing the epicuticular lipid layers leading to high rate of water loss through the cuticle. However, the effectiveness of DE depends on its ability to kill the adults before copulation and egg-laying. Newly emerged virgin males and females of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were exposed to the DEs, Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec on 30 treated mungbeans (Vigna radita (L)). Fecundity, number of beans used for egg-laying and beans without eggs were evaluated after four days; the number of unhatched eggs was evaluated after ten days. It was determined, that the fecundity of female insects decreased sigmoidely with increasing rate of DE content. Percentages of unhatched eggs and seeds without eggs increased with increasing DE dosages. However, the maximum egg densities (eggs per used secd) occurred at 1200 mg DE/kg for Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec. The reason for such DE-stimulated behaviour of egg laying expressed as a number of seeds with eggs of C. maculatus is not known, but it may be related to the stress caused by the inert dusts or to the reduction of both chemical and physical (tactile) stimuli. Treatment with DEs altered the surface texture of the beans and caused less cohesion between eggs and the seed surface. Only few larvae managed to penetrate into the grains, possibly due to increased grain roughness and repellent effect of DE. A relatively high number of eggs were laid on the surface of those beans where the amount of dust had been locally reduced by adults' movement and their pick up of DE. Therefore, several larvae tried to penetrate into these treated beans, causing a high larval density per partially cleaned bean. All these reasons lead to a progeny decline.
Effects of a chitin-binding vicilin from Enterolobium contortisiliquum seeds on bean bruchid pests (Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus) and phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani and Colletrichum lindemuntianum).
Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Vianna, André L B R; Andrade, Lucia B S; Martins-Miranda, A S; Oliveira, Jose T A; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P
Chitin-binding vicilin from Enterolobium contortisiliquum seeds was purified by ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl 300-SH and on Sephacryl 200-SH. The vicilin, called EcV, is a dimeric glycoprotein composed of 1.03% carbohydrates and a Mr of 151 kDa, consisting of two subunits of Mr of 66.2 and 63.8 kDa. The EcV homogeneity was confirmed in a PAGE where it was observed to be a unique acid protein band with slow mobility in this native gel. E. contortisiliquum vicilin (EcV) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae and for phytopathogenic fungi, F. solani and C. lindemuntianum. EcV was very effective against both bruchids, producing 50% mortality for Z. subfasciatus at an LD50 of 0.43% and affected 50% of the larvae mass with an ED50 of 0.65%. In artificial diets given to C. maculatus, 50% of the larvae mass was affected with an ED50 of 1.03%, and larva mortality was 50% at LD50 of 1.11%. EcV was not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus and Z. Subfasciatus until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EcV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus larval proteases. The binding to chitin present in larvae gut associated to low EcV digestibility could explain its lethal effects. EcV also exerted an inhibitory effect on the germination of F. solani at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg mL-1. The effect of EcV on fungi is possibly due to binding to chitin-containing structures of the fungal cell wall.
Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.
Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.
Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.
The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus
Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.
Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.
Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha
The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun
Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass.
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun
Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass. PMID:28253338
Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E
The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection.
Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran
Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 x 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural
Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2.
Urbina, Mauricio A; Schulte, Patricia M; Bystriansky, Jason S; Glover, Chris N
Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish with a well-known capacity to withstand a wide range of environmental salinities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms facilitating acclimation of inanga to seawater, several isoforms of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion transporter were identified. This included three α-1 (a, b and c), an α-2 and two α-3 (a and b) isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the inanga α-1a and α-1b formed a clade with the α-1a and α-1b isoforms of rainbow trout, while another clade contained the α-1c isoforms of these species. The expression of all the α-1 isoforms was modulated after seawater exposure (28‰). In gills, the expression of the α-1a isoform was progressively down-regulated after seawater exposure, while the expression of the α-1b isoform was up-regulated. The α-1c isoform behaved similarly to the α-1a, although changes were less dramatic. Physiological indicators of salinity acclimation matched the time frame of the changes observed at the molecular level. A 24-h osmotic shock period was highlighted by small increases in plasma osmolality, plasma Na(+) and a decrease in muscle tissue water content. Thereafter, these values returned close to their pre-exposure (freshwater) values. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity showed a decreasing trend over the first 72 h following seawater exposure, but activity increased after 240 h. Our results indicate that inanga is an excellent osmoregulator, an ability that is conferred by the rapid activation of physiological and molecular responses to salinity change.
Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.
Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002
Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A
Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.
Alexandre, Daniel; Linhares, Ricardo T; Queiroz, Bruna; Fontoura, Luisa; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Bezerra, Cezar S; Oliveira, Eliana M; Demartini, Diogo R; Carlini, Célia R; Silva, Carlos P
The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults have been recently investigated. Vicilins have been demonstrated to be absorbed through the midgut epithelium, circulate in their trimeric form in the haemolymph and are deposited in the fat body. In fat body cells of both sexes, vicilins are partially hydrolyzed and the fragments are eventually deposited in the eggs. Tracking the fate of FITC-labelled vicilins in adult males revealed that the labelled vicilin fragments were also detected in oöcytes and eggs, when the males copulated with non-labelled females. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the males and are eventually sequestered by the gonads and passed to the female gonads during copulation. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack, as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. The contribution of vicilin-derived peptides from seminal fluids may be an investment that helps to increase the offspring survival. This study provides additional insights into the possible contributions of males to female fecundity following copulation in C. maculatus.
de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Semenas, Liliana G
Ailinella gen. n. (Pseudophyllidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate Ailinella mirabilis sp. n. from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842), a freshwater fish inhabiting the Andean lakes in Argentinean Patagonia. Ailinella belongs to the Triaenophoridae because it has a marginal genital pore, a follicular vitelline gland, and a ventral uterine pore. The new genus can be distinguished from other triaenophorids by the following combination of characters: a small body size, a low number of proglottides, which are longer than wide, a truncated pyramidal to globular scolex, a rectangular apical disc, presence of the neck, lack of internal longitudinal musculature separating the cortex from the medulla, testes distributed in one central field surrounding the ovary laterally and posteriorly, the vagina predominantly anterior to the cirrus sac, vitelline follicles circum-medullary, the genital pores post-equatorial, a saccate uterus, and operculate eggs. Blade-like spiniform microtriches were present on all tegument surfaces, and tumuli on all surfaces of the scolex and the anterior surface of the neck. Microtriches were characterized according to their size and density, and tumuli according to their size, inter-tumulus distance and density. Ailinella mirabilis is the first cestode described from G. maculatus and the second triaenophorid species recorded from a South American freshwater fish.
Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M
Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the
This study investigated the effects of the anaesthetic, enflurane, on metabolic rates and ventilation patterns in the spotted sugar ant, Camponotus maculatus, using flow-through respirometry. The standard metabolic rate was not affected by the anaesthetic. While the ants were anaesthetised they exhibited a similar discontinuous gas exchange cycle to that observed when they were voluntarily motionless, but their spiracles remained open for a longer time during the open or burst phase even though the amount of CO(2) emitted during this phase remained constant. We discuss this finding in the context of the central nervous system control of the spiracle muscle. For both the determination of standard metabolic rate and ventilation patterns the individual ant has to be motionless. From this study we recommend the use of enflurane to ensure immobility in ants, and other small active insects, during the determination of standard metabolic rates, but the anaesthetic cannot be used to quantify the respiration pattern.
Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam
The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds.
Purification and characterization of a highly thermostable chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa with bioinsecticidal activity toward cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Dziril, Maya; Badis, Abdelmalek; Mouhoub, Samia; Mameri, Nabil
This present study is the first attempt to report on the purification and characterization of a chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa. A 50-kDa chitinase (SsChi50) was purified to homogeneity, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis showed that SsChi50 was a monomer with a molecular mass of 50,103 Da. The 25 N-terminal residues of SsChi50 displayed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was obtained at pH 5.0 at 80 °C. SsChi50 was stable at pH and temperature ranges of 3.0 to 7.0 and 70 to 90 °C for 48 and 4 h respectively. Among the inhibitors and metals tested, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg(2+), and Hg(+) completely inhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose, and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc)(n) (n = 2-4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)(2) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(4) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(3). Our results suggest that the SsChi50 enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(n). This enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the K(m) and k(cat) values being 0.412 mg, colloidal chitin mL(-1) and 5.33 s(-1) respectively. An in vivo bioinsecticidal assay was developed for SsChi50 against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. The enzyme showed bioinsecticidal activity toward Callosobruchus maculatus, indicating the possibility of using it in biotechnological strategies for insect management for stored cowpea seeds.
A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.
Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N
Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region.
Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of the grey triggerfish, Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 and queen triggerfish B. vetula Linnaeus,1758 (Osteichthyes: Balistidae) from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Alves, Dimitri R; Paraguassú, Aline R; Luque, José L
Sixty-six specimens of grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1788 and thirty specimens of queen triggerfish B. vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Balistidae) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W), Brazil, from April 2001 to May 2003, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. All fish were parasitized by at least one parasite species. Twenty-seven parasites species were collected: 22 in B. capriscus and 15 in B. vetula. Ten parasite species were common to the two host species. Balistes capriscus and B. vetula were a new host record for 16 and seven parasite species, respectively. Hypocreadium biminensis and Taeniacanthus balistae were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The copepod T. balistae and the nematode Contracaecum sp. were the dominant species with highest parasitic prevalence and abundance in the parasite community of B. capriscus and B. vetula, respectively. The metazoan parasites of B. capriscus and B. vetula showed typical aggregated pattern of distribution. The infracommunities of adult endoparasites showed highest values of mean abundance and parasite species richness. The parasite species richness, the total number of specimens and the mean Berger-Parker's index of the infracommunities of B. capriscus and B. vetula showed significant differences.
Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.
Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N
Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.
Purification and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effect on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Damico, Daniela Carla S; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sérgio; Novello, José C
This study describes the purification of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effects on the larval development of Callobruchus maculatus and Anagasta kuehniella. The lectin (KpLec) was characterized and isolated by gel filtration, affinity column, and reverse phase chromatography. SDS-PAGE indicated that this lectin is a dimer composed of subunits of 22 and 44 kDa. The N terminus exhibited 40% similarity with Urtiga dioica agglutinin. KpLec was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and A. kuehniella. With regard to C. maculatus, an artificial diet containing 0.7 and 1% KpLec produced LD(50) and ED(50) value, respectively. However, for A. kuenhiella, an artificial diet containing 0.65% KpLec produced an LD(50), whereas 0.2% KpLec produced an ED(50). The transformation of genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.
Description of a new species of Crassicutis Manter, 1936, parasite of Cichlasoma beani Jordan (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in Mexico, based on morphology and sequences of the ITS1 and 28S ribosomal RNA genes.
Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Mejía-Madrid, Hugo
A new species of Crassicutis Manter, 1936 is described from the Sinaloan cichlid Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in the upper Río Santiago basin. Crassicutis choudhuryi n. sp. differs from most of the other nominal species by having testes located in a symmetrical position. The only other species of the genus that includes some specimens exhibiting this trait is Crassicutis intermedius (Szidat 1954), a species found in 5 species of siluriforms and 1 species of characiform in South America. However, this species differs from Cr. choudhuryi n. sp. by having testes almost half of the size, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the region between the acetabulum and the intestinal bifurcation. The new species is morphologically very similar to Crassicutis cichlasomae Manter, 1936, but clearly differs from this species because of the constantly symmetrical position of the testes. Additionally, Cr. choudhuryi n. sp. is found in the Santiago River basin on the Pacific slope of Mexico, parasitizing specifically the endemic Ci. beani that does not co-occur with any other cichlid. Cr. cichlasomae exhibits more hosts (about 25 species of cichlids only in Mexico) and a wider distribution range that extends from northeastern Mexico southward to Central America, Cuba, and Brazil. To corroborate that our specimens were not conspecific with Cr. cichlasomae, sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and the 28S ribosomal RNA genes of individuals from several populations (recently collected in southeastern Mexico) were obtained and compared to the species described herein. Sequence divergence (1.3% for the 28S and 4.0% for the ITS1) gives further support to the erection of a new species.
Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros
A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds.
Lextrait, P; Biemont, J C; Pouzat, J
A comparison of the walking locomotory reactions of flightless and flight formCallosobruchus maculatus males when subjected to an air current scented with female sex pheromone was undertaken in a tubular olfactometer. The pheromone was delivered to the males either as short pulses or as a continuous flow. To analyze the males' reactions, three behavioral sequences were defined (sequence 1: male sensitivity/arousal; sequence 2: male reactivity; sequence 3; male progression and source location). Although flightless and flight form males were sensitive and reactive in all experiments, their locomotory displacement differed depending on the stimulus conditions. The flightless form males' response remained roughly the same whatever the stimulus conditions (i.e., they always reached the pheromone source). In contrast, the flight form males displayed a markedly reduced response when subjected to a continuous stimulation, indicating that intermittent on-off pheromone stimulation is required in order to sustain their upwind walking progress. This effect could be the result of sensory adaptation and/or habituation in the central nervous system of the flight form, requiring a flickering signal that is unnecessary for the flightless one.
Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah; de Buron, Isaure
A new nematode species, Philometra atlantica n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of the Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) (Scombridae, Perciformes), off the Atlantic coast of Florida and South Carolina. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in the length of spicules (111-126 μm), number and arrangement of genital papillae, and a U-shaped, dorsally interrupted caudal mound in the male. A unique feature among all gonad-infecting philometrids is the presence of 2 reflexed dorsal barbs on the distal end of the gubernaculum. From a few congeneric, gonad-infecting species with unknown males, it can be distinguished by some morphological and biometrical features found in gravid females (body length, length of first-stage larvae or esophagus, structure of caudal end) and by the host type (fish family) and geographical distribution. Philometra atlantica is the fourth valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from fishes of the family Scombridae.
First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).
Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole
The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.
Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N
Hypoxia represents a significant challenge to most fish, forcing the development of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations to survive. It has been previously shown that inanga (Galaxias maculatus) display a complex behavioural repertoire to escape aquatic hypoxia, finishing with the fish voluntarily emerging from the water and aerially respiring. In the present study we evaluated the physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of both aquatic hypoxia and emersion in inanga. Inanga successfully tolerated up to 6 h of aquatic hypoxia or emersion. Initially, this involved enhancing blood oxygen-carrying capacity, followed by the induction of anaerobic metabolism. Only minor changes were noted between emersed fish and those maintained in aquatic hypoxia, with the latter group displaying a higher mean cell haemoglobin content and a reduced haematocrit after 6 h. Calculations suggest that inanga exposed to both aquatic hypoxia and air reduced oxygen uptake and also increased anaerobic contribution to meet energy demands, but the extent of these changes was small compared with hypoxia-tolerant fish species. Overall, these findings add to previous studies suggesting that inanga are relatively poorly adapted to survive aquatic hypoxia.
Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N
The relationship between metabolic rate and body size in animals is unlikely to be a constant but is instead shaped by a variety of intrinsic (i.e., physiological) and extrinsic (i.e., environmental) factors. This study examined the effect of environmental oxygen tension on oxygen consumption as a function of body mass in the galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus). As an oxyconformer, this fish lacks overt intrinsic regulation of oxygen consumption, eliminating this as a factor affecting the scaling relationship at different oxygen tensions. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and body size was best described by a power function, with an exponent of 0.82, higher than the theoretical values of 0.66 or 0.75. The value of this exponent was significantly altered by environmental P(O2), first increasing as P(O2) decreased and then declining at the lowest P(O2) tested. These data suggest that the scaling exponent is species specific and regulated by extrinsic factors. Furthermore, the external P(O2) at which fish lost equilibrium was related to fish size, an effect explained by the scaling of anaerobic capacity with fish mass. Therefore, although bigger fish were forced to depress aerobic metabolism more rapidly than small fish when exposed to progressive hypoxia, they were better able to enact anaerobic metabolism, potentially extending their survival in hypoxia.
Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D
Myliocotyle borneoensis sp. n. and M. multicrista sp. n. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) are described from the gills of the mottled eagle ray, Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray), and the banded eagle ray A. nichofii (Bloch et Schneider) (Myliobatidae), respectively, collected from the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo. These are the first monogeneans to be described on elasmobranchs from Borneo. The formerly monotypic Myliocotyle (for M. pteromylaei) was distinguished from other monocotylids by the distribution and morphology of the eight sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and the morphology of the male copulatory organ. However, we have determined that M. pteromylaei has ten structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor. Myliocotyle borneoensis is distinguished from M. pteromylaei by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. Myliocotyle multicrista has 12 sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and a male copulatory organ with two accessory pieces. Additional sclerotised ridges across the ventral surfaces of each loculus (except the posterior-most pair) are also present in M. multicrista. The diagnosis for Myliocotyle is revised given our discovery of additional dorsal haptoral accessory structures in the type species and to accommodate other new characters of the two new species. Anterior secretions of Myliocotyle are discussed.
Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994
Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.
Hesterman, H; Jones, S M; Schwarzenberger, F
Dasyurids exhibit a range of breeding patterns from semelparity through to an aseasonally polyestrous strategy, but detailed information on the reproductive endocrinology of many species is unavailable. This study aimed to extend our comparative understanding by characterizing the ovarian cycle of the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) through measurement of plasma progesterone, and also to investigate fecal sex steroid monitoring as an alternative, non-invasive technique. Longitudinal profiles revealed a biphasic pattern of plasma progesterone, with a significant pro-estrous pulse (0.97+/-0.3ng/ml) up to several weeks prior to onset of the luteal phase (LP). This pro-estrous period was associated with a predominantly cornified vaginal smear, onset of estrus behaviors and copulation. Mean luteal values for plasma progesterone were several fold higher (2.18+/-1.10 ng/ml) than during the follicular phase (FP) (0.75+/-0.02 ng/ml), and were sustained for approximately one month. Fecal progestagens and plasma progesterone were significantly positively associated during the estrous cycle. During the breeding period average concentrations of fecal total estrogens and pregnanediol (PgD) were significantly elevated. Ovarian activity during the FP was marked by increases in fecal estrogens, and rises in PgD which were sustained during the LP. In non-mated females the mean duration of the FP was significantly extended, being approximately twice as long (19.4+/-4.0 d) as for mated females (8.3+/-1.9 d) indicating coitus has some role in timing of ovulation in this species. This study has provided important new information on the reproductive biology of the female spotted-tailed quoll, and further demonstrated the usefulness of non-invasive endocrine techniques for monitoring ovarian cycles in marsupials.
Kéita, S M.; Vincent, C; Schmit, J -P.; Arnason, J T.; Bélanger, A
Essential oils from sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, and African basil, O. gratissimum, (Labiatae) grown in Guinea were obtained by steam distillation. Following exposure of newly emerged adult beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus) to 12h of fumigation using pure essential oils at a dose of 25&mgr;l/vial, 80% mortality was recorded for O. basilicum, 70% for O. gratissimum and 0% in the control. A significant difference was observed between the responses of males and females with males exhibiting greater sensitivity. When 1g of aromatized powder was applied to adults, a 50% lethal concentration at 48h was found to be 65&mgr;l/g for O. basilicum and 116&mgr;l/g of O. gratissimum oils. The essential oils from the two plant species exhibited a significant effect both on the egg hatch rate and on the emergence of adults. The egg hatch rate was reduced to 3% with O. basilicum and 15% with O. gratissimum using an essential oil concentration of 30&mgr;l, whereas the egg hatch rate for the control was 95%. When compared with the control (97%), adult emergence dropped to 0% with O. basilicum and to 4% with O. gratissimum. Storage bioassays were run to assess the long-term effect of powders aromatized with essential oils of Ocimum. Complete protection was observed over 3 months starting at a dose of 400&mgr;l in the case of both oils. From a germination test, it was concluded that aromatized powders have no significant effect on the seed germination rate. After 5d, a rate of 88% germination was seen in seeds treated with aromatized powder and protected from insects, compared with 97% for untreated seeds that were not exposed to insects.
Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Bahadir, Müfit
In the West African savanna zone, traditional subsistence farming increasingly shifts to cash crop farming and in particular to cotton cultivation, which is accompanied by application of pesticides. Increasing use of pesticides by smallholder farmers is suspected to have negative effects on non-target organisms. In this study, possible pesticide impact on the development of tadpoles was investigated. Two insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in Benin were compared: Cotofan® (active ingredient (a.i.): α- and β-endosulfan) and Tihan® (a.i.: spirotetramat and flubendiamide). Tadpoles of the widespread species Amietophrynus maculatus were kept in small water basins with increasing insecticide concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg a.i./L) over a period of 28 days. Tadpoles showed reduced survival at the highest endosulfan concentrations (100 μg/L). Survival of tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis was not influenced by Tihan®. Endosulfan in concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/L negatively impacted the movement of the tadpoles which was not the case for the mixture of spirotetramat and flubendiamide. Time to metamorphosis was not significantly different in the various treatments. Tail length of tadpoles was significantly shorter in Cotofan® treatments compared to controls. Pesticide residues in the tadpoles were relatively low after keeping them in concentrations of 1 and 10 μg a.i./L (25 and 26 μg/kg wet weight (w/w) for the sum of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate and below the detection limits for flubendiamide and spirotetramat). For the 100 μg a.i./L treatments, 1,600 μg/kg w/w was found of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate together in the survived tadpoles and 21 μg/kg w/w of flubendiamide.
Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as
Araújo, F G; Morado, C N; Parente, T T E; Paumgartten, F J R; Gomes, I D
The Funil Reservoir receives a large amount of xenobiotics from the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) from large number of industries and municipalities in the watershed. This study aimed to assess environmental quality along the longitudinal profile of the Paraíba do Sul River-Funil Reservoir system, by using biomarkers and bioindicators in a selected fish species. The raised hypothesis is that Funil Reservoir acts as a filter for the xenobiotics of the PSR waters, improving river water quality downstream the dam. Two biomarkers, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD), measured as fluorimetricly in S9 hepatic fraction, and the micronuclei frequency (MN), observed in erythrocytes of the cytoplasm, and three bioindicators, the hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and condition factor (CF) were used in Pimelodus maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the system. Four zones were searched through a longitudinal gradient: 1, river upstream from the reservoir; 2, upper reservoir; 3, lower reservoir; 4, river downstream of the reservoir. EROD activity and HSI and GSI had significant differences among the zones (P<0.05). The upper reservoir had the lowest EROD activity and HSI, whereas the river downstream of the reservoir had the highest EROD and lowest GSI. The river upstream from the reservoir showed the highest HSI and GSI. It is suggested that the lowest environmental condition occur at the river downstream of the reservoir, where it seems to occur more influence of xenobiotics, which could be associated with hydroelectric plant operation. The hypothesis that Funil reservoir acts as a filter decanting pollution from the Paraíba do Sul River waters was rejected. These results are novel information on this subject for a native fish species and could be useful for future comparisons with other environments.
Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J.
Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mcrae, Nicole K; Glover, Chris N; Burket, S Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W; Gaw, Sally
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of growing concern in aquatic environments worldwide, yet knowledge of its effects on aquatic biota are restricted to a few model species and mechanisms of impact. In the current study, diclofenac accumulation, its effects on metabolic rate, ionoregulation, and oxidative stress were examined at environmentally-relevant (0.17 μg L-1) and elevated (763 μg L-1) concentrations in a culturally and economically important galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), from the Southern Hemisphere. This species is among the most widespread freshwater fish in the world, yet its sensitivity to emerging contaminants is unknown. Following an acute 96 h exposure, bioconcentration of diclofenac was measured in inanga whole body, resulting in an estimated bioconcentration factor of 87 for the 0.17 μg L-1 exposure concentration, approaching values where transfer through the food chain should be considered. Lipid peroxidation in the liver was significantly elevated at both 0.17 and 763 μg L-1 exposure concentrations, but lipid peroxidation in kidney and gill decreased after diclofenac exposure. Catalase activity was also elevated in the liver of inanga, but activity decreased in the gill. There were no effects of diclofenac on metabolic rate or ion (sodium and calcium) influx rates. These data indicate toxicologically-relevant adverse outcomes and bioconcentration of diclofenac at environmentally-relevant levels warrant additional study in this important fish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
von Hoermann, Christian; Ruther, Joachim; Ayasse, Manfred
The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions:1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones?2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as well, virgin females can optimise
Performance of bean bruchids Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and susceptible (Epace 10) Vigna unguiculata seeds: relationship with trypsin inhibitor and vicilin excretion.
Sales, M P; Andrade, L B S; Ary, M B; Miranda, M R A; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J
Callosobruchus maculatus (Cm) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Zs) were reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and on susceptible (Epace 10) cowpea seeds. The emergence of adult insects, total developmental period (TDP) and excretion of trypsin inhibitor and vicilin were determined for both bruchid populations. Parameter evaluation showed that the Zs populations emerged from both seeds had no significant differences in emergence and TDP. The Cm population raised from resistant seeds had lower emergence (5.6+/-1.3%) and delayed TDP (46+/-1.25 days) than those emerged from susceptible seeds. The excretion of defense proteins showed that Zs reared in resistant seeds excreted 1.7 times more trypsin inhibitor, but this did not affect emergence or TDP. Furthermore, Cm population emerged from resistant seeds excreted 7 times higher vicilin and 0.4 times less trypsin inhibitor than that emerged from susceptible seeds. These results indicate that vicilins from resistant seeds are involved to significantly longer TDP (46 days) and also drastic reduction of insect emergence ( approximately 5%) of C. maculatus.
In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.
Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P
A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.
The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae) with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes
future comparative evolutionary, physiological, ecological, and genetic analyses. Indeed, ancestral reconstruction and geometric morphometric analyses revealed that the patterns of morphological evolution in Polypteridae are similar to those seen in other osteichthyans, thus implying the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms responsible for those patterns were established early in the evolutionary history of Osteichthyes. We propose developmental and genetic mechanisms to be tested under the light of this new phylogenetic framework. PMID:20100320
Parasite biodiversity in a coral reef fish: twelve species of monogeneans on the gills of the grouper Epinephelus maculatus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with a description of eight new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae).
Coral reefs are known for their high level of biodiversity, but parasite biodiversity has not been evaluated. Cases such as Epinephelus maculatus, described here, show that the numerical estimation of parasite biodiversity in coral reefs could reach more than ten times the number of fish species; consequently, the extinction of certain fish species from endangered coral reefs would result in the co-extinction of at least ten times the number of parasite species. E. maculatus is a grouper of intermediate size (1-2 kg) and common in the coral reefs of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Based on the examination of more than 800 monogenean specimens, 12 species of monogeneans (ten diplectanids and two ancyrocephalids) were differentiated on the gills. These species of diplectanids have not been found in other epinephelines in the same area and thus are considered as specific to this host. In addition, three species of copepods, and isopod larvae, are present on the gills; E. maculatus thus has a total of 16 species of gill ectoparasites, which can be found together on a single individual fish. Diplectanids include Laticola dae Journo & Justine, 2006, which is the most abundant species representing about 50% of the specimens, and nine species which are rare, each representing 2-7% of the specimens: Diplectanum uitoe n. sp. and eight species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958. D. uitoe, provisionally attributed to Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, is characterised by a small conical penis with internal walls. Pseudorhabdosynochus auitoe n. sp., P. buitoe n. sp., P. cuitoe n. sp., P. duitoe n. sp., P. euitoe n. sp. and P. fuitoe n. sp. are differentiated on the basis of the morphology of the sclerotised vagina, but are very similar in other characteristics; P. guitoe n. sp. is characterised by a quadriloculate organ with very thick walls and a very small sclerotised vagina; and P. huitoe n. sp. is characterised by its sclerotised vagina and by very long ventral and dorsal
Morphological and molecular analyses of a new species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914) in the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.
Andrade-Gómez, L; Pinacho-Pinacho, C D; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; García-Varela, M
Saccocoelioides olmecae n. sp. is described from specimens recovered from the intestine of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) collected in six localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other three described species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 from North and Middle America (i.e. S. sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, S. chauhani Lamothe-Argumedo, 1974 and S. lamothei Aguirre-Macedo & Violante-González, 2008) by having an elongated body, a sac-like caecum, a uterus that extends to the first third of body and by having vitelline follicles longitudinally elongated reaching the posterior end of the body. Sequences of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA, including the domain D1-D3, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were used independently and concatenated to corroborate the morphological distinction among S. olmecae n. sp., S. chauhani and S. lamothei from freshwater and brackish-water fish from Middle America. The genetic divergence estimated among the three species of Saccocoelioides was very low: 1% for LSU and from 1 to 4% for ITS2. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses for each dataset and both datasets combined revealed that S. olmecae n. sp. represents an independent clade with moderate bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. This is the third species of Saccocoelioides described in Mexico, and the 17th species from the Americas.
Infection patterns of Tylodelphys barilochensis and T. crubensis (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) metacercariae in Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) from two Patagonian lakes and observations on their geographical distribution in the southern Andean region, Argentina.
Flores, Verónica; Liliana, Semenas
In the Patagonian Andean region, 2 species of diplostomatids parasitize the brains of Galaxias maculatus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal variation, spatial variation, and association with host age in the transmission of Tylodelphys barilochensis and T. crubensis in several oligotrophic lakes in Argentinian Patagonia. Fishes were captured monthly in Lake Gutiérrez and bimonthly in Lake Escondido. One summer or autumn sample was also taken in several other Patagonian lakes. Infection parameters were calculated and compared using nonparametric tests. The 2 species co-occurred in most of the sampled lakes, with high values of prevalence and mean intensity. In Lake Gutiérrez and Lake Escondido, the intensity of both diplostomatid species did not show significant differences between sexes and co-varied with host length. All age classes were infected; maximum prevalence values were reached before maximum mean intensity values in the 1-yr age class. A seasonal pattern of prevalence and mean intensity of the 2 parasite species with autumn mean intensity values differing significantly from those of the other seasons was evident only in Lake Gutiérrez.
Detection of dwarf gourami iridovirus (Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus) in populations of ornamental fish prior to and after importation into Australia, with the first evidence of infection in domestically farmed Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus).
Rimmer, Anneke E; Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Lintermans, Mark; Landos, Matthew; Stephens, Fran; Whittington, Richard J
The movement of ornamental fish through international trade is a major factor for the transboundary spread of pathogens. In Australia, ornamental fish which may carry dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), a strain of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), have been identified as a biosecurity risk despite relatively stringent import quarantine measures being applied. In order to gain knowledge of the potential for DGIV to enter Australia, imported ornamental fish were sampled prior to entering quarantine, during quarantine, and post quarantine from wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets in Australia. Samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of megalocytivirus. Farmed and wild ornamental fish were also tested. Megalocytivirus was detected in ten of fourteen species or varieties of ornamental fish. Out of the 2086 imported gourami tested prior to entering quarantine, megalocytivirus was detected in 18.7% of fish and out of the 51 moribund/dead ornamental fish tested during the quarantine period, 68.6% were positive for megalocytivirus. Of fish from Australian wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets 14.5% and 21.9%, respectively, were positive. Out of 365 farmed ornamental fish, ISKNV-like megalocytivirus was detected in 1.1%; these were Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus). Megalocytivirus was not detected in free-living breeding populations of Blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus) caught in Queensland. This study showed that imported ornamental fish are vectors for DGIV and it was used to support an import risk analysis completed by the Australian Department of Agriculture. Subsequently, the national biosecurity policy was revised and from 1 March 2016, a health certification is required for susceptible families of fish to be free of this virus prior to importation.
Kemp, Anne; Heaslop, Meg; Carr, Andrew
Scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are secreted within the dermis by a capsule of scleroblasts, and enclosed in a pouch made of collagen fibers, in contact with the epidermis over the posterior third of the scale. Each scale grows from a focus, which represents the first formed part of the scale. On the internal surface of the scale is elasmodin, made of collagen fiber bundles arranged in layers. Elasmodin, unmineralized in N. forsteri, contains cells in the living animal, and the number of layers increases as the scales grow. Squamulin, on the thin external part of the scale, is also laid down in layers, and based on a matrix of fine collagen fibrils, mineralized with a poorly crystalline biogenic calcium hydroxylapatite. Squamulin is divided into separate sections called squamulae, and contains long tubules with cells applied to the wall of the tubule. The anterior and lateral surfaces of the squamulin are ornamented with pediculae, and the posterior surface has longitudinal ridges, from which collagen fibers extend to anchor the scale within the pouch. Elasmodin and squamulin are linked by unmineralized collagen fibrils. The layers, formed at irregular intervals, are connected around the margin of the scale, effectively converting the whole scale into a flat structure resembling a pearl, with the first formed tissues deeply embedded inside the scale, and the youngest on the outer surface. Incremental lines in the hard tissue, and the number of layers in the elasmodin, do not reflect the chronological age of the fish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha
The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946
Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno
Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b).
Matos, Edilson; Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Sanches, Osimar; Clemente, Sergio Carmona de São; Matos, Patricia
The phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970, consists of a heterogenous group of around 50 genera that are worldwide disseminated in a wide variety of aquatic media. In the present study, 43 specimens of Pimelodus ornatus were collected from an adjacent area to the Cachoeira do Arari municipality on Marajó Island, in the Brazilian state of Pará, in 2013. Macroscopic analysis showed the presence of whitened plasmodia located in the cardiac muscle and also in the region between the bulbus arteriosus and atrium cordis. Microscopic analysis on the parasitized tissues revealed spores that were typically piriform, with the anterior portion slightly narrower than the posterior end. The spore valves were symmetrical. The present species is placed in the genus Myxobolus Butschli, 1882, because of the presence of a pair of equal polar capsules in each spore. The prevalence of parasitism observed was 13.9% (6/43). This research note reports the first occurrence of Myxobolus as a parasite of the heart in the teleostean fish P. ornatus in the Amazon region and confirms the occurrence of secondary myocarditis in this fish, caused by parasitism by Myxobolus sp. The rarity of this parasitic species of Myxobolus at this tissue site, associated with other spore morphology characteristics in the fish, suggests that it is an undescribed species.
de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás
A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.
Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F
Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.
Restrepo-Escobar, Natalia; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J
The Trans-Andean shovelnose catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus is the largest species within the genus Sorubim. In this work, the pyrosequencing technology was used to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cuspicaudus. The 16,544 bp molecule contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and exhibit perfect synteny with other South-American catfishes.
Bibiano Melo, José Fernando; Lundstedt, Lícia Maria; Metón, Isidoro; Baanante, Isabel Vázquez; Moraes, Gilberto
This manuscript reports changes in key enzymes and metabolites related to protein metabolism and nitrogen excretion in the liver of juveniles jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) fed on isocaloric diets containing 20%, 27%, 34% and 41% of crude protein. The hepatic activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and arginase (ARG) increased with the content of protein in the diet, and the ratios among the aminotransferases and GDH allowed evaluating metabolic preference. The concentration of free amino acids, ammonia and urea also rose with the dietary protein content. Increase of plasma urea and ammonia was the resultant effect of over amino acids catabolism as consequence of dietary protein surplus. Since the increase of protein in the diets resulted in weight gain, the rise in the hepatic activity of protein-metabolising enzymes in the fish fed high protein diets denoted effective use of dietary amino acids for growth and as a substrate for gluconeogenesis. Analysis of changes on metabolite levels and key enzyme activities in amino acid metabolism is proposed as a tool for assessing the proper balance of diet macronutrients.
Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho
The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.
Coppes de Achaval, Z; Schwantes, M L; Schwantes, A R; De Luca, P H; Val, A L
1. The electrokinetic and thermostability properties of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in five species of tropical fish (Ostariophysi)-Leporinus friderici, L. silverstrii, Schizodon nasuttus, Hypostomus sp and Pimelodus maculatus--have been studied in order to study the adaptative nature of protein heterogeneity found in ectotherms. 2. Unlike most diploid fishes, the PGI of these species seemed to be encoded by three, four or five loci. 3. The subunits encoded by these loci occurred at different levels in the different tissues and organs analyzed. 4. Genetic variants at the three PGI loci were detected in two species of the family Anostomidae (L. friderici and S. nasuttus). In the family Pimelodidae, P. Maculatus showed a genetic variant as the Pgi-1 locus. 5. The product of these loci could be separated in three PGI regions based on their electrophoretic mobility, tissue distribution and thermostability properties. 6. The more anodal region (including isozymes and allozymes) was more thermolabile then the less anodal one, which is predominant in a single tissue-skeletal muscle.
Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan
D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.
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Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
Targeting multiple digestive proteases may be more effective in insect pest control than inhibition of a single enzyme class. We therefore explored possible interactions of three antimetabolic protease inhibitors fed to cowpea bruchids in artificial diets, using a recombinant soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, an aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor KI. scN and pepstatin, inhibiting major digestive cysteine and aspartic proteases, respectively, significantly prolonged the developmental time of cowpea bruchids individually. When combined, the anti-insect effect was synergistic, i.e., the toxicity of the mixture was markedly greater than that of scN or pepstatin alone. KI alone did not impact insect development even at relatively high concentrations, but its anti-insect properties became apparent when acting jointly with scN or scN plus pepstatin. Incubating KI with bruchid midgut extract showed that it was partially degraded. This instability may explain its lack of anti-insect activity. However, this proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN and/or pepstatin. Protection of KI from proteolysis in the insect digestive tract thus could be the basis for the synergistic effect. These observations support the concept that cowpea bruchid gut proteases play a dual role; digesting protein for nutrient needs and protecting insects by inactivating dietary proteins that may otherwise be toxic. Our results also suggest that transgenic resistance strategies that involve multigene products are likely to have enhanced efficacy and durability.
Fine-scale genetic structure patterns in two freshwater fish species, Geophagus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) and Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) throughout a Neotropical stream.
Ferreira, D G; Lima, S C; Frantine-Silva, W; Silva, J F; Apolinário-Silva, C; Sofia, S H; Carvalho, S; Galindo, B A
Streams are very important environments for Neotropical freshwater fish fauna, and possess a high number of species. These small drainages are also highlighted by their intrinsic biological and physicochemical features; however, knowledge on the genetic distribution of fish in these drainages is limited. Therefore, in the present study, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite markers were used to analyze population differentiation and gene flow of Astyanax altiparanae and Geophagus brasiliensis from three sites (high, medium, and low) throughout the Penacho stream (about 32 km long), which is a Neotropical stream. Both markers revealed higher levels of genetic diversity levels for A. altiparanae (: 90.05; HS: 0.350) compared to G. brasiliensis (: 30.43; HS: 0.118), which may be related to the particular biology of each species. AMOVA revealed significant genetic variation among populations of each species. All pairwise ΦST values were significant, ranging from 0.020 to 0.056 for A. altiparanae samples, and from 0.065 to 0.190 for G. brasiliensis samples. Bayesian clustering analysis corroborated these results and revealed clusters of both A. altiparanae (two based on RAPD data) and G. brasiliensis (two based on RAPD data and three on microsatellite data). Gene flow estimates showed that there were similar rates of migration among A. altiparanae samples and low rates of migration among some G. brasiliensis samples. These results suggest patterns of fine-scale genetic structure for both species in the Penacho stream. This information may enhance knowledge of Neotropical streams and may be useful for future management and conservation activities.
Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952
Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for F ST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2-2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2-2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin.
Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.
Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.
Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M
The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels.
Nazarkin, Mikhail V; Shinohara, Gento; Shirai, Shigeru M
A morphological and genetic reassessment of the phylogeny and taxonomy of the dwarf zoarcid fish Lycodes teraoi Katayama, 1943 indicated that the species, a senior synonym of Lycodes sadoensis Toyoshima & Honma, 1980, should be placed in the genus Petroschmidtia. A redescription of P. teraoi is provided, with remarks on its taxonomy. Numerous specimens revealed a wide distribution of P. teraoi in the Sea of Japan, as well as in the southern Sea of Okhotsk.
Benedetti, I; Mola, L
Some Teleosts belonging to the orders Batrachoidiformes, Lophiiformes, Perciformes and Tetraodontiformes show a cluster of large neurons dorsally located at the boundary between the spinal cord and medulla oblongata. These elements have traditionally been grouped with the supramedullary neurons aligned in the dorso-medial region of the spinal cord of other teleosts (see Marini and Benedetti, in press). However, recent morphological and immunohistochemical studies have suggested that the neurons grouped in a cluster on the spinal cord of Lophius piscatorius may not be of the same nature as the supramedullary neurons aligned within the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord (Benedetti and Mola, 1988; Mola, 1990). Over the course of these previous investigations, it seemed that the nucleus of the neurons in the cluster showed more abundant chromatin than other neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. This prompted a series of investigations on the nucleus of these neurons.
Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, Maria Grazia; Piras, Maria Cristina; Bellido, José María; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo
The metazoan parasite assemblage of the head of 30 specimens of the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) from the western Mediterranean Sea was analysed. Eight species of parasites were found, four mazocraeid monogeneans: Grubea cochlear (prevalence = 10%), Kuhnia scombercolias (59%), K. scombri (52%), Pseudokuhnia minor (86%); three didymozoid trematodes: Nematobothrium cf. faciale (21%), N. filiforme (41%), N. scombri (7%); and one laerneopodid copepod: Clavelissa scombri (7%). Results were compared with previously published data from 14 localities of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, using non-parametric univariate and multivariate analyses, and the whole parasite fauna of S. colias was compared with that of the congeners (S. australasicus, S. japonicus and S. scombrus). Parasites showed to reflect the biogeographical and phylogenetic history of host. From a methodological point of view, the use of both non-parametric univariate and multivariate techniques proved to be effective tools to detect dissimilarities between parasite assemblages.
Schmidtke, Daniel; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Jörg; Esser, Karl-Heinz
In the 1970s, Tavolga conducted a series of experiments in which he found behavioral evidence that the vocalizations of the catfish species Ariopsis felis may play a role in a coarse form of echolocation. Based on his findings, he postulated a similar function for the calls of closely related catfish species. Here, we describe the physical characteristics of the predominant call-type of Ariopsis seemanni. In two behavioral experiments, we further explore whether A. seemanni uses these calls for acoustic obstacle detection by testing the hypothesis that the call-emission rate of individual fish should increase when subjects are confronted with novel objects, as it is known from other vertebrate species that use pulse-type signals to actively probe the environment. Audio-video monitoring of the fish under different obstacle conditions did not reveal a systematic increase in the number of emitted calls in the presence of novel objects or in dependence on the proximity between individual fish and different objects. These negative findings in combination with our current understanding of directional hearing in fishes (which is a prerequisite for acoustic obstacle detection) make it highly unlikely that A. seemanni uses its calls for acoustic obstacle detection. We argue that the calls are more likely to play a role in intra- or interspecific communication (e.g. in school formation or predator deterrence) and present results from a preliminary Y-maze experiment that are indicative for a positive phonotaxis of A. seemanni towards the calls of conspecifics. PMID:23741408
Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David
The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.
Deprá, I C; Gomes, V N; Deprá, G C; Oliveira, I J; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J
Astyanax altiparanae, belonging to the bimaculatus group, which includes species with similar colors and morphology, occurs in the upper Paraná River basin. As the use of mitochondrial DNA has made great strides in the diagnosis of species, in previous researches, two strains were detected in A. altiparanae with a high divergence in the D-loop region, provisionally called AltoPR and AltoPR-D. Evidence led to the hypothesis that the two strains did not belong to the same species. Phylogenetic hypotheses were produced by maximum-likelihood. Mean internal distances of the AltoPR and AltoPR-D groups were respectively 0.002 and 0.003, with the distance between them being 0.037. Sequences from GenBank of specimens collected from the Paraíba do Sul River basin were also divided into two groups, of which one may be identified as AltoPR. Since the other group provided an intermediate distance when compared to AltoPR-D, an in-depth investigation was required. The other species analyzed showed a greater distance and was revealed to be a monophyletic taxon. The results suggested that they are really two species and that neither corresponds to the other species used in the current study.
Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David
The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286
Giles, Sam; Coates, Michael I; Garwood, Russell J; Brazeau, Martin D; Atwood, Robert; Johanson, Zerina; Friedman, Matt
As the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Middle to Late Devonian (Eifelian-Frasnian) Cheirolepis occupies a pivotal position in vertebrate phylogeny. Although the dermal skeleton of this taxon has been exhaustively described, very little of its endoskeleton is known, leaving questions of neurocranial and fin evolution in early ray-finned fishes unresolved. The model for early actinopterygian anatomy has instead been based largely on the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Mimipiscis, preserved in stunning detail from the Gogo Formation of Australia. Here, we present re-examinations of existing museum specimens through the use of high-resolution laboratory- and synchrotron-based computed tomography scanning, revealing new details of the neuro-cranium, hyomandibula and pectoral fin endoskeleton for the Eifelian Cheirolepis trailli. These new data highlight traits considered uncharacteristic of early actinopterygians, including an uninvested dorsal aorta and imperforate propterygium, and corroborate the early divergence of Cheirolepis within actinopterygian phylogeny. These traits represent conspicuous differences between the endoskeletal structure of Cheirolepis and Mimipiscis. Additionally, we describe new aspects of the parasphenoid, vomer and scales, most notably that the scales display peg-and-socket articulation and a distinct neck. Collectively, these new data help clarify primitive conditions within ray-finned fishes, which in turn have important implications for understanding features likely present in the last common ancestor of living osteichthyans.
Mazzoni, R; Caramaschi, E P; Fenerich-Verani, N
The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length--weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.
Northcutt, R G; Bemis, W E
We reconstructed the cranial nerves of a serially sectioned prenatal coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. This allowed us to correct several mistakes in the literature and to make broad phylogenetic comparisons with other craniates. The genera surveyed in our phylogenetic analysis were Eptatretus, Myxine, Petromyzon, Lampetra, Chimaera, Hydrolagus, Squalus, Mustelus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepisosteus, Amia, Neoceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Latimeria and Ambystoma. Cladistic analysis of our data shows that Latimeria shares with Ambystoma two characters of the cranial nerves. Our chief findings are: 1) Latimeria possesses an external nasal papilla and pedunculated olfactory bulbs but lacks a discrete terminal nerve. In other respects its olfactory system resembles the plesiomorphic pattern for craniates. 2) The optic nerve is plicated, a character found in many but not all gnathostomes. Latimeria retains an interdigitated partial decussation of the optic nerves, a character found in all craniates surveyed. 3) The oculomotor nerve supplies the same extrinsic eye muscles as in lampreys and gnathostomes. As in gnathostomes generally, Latimeria has a ciliary ganglion but its cells are located intracranially in the root of the oculomotor nerve, and their processes reach the eye via oculomotor and profundal rami. 4) The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle as in all craniates that have not secondarily reduced the eye and its extrinsic musculature. 5) The profundal ganglion and ramus are entirely separate from the trigeminal system, with no exchange of fibers. This character has an interesting phylogenetic distribution: in hagfishes, lampreys, lungfishes and tetrapods, the profundal and trigeminal ganglia are fused, whereas in other taxa surveyed the ganglia are separate. The principal tissues innervated by the profundal nerve are the membranous walls of the tubes of the rostral organ. 6) As in lampreys and gnathostomes, the trigeminal nerve has maxillary and mandibular rami. Unlike all other gnathostomes surveyed, the trigeminal nerve of Latimeria lacks a sizable superficial ophthalmic ramus. Thus, Latimeria lacks the well-developed superficial ophthalmic complex reported in most other fishes. As in gnathostomes generally, the maxillary ramus of the trigeminal nerve fuses with the buccal ramus of the anterodorsal lateral line nerve to form the buccal+maxillary complex. We reject the term 'Gasserian ganglion', which is often applied to the fused profundal and trigeminal ganglion of tetrapods. 7) The abducent nerve innervates not only the lateral rectus muscle (a character common to myopterygians) but also the basicranial muscle. As we previously reported, it is probable that the basicranial muscle of Latimeria is homologous to the ocular retracter muscle of amphibians.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P
The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae - A1, A2, A3, and Aω - patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei.
The large elasmoid scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are formed within the dermis by unpigmented scleroblasts, growing within a collagenous dermal pocket below a thick glandular epidermis. The first row of scales, on the trunk of the juvenile lungfish, appears below the lateral line of the trunk, single in this species, at around stage 53. The scales, initially circular in outline, develop anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of initiation in the mid-trunk region, and rows are added alternately below the line, and above the line, until they reach the dorsal or ventral midline, or the margins of the fins. Scales develop later on the ventral surface of the head, from a separate centre of initiation. Scales consist of three layers, all produced by scleroblasts of dermal origin. The outermost layer of interlocking plates, or squamulae, consists of a mineralised matrix of fine collagen fibrils, covered by unmineralised collagen and a single layer of cells. Squamulae of the anterior and lateral surfaces are ornamented with short spines, and the mineralised tissue of the posterior surface is linked to the pouch by collagen fibrils. The innermost layer, known as elasmodin, consists of bundles of thick collagen fibrils and cells arranged in layers. An intermediate layer, made up of collagen fibrils, links the outer and inner layers. The elasmoid scales of N. forsteri can be compared with scale types among other osteichthyan groups, although the cellsand canaliculi in the mineralised squamulae bear little resemblance to typical bone. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Uchiyama, Minoru; Maejima, Sho; Yoshie, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Konno, Norifumi; Joss, Jean M. P.
Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a Na+-selective, aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in sodium transport homeostasis. ENaC is rate-limiting for Na+ absorption in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs of tetrapods. Although the ENaC/degenerin gene family is proposed to be present in metazoans, no orthologues or paralogues for ENaC have been found in the genome databases of teleosts. We studied full-length cDNA cloning and tissue distributions of ENaCα, β and γ subunits in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Neoceratodus ENaC (nENaC) comprised three subunits: nENaCα, β and γ proteins. The nENaCα, β and γ subunits are closely related to amphibian ENaCα, β and γ subunits, respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills, kidney and rectum. Amiloride-sensitive sodium current was recorded from Xenopus oocytes injected with the nENaCαβγ subunit complementary RNAs under a two-electrode voltage clamp. nENaCα immunoreactivity was observed in the apical cell membrane of the gills, kidney and rectum. Thus, nENaC may play a role in regulating sodium transport of the lungfish, which has a renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. This is interesting because there may have been an ENaC sodium absorption system controlled by aldosterone before the conquest of land by vertebrates. PMID:23055064
Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uchiyama, Minoru; Maejima, Sho; Yoshie, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Konno, Norifumi; Joss, Jean M P
Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a Na(+)-selective, aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in sodium transport homeostasis. ENaC is rate-limiting for Na(+) absorption in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs of tetrapods. Although the ENaC/degenerin gene family is proposed to be present in metazoans, no orthologues or paralogues for ENaC have been found in the genome databases of teleosts. We studied full-length cDNA cloning and tissue distributions of ENaCα, β and γ subunits in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Neoceratodus ENaC (nENaC) comprised three subunits: nENaCα, β and γ proteins. The nENaCα, β and γ subunits are closely related to amphibian ENaCα, β and γ subunits, respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills, kidney and rectum. Amiloride-sensitive sodium current was recorded from Xenopus oocytes injected with the nENaCαβγ subunit complementary RNAs under a two-electrode voltage clamp. nENaCα immunoreactivity was observed in the apical cell membrane of the gills, kidney and rectum. Thus, nENaC may play a role in regulating sodium transport of the lungfish, which has a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This is interesting because there may have been an ENaC sodium absorption system controlled by aldosterone before the conquest of land by vertebrates.
Barry, John C; Kemp, Anne
The permanent tooth plates of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are covered by enamel that develops initially in a similar manner to that of other vertebrates. As the enamel layer matures, it acquires several unusual characteristics. It has radially oriented protoprismatic structures with the long axes of the protoprisms perpendicular to the enamel surface. Protoprisms can be defined as aggregations of hydroxyapatite crystals that lack the highly ordered arrangement of the rods of mammalian enamel but are not without a specific structure of their own. The protoprisms are arranged in layers of variable thickness that are deposited sequentially as the tooth plate grows. They may be confined to the separate layers, or may cross the boundary between each layer. Crystals within the protoprisms are long and thin with hydroxyapatite c-axis dimensions of between 30 and 350 nm, and with typical a-b axis dimensions of 5-10 nm. The hydroxyapatite crystals of lungfish enamel have no centre dark lines of octacalcium phosphate, an unusual character among vertebrates. As each crystal develops, arrays of atoms may change direction, and regions exist where dislocations and extra lattice planes are inserted into the long crystal. The resulting hydroxyapatite crystal is not straight, and has a rough surface. The crystals are arranged in tangled structures with their crystallographic c-axes closely aligned with the long axis of the protoprism. Lungfish enamel differs from the enamel of higher vertebrates in that the hydroxyapatite crystals are of different shape, and, in mature enamel, the protoprisms remain as protoprisms and do not develop into the conventional prismatic structures characteristic of mammalian enamel.
The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P
Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs.
Santos, R S; Martins, M L; Marengoni, N G; Francisco, C J; Piazza, R S; Takahashi, H K; Onaka, E M
This work evaluated parasitic infections by Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus captured between August 2000 and August 2001 in the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo, Brazil. Of 87 fishes examined, 59 were infected (25 males and 34 females). High mean intensities occurred in August 2000 (45.2, range 2-204), September 2000 (28.5, range 11-73), October 2000 (59.3, range 2-250) and February 2001 (27.3, range 3-73). There was no relationship of rainfall with mean intensity and prevalence. Males were more parasitized (P<0.05) than females. This work contributes to the knowledge of helminth parasites of fish from a little studied region of the Paraná River, showing diversity in their fauna when compared to other places in the same river.
Williams, J.E.; Williams, C.D.
Gila boraxobius is a dwarf species of cyprinid endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon. Despite a relatively depauperate fauna and flora in the lake, 24 food items were found in intestines of G. boraxobius. Ten of the 24 foods, including six insects, were of terrestrial origin. The relative importance of food items fluctuated seasonally. Diatoms, chironomid larvae, microcrustaceans, and dipteran adults were the primary foods during spring. In summer, diatoms decreased and terrestrial insects increased in importance. During autumn important foods were terrestrial insects, chironomid larvae, and diatoms. Diatoms and microcrustaceans increased in importance during winter. Chironomid larvae were of importance in winter, when the importance of terrestrial food items decreased substantially. Similar food habits were observed between juveniles and adults, except that adults consumed more gastropods and diatoms and juveniles consumed more copepods and terrestrial insects. Gila boraxobius feeds opportunistically with individuals commonly containing mostly one food item. Fish typically feed by picking foods from soft bottom sediments or from rocks. However, fish will feed throughout the water column or on the surface if food is abundant there. Gila boraxobius feeds throughout the day, with a peak in feeding activity just after sunset. A daily ration of 11.1 percent body weight was calculated for the species during June. A comparison of food habits among G. boraxobius and populations of G. alvordensis during the summer shows that all are opportunistic in feeding, but that G. boraxobius relies more heavily on terrestrial foods.
Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.
The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279
Canan, Bhaskara; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; da Silva, Naisandra Bezerra; Chellappa, Sathyabama
This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension. The transition region close to the stomach shows plain and striated muscular fibers. Between the stomach and intestine, there are three pyloric caeca. The intestine is long and thin with four folds around the stomach. The anterior intestine presents folds similar to those of pyloric caeca. The estimated mean intestinal coefficient and characteristics of the digestive system of S. fuscus present morphological adequacy for both herbivorous and omnivorous feeding habits. PMID:22547996
Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen. Cranial nerve I innervates the olfactory organ enclosed within the olfactory capsule and cranial nerve II innervates the eye. Cranial nerve V innervates the sense organs of the snout and upper lip, and, in conjunction with nerve IX and X, the sense organs of the posterior and lateral head. Cranial nerve VII is primarily a motor nerve, and a single branch innervates sense organs in the mandible. There are no connections between nerves V and VII, although both emerge from the brain close to each other. The third associated system consists of lymphatic vessels covered by an extracellular matrix of collagen, mineralised as tubules in fossils. Innervation of the sensory organs is separate from the lymphatic system and from the tubule system of fossil lungfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S
We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.
504 pp. Cagampang-Ramos, A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr . 1970. IlIus- trated keys to the Anopheles mosquitoes of the Philip- pine I&r& USAF F...Health 16:139-140. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and A. Cagampang-Ramos. 1971. Ano- pheline mosquitoes of the Lanao Plateau, Philippines, and status of the local...bionomics); Darsie and Cagampang-Ramos 1971:388, 389 (Lana0 Plateau, Mindanao; L bionomics); Catangui 198590 (Philippines; med. imp., A, L
Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...
Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.
Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990
Mahajan, S; Garg, S K; Lobana, T S
Life span and antioxygenic enzyme activities of insects reared on optimal BHA concentration (1 mM) soaked seeds were higher than their respective controls. However, the reproductive potential, peroxides and the level of free radicals declined. The increased longevity with BHA could be attributed to its free radical quenching effect, thereby leading to the decreased peroxide levels and the increased antioxygenic enzyme activities of the insects.
Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger
Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.
Ahn, J-E; Lovingshimer, M R; Salzman, R A; Presnail, J K; Lu, A L; Koiwa, H; Zhu-Salzman, K
Cowpea bruchids, when challenged by consumption of the soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, reconfigure expression of their major CmCP digestive proteases and resume normal feeding and development. Previous evidence indicated that insects selectively induced CmCPs from subfamily B, that were more efficient in autoprocessing and possessed not only higher proteolytic, but also scN-degrading activities. In contrast, dietary scN only marginally up-regulated genes from the more predominant CmCP subfamily A that were inferior to subfamily B. To gain further molecular insight into this adaptive adjustment, we performed domain swapping between the two respective subfamily members B1 and A16, the latter unable to autoprocess or degrade scN even after intermolecular processing. Swapping the propeptides did not qualitatively alter autoprocessing in either protease isoform. Incorporation of either the N- (pAmBA) or C-terminal (pAmAB) mature B1 segment into A16, however, was sufficient to prime autoprocessing of A16 to its mature form. Further, the swap at the N-terminal mature A16 protein region (pAmBA) resulted in four amino acid changes. Replacement of these amino acid residues by the corresponding B1 residues, singly and pair-wise, revealed that autoprocessing activation in pAmBA resulted from cumulative and/or coordinated individual effects. Bacterially expressed isolated propeptides (pA16 and pB1) differed in their ability to inhibit mature B1 enzyme. Lower inhibitory activity in pB1 is likely attributable to its lack of protein stability. This instability in the cleaved propeptide is necessary, although insufficient by itself, for scN-degradation by the mature B1 enzyme. Taken together, cowpea bruchids modulate proteolysis of their digestive enzymes by controlling proCmCP cleavage and propeptide stability, which explains at least in part the plasticity cowpea bruchids demonstrate in response to protease inhibitors.
Rahman, A; Talukder, F A
Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment.
Göktürk, Didem; Karakulak, F. Saadet; Ünsal, Nuran; Kahraman, Abdullah E.
The fish species Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes, 1839) reported in the present study were collected between June 2010 and June 2011 from the western Black Sea coasts which were previously not recorded from the Black Sea coast of Turkey. A total of 717 specimens of S. bailloni were measured, ranging between 8.9 and 15.4 cm TL. Morphometrics, meristics, and diagnostic characteristics of the species are presented. PMID:22593703
Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
From August 2008 to July 2010, 1,471 fish belonging to the subfamily Goodeinae (representing 28 species) were collected from 47 localities across central Mexico and analyzed for helminth parasites. In addition, a database with all available published accounts of the helminth parasite fauna of goodeines was assembled. Based on both sources of information, a checklist containing all the records was compiled as a necessary first step to address future questions in the areas of ecology, evolutionary biology and biogeography of this host-parasite association. The checklist is presented in two tables, a parasite-host list and a host-parasite list. The checklist contains 51 nominal species, from 34 genera and 26 families of helminth parasites. It includes 8 species of adult digeneans, 9 metacercarie, 6 monogeneans, 3 adult cestodes, 9 metacestodes, 1 adult acanthocephalan, 1 cystacanth, 6 adult nematodes and 8 larval nematodes. Based on the amount of information contained in the checklist, we pose that goodeines, a subfamily of viviparous freshwater fishes endemic to central Mexico, might be regarded as the first group of wildlife vertebrate for which a complete inventory of their helminth parasite fauna has been completed.
The name Theileria electrophori n.sp. is proposed for a small parasite described in the erythrocytes of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, from Amazonian Brazil. Division of the organism in the erythrocyte produces only four bacilliform daughter cells which become scattered in the host cell, without a cruciform or rosette-shaped disposition. Exoerythrocytic meronts producing a large number of merozoites were encountered in Giemsa-stained impression smears of the internal organs, principally in the liver, and are presumably the source of the intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite. This developmental pattern is characteristic of piroplasms within the family Theileriidae, where the author considers the parasite of E. electricus to most appropriately belong. It effectively distinguishes the organism from the dactylosomatid parasites Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956 and Dactylosoma Labbé, 1894 also found in fishes. This appears to be the second report of Theileria Bettencourt, Franca and Borges, 1907 in a fish.
Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P
The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.
Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.
Woodhead, D S
The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P less than 0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility.
Santos, R M; Weber, L; Souza, V L; Soares, A R; Petry, A C
The influence of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum (WSF) on prey consumption and growth of juvenile trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus was investigated. Juveniles were submitted to either WSF or Control treatment over 28 days, and jewel tetra Hyphessobrycon eques adults were offered daily as prey for each predator. Total prey consumption ranged from 16 to 86 individuals. Despite the initially lower prey consumption under WSF exposure, there were no significant differences in overall feeding rates between the two treatments. Water-soluble fraction of petroleum had a negative effect on the growth in length of H. aff. malabaricus juveniles. Although unaffected, prey consumption suggested a relative resistance in H. aff. malabaricus to WSF exposition and the lower growth of individuals exposed to WSF than the Control possibly reflects metabolic costs. The implications of the main findings for the individual and the food chain are discussed, including behavioral aspects and the role played by this predator in shallow aquatic systems.
Guerrero, Alejandro; Icardo, José M; Durán, Ana C; Gallego, Alejandro; Domezain, Alberto; Colvee, Elvira; Sans-Coma, Valentín
Previous work showed that in the adult sturgeon an intrapericardial, nonmyocardial segment is interposed between the conus arteriosus of the heart and the ventral aorta. The present report illustrates the ontogeny of this intermediate segment in Acipenser naccarii. The sample studied consisted of 178 alevins between 1 and 24 days posthatching. They were examined using light and electron microscopy. Our observations indicate that the entire cardiac outflow tract displays a myocardial character during early development. Between the fourth and sixth days posthatching, the distal portion of the cardiac outflow tract undergoes a phenotypical transition, from a myocardial to a smooth muscle-like phenotype. The length of this region with regard to the whole outflow tract increases only moderately during subsequent developmental stages, becoming more and more cellularized. The cells soon organize into a pattern that resembles that of the arterial wall. Elastin appears at this site by the seventh day posthatching. Therefore, two distinct components, proximal and distal, can be recognized from the fourth day posthatching in the cardiac outflow tract of A. naccarii. The proximal component is the conus arteriosus, characterized by its myocardial nature and the presence of endocardial cushions. The distal component transforms into the intrapericardial, nonmyocardial segment mentioned above, which is unequivocally of cardiac origin. We propose to designate this segment the "bulbus arteriosus" because it is morphogenetically equivalent to the bulbus arteriosus of teleosts. The present findings, together with data from the literature, point to the possibility that cells from the cardiac neural crest are involved in the phenotypical transition that takes place at the distal portion of the cardiac outflow tract, resulting in the appearance of the bulbus arteriosus. Moreover, they suggest that the cardiac outflow tract came to be formed by a bulbus arteriosus and a conus arteriosus from an early period of the vertebrate evolutionary story. Finally, we hypothesize that the embryonic truncus of birds and mammals is homologous to the bulbus arteriosus of fish.
Storey, C.M.; Porter, B.A.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.
Etheostoma scotti (Cherokee darter) is a member of the subgenus Ulocentra and a federally threatened endemic to the Etowah River system, GA. Field observations of spawning behavior of the Cherokee darter were made at five stream sites to identify spawning season and habitat over two field seasons. Cherokee darters primarily spawn in pool habitats between mid-March and early June, at temperatures between 11 and 18 ?C. Egg deposition was typically on large gravel substrate, but ranged from gravel to bedrock in size and included woody debris. Spawning occurred in a variety of depths (0.09-0.59 m) and velocities (0-0.68 m/s).
Merella, Paolo; Cherchi, Santino; Garippa, Giovanni; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Gustinelli, Andrea; Salati, Fulvio
Two different batches of meagre Argyrosomus regius were stocked in the same floating cage located in north-eastern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). After 4 mo, the fish started showing non-specific disease signs, such as lethargy, emaciation, gill anaemia and mortality. In total 65 specimens of meagre of both stocks were sampled for parasitological and microbiological analysis, and only 1 species of parasite, the microcotylid monogenean Sciaenacotyle panceri, was found on the gills of caged meagre. No protozoan or other metazoan parasites were found and no bacteria or viruses were isolated. After the outbreak, a total mortality rate of 5 to 10% was estimated for the older fish stock, while no noteworthy mortality was recorded in younger fish (<2%). This is the first account of S. panceri on the gills of cultured meagre as causative agent of disease and mortality. The effects of the presence of this parasite emphasise the need for disease control strategies of cultured meagre, and investigating the transfer of microcotylids from wild to caged fish.
Choudhury, A.; Nelson, P.A.
Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is redescribed from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus in southern Manitoba. The redescription adds details regarding the surface morphology and reproductive structures of the parasite not described previously. These include the characteristic tegumental papillae around the oral opening, paired papillae on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the body, and tegumental bosses on the dorsal surface of the forebody. Crepidostomum opeongoensis co-occurred with its hypothesized sister species, Crepidostomum illinoiense, in all host individuals harboring the former, and both species are characteristic of hiodontids. The association of C. opeongoensis with hiodontids and the absence of hiodontids in Lake Opeongo where C. opeongoensis was originally reported indicate that the Algonquin Park region may have had hiodontids in the past and that the life cycle may be completed at present without the original fish host.
Sokolov, S G; Kuzishchin, K V; Gruzdeva, M A
The study of parasites associated with the anadromous mikizha from several rivers of the Western Kamchatka has revealed 44 parasite species. The majority of parasites (59%) belong to marine and estuarine-marine species. Lecithophyllum bothryophorum, Echinorhynchus leidyi and plerocercoids of the family Litobothriidae were found for the first time in anadromous fish entering into Asian continental watersheds. It has been revealed that only a few specimens of the anadromous mikizha feed in fresh waters. Most of feeding fish consume a minor amount of food, and this feeding is occasional. Young forms of intestinal parasites of the freshwater and estuarine-freshwater groups (Neoechinorhynchus spp., Crepidostomum spp., Cucullanus truttae, Eubothrium salvelinf) come into anadromous fishes mainly before their entering in fresh waters.
Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Santana, Ricardo Luís Sousa; Melo, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro
The genus Gnathostoma comprises 17 species, whose adult specimens are found in the stomach serosa of animals that consume raw fish; some species of the genus are zoonotic agents. The present study describes the presence of a nematode (Gnathostomatidae) parasitizing the digestive tract of Colomesus psittacus in the Ilha de Marajó in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens of C. psittacus were collected in the municipality of Soure, Ilha de Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil, transported to the laboratory, necropsied and the helminths were collected and fixed. Of the 30 fish that were studied, 16.67% were parasitized with nematodes. The nematode larvae found encysted in the intestinal serosa have anterior region with two lips, each with a pair of papillae; a cephalic bulb armed with six rows of discontinuous spines; four cervical sacs; a claviform esophagus; cuticular striations along the body; a simple excretory pore; and a short tail ending in a mucron. These morphological structures are diagnostic characters of the genus Gnathostoma, whose adults parasitize the stomach of carnivorous mammals and, rarely, the stomach of fish. However, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds are intermediate hosts of the third-stage larvae (L3), and humans may act as accidental hosts.
Mühlegger, J M; Jirsa, F; Konecny, R; Frank, C
Two invasive fish species, the round goby Apollonia melanostoma syn. Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas 1814) and the bighead goby Neogobius kessleri (Günther, 1861), have established a firm population in Austrian waters during the past 15 years. As there have been no records of the parasite fauna from these populations, a total of 79 specimens of A. melanostoma and 12 specimens of N. kessleri were examined for parasites between May and October 2007 from three different sampling sites from the Danube River in Austria. In total 12 parasite taxa were recovered. The protozoans Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from the gills and skin; two crustacean species, Paraergasilus brevidigitus and Ergasilus sieboldi, from the gills; and the two monogeneans Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp., from the skin and gills respectively, all occurred at low prevalence and intensities. Furthermore, cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii were found in the body cavity. Metacercariae of the digeneans Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata were found in the lens of the eye and the vitreous humour, respectively. Adults of two digeneans, Nicolla skrjabini and Bunodera nodulosa, were found in the intestine. In addition, during this survey metacercariae of the Holarctic digenean Bucephalus polymorphus, encysted in the skin and fins, with prevalence up to 78%, were recorded for the first time in Austria.
Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F
Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Swarça, Ana C; Fenocchio, Alberto S; Cestari, Marta M; Dias, Ana L
The chromosomes of Steindachneridion sp. (2n = 56) and Rhamdia quelen (2n = 58) were analyzed by C-banding (CB) and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, separately and consecutively, in order to understand the role of base-specific fluorochrome treatment after CB. Both species' chromosomes shared common staining profiles as follows. CB with Giemsa (CBG) revealed weak heterochromatic blocks in the telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous bands on the short arms of one chromosome pair, where nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were evidenced by silver-staining. Without CB pretreatment, the NORs were stained conspicuously with CMA3, but not with DAPI. The latter uniformly stained all chromosomes, but leaving the NORs pale. Combination of CMA3 or DAPI staining with CB showed distinctive fluorescent blocks in the NOR-bearing short arms of the single chromosome pair along with several bright fluorescent signals on other chromosomes, which were not evidenced by single CMA3 or DAPI staining. These results suggest a modification of chromatin structure by CB treatment, which may increase the stainability of CMA3 and DAPI.
Hardman, Michael; Lundberg, John G
The Maracaibo basin in northwestern Venezuela is home to over 108 species of freshwater fishes, over half of which occur nowhere else. The rise of the Mérida Andes between 8 and 10 million years ago is believed to have divided a preexisting biota and facilitated allopatric speciation. The distinctive "phractocephaline" clade of pimelodid catfishes has a distribution that includes the Maracaibo historically and today is represented by Perrunichthys (Maracaibo endemic), Leiarius, Phractocephalus, and Steindachneridion. A resolved and well-supported phylogeny was obtained from the phylogenetic analysis of over 3.4kb (including cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, recombination activating gene subunit 2). Rates of divergence among "phractocephalines" were calibrated with fossil material and the Mérida uplift. These independent calibrators provided different node-age estimates when the rates were applied separately to the gene partitions (mtDNA and rag2). Node-age discrepancies were particularly evident at older nodes. This is due to two factors: (1) multiple substitution of mtDNA underestimates the amount of change and therefore time since cladogenesis, whereas (2) calibration of an ancient node with fossils produces an artificially slow rate (due to the masking of divergence through multiple substitution) that overestimates time when applied to younger nodes. Node-age estimates provided by the more slowly evolving rag2 sequences were more consistent with other sources of historical inference, e.g., paleogeography and the fossil record. Given these points, we provide a synthetic chronology of diversification and discuss the reasons for its preference. The phylogeny and synthetic chronology suggest Perrunichthys perruno (Maracaibo endemic) and Leiarius pictus (Orinoco and Guianas) to be a vicariant species pair that last shared a common ancestor during the period of Mérida uplift.
Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.
Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães
The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo
Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy.
Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10−6) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917
Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo
Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006
Lavrov, Igor; Cheng, Jianguo
We compared the effects of mode of delivery of neuroactive agents and the effects of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a vehicle for dissolving neuroactive agents, on locomotor-like activity in vitro. By superfusion, D-glutamate (0.3 – 0.9 mM) produced robust walking-like activity at superfusion rates 10–25 ml/min. In contrast, bolus application of the same or higher doses of glutamate (0.1–1.5 mM) failed to induce any rhythmic activity. Superfusion with AP-5, a NMDA receptor antagonist, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the ongoing walking-like activity induced by D-glutamate and completely blocked the activity at 20 µM. In contrast, bolus application of AP-5 did not block the walking-like activity at concentrations up to 120 µM. Similarly, superfusion of AP-5 inhibited the initiation of walking-like activity and completely blocked the initiation at 20 µM, while bolus application of AP-5 failed to do so at concentrations up to 120 µM. Superfusion of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist, blocked the walking-like activity at concentrations of 3–5 µM, while its bolus application altered NMDA-induced, but not glutamate-induced, walking-like activity to a synchronized pattern. DMSO significantly affected the walking-like activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging 1–10% (v/v). These results demonstrate that the way by which the neuroactive agents are applied is a significant factor that determines the outcome of experiments on the neural control of locomotion. Also, the dose-dependent effects of DMSO on the activity of neural networks for locomotion should be taken into account in data interpretation. PMID:18692523
Eady, P E; Wilson, N; Jackson, M
Postcopulatory sexual selection theory has come a long way since the evolutionary implications of sperm competition were first spelled out by Parker (1970). However, one of the most enduring questions remains: why do females copulate with multiple males? Here we show that females copulating with multiple males lay more eggs than those copulating repeatedly with the same male. We also show egg-to-adult survival to be more variable when females copulate multiply with different males and less variable when they copulate multiply with the same male. This supports the notion that egg-to-adult survival may depend on the genetic compatibility of males and females. However, pre-adult survival was highest when females copulated repeatedly with the same male rather than with different males. Thus, it would appear that polyandry in this species does not function to reduce the risk of embryo failure resulting from fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm.
Kawecki, Tadeusz J
Life history theory predicts that larger propagules should be produced when the offspring are expected to experience intense competition. This study tested whether female cowpea weevils responded to high larval or adult density by producing larger eggs. In a splitbrood design I measured the effect of density experienced by females at their larval stage (1 vs. 4-6 larvae/cowpea) on the size of eggs produced just after emergence. The females were then kept either at low adult density (1 female+1 male per vial), or at high adult density (10 females+10 males) for 2 days, and tested for the effect of this adult density treatment on the size of eggs laid subsequently. I measured egg length and width, as well as the diameter of the entrance tunnel made by the larva, which can be regarded as a crude measure of larval size. Females that experienced high adult density subsequently laid slightly wider eggs than those kept at low density. This difference, albeit small (about 1-4% after correction for female weight and the effect of family, depending on the statistical model used), was statistically significant and robust to alterations of the statistical model. It may be a remnant of a larger plastic response of egg size to competition that has become eroded during many generations in high-density laboratory cultures. There was no difference in egg length or the diameter of the entrance tunnel. Eggs laid just after emergence by females reared at high larval density also tended to be wider than those produced by females that had no competitors. This effect was only marginally significant, however, and sensitive to the statistical model. Both egg length and width and the diameter of the entrance tunnel increased with female weight and decreased with female age. The tunnel diameter was positively correlated with both egg length and width, but the effect of width was larger.
Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A
The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and α-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 μL. L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 μL. L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 μL .cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests.
Khatter, Najat Aly; Abuldahb, Faten Farid
Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect produced hormones by regulatingdevelopmental process. Theyhave little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. IGRs, especially, chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuron (benzoylphenylurea) are currently studied because of possibility of using in stored products protection. Many of IGRs compounds usedin insect pests control are known to affect digestive enzymes. Chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuronwere tested topically at doses of 0.25%, 0.5%&1% for chlorfluazuron and hydroprene and 0.5, 1 & 2 microg/ml of hexaflumuron to investigate its effects on the activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase and lipase in Callosobruchusmaculatus larvae, which were affected by IGRs individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more sever at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. Combination three IGRs caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of IGRs was found by combination of low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars.
Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules.
de Melo, Marly de Fátima Carvalho; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; Santos, Cláudia Portes
Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. is described from the gills of the Neotropical cichlid fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) caught in the Guamá River, in the delta of the Amazon River, at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are a basally articulated male copulatory organ with clockwise coils and an accessory piece; a ventral bar with a median process; similar hooklets; vagina in the form of a sclerotised tube; and a sinistral vaginal aperture with a sclerotised papilla lying in a small surface depression. It is the only species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1989 with a medial projection on the ventral bar.
Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321
Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou
Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. © F. Moravec et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Solbakken, J.E.; Palmork, K.H.
The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) in marine animals has received increasing attention in the last decade. The present studies dealing with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) are part of a series of experiments with different marine organisms. All the experiments were performed under the same laboratory conditions using intragastric administration of the PAH-component, /sup 14/C-labelled phenanthrene. Thus it is possible to compare species differences of disposition of PAH in various marine organisms. The most pronounced differences in the disposition of phenanthrene between bony fish and cartilaginous fish in our studies are that the maximum value of radioactivity in the liver of cartilaginous fish occurred several days later than the corresponding value in bony fish. Furthermore, the radioactivity in cartilaginous fish was retained at a high level beyond 672 h (28 days), a time at which the radioactivity in bony fish is near the background values.
Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P
We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.
González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz
A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).
Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C
In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. © 2016 Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O
Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.
Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O
Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.
Martins, M L; Pereira, J; De Chambrier, A; Yamashita, M M
This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of 'tucunaré', but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for 'tucunaré' might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.
Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Morrone, Juan J; García-Varela, Martín
Species of Floridosentis (Acanthocephala) are common parasites of mullets (Mugil spp., Mugilidae) found in tropical marine and brackish water in the Americas. Floridosentis includes 2 species distributed in Mexico, i.e., Floridosentis pacifica, restricted to the Pacific Ocean near Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, and Floridosentis mugilis, distributed along the coast of the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. We sampled 18 populations of F. mugilis and F. pacifica (12 from the Pacific and 6 from the Gulf of Mexico) and sequenced a fragment of the rDNA large subunit to evaluate phylogenetic relationships of populations of Floridosentis spp. from Mexico. Species identification of museum specimens of F. mugilis from the Pacific Ocean was confirmed by examination of morphology traits. Phylogenetic trees inferred with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference indicate that Floridosentis is monophyletic comprising of 2 major well-supported clades, the first clade corresponding to F. mugilis from the Gulf of Mexico, and the second to F. pacifica from the Pacific Ocean. Genetic divergence between species ranged from 7.68 to 8.60%. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.14 to 0.86% for F. mugilis and from 1.72 to 4.49% for F. pacifica. Data obtained from diagnostic characters indicate that specimens from the Pacific Ocean in Mexico have differences in some traits among locations. These results are consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis, indicating that F. pacifica is distributed in the Pacific Ocean in Mexico with 3 major lineages.
Mateu, Paula; Montero, Francisco E.; Carrassón, Maite
This study examines the parasite fauna of Bathypterois mediterraneus, the most common fish below 1500 m in Western Mediterranean waters. Samples were obtained during July 2010 from the continental slope of two different areas (off Catalonia and Balearic Islands) in three different bathymetric strata at depths between 1000 and 2200 m. The parasite fauna of B. mediterraneus included a narrow range of species: Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum, Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Anisakis sp. larva 3 type II and Sarcotretes sp. Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum and H. aduncum were the most predominant parasites. H. aduncum showed significant differences in abundance between depths of 2000-2200 m with 1000-1400 m and 1400-2000 m, irrespective of locality, whereas S. cf. dorsolineatum showed significant differences between the two localities at all depths except for 2000-2200 m. We suggest the possible usefulness of these two parasites as geographical indicators for discriminating discrete stocks of B. mediterraneus in Western Mediterranean waters.
Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio
A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose..
Pereira, Felipe B; Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L
Cucullanus brevicaudatus n. sp. (Cucullanidae) is described from the intestine of Balistes capriscus Gmelin (Balistidae) off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from its congeners in the small body length, the shape of the gubernaculum, the particular size and morphology of the tail in both males and females, the arrangement of the caudal papillae, the narrow oesophageal base, and the eggs with rugged shells. In addition, the combination of some features, i.e. number of caudal papillae, spicule length, oesophagus/body length ratio, host family and geographical distribution, can help to easily distinguish the new species from other cucullanids. Considering these features, C. brevicaudatus differs from the species assigned to Dichelyne Törnquist, 1931 which exhibit morphological proximity with Cucullanus Müller, 1777. Regarding the life-cycle of cucullanid nematodes, available evidence suggests that some species are primarily heteroxenous using invertebrates (i.e. crustaceans, polychaetes) as intermediate hosts, but in other a histotrophic phase in the definitive host replaces the intermediate host.
Medeiros, A P T; Chellappa, S; Yamamoto, M E
The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
Fish form important fisheries and aquaculture resources worldwide. In Brazil, pearl eartheater (Geophagus brasiliensis) is an important commercially exploited species and is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of herbicides that are often detected in the aquatic environment. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to G. brasiliensis and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, and the neutral red retention time assay to estimate effects at the cellular level. Such investigations have not been carried out before with this species. First, the acute toxicity of 2,4-D to G. brasiliensis in terms of the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h medium lethal concentration (LC(50)) was calculated to be 45.95, 32.49, 28.28, and 15.16 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that exposure of fish to 40 mg/l 2,4-D caused reduction in oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of 59% and 85%, respectively, in relation to the controls. Mean neutral red retention time assay was significantly lower in comparison with control for organisms exposed to 1, 5, 10, and 40 mg/l 2,4-D. However, the effects at the cellular level were progressive, suggesting that the fish are not able to recover from such increasing effects.
Schalch, Ergio H C; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R E
This work described the lesions caused in different species of fish by gill parasites from fee-fishing at Guariba, State of São Paulo. The research was developed from april, 1997 to march to 1999, seeking to verified the kind tissues lesions from fish. Of these, forty and seven were Leporinus macrocephalus and fifty and five Piaractus mesopotamicus. About 87.2% of the L. macrocephalus, and 58.1% of the P. mesopotamicus were sponged by several species of parasites. The parasite most abundant in L. macrocephalus was Piscinoodinium pillulare, while monogenean, Trichodina sp and myxosporidian infected P. mesopotamicus. Severe gill lesions have been observed in L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus caused by monogenean, P. pillulare e Trichodina sp. parasitism, such as intersticial hemorrhage, sub-epithelium edema, inflammation, epitelial hiperplasy in filaments and lamina, proliferation of mucosal cells and laminar fusion.
Moravec, Frantisek; Prista, Nuno; Costa, Maria José
Subgravid females (up to 439 mm long) of the nematode Philometra sp. were found in meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801) (Sciaenidae: Perciformes) off the southern Atlantic coast of Portugal in 2006. The general morphology of these nematodes somewhat resembles that of Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935), but the gravid females of the species from A. regius are apparently much longer. This is the first documented record of a gonad-infecting species of Philometra in marine fishes off the Atlantic coast of Europe. The possible importance of the gonad-parasitizing Philometra spp. as pathogens of marine fishes is stressed.
Moravec, F; Fajer-Avila, E J; Bakenhaster, M
A new nematode species, Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae, Perciformes), from the Gulf of Mexico off Treasure Island, Florida, USA. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in having a smooth gubernaculum with a distinct dorsal tooth on the distal tip. The new species is most similar to P. carolinensis Moravec, de Buron & Roumillat, 2006, but differs in length and shape of spicules. It can be distinguished from P. carolinensis and other species with unknown males, by the markedly greater body length of gravid females (up to about 100 cm). Philometra floridensis is the third valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from sciaenids.
Oliveira, A K; Alvim, M C; Peret, A C; Alves, C B
This study aimed to identify shifts in the Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 diet related to body size. Specimens were collected from April 1992 to January 1993 at the Cajuru Reservoir, in the Pará River, São Francisco River Basin, by seining the shore with nets of nylon, 1 mm opening, and with gill nets. Stomach contents of 152 individuals measuring 15-192 mm SL were examined. Food items were identified and weighed separately. For qualitative analysis, the frequency of occurrence method was used. The relative importance of each food component was determined based on the alimentary index (IAi). The frequencies of occurrence data were subjected to cluster analysis using the Canberra coefficient of dissimilarity and UPGMA as the cluster method. Distinctive gradual changes in food habits, associated with body size, were identified in this species. The smaller individuals fed predominantly on microcrustaceans and insect larvae. The intermediate size classes ingested insects, fish fins, fish scales, and chunks of fish flesh, in this order of importance. For the larger pirambebas, fish was the most abundant food category identified, followed by insects.
[Praziquantel, levamisole and diflubenzuron in the control of Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura) and Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae)].
Schalch, Sergio Henrique Canello; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Soares, Vando Edésio
This assay evaluated the control efficacy of diflubenzuron, praziquantel and levamisole added to the diet of pacu (Piaractus mesoptamicus) infected with Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Dolops carvalhoi. 19 water tanks of 300 L capacity were utilized with 28 fish in each one. The treatments were made by mixing the active principles in the diet. The experiment was evaluated in four harvests done 1 day before and 3, 7 and 15 days after the treatment. The medicated feeding was applied for 7 days. The results of efficacy suggest that the diflubenzuron alone or associated with levamisole and praziquantel was efficient against the crustacean D. carvalhoi and the efficacy in the 3, 7 and 15 days evaluations ranged from 96.2 to 100%. Against the monogenean the drugs did not present efficacy. The results suggest the use of diflubenzuron for the control of D. carvalhoi in captive fishes in special conditions.
Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio
A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529
Moravec, Frantisek; Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo
A new genus and species of nematode, Caranginema americanum n. gen., n. sp. (Philometridae), are described from gravid, subgravid, and nongravid female specimens collected from the subcutaneous tissue of the fish (crevalle jack) Caranx hippos (Carangidae, Perciformes) from the coral reef El Cabezo, southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Caranginema, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of 2 conspicuous parallel cordons on either side, extending along nearly the entire body length and demarcating narrow smooth lateral fields and in having the remaining body surface with numerous ornamentations forming irregularly scattered, transversely elongated narrow cuticular molds. The new species is characterized mainly by the presence of 3 large, sclerotized esophageal teeth protruded out of the mouth, the number and arrangement of cephalic papillae (8 papillae in 4 pairs of external circle and 4 single papillae of internal circle), the length and structure of the esophagus, and by the body length of gravid and subgravid females (267 and 258 mm, respectively). Caranginema americanum is the seventh philometrid species reported from marine and brackish water fishes in Mexico.
Osteichthyes, preferably an important warmwater species; (c) member of a third family in phylum Chordata ; (d) planktonic crustacean; (e) benthic...crustacean; (f) member of class Insecta; (g) member in phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata ; and, (h) member of family in any order of class Insecta or...class Osteichthyes (e.g., bluegill, fathead minnow, or channel catfish); c. a third family in the phylum Chordata (eag, fish or amphibian); d. a
Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.
This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.
Hesterman, H; Jones, S M
Improved knowledge of the breeding biology of carnivorous marsupials is warranted given their heightened conservation status. Past studies have focused on smaller dasyurids and little is known of male reproductive physiology in the larger species. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of androgen concentrations in male devils and spotted-tailed quolls and to evaluate fecal steroid measurement as a practical, alternative technique for monitoring reproductive activity. Blood and fecal samples were collected from captive adult devils (n=6) and adult quolls (n=8). Plasma and fecal androgen concentrations were significantly positively correlated. In both species there was a significant effect of season on androgen concentrations; and the annual increase preceded female estrus activity. For devils, fecal androgens were elevated during the austral summer: peak concentrations were observed in January-February, and copulation occurred from late February-late May. In quolls, fecal androgen concentrations were highest during austral autumn/winter: the annual increase began in April and copulation occurred from mid-May to early October. The lengthy period of elevated plasma and fecal androgens and protracted annual period of mating activity implies a period of extended spermatogenesis in both species.
Tak, Udon Thani , Uttaradit. Vietnam: Balang Quang, Leng Vei RVN, Kon Turn, Plei Djeziug, Tonkin. Anophezes sawadwongpomi is widely distributed in...Nilgiri Hills. Tha%mdt Chaing Mai, Kanchanaburi, Loei, Mae Hong Son, Phrae, Udon Thani . Taxonomy. Christophers (1924) did not disclose the number of...Hong Son, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Phang Nga, Phet Buri, Phetchabun, Phrae, Phitsanulok, Prachin Buri, Pathum Thani , Sakon Nakhon, Saraburi
Condition factor of Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (OSTEICHTHYES, CHARACIDAE) parasitised by Paracymothoa astyanaxi Lemos de Castro, 1955 (CRUSTACEA, CYMOTHOIDAE) in the Grande River, Serra do Mar State Park - Santa Virgínia Unit, São Paulo, Brazil.
Gomiero, L M; Souza, U P; Braga, F M S
In this work the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Astyanax intermedius parasitised and not by Paracymothoa astyanaxi were analysed in the Grande River. The length-weight relationship was estimated for females, males and immatures, and seasonally for the fishes and the parasites through the expression W = aLb. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens differed seasonally and between sexes, contrasting with the results for parasitised fishes which showed no differences between sexes and season. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens was higher than that of the parasitised fishes. Specimens of Astyanax intermedius parasitised do not have the same biotic conditions compared to non-parasitised individuals, in which the condition factor was similar over the years. In conclusion, parasitism by P. astyanaxi has deleterious effects on this host population which may cause changes in the reproductive and food dynamics of parasitised specimens due to low body conditions.
Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin
Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan
Abstract Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA. PMID:25349672
Metazoa parasites of the invasive round goby Apollonia melanostoma (Neogobius melanostomus) (Pallas) (Gobiidae: Osteichthyes) in the Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea, Poland: a comparison with the Black Sea.
Kvach, Yuriy; Skóra, Krzysztof E
The known metazoa parasite fauna of the invasive round goby Apollonia melanostoma (formerly Neogobius melanostomus) consists of 12 species. The core of the parasite fauna comprises two species: Cryptocotyle concavum and Diplostomum spathaceum; secondary species are absent; satellite species include Cercariae gen. sp. and Ergasilus sieboldi; rare species are Acanthocephalus lucii, Anguillicola crassus, Bothriocephalus sp., Dichelyne minutus, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Piscicola geometra, and Tylodelphys clavata. Fifty percent of metazoa parasites that occurred in the invasive round goby in the Gulf of Gdańsk (an invasion that was first detected in 1990) are also typically found in the native Gulf of Gdańsk gobiids. The round goby hosts common fish parasite species: C. concavum and D. minutus, but none that are unique to the species and no Ponto-Caspian parasites. Notably, the parasite species of the invasive round goby in the Gulf of Gdańsk includes species that are atypical for this species in its native habitat. In its new habitat, the round goby variously serves the roles of definitive, second intermediate, and paratenic host for different parasite species. The fish species is involved in a parasitic system that includes fish-eating birds, fishes of different ecological groups (predatory, planktivorous, and benthivorous), and invertebrates.
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.
Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.
Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Macroderoididae) in Astyanax aeneus (Gunther, 1860) and Bryconamericus scleroparius (Regan, 1908) (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.
Choudhury, Anindo; Daverdin, Rita Hartvigsen; Brooks, Daniel R
Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. is described from the small-bodied characids Astyanax aeneus and Bryconamericus scleroparius in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica. The species differs from W. valenciae in possessing an acetabulum that is smaller than the oral sucker and vitelline follicles that are ovoid or rounded rather than elongate and tubular. Detailed comparison between these 2 species is handicapped by the less than satisfactory condition of the type and only museum specimen of W. valenciae. Wallinia chavarriae and W. valenciae belong to a subfamily of trematodes, Walliniinae, that arguably includes Creptotrematina spp., Magnivitellum simplex, and possibly Margotrema. The morphology of walliniines suggests that they are macroderoidids, but a clearer understanding of their classification could be gained from their larval morphology or from molecular systematic studies. The host associations of a monophyletic Walliniinae would indicate diversification within 2 groups of freshwater fishes: the neotropical characids for species of Wallinia, Creptotrematina, and Magnivitellum and the endemic central Mexican goodeids for those of Margotrema. The biogeography and host associations of these parasites provide a system for studies of potential host switching and vicariance, involving the middle-American and neotropical regions.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor-I and myostatin during development of Dicentrarchus labrax (Pisces: Osteichthyes).
Patruno, Marco; Sivieri, Susanna; Poltronieri, Carlo; Sacchetto, Roberta; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Martinello, Tiziana; Funkenstein, Bruria; Radaelli, Giuseppe
The distribution of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and myostatin (MSTN) was investigated in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR indicated that IGF-I mRNA increased from the second day post-hatching and that this trend became significant from day 4. ISH confirmed a strong IGF-I mRNA expression from the first week post-hatching, with the most abundant expression being detected in the liver of larvae and adults. Real-time PCR also showed that the level of MSTN mRNA increased significantly from day 25. The expression of MSTN mRNA was higher in muscle and almost absent in other anatomical regions in both larvae and adults. Interestingly, the lateral muscle showed a quantitative differential expression of IGF-I and MSTN mRNAs in red and white muscle, depending on the developmental stage examined. IGF-I immunoreactivity was detected in developing intestine at hatching and in skeletal muscle, skin and yolk sac. MSTN immunostaining was evident in several tissues and organs in both larvae and adults. Both IGF-I and MSTN proteins were detected in the liver from day 4 post-hatching and, subsequently, in the kidney and heart muscle from day 10. Our results suggest, on the basis of a combined methodological approach, that IGF-I and MSTN are involved in the regulation of somatic growth in the sea bass.
Kyogoku, Daisuke; Sota, Teiji
Reproductive interference through mating between related species can cause fitness reduction and affect population dynamics of the interacting species. In experimental matings between two seed beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus, C. maculatus females, but not C. chinensis females, suffer from significant loss of fecundity when conspecific mating is followed by heterospecific mating. We hypothesized that male traits associated with sexual conflict, which are often harmful to females, pleiotropically affect fitness of heterospecific females through interspecific mating. We examined the effect of ejaculate of C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females as the cause of the fecundity loss in C. maculatus females due to interspecific copulation. We found that frequent interspecific copulation occurred between C. maculatus females and C. chinensis males, but not between C. chinensis females and C. maculatus males, resulting in frequent interspecific ejaculate transfer from C. chinensis males to C. maculatus females. However, injection of the extract from C. chinensis male reproductive organs into C. maculatus females did not significantly affect C. maculatus fecundity compared with saline injection, indicating that the effect of the heterospecific ejaculate transfer on fecundity is negligible. We suggest that other harmful male traits such as genital spines of C. chinensis males are mainly responsible for the fecundity reduction in C. maculatus females that have experienced interspecific mating.
Delarbre, C; Spruyt, N; Delmarre, C; Gallut, C; Barriel, V; Janvier, P; Laudet, V; Gachelin, G
We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. The 16,697-bp-long mtDNA possesses a gene organization identical to that of the Osteichthyes, but different from that of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. The main features of the mtDNA of osteichthyans were thus established in the common ancestor to chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. The phylogenetic analysis confirms that the Chondrichthyes are the sister group of the Osteichthyes. PMID:9725850
history pat- Chordata , Class Osteichthyes; Mol- terns occur in many areas of partic- lusca, Class Gastropoda; and ular concern to agencies of the Arthropoda...waterfall. Its systematics were briefly 2 Table 1. Hawaiian stream macrofauna. Biogeographical Scientific name Common name Status Phylum Chordata
important warmwater species) in the class Osteichthyes (e.g., bluegill, fathead minnow, or channel catfish); c. a third family in the phylum Chordata (e.g...insect (e.g., mayfly, midge, stonefly); g. a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g, Annelida or Mollusca); and h. a family in any
Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.
Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa
We investigated the effects of injecting male-derived extracts on congeneric female receptivity in two species of Callosobruchus beetle, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. We also examined the influence of interspecific mating on female remating behaviour in these two species. Male-derived extracts reduced congeneric female receptivity in both species. As quick-acting components, extracts of C. chinensis male seminal vesicles reduced the receptivity of C. maculatus females, whereas extracts of C. maculatus male testes reduced the receptivity of C. chinensis females. As slow-acting components, extracts of male accessory glands of other species reduced the receptivity of both C. maculatus and chinensis females. After interspecific mating, the sperm of C. maculatus males were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. chinensis females, thereby reducing their receptivity. In contrast, no C. chinensis sperm were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. maculatus females; accordingly, the latter's receptivity was not reduced. Furthermore, the survival rate of C. chinensis females decreased markedly after interspecific mating. These results raise the possibility that under circumstances where populations of these two species share the same habitat, reproductive interference would occur only in the interactions between C. maculatus males and C. chinensis females.
Noch häufig, vor allem im englischen Sprachraum, wird für die fischartigen Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett, also die Actinopterygii und Sarcopterygii, der Begriff "Osteichthyes" (Knochenfische) verwendet. Da sich jedoch aus einem Subtaxon der Sarcopterygier die Tet rapoda entwickelten (S. 322), würde diese Gruppierung ein paraphyletisches Taxon darstellen. Hier wird daher dem Vorschlag W. Hennigs (1983) gefolgt und die Schwestergruppe der Chondrichthyes Osteognathostomata genannt: Sie enthält alle weiteren kiefertragenden Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett (Name!) (Abb. 201). Die Sarcopterygii umfassen demnach verschiedene fossile Gruppen, die rezenten Reliktgruppen der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) sowie die Tetrapoda und ihre Stammgruppenvertreter. (Neuerdings wird in der Literatur aus denselben Gründen einer konsequent phylogenetischen Systematisierung wieder die Gruppierung Osteichthyes, aber unter Einschluss der Tetrapoda, verwendet!).
Zou, Jun; Redmond, Anthony K; Qi, Zhitao; Dooley, Helen; Secombes, Chris J
This article will review current knowledge on CXCR in fish, that represent three distinct vertebrate groups: Agnatha (jawless fishes), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes). With the sequencing of many fish genomes, information on CXCR in these species in particular has expanded considerably. In mammals, 6 CXCRs have been described, and their homologues will be initially reviewed before considering a number of atypical CXCRs and a discussion of CXCR evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
family in the class Osteichthyes, preferably a commercially or recreationally important warm water species, 3) third family in the phylum Chordata which...may be a fish or other aquatic Chordata , 4) planktonic crustacean, 5) benthic crustacean, 6) insect, 7) family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or... Chordata , and 8) family in any order of insect or any phylum not already represented. 2.1.2 Criterion Continuous Concentration The Criterion Continuous
Qu, Ling; Webb, M D; Dai, Ren-Huai
A new leafhopper genus and species Forficus maculatus Qu gen. nov., sp. nov. of the subtribe Paraboloponina (Deltocephalinae, Drabescini) are described from China. A checklist to the Paraboloponina from China is given and a key to genera is provided.
Fernández, Maria V; Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana
Galaxias maculatus (small puyen) is an abundant native fish distributed in lakes and rivers of the Patagonia, and it is the frequent prey of other fishes, fish-eating birds, and mammals. Previous studies have shown that it is parasitized by 33 metazoan species and that the richness and composition of the parasite communities vary between lakes. The aim of the present work was to analyze the relationship between the composition of fish assemblages and the helminth component community structure of G. maculatus . Ten environmentally similar, small, shallow lakes, belonging to the Nahuel Huapi Lake basin, were chosen because of the differences in the native fish assemblages. Parasite community structure in G. maculatus varied according to the fish assemblage of each lake. The presence of the piscivorous fish Percichthys trucha regularly produced variations in the composition and richness at the component and infracommunity levels, as well as the percentage of autogenic parasite species in G. maculatus .
Neita-Moreno, J C; Morón, M A; Zuluaga-Correa, C A
The third instar of the genera Ceraspis, Clavipalpus, Isonychus and Manopus (Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) are described for the first time. Descriptions are based on the larvae of Ceraspis innotata (Blanchard), Clavipalpus ursinus Blanchard, Isonychus maculatus Waterhouse and Manopus biguttatus Laporte. The pupae of C. ursinus, I. maculatus and M. biguttatus are also described. A key to the larvae of nine genera of Macrodactylini and a list of the species with immature descriptions are provided.
Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal
Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.
Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldorth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathan; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B
Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, Xiphophorus maculatus and Xiphophorus couchianus, and their F(1) interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈5-10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F(1) interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the in silico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F(1) interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
any phylum not represented* e.g., the mayfly nymph Heuaaeuia sp.; and a family in a phylum other than Arthropods or Chordata , e.g., the aquatic...important waruwater species) in the class Osteichthyes (e.g., bluegill, fathead minnow, or channel catfish); c. a third family in the phylum Chordata ...an insect (e.g., mayfly, midge, stonefly); g. a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata "(e.g, Annelida or Molluscs); and h. a family in
Sphingoids in the intestinal lipids of an agnatha, a chondrichthyes, two osteichthyes, three amphibia, three reptiles and two avian species were analyzed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The glycolipid fraction of all the samples studied contained 4-D-hydroxysphinganine as the major component together with sphingosine and sphinganine. While the trihydroxy base was not found in their sphingomyelin fraction. The trihydroxy base was considered to be a characteristic component of the intestinal glycolipids for the vertebrates in general. Its concentration in the intestinal tissue had little correlation with the food habitat of the animals.
Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W
The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use.
Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus has a major migut proteinase of the thiol type which is powerfully inhibited by E-64. We devised a technique for preparing and incorporating proteinases inhibitors into artificial cowpeas: E-64, at concentrations as low as 0.01% (w/w), slowed development, increased mortality, and reduced fecundity. Clearly, thiol proteinase inhibitors in the diet of C. maculatus have a severe impact on this insect and could prevent economic infestations from developing were such inhibitors present in their natural food, i.e., cowpeas.
Ritossa, Luciano; Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo
In Patagonia, populations of the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus are parasitized by metacercariae of a species of Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae). The aim of this work was to describe larval and adult stages of this species in experimental and natural hosts from an Andean Patagonian lake. Specimens of G. maculatus and the pulmonate snail, Anisancylus obliquus, were collected in Patagua Lake. The snails were isolated in individual containers to observe emergence of cercariae, dissected, and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to record sporocysts and cercariae. Fish were examined to obtain metacercariae, and uninfected fish from Gutiérrez Lake were exposed to cercariae from A. obliquus to obtain experimental metacercariae. Chicks and mice were infected with metacercariae from naturally infected G. maculatus to obtain experimental adults. Specimens recovered belong to Posthodiplostomum sp. on the basis of morphological features. This is the first description of sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults stages of a Posthodiplostomum species in Patagonia, including data about its natural intermediate hosts.
Kishi, Shigeki; Nishida, Takayoshi; Tsubaki, Yoshitaka
1. Reproductive interference is a negative interspecific sexual interaction that adversely affects the fitness of males and females during reproductive process. Theoretical studies suggest that because reproductive interference is characterized by positive frequency dependence it is far more likely to cause species exclusion than the density dependence of resource competition. However, the respective contributions of resource competition and reproductive interference to species exclusion, which have been frequently observed in many competition studies, remain unclear. 2. We show that reproductive interference is a far more critical cause of species exclusion than resource competition in the competition between Callosobruchus bean weevil species. In competition experiments over several generations, we manipulated the initial relative abundance of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, and the southern cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. When the initial adult ratio of C. chinensis : C. maculatus were 6 : 2 and 4 : 4, C. chinensis excluded C. maculatus. However, when C. maculatus was four times more abundant than C. chinensis at the start, we observed the opposite outcome. 3. A behavioural experiment using adults of the two species revealed asymmetric reproductive interference. The fecundity and longevity of C. maculatus females, but not those of C. chinensis females, decreased when the females were kept with heterospecific males. Fecundities of females of both species decreased as the number of heterospecific males increased. In contrast, resource competition at the larval stage resulted in higher survival of C. maculatus than of C. chinensis. 4. These results suggest that the positive frequency-dependent effect of reproductive interference resulted in species exclusion, depending on the initial population ratio of the two species, and the asymmetry of the interference resulted in C. chinensis being dominant in this study, as in previous studies
Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.
E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.
Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma A; Zúñiga-Vega, J Jaime
Sperm storage within the female reproductive tract has been reported as a reproductive strategy in several species of vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the morphological structures that allow for sperm to be stored and kept viable for long periods are relatively unknown in osteichthyes. We use histological and stereological tools to identify and quantify sperm storage structures (spermathecae) in 12 species of viviparous Poeciliidae. We found spermathecae in nine species, six of which exhibit superfetation (the ability of females to simultaneously carry within the ovary two or more broods of embryos at different stages of development). These spermathecae are folds of ovarian tissue that close around spermatozoa. We compared the number and size (volume) of spermathecae between species with and without superfetation. Species that exhibit superfetation had a significantly higher number of spermathecae than species that do not exhibit this reproductive strategy. In addition, we found that the mean volume of spermathecae and total volume of spermathecae present in the ovary are marginally higher in species with superfetation. Our results contribute to the understanding of the morphological structures that allow for sperm storage in viviparous osteichthyes and suggest a positive relationship between superfetation and the capacity of females to store sperm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jansen, Hans J.; Dirks, Ron P.
In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances of genomic technologies applied to studies of fish species belonging to the superclass of Osteichthyes (bony fish) with a major emphasis on the infraclass of Teleostei, also called teleosts. This superclass that represents more than 50% of all known vertebrate species has gained considerable attention from genome researchers in the last decade. We discuss many examples that demonstrate that this highly deserved attention is currently leading to new opportunities for answering important biological questions on gene function and evolutionary processes. In addition to giving an overview of the technologies that have been applied for studying various fish species we put the recent advances in genome research on the model species zebrafish and medaka in the context of its impact for studies of all fish of the superclass of Osteichthyes. We thereby want to illustrate how the combined value of research on model species together with a broad angle perspective on all bony fish species will have a huge impact on research in all fields of fundamental science and will speed up applications in many societally important areas such as the development of new medicines, toxicology test systems, environmental sensing systems and sustainable aquaculture strategies. PMID:24291769
Milewski, Antoni V; Dierenfeld, Ellen S
Tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) are the only living vertebrates, beyond the order Proboscidea, found to possess a true proboscis, defined as a flexible tubular extension of the joint narial and upper labial musculature that serves, at least in part, to grasp food. Tapirs show only partial homology and analogy with elephants in the narial and upper labial structures, as well as in the skull bones and teeth. However, superficially similar extensions in other extant vertebrates differ greatly in anatomy and function. Therefore, they deserve new names: prorhiscis (e.g. Mammalia: Saiga tatarica), prorhinosis (e.g. Chondrichthyes: Callorhinchus spp.), prorhynchis (e.g. Osteichthyes: Campylomormyrus spp.) and progeneiontis (e.g. Osteichthyes: Gnathonemus spp.). Among non-mammalian vertebrates, no bird or reptile is known to possess a proboscis. Among fishes, there are various extensions of the rostrum, jaws, 'nose' and 'chin' that lack the required narial involvement. The skulls of extinct mammals within (e.g. deinotheres) and beyond (e.g. astrapotheres) the Proboscidea confirm that a proboscis evolved independently in several mammalian lineages before the Pliocene. This convergence with tapirs presumably reflects, in part, the advantages of concentrating the olfactory sensor on what is, effectively, the tip of a long mobile upper lip. However, the proboscis does not appear to have arisen de novo in any vertebrate post-Pliocene, and its continued evolution has apparently depended on the further development of its length, flexibility and innervations, as epitomized by elephants.
Wilhelm, Benjamin C; Du, Trina Y; Standen, Emily M; Larsson, Hans C E
Polypterus, a member of the most primitive living group of ray-finned fishes, has demonstrated the ability to perform fin-assisted terrestrial locomotion, a behavior that indicates a complex pectoral musculoskeletal system. Review of the literature reveals that many aspects of the pectoral muscular anatomy of Polypterus are still unclear, with a number of conflicting descriptions. We provide a new interpretation of the pectoral musculature using soft tissue-enhanced microCT scanning and gross anatomical dissection. The results demonstrate a complex musculature, with six independent muscles crossing the glenoid-fin joint. Comparisons with other bony-fish (Osteichthyes), including both ray-finned (Actinopterygii) and lobed-fin (Sarcopterygii) fish, indicate the presence of novel muscles within Polypterus: coracometapterygialis I+II and the zonopropterygialis medialis. Examination of these muscular additions in the context of osteichthyan phylogeny indicates that this represents a previously unrecognized event in the evolution of pectoral musculature in Osteichthyes. Despite its phylogenetic position as a basal actinopterygian, the musculature of Polypterus has more similarities both anatomically and functionally with that of sarcopterygians. This anatomy, along with other features of Polypterus anatomy such as lobed fins, ventral paired lungs, and a large spiracle, may make it a good model for inferences of stem tetrapod locomotion.
Chahud, Artur; Petri, Setembrino
The taphonomy of Early Permian vertebrates from a sandy facies at the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation, was surveyed in order to acquire data for the interpretation of the sedimentary processes and paleoenvironment of deposition. Six outcrops from the Rio Claro municipality and surrounding areas, from the Brazilian State of São Paulo, were investigated. The vertebrate groups are Chondrichthyes (Xenacanthiformes, Ctenacanthiformes and Petalodontiformes), Osteichthyes (Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii) and Tetrapodomorpha. They occur as loose teeth, scales, spines and bone remains. The sandy facies is characterized by fining upward deposition. The coarser sandstone immediately above the underlying Tatuí Formation is rich in Chondrichthyes. However, the fine sandstone above, immediately beneath the silty shale facies, is devoid of Chondrichthyes, though Osteichthyes scales, teeth and bones were present. The taphonomy is important for inferring sedimentary processes and then the paleoenvironments. The poor sorting of the sandstone and the presence of fossils that are mostly abraded or worn are indicative of a high energy environment. In contrast, the presence of fossils in a good state of preservation, some without abrasion and breakages are indicative of only limited transport. Differences of fossil spatial density, numbers of specimens and taxa may be explained by the dynamics of deposition, from details of the palaeoenvironment can be obtained.
Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.
Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…
Jared Verner; Dawn Breese; Kathryn L. Purcell
We tested the null hypotheses of (1) no effect of band color and (2) no effect of number of bands worn on annual recapture rates of birds on their winter range. Results are reported from four species of granivores-Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus), Goldencrowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) , White-crowned Sparrow (2. leucophrys) , and Darkeyed Junco (Junco...
Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos
One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided.
D.N. Appel; K. Anderson; R. Lewis
In 1984-85 free-flying nitidulids were trapped in centers of oak wilt, Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, for 1 year at six locations in central Texas. Two of the 10 species identified, Cryptarcha concinna Melsheimer and Coiopterus maculatus (Erichson), accounted for 57 and 35%, respectively, of the total...
Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.
We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…
Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio
Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided.
Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês
This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.
Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.
Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…
A series of tests was conducted to evaluate susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), the hide beetle, to a new insecticide (Tekko®) which contained the IGR pyreproxyfen and the chiten...
To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...
Zemlak, Tyler S; Walde, Sandra J; Habit, Evelyn M; Ruzzante, Daniel E
Patagonia is one of the few areas in the Southern Hemisphere to have been directly influenced by Quaternary glaciers. In this study, we evaluate the influence that Quaternary glacial ice had on the genetic diversity of two congeneric fish species, the diadromous Galaxias maculatus and the nondiadromous Galaxias platei, using multilocus estimates of effective population size through time. Mid-Quaternary glaciations had far-reaching consequences for both species. Galaxias maculatus and G. platei each experienced severe genetic bottlenecks during the period when Patagonia ice sheet advance reached its maximum positions c. 1.1-0.6 Ma. Concordant drops in effective size during this time suggest that range sizes were under similar constraints. It is therefore unlikely that coastal (brackish/marine) environments served as a significant refuge for G. maculatus during glacial periods. An earlier onset of population declines for G. platei suggests that this species was vulnerable to modest glacial advances. Declines in effective sizes were continuous for both species and lasted into the late-Pleistocene. However, G. maculatus exhibited a strong population recovery during the late-Quaternary (c. 400,000 bp). Unusually long and warm interglacials associated with the late-Quaternary may have helped to facilitate a strong population rebound in this primarily coastal species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Baker, C F
This study evaluated the effect of ramp length and slope on fish passage over baffled ramps with 15° and 30° gradients. Three fish species indigenous to New Zealand were tested: the redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus and the inanga Galaxias maculatus with ramp lengths of 3, 4·5 and 6 m. As slope and ramp length increased, passage success rate decreased for G. maculatus and G. cotidianus. At a slope of 15°, both G. maculatus and G. cotidianus could pass all ramp lengths tested with the highest success rate on the 3 m ramp. As the gradient increased to 30°, G. maculatus could only pass the 3 m ramp, and G. cotidianus were incapable of passing any ramp. Gobiomorphus huttoni were the only test species capable of climbing the wetted margin of the ramps. Increasing ramp slope significantly reduced passage success for G. huttoni, but ramp length, up to the maximum used in this study, had no significant influence on successful passage. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.
Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.
Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; Costa, Igor Rodrigues da; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Furtado, Carolina; Prosdocimi, Francisco
Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes.
Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; da Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Furtado, Carolina; Prosdocimi, Francisco
Abstract Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes. PMID:27648766
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T
Three dactylogyrid (Monogenea) species are described from the gills of siluriform fishes from the rivers around Iquitos, tributaries of the Amazon River in Peru: Demidospermus centromochli n. sp. from Centromochlus heckelii (de Filippi) (Auchenipteridae) and Demidospermus macropteri n. sp. and Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. from Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein) (Pimelodidae). The new species of Demidospermus differ from their congeners in having 2 different hook shapes. Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. differs from the other 3 species of the genus in having anchors with an elongate, straight shaft and a short point that forms a 90 degrees angle, a coiled (counterclockwise) male copulatory organ with 13-14 rings, and a coiled vaginal tube. Based on the present study, Pseudovancleaveus Franca, Issac, Pavanelli, and Takemoto, 2003, is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000. The finding of Demidospermus and Ameloblastella spp. on these siluriforms extends our host and geographic knowledge of species of these monogenean genera to Peru.
Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues
The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.
Transitional forms of the recent classes of vertebrates are only known in paleontology. The well described examples are: Eusthenopteron foordi (Crossopterygii), Ichthyostega and Acanthostega (Labyrinthodontia) between Osteichthyes and Amphibia, Seymouria baylorensis (Amphibiosaria) between Amphibia and Reptilia, Archaeopteryx lithographica (Archaeornithes) between Reptilia and Aves, and the mammal-like reptiles Pelycosauria, Therapsida and Cynodontia between Reptilia and Aves, and the description of their phylogenetical heterochronies in terms of peramorphosis and paedomorphosis shows the progressive role of the motorial, especially the locomotorial organ systems and their functions in comparison with the retarded evolution of the axial system, especially the skull and central nervous system. The evolution of the Hominidae shows the same rule. The evaluation of these transitional forms in their fossil context reveals them as inhabitants of biotopes situated in the border areas of coastal and shore landscapes of marine, brackish or fresh water. These biotopes have obviously favoured the innovations on the high taxonimic level of macro-evolutionary characteristics.
The life cycle of Metagonimus miyatai Saito, Chai, Kim, Lee and Rim, 1997 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) was studied in the Hiroi River at Kotobuki, Iiyama City, Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Daughter rediae and cercariae were found in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) and S. dolorosa (Gould) (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae). Metacercariae were found encysted in Phoxinus lagowskii steindachneri Sauvage (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae). Cercariae were experimentally exposed to P. lagowskii steindachneri, and metacercariae were obtained from the fish. Metacercariae of natural and experimental infections were experimentally fed to respective golden hamsters, and gravid adults identifiable as M. miyatai were recovered from the small intestine of the golden hamsters. The daughter redia, cercaria, metacercariae and adults are described. The life cycle of M. miyatai is discussed.
Lane, David P; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Lee, Alison P; Tay, Boon-Hui; Verma, Chandra; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa
Analysis of the genome of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a member of the cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes), reveals that it encodes all three members of the p53 gene family, p53, p63 and p73, each with clear homology to the equivalent gene in bony vertebrates (Class Osteichthyes). Thus, the gene duplication events that lead to the presence of three family members in the vertebrates dates to before the Silurian era. It also encodes Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes but does not encode the p19(Arf) gene. Detailed comparison of the amino acid sequences of these proteins in the vertebrates reveals that they are evolving at highly distinctive rates, and this variation occurs not only between the three family members but extends to distinct domains in each protein.
Mattos, D P B G; Verícimo, M A; Lopes, L M S; São Clemente, S C
The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 μg of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges, 60-75 and 30-40 kDa, and that IgE recognizes larger proteins over 120 kDa. This appears to be the first report on the immunogenicity of metacestodes within the Pterobothriidae and that PH-CPE is a potential inducer of a specific IgE response.
Cardona, Luis; Hereu, Bernat; Torras, Xavier
Previous research has suggested that competitive bottlenecks may exist for the Mediterranean grey mullets (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) at the fry stage with the exotic Cyprinus carpio (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) playing a central role. As a consequence, the structure of grey mullet assemblages at later stages is thought to reflect previous competition as well as differences in osmoregulatory skills. This paper tests that hypothesis by examining four predictions about the relative abundance of five grey mullet species in 42 Western Mediterranean estuary sites from three areas (Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Ebro Delta and Minorca) differing in the salinity level and occurrence of C. carpio. Field data confirmed the predictions as: (1) Liza aurata and Mugil cephalus were scarce everywhere and never dominated the assemblage; (2) Liza saliens dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was higher than 13; (3) Liza ramado always dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was present; and (4) Chelon labrosus dominated the assemblage only where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was absent. The catch per unit effort of C. labrosus of any size was smaller in the presence of C. carpio than where it had not been introduced, which is in agreement with the juvenile competitive bottleneck hypothesis. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the assemblage structure was linked to the salinity level and the occurrence of C. carpio for both early juveniles and late juveniles as well as adults. The data reported here reveal that the structure of grey mullet assemblages inhabiting Mediterranean estuaries is determined by salinity and competitive interactions at the fry stage.
Anderson, M. E.; Almond, J. E.; Evans, F. J.; Long, J. A.
Four major groups of fish are represented by fragmentary remains from South Africa's Lower Bokkeveld Group of Early to Middle Devonian age: the Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi and Osteichthyes. These represent the oldest known occurrences of these groups in southern Africa, as well as an important addition to the very meagre record of earlier Devonian fish from the Malvinokaffric Province of southwestern Gondwana. Bokkeveld fish material comes from the Gydo (Late Emsian) and Tra Tra (Middle Eifelian) Formations of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces. The cosmopolitan marine acanthodian Machæracanthus is represented only by isolated fin spines which may belong to two different species on the basis of their external ornamentation, cross-sectional outline and internal histology. The elasmobranchs are represented by four elements: (1) a flattened chondrocranium which bears affinity to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous symmoriid (protacrodont) 'cladodont' sharks. It is probably the earliest known (Emsian) shark chondrocranium; (2) an isolated, primitive scapulocoracoid with a very short coracoidal ridge; (3) ankylosed and isolated radials, interpreted as parts of pterygial plates of a paired fin of an unknown chondrichthyan bearing affinity to the Middle Devonian Zamponiopteron from Bolivia; and (4) isolated barlike structures, perhaps gill arch or a jaw elements, thought to be from the same taxon as (3). The placoderms are represented by an incomplete trunk armour and fragmentary, finely ornamented plates of a primitive antiarch. The Osteichthyes are represented by a single large scale of an unidentified dipnoan from the Eifelian of the Cedarberg range, as well as a probable sarcopterygian dermal plate from the Emsian of the Prince Albert area. These are among the earliest sarcopterygian remains recorded from the Malvinokaffric Province.
Kyogoku, D; Sota, T
Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species.
Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa
Analyses of proximate mechanisms that control mating and oviposition behaviours in insects are important because they link behavioural ecology and physiology. Recently, seed beetles have been used as models to study evolution of female multiple mating and cost of reproduction including mating. In the present study, we investigated the effects of biogenic amines into the abdomens of females of two Callosobruchus species, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus, on mating receptivity and oviposition behaviour. In C. chinensis, injection of octopamine and tyramine reduced receptivity to mating and tyramine and serotonin increased the number of eggs laid. Similarly, injection of tyramine reduced the receptivity of females and increased the number of eggs laid by females of C. maculatus. These results show the possibility that biogenic amines control mating receptivity and oviposition behaviour in females of two Callosobruchus species.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D
The aim of this work was to study taphonomic marks that cadaveric coleopteran can produce under controlled conditions. To evaluate this, pig trotters were initially exposed to adults of Dermestes maculatus De Geer at 21 ± 5°C and a 12:12-h day/night cycle. Observations were made and photographs taken every 4-5 days for 9 months. When feeding and reproducing, D. maculatus produced, in both adult and larvae stages, different types of marks such as holes, striations, scratches, and pits in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective, and muscular, in both their fresh and dried stages. Bite marks were also evident. The results in this study provide not only taphonomic but also biological and forensic information. This is the first time that this kind of experiment has been performed. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj
Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays.
Jellyman, P G; Harding, J S
A series of 14 day experiments was conducted on five common New Zealand fish species (redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, inanga Galaxias maculatus, brown trout Salmo trutta, longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii and koaro Galaxias brevipinnis) to assess the effect of pH on survival and changes in body mass. No species survived in water of pH <4 although there was 100% survival of all adults at pH 4.5, G. maculatus larvae were also tested and had high mortality at this pH. Results suggest that adults are tolerant of low-pH waters; however, successful remediation of anthropogenically acidified streams will require an understanding of the susceptibility to low pH on different life cycle stages. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Habitat Fish Common snook a Centropomus undecimalis NL SSC Uses mangroves for spawning. Mammals Florida mouse Podomys floridanus NL SSC Prefers...gopher frog, Florida mouse , and burrowing owl) because other species use inactive gopher tortoise burrows for shelter (GTC 2001). Removal and...Lutjanus synagris -- X X -- Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus -- X X X Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus -- X -- X Spiny lobster Panulirus argus
chemicals currently used in mosquito control. KEY WORDS mode of action, mosquitoes, nookatone, thymoquinone, carvacrol Commercial insecticides used in...food (Tetra Holding, Blacksburg, VA). Pupae produced in a single day were separated from larvae in cohorts of 600 and put into 35- by 35- by 35-cm...ofAedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatusSay, andAnopheles quadri- maculatus Say to 19 pesticides with different modes of action. J. Med. Entomol. 45: 82Ð87
Contreras, Adam J.; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P.; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B.
Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during experimental treatment and UVB exposure in X. maculatus Jp 163 B, X. couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B x X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32 kJ/m2) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino X. hellerii were exposed to UVB (32 kJ/m2). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumour induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes. PMID:24625568
Chen, Ye; Li, Cheng-de
Eight species of Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) from China are reviewed. Three species, A. pseudonepalensis sp. nov., A. truncaticlavus sp. nov. and A. maculigaster sp. nov. are newly described, four species, A. meghalayanus Hayat, A. huberi Hayat, A. sharpae Hayat, and A. maculatus Yasnosh are reported as new to China, and A. asychis Walker is newly reported from Tibet, China. A key to the Chinese species of Aphelinus based on females is given.
in ELISA testing. A cone-shaped plastic pestle is attached to a Dremel drill and the mosquito is homogenized. At a laboratory, each Eppendorf tube is...understanding of the current practice for obtaining mosquitoes for testing. We recieved a plastic eppendorf tube and a plastic pestle used to homogenize...maculatus in peninsular Malaysia . Maheswary, N.P., M.A., Habib, M. Elias. Southeast Asian J. Trop; Med Public Health (1992) 23:798-801. Incrimination of
Background Cichlid fishes show considerable diversity in swim bladder morphology. In members of the subfamily Etroplinae, the connection between anterior swim bladder extensions and the inner ears enhances sound transmission and translates into an improved hearing ability. We tested the hypothesis that those swim bladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology and thus compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swim bladder), Hemichromis guttatus (large swim bladder without extensions), and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swim bladder and inner ears). Methodology and results We applied immunostaining together with confocal imaging and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast-enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D, and evaluated otolith dimensions. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Conclusions Our results imply that improved audition in E. maculatus is associated not only with swim bladder modifications but also with altered inner ear morphology. However, not all modifications in E. maculatus could be connected to enhanced auditory abilities, and so a potential improvement of the vestibular sense, among others, also needs to be considered. Our study highlights the value of analyzing orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in their intact 3
Hausch, Stephen J; Fox, Jeremy W; Vamosi, Steven M
Interspecific resource competition is expected to select for divergence in resource use, weakening interspecific relative to intraspecific competition, thus promoting stable coexistence. More broadly, because interspecific competition reduces fitness, any mechanism of interspecific competition should generate selection favoring traits that weaken interspecific competition. However, species also can adapt to competition by increasing their competitive ability, potentially destabilizing coexistence. We reared two species of bean beetles, the specialist Callosobruchus maculatus and the generalist C. chinensis, in allopatry and sympatry on a mixture of adzuki beans and lentils, and assayed mutual invasibility after four, eight, and twelve generations of evolution. Contrary to the expectation that coevolution of competitors will weaken interspecific competition, the rate of mutual invasibility did not differ between sympatry and allopatry. Rather, the invasion rate of C. chinensis, but not C. maculatus, increased with duration of evolution, as C. chinensis adapted to lentils without experiencing reduced adaptation to adzuki beans, and regardless of the presence or absence of C. maculatus. Our results highlight that evolutionary responses to interspecific competition promote stable coexistence only under specific conditions that can be difficult to produce in practice.
Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F
In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.
Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg
Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.
Fox, Charles W; Scheibly, Kristy L; Wallin, William G; Hitchcock, Lisa J; Stillwell, R Craig; Smith, Benjamin P
We examine the inbreeding load for adult life span and mortality rates of two seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. Inbreeding load differs substantially between males and females in both study populations of C. maculatus--life span of inbred females was 9-13% shorter than the life span of outbred females, whereas the life span of inbred males did not differ from the life span of outbred males. The effect of inbreeding on female life span was largely due to an increase in the slope of the mortality curve. In contrast, inbreeding had only a small effect on the life span of S. limbatus--life spans of inbred beetles were approximately 5% shorter than those of outbred beetles, and there was no difference in inbreeding load between the sexes. The inbreeding load for mean life span was approximately 0.4-0.6 lethal equivalents per haploid gamete for female C. maculatus and approximately 0.2-0.3 for both males and females of S. limbatus, all within the range of estimates commonly obtained for Drosophila. However, contrary to the predictions of mutation-accumulation models, inbreeding load for loci affecting mortality rates did not increase with age in either species, despite an effect of inbreeding on the initial rate of increase in mortality. This was because mortality rates decelerated with age and converged to a mortality plateau for both outbred and inbred beetles.
Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R
Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides.
Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa
In some insect species, certain substances in the seminal fluid of males induce egg production and laying in females. We determined the effects of male-derived substances on female oviposition behaviour in two Callosobruchus species, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. Aqueous extracts of the accessory gland; testis; and seminal vesicle, including the ejaculatory duct, were prepared. The injection of these extracts into abdomen of females induced oviposition in both species. Oviposition was induced by the testis and seminal vesicle extracts in C. chinensis and by the accessory gland extracts in C. maculatus. The extracts were separated into three fractions by ultrafiltration: fractions I, molecular weight (MW) <3 kDa; fraction II, 3-14 kDa; and fraction III, >14 kDa. Fraction III induced oviposition in both species. These results suggest that in these two species, the substances that induce oviposition have similar MW but are present in different organs. Oviposition was induced by high-MW (>14 kDa) substances in the testis and seminal vesicle in C. chinensis, and by high-MW substances in accessory gland in C. maculatus. Here, we have discussed the relationship between oviposition and the abovementioned male-derived substances.
Brown, Denise V.
Across the animal kingdom the duration of copulation varies enormously from a few seconds to several days. Functional explanations for this variation are largely embedded within sperm competition theory in which males modulate the duration of copula in order to optimize their fitness. However, copulation is the union of two protagonists which are likely to have separate and often conflicting reproductive interests, yet few experimental designs specifically assess the effect of male–female interactions on the duration of copulation. This can result in inexact assertions over which sex controls copulatory behaviour. Here we analyse the repeatability of copulatory behaviour in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to determine which sex exerts primary influence over copulation duration. In C. maculatus, copulation follows two distinct phases: an initial quiescent phase followed by a period of vigorous female kicking behaviour that culminates in the termination of copulation. When males or females copulated with several novel mates, copulatory behaviour was not significantly repeatable. By contrast, when males or females mated repeatedly with the same mate, copula duration was repeatable. These data suggest copulatory behaviour in C. maculatus to be largely the product of male–female interactions rather than the consistent, sex-specific modulation of copula duration of one protagonist in response to the phenotypic variation presented by the other protagonist. PMID:28386449
Kyogoku, Daisuke; Sota, Teiji
Sexual selection sometimes favors male traits that benefit their bearers, but harm their mates. The harmful effects of male traits may also extend to females of other species via heterospecific mating interactions. This could affect the coexistence of closely related species during secondary contact. We examined the evolution of the interspecific interfering capability of a beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) with a congener (C. maculatus) using C. chinensis males reared under conditions of monogamy and polygamy for 17 generations. After experimental evolution, C. chinensis males reared under polygamous conditions imposed greater impacts on offspring production by C. maculatus females than did C. chinensis males reared under monogamous conditions. However, the mechanism by which differential mating regimes altered the effect of C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females was unclear, because we did not find evidence for the expected genital evolution in C. chinensis, despite their body size divergence. Our findings suggest that traits that originally evolved through sexual selection in two allopatric species could influence the coexistence of these species or the likelihood of reinforcement during secondary contact. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman
A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.
Duarte, Silvana; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson
The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032
Urbina, M A; Meredith, A S; Glover, C N; Forster, M E
The Canterbury mudfish Neochanna burrowsius was found to be a pseudo-aestivating galaxiid with a low metabolic rate and significant cutaneous oxygen uptake (c. 43%) in both air and water. Another galaxiid, inanga Galaxias maculatus, had a higher metabolic rate in both media but the proportion of oxygen uptake met by cutaneous respiration rose significantly from 38 to 63% when the fish were exposed to air. Besides its important role in oxygen uptake, the skin of both species also contributed significantly to excretion of carbon dioxide in air, indicating the critical role of the integument as a respiratory tissue. In air, G. maculatus may increase cutaneous gas exchange to meet metabolic demands owing to the reduced utility of the gills, but as emersed G. maculatus were only able to maintain metabolic rates at c. 67% of that measured in water, this strategy probably only permits short-term survival. By contrast, the low and unchanging metabolic rate in water and air in N. burrowsius is a feature that may facilitate tolerance of long periods of emersion in the desiccating environments they inhabit. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Ladich, Friedrich; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja
Background Hearing thresholds of fishes are typically acquired under laboratory conditions. This does not reflect the situation in natural habitats, where ambient noise may mask their hearing sensitivities. In the current study we investigate hearing in terms of sound pressure (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) of two cichlid species within the naturally occurring range of noise levels. This enabled us to determine whether species with and without hearing specializations are differently affected by noise. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated auditory sensitivities in the orange chromide Etroplus maculatus, which possesses anterior swim bladder extensions, and the slender lionhead cichlid Steatocranus tinanti, in which the swim bladder is much smaller and lacks extensions. E. maculatus was tested between 0.2 and 3kHz and S. tinanti between 0.1 and 0.5 kHz using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. In both species, SPL and PAL audiograms were determined in the presence of quiet laboratory conditions (baseline) and continuous white noise of 110 and 130 dB RMS. Baseline thresholds showed greatest hearing sensitivity around 0.5 kHz (SPL) and 0.2 kHz (PAL) in E. maculatus and 0.2 kHz in S. tinanti. White noise of 110 dB elevated the thresholds by 0–11 dB (SPL) and 7–11 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and by 1–2 dB (SPL) and by 1–4 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. White noise of 130 dB elevated hearing thresholds by 13–29 dB (SPL) and 26–32 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and 6–16 dB (SPL) and 6–19 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. Conclusions Our data showed for the first time for SPL and PAL thresholds that the specialized species was masked by different noise regimes at almost all frequencies, whereas the non-specialized species was much less affected. This indicates that noise can limit sound detection and acoustic orientation differently within a single fish family. PMID:23469032
Pinisetty, D.; Huang, C.; Dong, Q.; Tiersch, T.R.; Devireddy, R.V.
This study reports the subzero water transport characteristics (and empirically determined optimal rates for freezing) of sperm cells of live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, specifically those of the southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. These fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. Water transport during freezing of X. maculatus sperm cell suspensions was obtained using a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter technique in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 °C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol, and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder with a length of 52.35 μm and a diameter of 0.66 μm with an osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) of 0.6V0, where V0 is the isotonic or initial cell volume. This translates to a surface area, SA to initial water volume, WV ratio of 15.15 μm−1. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water at 0 °C, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] and the activation energy, ELp or ELp [cpa]) were found to range from: Lpg or Lpg [cpa] = 0.0053–0.0093 μm/min atm; ELp or ELp [cpa] = 9.79–29.00 kcal/mol. By incorporating these membrane permeability parameters in a recently developed generic optimal cooling rate equation (optimal cooling rate, Bopt=1009.5exp(−0.0546ELp)(Lpg)(SAWV) where the units of Bopt are °C/min, ELp or ELp [cpa] are kcal/mol, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] are μm/min atm and SA/WV are μm−1), we determined the optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells to be 28 °C/min (in HBSS), 47 °C/min (in HBSS + 14% glycerol) and 36 °C/min (in HBSS + 10% DMSO). Preliminary empirical experiments suggest that the optimal rate
Aguiar, Julio C; Maia, Antônio A M; Silva, Marcia R M; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Domingues, Marcus V; Adriano, Edson A
The present study is an integrative taxonomic analysis of Pavanelliella spp. (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae), and describes a new species from the nasal cavities of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Siluriformes Pimelodidae) from the Tapajós River (Amazon Basin, Pará state, Brazil). Pavanelliella jarii sp. n. is characterized by the presence of 3-4 rings in the male copulatory organ, the absence of rings around the vaginal atrium and by its sinuous vaginal canal, which sometimes forms 0.5-1 rings in the distal portion. The sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) of three species of Pavanelliella, Vancleaveus cicinnus, and an undetermined dactylogyrid allowed the phylogenetic reconstruction of these dactylogyrids. The analysis indicated that P. jarii sp. n. is closely related to Pavanelliella takemotoi and Pavanelliella pavanellii, which formed a sister clade to ancylodiscoidines parasites of siluriform fish from the Oriental and Afrotropical regions. The analysis also corroborated the non-monophyly of Ancyrocephalinae, revealing that ancylodiscoidines arose between ancyrocephalines lineages, in a sister relationship to pseudodactylogyrines+marine ancyrocephalines+ancyrocephalines parasites of afrotropical perciforms+dactylogyrines. Cladistical analysis indicates that the haptoral anchor/bar complex has been lost several times in the evolutionary history of Dactylogyridae. The analysis also indicated that Dactylogyrus is polyphyletic, as Acolpenteron ureteroecetes and Dactylogyroides longicirrus arose between the three lineages formed by Dactylogyrus spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš
During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.
Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F
The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction.
Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A
Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.
The relationships among families of catfishes are poorly understood and have yet to be the subject of a comprehensive investigation with molecular data. Existing phylogenetic hypotheses are based on morphological data and incompletely resolved. This study analyzed complete sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome b for 170 species from 29 of 33 extant families, and focused on the relationships of Ictaluridae to other catfishes. In addition to previous phylogenetic studies, the fossil record, paleogeography, biogeography, and distribution of extant catfish families collectively suggest the location (if extant) of the ictalurid sister taxon to be Northern or Eastern Asia. Of the extant catfishes currently native to this area and included in this analysis, parsimony and Bayesian likelihood analyses recovered Cranoglanis bouderius as the most proximal sister taxon of Ictaluridae. Seemingly, ictalurids and cranoglanidids represent another biogeographic component linking freshwater fishes of North America and eastern Asia, e.g., catostomids and paddlefishes. The results coupled with present-day catfish distributions and inferences from the fossil record collectively suggest the ancestor of Ictaluridae to have invaded freshwaters of North America at the close of the Cretaceous through northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. Other superfamilial nodes supported the results of previous phylogenetic studies of narrower taxonomic scope. Several novel relationships were recovered (including a clade composed of Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, and Heptapteridae) and these along with sources of systematic error are discussed. A broad sampling of Bagridae permitted an examination of intergeneric relationships within this family and in light of recent morphological and molecular studies.
Wang, Q R; Xu, C; Xu, C R; Wang, R J
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) and the Chinese catfish (S. asotus), was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) method. The mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences of S. meridionalis and S. asotus were compared with those of 47 other catfish species in the same order. The total length of mitochondrial DNA for S. meridionalis and S. asotus was 16,526 and 16,525 bp, respectively, and included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. This mitochondrial gene arrangement is identical to that observed in other Siluriformes. To determine the relative phylogenetic positions of S. meridionalis and S. asotus, and to discover phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes, analyses were conducted, based on mitochondrial DNA, 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of the Southern catfish (family Siluridae) and the Chinese catfish (family Siluridae) to Pimelodidae than to Bagridae. We concluded that these two species are part of a molecular clade that is different from that proposed in recent studies, in which Amblycipitidae appears as a sister group. Our results showed Amblycipitidae appearing as the most basal extant, and Bagridae appearing as a sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The Siluriformes showed close phylogenetic relationship to the Characiformes.
Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M
Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it
Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J
Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or lungs in different groups of fishes is an example of convergent evolution. We propose that air breathing could not occur without the presence of a surfactant system and suggest that this system may have originated in epithelial cells lining the pharynx. Here we present new data on the surfactant system in swim bladders of three teleost fish (the air-breathing pirarucu Arapaima gigas and tarpon Megalops cyprinoides and the non-air-breathing New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus). We determined the presence of surfactant using biochemical, biophysical, and morphological analyses and determined homology using immunohistochemical analysis of the surfactant proteins (SPs). We relate the presence and structure of the surfactant system to those previously described in the swim bladders of another teleost, the goldfish, and those of the air-breathing organs of the other members of the Osteichthyes, the more primitive air-breathing Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii. Snapper and tarpon swim bladders are lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelial cells, respectively, containing membrane-bound lamellar bodies. Phosphatidylcholine dominates the phospholipid (PL) profile of lavage material from all fish analyzed to date. The presence of the characteristic surfactant lipids in pirarucu and tarpon, lamellar bodies in tarpon and snapper, SP-B in tarpon and pirarucu lavage, and SPs (A, B, and D) in swim bladder tissue of the tarpon provide strong evidence that the surfactant system of teleosts is homologous with that of other fish and of tetrapods. This study is the first demonstration of the presence of SP-D in the air-breathing organs of nonmammalian species and SP-B in actinopterygian
Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M
During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aomega, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it seems justified to consider it
Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.
Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349
Hashim, Rohasliney; Song, Tan Han; Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Yen, Tan Peck
This study aimed to assess the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in the tissues of fish collected from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Malaysia. Fishes were collected using gill nets during the dry and wet seasons. A total of 78 individual fish were caught and comprised 6 families, 11 genera and 13 species. The dorsal muscle was analysed using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentration of Cd in Chitala chitala (0.076 mg/kg) was above the critical limit values of the European Commission (EC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mean concentrations of Cd in Barbonymus gonionatus and Tachysurus maculatus were already at the level of concern, whereas the other species were approaching the limits of permissible levels. No fish samples were found to have a Ni level higher than the permissible limit of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg set by the WHO (1985). Osteochilus hasseltii (0.169 mg/kg) and T. maculatus (0.156 mg/kg) showed high Pb concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be elevated in the wet season (p<0.05). Omnivorous fish were detected with elevated concentrations of Cd and Ni, whereas carnivorous fish had the highest concentration of Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in fish tissues were positively correlated with fish weight (p<0.05). This study determined that the fish species caught in the Kelantan River were contaminated with non-essential metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Nevertheless, the heavy metal concentration in the fish tissues, with the exception of C. chitala, O. hasseltii and T. maculatus, did not exceed the EC, FAO, Malaysian Food Act (MFA) or WHO guidelines. PMID:27073597
Williamson, David H; Harrison, Hugo B; Almany, Glenn R; Berumen, Michael L; Bode, Michael; Bonin, Mary C; Choukroun, Severine; Doherty, Peter J; Frisch, Ashley J; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P
Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60-220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations.
Hashim, Rohasliney; Song, Tan Han; Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Yen, Tan Peck
This study aimed to assess the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in the tissues of fish collected from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Malaysia. Fishes were collected using gill nets during the dry and wet seasons. A total of 78 individual fish were caught and comprised 6 families, 11 genera and 13 species. The dorsal muscle was analysed using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentration of Cd in Chitala chitala (0.076 mg/kg) was above the critical limit values of the European Commission (EC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mean concentrations of Cd in Barbonymus gonionatus and Tachysurus maculatus were already at the level of concern, whereas the other species were approaching the limits of permissible levels. No fish samples were found to have a Ni level higher than the permissible limit of 0.5-0.6 mg/kg set by the WHO (1985). Osteochilus hasseltii (0.169 mg/kg) and T. maculatus (0.156 mg/kg) showed high Pb concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be elevated in the wet season (p<0.05). Omnivorous fish were detected with elevated concentrations of Cd and Ni, whereas carnivorous fish had the highest concentration of Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in fish tissues were positively correlated with fish weight (p<0.05). This study determined that the fish species caught in the Kelantan River were contaminated with non-essential metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Nevertheless, the heavy metal concentration in the fish tissues, with the exception of C. chitala, O. hasseltii and T. maculatus, did not exceed the EC, FAO, Malaysian Food Act (MFA) or WHO guidelines.
Downs, Kevin P.; Shen, Yingjia; Pasquali, Amanda; Beldorth, Ion; Savage, Markita; Gallier, Katelyn; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Booth, Rachell E.; Walter, Ronald B.
Research investigating telomere lengths and telomerase expression in vertebrates has progressively become important due to the association of these two biological endpoints with cellular aging and cancer in humans. Studies that rely upon the traditional use of laboratory mice have been faced with limitations largely due to inbred mice possessing large telomeres and ubiquitous expression of telomerase. Recently, a number of small fish species have been shown to provide potentially informative models for examining the role of telomeres and telomerase within intact vertebrate animals. Xiphophorus fishes represent a new world live-bearing genus that has not previously been assessed for telomere length or telomerase expression. To add to the knowledge base of telomere and telomerase biology in vertebrates we assessed telomere length and telomerase expression among several species of Xiphophorus. The telomere lengths in several organs (gill, brain, eyes, testis, ovary and liver) in three species (X. hellerii, X. maculatus, X. couchianus) and also in F1 interspecies hybrids were approximately 2–6 kb. This size was consistent within the same organs of the same species, as well as between species and F1 hybrids. Despite possessing relatively short telomere lengths compared to humans, the consistency of size among Xiphophorus species and organs may allow experimental detection of telomere shortening. The relative expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of TERT was measured in seven organs (ovary, testis, liver, gill, brain, heart, skin) from X. maculatus, X. hellerii and in control and ultraviolet light (UVB) exposed skin samples from X. maculatus, X. hellerii, and F1 interspecies hybrids. TERT gene expression was significantly higher in ovary and testis, while all other organs showed low relative TERT expression. Detectable increases in TERT expression were found in skin samples upon UVB
Overgaard, Hans J; Sandve, Simen R; Suwonkerd, Wannapa
The objective of this study was to assess insecticide resistance in anopheline mosquito populations in agroecosystems with high and low insecticide use in a malaria endemic area in Chiang Mai province in northern Thailand. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected in May and June 2004 from two locations with different agricultural insecticide intensity (HIGH and LOW), but similar in vector control strategies. The F1-generation of Anopheles maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni were subjected to diagnostic doses of methyl parathion (MeP) and cypermethrin (Cyp), both commonly used insecticides in fruit orchards in Thailand. An. minimus A from the HIGH location was subjected to diagnostic doses to Cyp. CDC bottle bioassays were used to determine insecticide susceptibility. Time-mortality data were subjected to Probit analyses to estimate lethal time values (LT50 and LT90). Lethal time ratios (LTR) were computed to determine differences in lethal time response between populations from HIGH and LOW locations. The mortality of An. maculatus to MeP was 74% and 92% in the HIGH and LOW locations, respectively. The corresponding figures for An. sawadwongporni were 94% and 99%. There was no indication of resistance to Cyp for all species tested in either location. The LT90 and LT50 values of An. maculatus s.s. subjected to diagnostic doses of MeP were significantly different between locations (p<0.05). Reduced susceptibility to MeP in mosquito populations in the HIGH location is caused by intensive agricultural pest control and not by vector control activities, because organophosphates have never been used for vector control in the area. Our results indicate that there are still susceptible anopheline populations to pyrethroids, which is consistent with other research from the region. Therefore, there is presently no direct threat to vector control. However increased use of pyrethroids in agriculture may cause problems for future vector control.
Bobichon, Julie; Somphong, Boutsady; Phommavan, Nothasin; Maithaviphet, Santi; Nambanya, Simone; Corbel, Vincent; Brey, Paul T.
Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS) and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs) with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus), to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%). In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr). Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR. PMID:28437449
Braima, Kamil A.; Sum, Jia-Siang; Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan M.; Muslimin, Mustakiza; Jeffery, John; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Shaker, Mohammed R.; Elamin, Alaa-Eldeen M.; Jamaiah, Ibrahim; Lau, Yee-Ling; Rohela, Mahmud; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Sitam, Frankie; Mohd-Noh, Rosnida; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.
Background The suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia’s most developed and populous state still remains a concern for public health in this region. Despite much successful control efforts directed at its reduction, sporadic cases, mostly brought in by foreigners have continued to occur. In addition, cases of simian malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, some with fatal outcome have caused grave concern to health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of local malaria transmission in suburban regions of Selangor, which are adjacent to secondary rainforests. Findings A malaria survey spanning 7 years (2006 - 2012) was conducted in Selangor. A total of 1623 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported from Selangor’s nine districts. While 72.6% of these cases (1178/1623) were attributed to imported malaria (cases originating from other countries), 25.5% (414/1623) were local cases and 1.9% (31/1623) were considered as relapse and unclassified cases combined. In this study, the most prevalent infection was P. vivax (1239 cases, prevalence 76.3%) followed by P. falciparum (211, 13.0%), P. knowlesi (75, 4.6%), P. malariae (71, 4.4%) and P. ovale (1, 0.06%). Mixed infections comprising of P. vivax and P. falciparum were confirmed (26, 1.6%). Entomological surveys targeting the residences of malaria patients’ showed that the most commonly trapped Anopheles species was An. maculatus. No oocysts or sporozoites were found in the An. maculatus collected. Nevertheless, the possibility of An. maculatus being the malaria vector in the investigated locations was high due to its persistent occurrence in these areas. Conclusions Malaria cases reported in this study were mostly imported cases. However the co-existence of local cases and potential Plasmodium spp. vectors should be cause for concern. The results of this survey reflect the need of maintaining closely monitored malaria control programs and continuous extensive malaria
Rohani, Ahmad; Zamree, Ismail; Lim, Lee Han; Rahini, Hassan; David, Luben; Kamilan, Demin
The bioefficacy of indoor residual-sprayed deltamethrin wettable granule (WG) formulation at 25 mg a.i./m2 and 20 mg a.i./m2 for the control of malaria was compared with the current dose of 20 mg/m2 deltamethrin wettable powder (WP) in aboriginal settlements in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia. The malaria vector has been previously identified as Anopheles maculatus. The assessment period for the 20 mg/m2 dosage was six months, but for the 25 mg/m2 dosage, the period was 9 months. Collections of mosquitoes using the bare-leg techniques were carried out indoors and outdoors from 7:00 PM to 7:00 AM. All mosquitoes were dissected for sporozoites and parity. Larval collections were carried out at various locations to assess the extent and distribution of breeding of vectors. A high incidence of human feeds was detected during May 2005 and a low incidence during January 2005 for all the study areas. Our study showed that deltamethrin WG at 25 mg/m2 suppressed An. maculatus biting activity. More An. maculatus were caught in outdoor landing catches than indoor landing catches for all the study areas. The results indicate that 25 mg/m2 WG is good for controlling malaria for up to 9 months. Where residual spraying is envisaged, the usual two spraying cycles per year with 20 mg/m2 deltamethrin may be replaced with 25 mg/m2 deltamethrin WG every 9 months.
Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A
Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.
Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Koron, Neža; Pavlin, Majda; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro
The incorporation and trophic transfer of total and methyl mercury (THg, MeHg) were examined in three size classes of plankton (10-53, 53-200, and >200 μm size range) and a small planktivorous fish, Galaxias maculatus, from the large multi-branched Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia, Argentina). Three sites representing a large range of lake benthic-pelagic structures (based on depth and shoreline characteristics) and precipitation regimes were sampled. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) were analyzed to assess Hg trophodynamics. Selenium concentrations were determined together with THg in order to consider its potential effect on Hg trophodynamics. High THg concentrations (0.1-255 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) were measured in plankton, largely in inorganic form (MeHg: 3-29 ng g(-1) DW, 0.02-7% of THg, in the two larger size classes). A trend of increasing THg concentrations, varying in two to three orders of magnitude, with decreasing plankton size was associated with precipitation measured prior to each sampling event. Passive adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) from wet deposition and runoff is considered to be the principal Hg uptake mechanism at the base of the pelagic food web. Despite the initially high THg uptake in the smaller plankton classes, the transfer to G. maculatus, and consequently to the entire food web, is likely limited due to low proportion of MeHg to THg in plankton. Furthermore, evidence of G. maculatus with benthic feeding habits having higher impact on MeHg trophic transfer compared to the same species with more pelagic (e.g., zooplankton) feeding habits, was observed. Although there is a high THg uptake in plankton, limited amounts are incorporated in the entire food web from the pelagic compartment.
Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman
Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.
Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Metscher, Brian; Ladich, Friedrich
Background Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL) except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz). Conclusions Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21–42 dB (SPLs) and 21–36 dB (PALs) between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz). PMID:22879934
Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar
Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.
Zhu, K; Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L
Griffonia simplicifolia II, an N-acetylglucosamine-specific legume lectin, has insecticidal activity when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A cDNA clone encoding G. simplicifolia II was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, sequenced, and expressed in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein exhibited N-acetylglucosamine-binding and insecticidal activity against cowpea weevil, indicating that glycosylation and multimeric structure are not required for these properties. These results support the hypothesis that genes of the legume lectin gene family encode proteins that function in plant defense against herbivores. PMID:8587982
Rohani, A; Chan, S T; Abdullah, A G; Tanrang, H; Lee, H L
The adult population and species composition of mosquitoes collected in Ranau, Sabah are described. A total of 5956 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 41 species were collected using human landing catch, indoor and outdoor. Anopheles maculatus was the most common species (15.6%) followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (12.8%), Culex pseudovishnui (12.1%), Anopheles balabacensis (11.1%), Culex vishnui (9.7%), Aedes vexans (9.6%), Culex tritaeniorhyncus (6.6%), Anopheles donaldi (5.6%) and others in very small percentage.
Ribeiro, L P; Zanardi, O Z; Gonçalves, G L P; Ansante, T F; Yamamoto, P T; Vendramim, J D
The effects of a bioinsecticide formulation based on extract of Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) containing 10,000 mg L(-1) of acetogenin annonin as the main active ingredient were investigated against three primary pest species of stored grains in Brazil [maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)] by means of residual contact bioassays. In a concentration-dependent manner, the annonin-based commercial bioinsecticide caused significant adult mortality of C. maculatus (LC50 = 6890 μL kg(-1)), S. zeamais (LC50 = 2781 μL kg(-1)), and Z. subfasciatus (LC50 = 2120 μL kg(-1)) after 120 h of residual contact exposure. In addition to acute toxicity, the tested bioinsecticide also promoted a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid by females of C. maculatus (EC50 = 5949.7 μL kg(-1)) and Z. subfasciatus (EC50 = 552.7 μL kg(-1)). Moreover, the bioinsecticide significantly reduced the number of emerged insects (F1 generation) of C. maculatus (EC50 = 2763.0 μL kg(-1)), S. zeamais (EC50 = 1380.8 μL kg(-1)), and Z. subfasciatus (EC50 = 561.5 μL kg(-1)). The bioinsecticide also reduced the percentage of damaged grains for the three pest species studied, and its grain-protectant properties are comparable to or superior in efficacy in relation to a diatomaceous earth-based insecticide (Insecto® at 1000 mg kg(-1)) used as a positive control. Thus, this standardized formulation has promising bioactivity against stored insect species and can be a useful component for IPM of stored grains in Brazil and elsewhere.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk; Bae, You-Chan
Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%).
Mendoza, Jose Christopher E
A new species of xanthid crab (Brachyura: Xanthidae) is described from the Bohol Sea in the central Philippines. Xanthias joanneae sp. nov. is most similar in morphology to X. maculatus Sakai, 1961 (type locality: Sagami Bay, Japan), particularly in the presence of distinctive ocelli on the carapace and pereopods. It can be separated from this species by the greater number of ocelli on the dorsal surface of the carapace, wider teeth separated by narrow notches on the carapace anterolateral margin, absence of longitudinal ridges on the external surface of the chelar palm, shorter and stouter ambulatory legs, narrower male anterior thoracic sternum, and stouter G 1.
Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae).
Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilus bacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis.
Lee, H L; Chong, W L
Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.
Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)
Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657
Valdes-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Sanchez-Ramos, Francisco Javier; Garcia-Martinez, Oswaldo; Anderson, Gail S
This is the first report of an ongoing research to establish a sarcosaprophagous arthropod database in the Coahuilan semidesert. Seven pigs (Sus scrofa L.) were used as human models to determine succession in an open urban area during the 2007 winter-spring period. Arthropods were collected manually and from pitfall traps. Carcass biomass loss, as well as arthropod colonization, was recorded during 71 days postmortem. Five decomposition stages were identified during which most abundant orders were found to be Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer), Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), Pheidole hyatti Emery, and Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery stood out as dominant species.
Christiansen, T; Kinnberg, K; Bjerregaard, P; Korsgaard, B
Estrogenic chemicals are known to have marked effects on the reproductive system of male fish. Finding useful markers of reproductive effects are therefore of great importance and interest. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) is a possible marker of Sertoli cells in testes of fish. In the present study we have examined the relationship between the activity of gamma-GTP and the histological structure of the Sertoli cells in testes of five fish species (guppy, Poecilia reticulata; platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus; eelpout, Zoarces viviparus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; flounder, Platichthys flesus). In general we found that the more distinct the Sertoli cells the higher the activity of gamma-GTP.
Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a member of the Poeciliidae family, is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Here, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata. The genome is 16,570 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The structure of non-coding control region was also analyzed. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata with its congener Xiphophorus maculatus revealed the high sequence similarity and the identical gene structure. The complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy would help study the evolution of Poeciliidae family.
Sriwichai, Patchara; Samung, Yudthana; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Kiattibutr, Kirakorn; Kumpitak, Chalermpon; Payakkapol, Anon; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
The Thai-Myanmar border is a remaining hotspot for malaria transmission. Malaria transmission in this region continues year-round, with a major peak season in July-August, and a minor peak in October-November. Malaria elimination requires better knowledge of the mosquito community structure, dynamics and vectorial status to support effective vector control. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using CDC light traps and cow bait in 7 villages along the Thai-Myanmar border in January 2011 - March 2013. Mosquitoes were determined to species by morphological characters. Plasmodium-positivity was determined by circumsporozoite protein ELISA. The 2986 Anopheles mosquitoes collected were assigned to 26 species, with Anopheles minimus sensu lato (s.l.) (40.32%), An. maculatus s.l. (21.43%), An. annularis s.l. (14.43%), An. kochi (5.39%), An. tessellatus (5.26%), and An. barbirostris s.l. (3.52%) being the top six most abundant species. Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes were found in 22 positive samples from 2906 pooled samples of abdomens and heads/thoraxes. Four mosquito species were found infected with Plasmodium: An. minimus s.l., An. maculatus s.l., An. annularis s.l. and An. barbirostris s.l. The infectivity rates of these mosquitoes were 0.76, 0.37, 0.72, and 1.74%, respectively. Consistent with a change in malaria epidemiology to the predominance of P. vivax in this area, 20 of the 22 infected mosquito samples were P. vivax-positive. The four potential vector species all displayed apparent seasonality in relative abundance. While An. minimus s.l. was collected through the entire year, its abundance peaked in the season immediately after the wet season. In comparison, An. maculatus s.l. numbers showed a major peak during the wet season. The two potential vector species, An. annularis s.l. and An. barbirostris s.l., both showed peak abundance during the transition from wet to dry season. Moreover, An. minimus s.l. was more abundant in indoor collections, whereas An
Baimai, V; Green, C A
Polymorphic Y chromosomes within two species of anopheline mosquitoes provide markers for testing if females are inseminated by one or more males in nature. Wild-caught females of Anopheles dirus (sp. A) and An. maculatus s.s. produced 291 and 55 families, respectively, which showed a single type of Y chromosome. One family of the former species showed two types of Y chromosomes. These field data support the idea, established from laboratory studies, that female mosquitoes are largely monandrous (monogamous). Such information is important in interpretation of population biological data and, practically, in attempts to control insect pests by use of genetically designed males.
Montero, Ricardo; Daza, Juan D; Bauer, Aaron M; Abdala, Virginia
Sesamoids are elements that originate as intratendinous structures due to genetic and epigenetic factors. These elements have been reported frequently in vertebrates, although cranial sesamoids have been recorded almost exclusively in non-tetrapod Osteichthyes. The only tetrapod cranial sesamoids reported until now have been the transiliens cartilage (of crocodiles and turtles), and another one located in the quadrate-mandibular joint of birds. Here, we examined seven squamate species using histological sections, dissections of preserved specimens, dry skeletons, cleared and stained specimens, computed tomographies (CT), and report the presence of other cranial sesamoids. One is attached to the cephalic condyle of the quadrate, embedded in the bodenaponeurosis and jaw adductor muscles of Ophiodes intermedius (Anguidae). The other sesamoid is found at the base of the basicranium of several squamates, capping the sphenoccipital tubercle, on the lateral side of the basioccipital-basisphenoid suture. This bone has previously been reported as "element X." We reinterpret it as a basicranial sesamoid, as it is associated with tendons of the cranio-cervical muscles. This bone seems to have the function of resisting tension-compression forces generated by the muscle during flexion the head. This element was previously known in several squamates, and we confirmed its presence in three additional squamate families: Gymnophthalmidae, Gekkonidae, and Pygopodidae. The evidence suggests that cranial sesamoids are a widespread character in squamates, and it is possible that this feature has been present since the origin of the group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J
The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368
Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L
Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.
Afonso, Aridani; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Lozano, Gonzalo; González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Caballero, José M; Hardisson, Arturo; Revert, Consuelo
Due to increased environmental pollution, monitoring of contaminants in the environment and marine organisms is a fundamental tool for assessing the existence of risk from their consumption to human health. The levels of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al), trace and essential metals (B, Ba, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn), and macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na) in two species of fish for human consumption were quantified in the present study. Eighty samples of muscle tissue and 80 samples of liver tissue belonging to two species of Osteichthyes fish; Sarpa salpa and Chelon labrosus were analyzed. The studied specimens were caught on the northern coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) with fishing rods. As they caught from the shore, they are suitable samples for assessing the toxic levels of representative species caught by local amateur fishermen. The results show that both species are fit for human consumption since they have toxic levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al) which are below the maximum established levels; however, the toxic levels of the liver samples are several orders of magnitude higher than the muscle samples, so we discourage their regular consumption. The risk assessment indicated that the two species of fish are safe for the average consumer; however, if the livers of these species are consumed, there could be risks because they exceed the PTWI for Pb and the TWI for Cd.
Davis, Samuel P; Finarelli, John A; Coates, Michael I
Acanthodians, an exclusively Palaeozoic group of fish, are central to a renewed debate on the origin of modern gnathostomes: jawed vertebrates comprising Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays and ratfish) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes and tetrapods). Acanthodian internal anatomy is primarily understood from Acanthodes bronni because it remains the only example preserved in substantial detail, central to which is an ostensibly osteichthyan braincase. For this reason, Acanthodes has become an indispensible component in early gnathostome phylogenies. Here we present a new description of the Acanthodes braincase, yielding new details of external and internal morphology, notably the regions surrounding and within the ear capsule and neurocranial roof. These data contribute to a new reconstruction that, unexpectedly, resembles early chondrichthyan crania. Principal coordinates analysis of a character-taxon matrix including these new data confirms this impression: Acanthodes is quantifiably closer to chondrichthyans than to osteichthyans. However, phylogenetic analysis places Acanthodes on the osteichthyan stem, as part of a well-resolved tree that also recovers acanthodians as stem chondrichthyans and stem gnathostomes. As such, perceived chondrichthyan features of the Acanthodes cranium represent shared primitive conditions for crown group gnathostomes. Moreover, this increasingly detailed picture of early gnathostome evolution highlights ongoing and profound anatomical reorganization of vertebrate crania after the origin of jaws but before the divergence of living clades.
D'Souza, Damian G; Rana, Kesha; Milley, Kristi M; MacLean, Helen E; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Bell, Justin; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Richardson, Samantha J; Danks, Janine A
Jawed vertebrates (Gnasthostomes) are broadly separated into cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Osteichthyes). Cartilaginous fishes are divided into chimaeras (e.g. ratfish, rabbit fish and elephant shark) and elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks, rays and skates). Both cartilaginous fish and bony vertebrates are believed to have a common armoured bony ancestor (Class Placodermi), however cartilaginous fish are believed to have lost bone. This study has identified and investigated genes involved in skeletal development in vertebrates, in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Ctnnb1 (β-catenin), Sfrp (secreted frizzled protein) and a single Sost or Sostdc1 gene (sclerostin or sclerostin domain-containing protein 1) were identified in the elephant shark genome and found to be expressed in a number of tissues, including cartilage. β-catenin was also localized in several elephant shark tissues. The expression of these genes, which belong to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is required for normal bone formation in mammals. These findings in the cartilaginous skeleton of elephant shark support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of cartilaginous fishes and bony vertebrates had the potential for making bone. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.
1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes).2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy was activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin.3. The concentrations of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined.4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.
Harshbarger, J C; Slatick, M S
The repeated use of particular species for experimental oncology in fish increases their future value by accumulating background information for these models and justifies the establishment of genetic stock centers. However, the wide diversity that exists within the class Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes suggests that the ideal surrogate models for studying some types of neoplasms might be found among lesser known species. To help assess cultured fish as surrogates for some other types of human neoplasia, we examined cases in the archives of the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals and reviewed reports in the literature. Spontaneous and induced neoplasms originating from a spectrum of cell types were seen in more than 215 fish species commonly raised in aquaria or cultured for study among 69 families. Prominent families include the Poeciliidae (livebearers), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Cichlidae (cichlids), Cyprinodontidae (killifish), Characidae (tetras), Adrianichthyidae (medakas), Aplocheilidae (rivulins), and Salmonidae (salmon and trout). The following are examples of potential fish tumor models that have received less consideration than some others: papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in oscar (Astronotus ocellatus); osteogenic neoplasms, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoblastoma in coho salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus kisutch); and nephroblastoma resembling Wilms' tumor in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).
Pezzementi, Leo; Chatonnet, Arnaud
Cholinesterases emerged from a family of enzymes and proteins with adhesion properties. This family is absent in plants and expanded in multicellular animals. True cholinesterases appeared in triploblastic animals together with the cholinergic system. Lineage specific duplications resulted in two acetylcholinesterases in most hexapods and in up to four genes in nematodes. In vertebrates the duplication leading to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is now considered to be an ancient event which occurred before the split of osteichthyes. The product of one or the other of the paralogues is responsible for the physiological hydrolysis of acetylcholine, depending on the species lineage and tissue considered. The BChE gene seems to have been lost in some fish lineages. The complete genome of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae: cephalochordate) contains a large number of duplicated genes or pseudogenes of cholinesterases. Sequence comparison and tree constructions raise the question of considering the atypical ChE studied in this organism as a representative of ancient BChE. Thus nematodes, arthropods, annelids, molluscs, and vertebrates typically possess two paralogous genes coding for cholinesterases. The origin of the duplication(s) is discussed. The mode of attachment through alternative C-terminal coding exons seems to have evolved independently from the catalytic part of the gene.
Noack, K.; Zardoya, R.; Meyer, A.
The evolutionary position of bichirs is disputed, and they have been variously aligned with ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) or lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii), which also include tetrapods. Alternatively, they have been placed into their own group, the Brachiopterygii. The phylogenetic position of bichirs as possibly the most primitive living bony fish (Osteichthyes) made knowledge about their mitochondrial genome of considerable evolutionary interest. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence (16,624 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of a bichir, Polypterus ornatipinnis. Its genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs and one major noncoding region. The genome's structure and organization show that this is the most basal vertebrate that conforms to the consensus vertebrate mtDNA gene order. Bichir mitochondrial protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes have greater sequence similarity to ray-finned fish than to either lamprey or lungfish. Phylogenetic analyses suggest the bichir's placement as the most basal living member of the ray-finned fish and rule out its classification as a lobe-finned fish. Hence, its lobe-fins are probably not a shared-derived trait with those of lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). PMID:8913758
Ahlberg, Per Erik; Smith, Moya M; Johanson, Zerina
Although the lungfish (Dipnoi) belong within the Osteichthyes, their dentitions are radically different from other osteichthyans. Lungfish dentitions also show a uniquely high structural disparity during the early evolution of the group, partly owing to the independent variation of odontogenic and odontoclastic processes that are tightly and stereotypically coordinated in other osteichthyans. We present a phylogenetic analysis of early lungfishes incorporating a novel approach to coding these process characters in preference to the resultant adult dental morphology. The results only partially resolve the interrelationships of Devonian dipnoans, but show that the widely discussed hypothesis of separate tooth-plated, dentine-plated, and denticulated lineages is unlikely to be true. The dipnoan status of Diabolepis is corroborated. Lungfish dentitions seem to have undergone extensive and nonparsimonious evolution during the early history of the group, but much of the resulting disparity can be explained by a modest number of evolutionary steps in the underlying developmental processes, those for dental formation (odontogenic) and those for the remodeling of dentine tissue (odontoclastic). Later in lungfish evolution, this disparity was lost as the group settled to a pattern of dental development that is just as stereotypic as, but completely different from, that of other osteichthyans.
Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D
Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris.
Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo
Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273
Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.
We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa
The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.