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Sample records for madakkathara kerala india

  1. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  2. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  3. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, C.; Amma, N. S.; Chitrathara, K.; Dhakad, N.; Rani, P.; Malathy, L.; Nair, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study in Kerala, India, confirmed the importance of genital hygiene in the fight against infections that have a role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Many women cannot afford sanitary pads, while adequate facilities for washing after coitus are often unavailable. Health education, satisfactory living standards, and the empowerment of women are prerequisites for reducing the incidence of cervical dysplasia. PMID:10212523

  4. Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Thomas, A P; Julka, J M

    2016-11-15

    A checklist of earthworm species hitherto known from Kerala, a constituent of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, is presented. In total, 88 species and subspecies are recorded, of which 55 are Kerala endemics, 9 near endemics, 14 exotics and 10 native peregrines. These belong to 26 genera and 9 families. The checklist includes the literature citation to the original description, type locality, any significant subsequent generic placements, and the district distributional pattern for each species/ subspecies.

  5. Understanding levels of morbidity and hospitalization in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Dilip, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of ailments and hospitalization in Kerala was examined using data from the 52 nd National Sample Survey Data on Health Care in Kerala in 1995-6. The survey included 24401 people from 4928 households. Age and seasonality had considerable effects on the morbidity of individuals. The burden of ill health was higher in rural areas than in urban areas. People who were more likely to have a better lifestyle had a higher level of morbidity and hospitalization. Regional differences were seen, with levels of morbidity and hospitalization higher in the comparatively developed regions of Southern Kerala than in Northern Kerala. Factors like physical accessibility of health care services and capacity to seek health care services could create artificial differences in morbidity and hospitalization among different subgroups of the population in Kerala. PMID:12378294

  6. Trick or treat? Muslim Thangals, psychologisation and pragmatic realism in northern Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Thangals are an endogamous community in Kerala, India, of Yemeni heritage who claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad's family. Due to their sacrosanct status, many thangals work as religious healers and thus are part of the informal mental health care system in Northern Kerala. Using the case of one thangal healer as an illustration of the many ritual healers in Kerala who engage the modern discourse of psychology in their practices, I argue that the psychologisation of ritual healing is part of a wider trend: the increasing rationalisation and scientification of traditional medical practices, whereby an increasing number of traditional healers negotiate science, modernity and religion and position their practice within these contested fields. Based on the analysis of this thangal's healing practice in the local context of Northern Kerala, I further argue that in order to understand "ritual" healing, scholars should emphasise pragmatic realism more than doctrinal purity.

  7. Marine mycoflora in backwater ecosystem of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Gayatri R; Raveendran, K

    2009-09-01

    Back water system of Kerala is well known for its fertility. Fungi play a vital role in detritus decomposition, nutrient cycling and energy flow in marine food web including backwater ecosystem. Present investigation on the diversity of marine fungi from two back waters of Kerala resulted in the isolation of 20 marine fungi. These include 11 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycete and 8 Mitosporic fungi. In terms of percent frequency of occurrence the most common species obtained were Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Verruculina enalia, Savoryella lignicola and Clavatospora bulbosa. Ascochyta sp. was represented by only a single isolate.

  8. Presentation, management, and outcomes of 25 748 acute coronary syndrome admissions in Kerala, India: results from the Kerala ACS Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Padinhare Purayil; Mathew, Rony; Harikrishnan, Sadasivan; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan; Zachariah, Geevar; Joseph, Jhony; Eapen, Koshy; Abraham, Mathew; Menon, Jaideep; Thomas, Manoj; Jacob, Sonny; Huffman, Mark D.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-01-01

    Aims There are limited contemporary data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions in India. We aimed to develop a prospective registry to address treatment and health systems gaps in the management of ACSs in Kerala, India. Methods and results We prospectively collected data on 25 748 consecutive ACS admissions from 2007 to 2009 in 125 hospitals in Kerala. We evaluated data on presentation, management, and in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We created random-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate predictors of outcomes while accounting for confounders. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 60 (12) years and did not differ among ACS types [ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) = 37%; non-STEMI = 31%; unstable angina = 32%]. In-hospital anti-platelet use was high (>90%). Thrombolytics were used in 41% of STEMI, 19% of non-STEMI, and 11% of unstable angina admissions. Percutaneous coronary intervention rates were marginally higher in STEMI admissions. Discharge medication rates were variable and generally suboptimal (<80%). In-hospital mortality and MACE rates were highest for STEMI (8.2 and 10.3%, respectively). After adjustment, STEMI diagnosis (vs. unstable angina) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval = 4.06 (2.36, 7.00)], symptom-to-door time >6 h [OR = 2.29 (1.73, 3.02)], and inappropriate use of thrombolysis [OR = 1.33 (0.92, 1.91)] were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and door-to-needle time <30 min [OR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.72)] was associated with lower mortality. Similar trends were seen for risk of MACE. Conclusion These data represent the largest ACS registry in India and demonstrate opportunities for improving ACS care. PMID:22961945

  9. Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P.; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2013-01-01

    We compared the screening performance of risk scores for Asians and whites for diabetes, dysglycemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our subjects were 451 people aged 15 to 64 years who participated in a cohort study from May 2003 through September 2010 in a rural area of the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India. All outcome measures showed overlap in the range of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Asian and white diabetes risk scores (DRSs). Asian and white DRSs performed similarly in rural India. PMID:23517580

  10. The Decentralisation Of Education In Kerala State, India: Rhetoric And Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Mullikottu-Veettil; Bray, Mark

    2004-07-01

    The decentralisation of educational administration has been widely advocated as a strategy to promote local participation in education. However, the fact that this advocacy has a long history raises the question why decentralisation has not been achieved in more educational systems. The answers to this question are many and complex. Among them are difficulties with the implementation of reforms. The present study examines some of these difficulties in Kerala State, India. It determines that although Kerala has a strong reputation for political participation, the rhetoric of decentralisation in the educational sector has not matched the reality there. The lessons to be learned in this context have wide implications for the theory and practice of decentralisation in education.

  11. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work.

  12. Factors affecting decisions to seek treatment for sick children in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rajamohanan K; Williams, Sankey V; Glick, Henry A; Polsky, Daniel; Berlin, Jesse A; Lowe, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of social and economic variables, disease-related variables, and child gender on the decisions of parents in Kerala, India, to seek care for their children and on their choice of providers in the allopathic vs. the alternative system. A case-control analysis was done using data from the Kerala section of the 1996 Indian National Family Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a probability sample of households conducted by trained interviewers with a close-ended questionnaire. Of the 469 children who were eligible for this study because they had at least one common symptom suggestive of acute respiratory illness or diarrhea during the 2 weeks before the interview, 78 (17%) did not receive medical care, while the remaining 391 (83%) received medical care. Of the 391 children who received medical care, 342 (88%) received allopathic medical care, and 48 (12%) received alternative medical care. In multivariable analyses, parents chose not to seek medical care for their children significantly more often when the illness was mild, the child had a specific diagnosis, the mother had previously made fewer antenatal visits, and the family had a higher economic status. When parents sought medical care for their children, care was sought significantly more often in the alternative provider system when the child was a boy, the family lived in a rural area, and the family had a lower social class. We conclude that, in Kerala, disease severity and economic status predict whether children with acute respiratory infection or diarrhea are taken to medical providers. In contrast, most studies of this issue carried out in other populations have identified economic status as the primary predictor of medical system utilization. Also in Kerala, the gender of the child did not influence whether or not the child was taken for treatment but did influence whether care was sought in the alternative or the allopathic system.

  13. Spiralothelphusa gibberosa, a new freshwater crab (Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Devi, A R Sudha

    2015-05-27

    A new species of freshwater crab, Spiralothelphusa gibberosa n. sp. is described from rice fields near Kizhoor in Thrissur district of Kerala in southern India. The new species is easily differentiated from its congeners by its first male pleopod (G1), which has a long, less strongly twisted terminal segment and distal portion of subterminal segment in addition to a setose hump on the outer margin of the non-twisted portion. Key to the species of the genus Spiralothelphusa Bott, 1968, is provided. We recognized S. wuellerstorfi (Heller, 1862), as a new record to Maharashtra based on specimens wrongly identified as S. hydrodroma (Herbst, 1794), by Pati & Sharma (2014).

  14. Toward a social justice theory of demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J W

    1983-06-01

    Recent research evidence, which suggests that observed demographic trends and patterns are largely consequences of broad structural changes in society, has raised serious doubts about the validity of traditional demographic theory and the framework for action it has generated. This theoretical essay 1st recasts classical demographic transition theory in general systems terms in order to make it consistent with the evidence and to place the processes of fertility and mortality in a larger social context. The demographic transition experience of Kerala State, India is then recounted to provide a concrete example of the demographic response in society to structural reforms based primarily on equity considerations.

  15. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mahat, R. H.; Amin, Y. M.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.

    2011-03-30

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  16. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  18. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-03-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  19. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-01-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion‐transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality. PMID:17329382

  20. Development and Implementation of a Novel Prehospital Care System in the State of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather A; Douglass, Katherine A; Ejas, Shafi; Poovathumparambil, Venugopalan

    2016-12-01

    Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have struggled to find a system for prehospital care that can provide adequate patient care and geographical coverage while maintaining a feasible price tag. The emergency medical systems of the Western world are not necessarily relevant in developing economic systems, given the lack of strict legislation, the scarcity of resources, and the limited number of trained personnel. Meanwhile, most efforts to provide prehospital care in India have taken the form of adapting Western models to the Indian context with limited success. Described here is a novel approach to prehospital care designed for and implemented in the State of Kerala, India. The Active Network Group of Emergency Life Savers (ANGELS) was launched in 2011 in Calicut City, the third largest city in the Indian State of Kerala. The ANGELS integrated an existing fleet of private and state-owned ambulances into a single network utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and a single statewide call number. A total of 85 volunteer emergency medical certified technicians (EMCTs) were trained in basic first aid and trauma care principles. Public awareness campaigns accompanied all activities to raise awareness amongst community members. Funding was provided via public-private partnership, aimed to minimize costs to patients for service utilization. Over a two-year period from March 2011 to April 2013, 8,336 calls were recorded, of which 54.8% (4,569) were converted into actual ambulance run sheets. The majority of calls were for medical emergencies and most patients were transported to Medical College Hospital in Calicut. This unique public-private partnership has been responsive to the needs of the population while sustaining low operational costs. This system may provide a relevant template for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) development in other resource-limited settings. Brown HA , Douglass KA , Ejas S , Poovathumparambil V . Development and

  1. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  2. Development of a web geoservices platform for School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheendran, S.; John, C. M.; Fasalul, F. K.; Aanisa, K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Web geoservices is the obvious graduation of Geographic Information System in a distributed environment through a simple browser. It enables organizations to share domain-specific rich and dynamic spatial information over the web. The present study attempted to design and develop a web enabled GIS application for the School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India to publish various geographical databases to the public through its website. The development of this project is based upon the open source tools and techniques. The output portal site is platform independent. The premier webgis frame work `Geomoose' is utilized. Apache server is used as the Web Server and the UMN Map Server is used as the map server for this project. It provides various customised tools to query the geographical database in different ways and search for various facilities in the geographical area like banks, attractive places, hospitals, hotels etc. The portal site was tested with the output geographical database of 2 projects of the School such as 1) the Tourism Information System for the Malabar region of Kerala State consisting of 5 northern districts 2) the geoenvironmental appraisal of the Athirappilly Hydroelectric Project covering the entire Chalakkudy river basin.

  3. Cerbera odollam: a 'suicide tree' and cause of death in the state of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Krishnamoorthy, Ananthasankaran; Bevalot, Fabien

    2004-12-01

    Cerbera odollam is a tree belonging to the poisonous Apocynaceae family, which includes the yellow and common oleanders. The seeds are excessively toxic, containing cerberin as the main active cardenolide. Cerbera venenifera, a related species found in Madagascar, has a long history as an ordeal poison, and was responsible for the death of 3000 people per year in previous centuries. The odollam tree is responsible for about 50% of the plant poisoning cases and 10% of the total poisoning cases in Kerala, India. It is used both for suicide and homicide. The aim of this retrospective study is to call attention to a powerful toxic plant that is currently completely ignored by western physicians, chemists, analysts and even coroners and forensic toxicologists.

  4. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part six--Kundapur, Karnataka and Kannur, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2006-12-01

    Mosquitoes of 26 species belonging to 16 subgenera and 11 genera were recorded in the Kundapur mangroves of Karnataka, and 17 species belonging to 11 subgenera and 7 genera were recorded in the mangroves of Kannur, Kerala along the west coast of India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Lutzia, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both mangrove forests were Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, An. jamesi, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus, Cx. infantulus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. sitiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. luguhris. Tree holes and swamp pools were the common larval habitats, with more species occurring in tree holes in Kundapur than in Kannur. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Ar. aureolineatus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. sitiens, Ma. uniformis, and Ve. lugubris bloodfed on humans.

  5. Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins from Kerala-Konkan Coast, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa; Mathews, Runcie Paul; Mann, Ulrich; Greenwood, Paul F.; Saxena, Rakesh

    2010-10-01

    The terpenoid composition of resins from the Miocene lignite horizons from the Kerala-Konkan Coast, western India was analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Cupy-GC-MS). The major pyrolysates were cadalene-based bicyclic sesquiterpenoids including some C30-C31 bicadinenes and bicadinanes typical of dammar resin from angiosperm plants of Dipterocarpaceae family. These plants are typically supported by tropical climates which the western Indian region was known to have experienced during early Tertiary period. The present study suggests that these palaeoclimatic conditions persisted until at least the Miocene epoch. These sesquiterpenoids which are commonly detected in many SE Asian crude oils may be utilised as useful biomarkers for petroleum exploration in the western Indian region.

  6. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  7. Social factors influencing the acquisition of antibiotics without prescription in Kerala State, south India.

    PubMed

    Saradamma, R D; Higginbotham, N; Nichter, M

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the magnitude of self-medication with antibiotics in a peri-urban area of Southern Kerala State, India and factors influencing this practice. First, a random sample of 400 households was surveyed in one primary health centre area near Trivandrum. We found 69.3% (95% CI = 64.8-73.8) of households had at least one person using a pharmaceutical product during the two-week recall period; antibiotics formed almost 11% of the medicines consumed. Next, pharmacy based interview and observation data were collected from 405 antibiotic purchasers sampled from 11 out of the 12 private pharmacies in the area. Seventy-three of these 405 customers purchased antibiotics without a prescription (18%; 95% CI = 14.3-21.7). By combining the household survey and pharmacy observations, we estimate that almost half of 1% (0.41%; 95% CI = 0.24-1.16) of the population, or four people per 1000, is engaged in self-medication using antibiotics in Kerala in any two-week period. Our data show that people least likely to follow this practice are from higher income families, having more education and higher status occupations and receiving the benefits of medical insurance. Conversely, logistic regression analysis indicated that risk of buying antibiotics without a script was associated with education at secondary level or below, the perception that it is expensive to consult a doctor and low satisfaction with medical practitioners. Keralites' self-medication patterns are interpreted broadly using social, cultural, historical and economic perspectives. Solutions to the problem of antibiotic misuse are suggested, proceeding on several fronts: among practitioners, suppliers and marketeers of medicines, and among the population of pharmaceutical consumers themselves.

  8. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  9. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  10. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, T. R.; Sudharma, K. V.; Hameed, A. Shahul

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope composition of precipitation from Pamba River basin, Kerala, India, is evaluated to understand the role of spatial and temporal variations on rainwater isotope characteristics. Physiographically different locations in the basin showed strong spatial and temporal variations. δ 18O varied from -7.63 to -1.75 ‰ in the lowlands; from -9.32 to -1.94 ‰ in the midlands and from -11.6 to -4.00 ‰ in the highlands. Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL) for the three regions were determined separately and an overall LMWL for the whole of the basin was found to be δ 2H = 6.6 (±0.4) δ 18 O+10.4 (±2.0). Altitude effect was evident for the basin (0.1 ‰ for δ 18O and 0.8 ‰ for δ 2H per 100 m elevation), while the amount effect was weak. The precipitation formed from the marine moisture supplied at a steady rate, without much isotopic evolution in this period may have masked the possible depletion of heavier isotopes with increasing rainfall. Consistently high d-excess values showed the influence of recycled vapour, despite the prevailing high relative humidity. The oceanic and continental vapour source origins for the south-west and north-east monsoons were clearly noted in the precipitation in the basin. Rayleigh distillation model showed about 30% rainout of the monsoon vapour mass in the basin.

  11. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice.

  12. Petrology and tectonic development of supracrustal sequence of Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Chacko, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The granulite terrain of southern India, of which the Kerala Khondalite belt (KKB) is a part, is unique in exposing crustal sections with arrested charnockite growth in different stages of transformation and in varied lithological association. The KKB with rocks of surficial origin and incipient charnockite development, poses several problems relating to the tectonics of burial of vast area and mechanisms involved in expelling initial H2O (causes of dryness) for granulite facies metamorphism. It is possible to infer the following sequence of events based on the field and laboratory studies: (1) derivation of protoliths of KKB from granitic uplands and deposition in fault bounded basin (cratonic rift); (2) subhorizontal deep burial of sediments; (3) intense deformation of infra and supracrustal rocks; (4) early granulite facies metamorphism predating F sub 2 - loss of primary structure in sediments and formation of charnockites from amphibole bearing gneisses and khondalites from pelites; (5) migmatisation and deformation of metasediments and gneisses; (6) second event of charnockite formation probably aided by internal CO2 build-up; and (7) isothermal uplift, entrapment of late CO2 and mixed CO2-H2O fluids, formation of second generation cordierites and cordierite symplectites.

  13. Estimation of external dose by car-borne survey in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7-2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y.

  14. Estimation of External Dose by Car-Borne Survey in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7–2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y. PMID:25885680

  15. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    David, Jamil; Åstrøm, Anne N; Wang, Nina J

    2006-01-01

    Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S). The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5), having bad breath (OR = 2.4), food impaction (OR = 1.7) dental visits (OR = 1.6), being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2) and caries experience (OR = 1.7). The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%). Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health. PMID:16817952

  16. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of

  17. A Study of the Effects of a University Education upon the Ministerial Behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God Pastors in the State of Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The main research question of this study was, "What effects does a university education have on the ministerial behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPCG) pastors in Kerala, India?" Three data collection methods were used: interview, questionnaire, and participant observation. There were 10 university-educated (UE) pastors…

  18. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India: An ensialic mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Meen, James K.; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Rogers, John J. W.

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite belt of the Southern Indian Shield is described, a belt dominated by granulite grade (750 C, 5 to 6 kbar) supracrustal rocks whose protoliths included arkoses and shales with cratonic provenances. Rare earth elements and other geochemical signatures suggest a granitic source for these metasediments, possibly the spatially associated charnockite massifs. The presence of intercalated mafic gneisses, interpreted as basalts, implies a cratonic rift basin rather than a foreland basin setting. It was argued that the Kerala, as well as other early Proterozoic mobile belts formed during abortive continental rifting without major additions of new crust.

  19. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  20. Characterization of fluids involved in the Gneiss-Charnockite transformation in Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klatt, E.; Hoernes, S.; Raith, M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterization of fluids involved in the gneiss-charnockite transformation in southern Kerala are discussed. Using a variety of techniques, including microthermometry, Raman laser probe analysis, and mass spectrometry, it was concluded that the CO2-rich, N2-bearing metamorphic fluids in these rocks were internally-derived rather than having been introduced by CO2-streaming.

  1. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  2. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  3. Occurrence of concurrent infections with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses during 2013–2015 in northern Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Manchala Nageswar; Dungdung, Ranjeet; Valliyott, Lathika

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, increasing number of DHF and DSS cases were reported in India indicating potential enhancement of concurrent DENV infections. Therefore, accurate determination of the occurrence of DENV serotype co-infections needs to be conducted in various DENV prone parts of India. In this context, the present study was conducted to analyse the magnitude of concurrent infection in northern Kerala, a southwest state of India, during three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 120 serum samples were collected from the suspected dengue patients. The serum samples were diagnosed for the presence of dengue NS1 antigen followed by the isolation of dengue genome from NS1 positive samples. The isolated dengue genome was further subjected to RTPCR based molecular serotyping. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the sequence of PCR amplified products. Results Out of the total number of samples collected, 100 samples were positive for dengue specific antigen (NS1) and 26 of them contained the dengue genome. The RTPCR based molecular serotyping of the dengue genome revealed the presence of all four serotypes with different combinations. However, serotypes 1 and 3 were predominant combinations of concurrent infection. Interestingly, there were two samples with all four serotypes concurrently infected in 2013. Discussion All samples containing dengue genome showed the presence of more than one

  4. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition.

  5. Predatory potential of Platynectes sp. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on Aedes albopictus, the vector of dengue/chikungunya in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N P; Bashir, A; Abidha, S; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Unused and discarded latex collection containers (LCCs) are the major breeding habitats of Aedes albopictus in the rubber plantations of Kerala, India. Platynectes sp. (Family: Dytiscidae) was observed to invade these habitats during the monsoon season and voraciously devour the larval instars of this major vector species of arbo-viral diseases. Field observations showed a reduction of 70.91% (p = 0.0017) and 100% in Aedes larval density, on the first and four days post release of eight beetles per LCC respectively. In laboratory, a beetle was found to devour 17.75 + 5.0 late larval instars of Ae. albopictus per day. Our findings indicate Platynectes sp. could be a potential bio-control agent against Ae. albopictus, the vector of chikungunya/dengue fevers, in rubber plantations.

  6. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-03-20

    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  7. Dinurus ivanosi sp. nov. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from the stomach of dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, caught off the Kerala Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rekha, R Y; John, M V

    2004-03-01

    A new species of stomach fluke, Dinurus ivanosi (sp. nov.), was recovered from the dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, off the Kerala Coast, India. It is similar to other Dinurus species in the plicated prosoma, trilobed seminal vesicle and seven vitellaria, but differs from them in the length of the pharynx, unequal lobes of the seminal vesicle and unequal size of the testes. The most important diagnostic features of the new species are the general shape and proportions of the body, the position of the oral sucker, elongated pharynx, small distal lobe of the seminal vesicle, and larger anterior testis, smaller egg size, short and slender vitellaria and the limited extent of the vitelline field.

  8. History of landslide susceptibility and a chorology of landslide-prone areas in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Sekhar L.; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2009-06-01

    Kerala is the third most densely populated state in India. It is a narrow strip of land, of which 47% is occupied by the most prominent orographic feature of peninsular India, The Western Ghats mountain chain. The highlands of Kerala experience several types of landslides, of which debris flows are the most common. They are called “Urul Pottal” in the local vernacular. The west-facing Western Ghats scarps that runs the entire extent of the mountain system is the most prone physiographic unit for landslides. The highlands of the region experience an annual average rainfall as high as 500 cm through the South-West, North-East and Pre-Monsoon showers. A survey of ancient documents and early news papers indicates a reduced rate of slope instability in the past. The processes leading to landslides were accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation since the early 18th century, terracing and obstruction of ephemeral streams and cultivation of crops lacking capability to add root cohesion in steep slopes. The events have become more destructive given the increasing vulnerability of population and property. Majority of mass movements have occurred in hill slopes >20° along the Western Ghats scarps, the only exception being the coastal cliffs. Studies conducted in the state indicates that prolonged and intense rainfall or more particularly a combination of the two and the resultant pore pressure variations are the most important trigger of landslides. The initiation zone of most of the landslides was typical hollows generally having degraded natural vegetation. A survey of post-landslide investigation and news paper reports enabled the identification of 29 major landslide events in the state. All except one of the 14 districts in the state are prone to landslides. Wayanad and Kozhikode districts are prone to deep seated landslides, while Idukki and Kottayam are prone to shallow landslides.

  9. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  10. HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

  11. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  12. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, M.; Rajavel, M.; Surendran, U.

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  14. Magnetic assessment and pollution status of beach sediments from Kerala coast (southwestern India).

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Marcos A E; Suresh, G; Chaparro, Mauro A E; Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M

    2017-04-15

    Natural and anthropogenic activities along the coastal region of densely populated Kerala may introduce hazardous components into the coastal environment. The present study aimed to investigate the sources and impacts of hazardous components in beach sediments by environmental magnetism methods as additional tools. Magnetic parameters (such as mass-specific magnetic susceptibility χ=-1.2-154.4×10(-8)m(3)kg(-1)) and ratios that describe the magnetic properties of minerals such as Fe-oxides, indicate variable concentration of mixtures of magnetite and hematite (magnetite/hematite). The direct significant relationships between the variables indicate that higher concentration magnetic parameters are associated with higher radionuclides and metal contents. Magnetic properties and multivariate statistical analyses evidence the presence of contrasting groups defined only using a reduced number of magnetic variables. One of these groups, the central area of the Kerala coastline, showed the highest magnetic concentrations of mixtures of magnetite/hematite and higher values (up to 6.7) of pollution load index because of extensive anthropogenic activities.

  15. Coir geotextile for slope stabilization and cultivation - A case study in a highland region of Kerala, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, K. R.

    A sloping field is not only vulnerable to soil erosion it may also suffer from soil moisture deficiency. Farmers that cultivate on slopes everywhere face similar problems. Conservation technologies may reduce soil and nutrient losses, and thus enhance water holding capacity and soil fertility. But although these technologies promote sustainable crop production on steep slopes, the construction of physical structure such as bench terraces are often labour intensive and expensive to the farmers, since construction and maintenance require high investments. Here we studied the efficiency of coir geotextile with and without crop cultivation in reducing soil moisture deficiency on marginal slopes in Kerala, India. From the results it is evident that the slopes treated with geotextile and crops have the highest moisture retention capacity followed by geotextiles alone, and that the control plot has the lowest moisture retention capacity. As the poor and marginal farmers occupy the highland region, this method provides an economically viable option for income generation and food security along with slope stabilization.

  16. Genetic characterization of 2006-2008 isolates of Chikungunya virus from Kerala, South India, by whole genome sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, E; Issac, Aneesh; Nair, Sajith; Hariharan, Ramkumar; Janki, M B; Arathy, D S; Regu, R; Mathew, Thomas; Anoop, M; Niyas, K P; Pillai, M R

    2010-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-stranded alphavirus, causes epidemic febrile infections characterized by severe and prolonged arthralgia. In the present study, six CHIKV isolates (2006 RGCB03, RGCB05; 2007 RGCB80, RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355, RGCB356) from three consecutive Chikungunya outbreaks in Kerala, South India, were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 11798 bp whole genome of the virus. A total of 37 novel mutations were identified and they were predominant in the 2007 and 2008 isolates among the six isolates studied. The previously identified E1 A226V critical mutation, which enhances mosquito adaptability, was present in the 2007 and 2008 samples. An important observation was the presence of two coding region substitutions, leading to nsP2 L539S and E2 K252Q change. These were identified in three isolates (2007 RGCB80 and RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355) by full-genome analysis, and also in 13 of the 31 additional samples (42%), obtained from various parts of the state, by sequencing the corresponding genomic regions. These mutations showed 100% co-occurrence in all these samples. In phylogenetic analysis, formation of a new genetic clade by these isolates within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotypes was observed. Homology modeling followed by mapping revealed that at least 20 of the identified mutations fall into functionally significant domains of the viral proteins and are predicted to affect protein structure. Eighteen of the identified mutations in structural proteins, including the E2 K252Q change, are predicted to disrupt T-cell epitope immunogenicity. Our study reveals that CHIK virus with novel genetic changes were present in the severe Chikungunya outbreaks in 2007 and 2008 in South India.

  17. Distribution of coastal cliffs in Kerala, India: their mechanisms of failure and related human engineering response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avinash; Seralathan, P.; Jayappa, K. S.

    2009-08-01

    The 560-km-long Kerala coast is characterised by long barriers with narrow beaches and steep cliffs. Distribution of cliffs from nine sections measuring a cumulative length of 63.5 km is evaluated in ArcGIS Software using topomaps and field survey data. The cliff sections in the southern coast comprise both permeable and impermeable rocks, whereas those along northern coast are comprised of either Precambrian crystalline and/or Tertiary formations. Notches, caves and even small arches are developed in Cannanore, Dharmadam and Kadalundi cliffs, where only primary laterites are exposed to wave attack. Stacks composed of laterite and Precambrian crystallines found in nearshore of cliffed coast indicate recession of shoreline. Mass wasting, mudslide and mudflow type of cliff failures are common in permeable to semi-permeable rocks, whereas rotational sliding, rockfall and toppling failure are found in hard rock cliffs. Retreat of cliff sections are induced by natural or anthropogenic activities or both. Rate of recession vary from a few centimetres to one metre/year depending upon the nature of lithology, structures and recession agents acting upon the cliffs. Various methods of cliff protection for e.g. hard structures—revetments, groins, seawalls, breakwater and jetties—and soft measures—artificial reefs/marsh creation, floating breakwaters, beach nourishment, beach scraping and vegetation planting—are suggested.

  18. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  19. Return of overseas contract workers and their rehabilitation and development in Kerala (India). A critical account of policies, performance and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nair, P R

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of labor migrants from Kerala state, India, who were 40-60% of all contract workers in the Middle East and who returned after the mid-1980s. Descriptions are provided of the characteristics of return migrants, the Kerala economy, return migration policies, and impact studies of returnees. About 500,000 returned to Kerala. Returnees were middle aged, with low levels of education, skills, and experience. About 50% of returnees remained unemployed. The other 50% either retired or sought self-employment or other wage labor. Surveys conducted in 1985, 1987, 1993-93, and 1997 reveal that returnees peaked during the 1990s. By 1997, returnees to the Kadinamkulam panchayat included about one-sixth who were women. Most returnees had worked in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. The reasons for return were poor working and living conditions, lack of opportunity or contract for staying longer, or forced repatriation. Upon return, 50% of the women and about 16% of the men remained unemployed. Return wages were about the same as before the migration. Returnees complained about the lack of support from government and society. Impact studies do not differentiate migration effects from development effects in general. Evaluation should focus on multidimensional impacts and individual attainment of emigration goals.

  20. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  1. Radionuclides and Radiation Indices of High Background Radiation Area in Chavara-Neendakara Placer Deposits (Kerala, India)

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara – Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th) and Potassium (40K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between 238U and 232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h−1) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA. PMID:23185629

  2. Radionuclides and radiation indices of high background radiation area in Chavara-Neendakara placer deposits (Kerala, India).

    PubMed

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara - Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium ((238)U), Thorium ((232)Th) and Potassium ((40)K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between (238)U and (232)Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h(-1)) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA.

  3. Compliance with infection control practices in sputum microscopy centres: a study from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Ubaid, N P; Nagaraja, S B; Shewade, H D; Padmanabhan, K V; Naik, B R; Satpati, M; Blesson, S; Jayasree, A K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Une des stratégies du Programme national révisé de lutte contre la tuberculose (RNTCP) en Inde consiste à lutter contre la tuberculose en augmentant la détection des cas à travers un réseau national de Centres de Diagnostic par Microscopie (DMC). La mise en oeuvre des précautions standard de lutte contre les infections dans ces DMC est très importante pour prévenir la transmission des infections, non seulement vis-à-vis du personnel de laboratoire, mais également vis-à-vis de la population générale. Cependant, en Inde, ceci n'a pas été évalué par une agence externe.Méthode : Une étude transversale a été réalisée pour évaluer les connaissances, la structure et l'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection (ICP) dans les 38 DMC du district de Kannur, état du Kerala, Inde en 2015. Grâce à des observations et à des entretiens, les investigateurs ont recueilli des données dans un format structuré.Résultats : Les connaissances d'ensemble relatives à la lutte contre l'infection ont été jugées satisfaisantes pour 29% des techniciens de laboratoire. Le niveau d'ensemble des centres en matière de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisant dans 61% des DMC. L'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisante dans 45% des DMC. Les connaissances relatives aux pratiques d'ICP ont été meilleures dans les DMC du gouvernement tandis que les installations et l'adhésion aux directives de gestion des déchets biomédicaux ont été meilleures dans les DMC privés.Conclusion : Connaissant le risque très élevé d'infection parmi les techniciens de laboratoire, il y a un besoin urgent de corriger les déficiences des pratiques de lutte contre l'infection.

  4. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  5. Study of stillbirth and major congenital anomaly among newborns in the high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Koya, P K M; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Seshadri, M

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring newborns for adverse outcomes like stillbirth and major congenital anomalies (MCA) is being carried out in government hospitals since 1995 in and around high-level natural radiation areas, a narrow strip of land on the southwest coast of Kerala, India. Natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium and its daughter products account for elevated levels of natural radiation. Among 141,540 newborns [140,558 deliveries: 139,589 singleton, 957 twins (6.81 ‰), 11 triplets (0.078 ‰), and one quadruplet] screened, 615 (4.35 ‰) were stillbirth and MCA were seen in 1,370 (9.68 ‰) newborns. Clubfoot (404, 2.85 ‰) was the most frequent MCA followed by hypospadias (152, 2.10 ‰ among male newborns), congenital heart disease (168, 1.19 ‰), cleft lip/palate (149, 1.05 ‰), Down syndrome (104, 0.73 ‰), and neural tube defects (72, 0.51 ‰). Newborns with MCA among stillbirths were about 20-fold higher at 190.24 ‰ (117/615) compared to 8.89 ‰ (1,253/140,925) among live births (P < .001). Logistic regression was carried out to compare stillbirth, overall, and specific MCA among newborns from areas with dose levels of ≤1.5, 1.51-3.0, 3.01-6.0 and >6 mGy/year after controlling for maternal age at birth, gravida, consanguinity, ethnicity, and gender of the baby. Clubfoot showed higher prevalence of 3.26 ‰ at dose level of 1.51-3.0 mGy/year compared to 2.33 ‰ at ≤1.5 mGy/year (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.72), without indication of any clear dose-response. Prevalences of stillbirth, overall MCA, and other specific MCA were similar across different dose levels and were relatively lower than that reported elsewhere in India, probably due to better literacy, health awareness, and practices in the study population.

  6. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  7. Melt inclusions and origin of granite in migmatitic granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Cesare, Bernardo; Salvioli Mariani, Emma; Cavallo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Both glassy and crystallized melt inclusions (MI) occur in garnet in metapelitic granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt. These rocks were metamorphosed and partially melted at UHT conditions during the Pan-African event, and MI represent droplets of the anatectic melt, originated by dehydration melting of biotite and trapped by garnet growth at supersolidus conditions. An extensive ESEM-BSE mapping study, along with EMPA analysis and re-heating experiments, has been carried out to characterize these anatectic MI. The inclusions range from 4 to 35 μm in diameter and occur as clusters in garnets. In spite of the long time it took for these rocks to cool below 350 °C (at least 60 m.y.), different degrees of crystallization were observed in the same cluster, ranging from totally crystallized to totally glassy. The crystallized MI are referred to as "nanogranites" (Cesare et al., 2009) and always contain quartz, Mg-rich biotite (XFe=0.23) and two feldspars in a fine-grained polycrystalline aggregate. Based on microstructural evidence, biotite crystallized as first phase, preferentially on the walls of the MI, while quartz and feldspars crystallized later, often forming graphic intergrowths and/or melt pseudomorph-like structures (≥ 50 nm) similar to coarser structures (≈ tens of microns scale) observed in the host rocks. The glassy inclusions are rare (about 15% of the total) and smaller in size (≤15 μm in diameter) compared to the crystallized nanogranite MI. Both MI types often show negative crystal-shape and contain trapped crystalline phases that are accessories in the host rock, including rutile, titanite, zircon, apatite and Zn-rich spinel. Partially crystallized MI have been also recognized, containing an amorphous phase identified as a residual melt Where Cl and Ca are preferentially partitioned. Re-heating experiments in a HT hearing stage succeeded in re-homogenizing the nanogranite inclusions. EMP data on 40 re-homogenized MI show an average SiO2

  8. A situational analysis of HIV/AIDS-related discrimination in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Elamon, J

    2005-07-01

    Due to its large population, India has a substantial proportion of the world's HIV infections. Recent evidence suggests that the virus is moving into the general population from high-risk groups. Despite this, a mentality of 'us' and 'them' continues to prevail, where PLWHA are marginalised from mainstream society. Focusing on the area of health care, this study, through an analysis of legislative policy, written regulations and interviews with key informants and direct witnesses aims to map the forms of structural discrimination that inform the lives of PLWHA. Study findings indicate that a lack of clearly enunciated and enforced legislation (which is in some instances clearly discriminatory), coupled with an absence of written internal policy, leaves room for selective interpretation, which in turn creates the opportunities for discriminatory behaviours to be perpetuated against PLWHA. The paper concludes with a call for better educational training of medical staff and the improvement of existing legislature.

  9. Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for pressure-temperature-fluid histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, M.; Santosh, M.; Harley, S. L.; Yoshida, M.

    This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety of reaction textures overprinting the polygonal granoblastic peak metamorphic assemblages in these rocks. The Type II calc-silicate rocks preserve reaction textures, including meionite breaking down to anorthite-calcite-quartz, wollastonite breaking down to calcite-quartz and meionite-quartz symplectites after K-feldspar and wollastonite. Type III calc-silicate rocks have porphyroblastic and coronal grossular. Grossular-quartz coronas separating wollastonite and anorthite and the development of grossular within the anorthite-calcite-quartz pseudomorphs of meionite form important retrograde reaction textures in this type. In Type IV dolomitic marble assemblages, meionite forming in grain boundaries of calcite and feldspars, forsterite rimmed by diopside-dolomite and the formation of grossular in feldspar-rich zones are the important textures. Calculated partial petrogenetic grids in the CaOAl 2O 3SiO 2CO 2 system are used to deduce the pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the calc-silicate rocks. The Type II assemblages provide CO 2 activity estimates of > 0.5, with a peak metamorphic temperature of about 790°C. Initial cooling followed by later CO 2 influx can be deduced from reaction modelling in these calc-silicate rocks. Type III assemblages are characterized by internal fluid buffering throughout their tectonic history. The formation of coronal grossular indicates an initial cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures of about 830°C deduced from vapour

  10. Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India.

    PubMed

    Sruthy, S; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-03-01

    We present the first study of microplastics in the sediments of Vembanad Lake, a Ramsar site in India. Microplastics are emerging pollutants of increasing environmental concern with a particle size of <5 mm, which originate from successive degradation of larger plastic debris or are manufactured as small granules and used in many applications. The impact of microplastics pollution on the environment and biota is not well known. Vast data exist in the literature on marine microplastics while reports on freshwater ecosystems are scarce. In this context, to examine the occurrence of microplastic particles (MPs) in the Vembanad Lake, samples were collected from ten sites and processed for microplastic extraction through density separation. Identification of the polymer components of MPs was done using micro Raman spectroscopy. MPs were recovered from all sediment samples, indicating their extensive distribution in the lake. The abundance of MPs recorded from the sediment samples is in the range of 96-496 particles m(-2) with a mean abundance of 252.80 ± 25.76 particles m(-2). Low density polyethylene has been identified as the dominant type of polymer component of the MPs. As clams and fishes are the major source of protein to the local population, the presence of MPs in the lake becomes critically important, posing a severe threat of contaminating the food web of this lake. This study, being the first report from India on MPs in lake sediments, provide impetus for further research on the distribution and impact of this emerging pollutant on the biota of many aquatic systems spread across India.

  11. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  12. Peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in men from areas of Kerala, India, with high vs normal levels of natural background ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, C V; Ramachandran, E N; Kumar, V Anil; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) in adult male individuals living in areas of the Kerala coast, southwest India, with either high (HLNRA, >1.5mGy/year) or normal levels of natural ionizing radiation (NLNRA, ≤1.5mGy/year). Blood samples were obtained from 141 individuals, 94 from HLNRA and 47 from NLNRA, aged 18-72, and were subjected to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. An average of 1835 binucleated (BN) cells per individual were scored. The overall frequency of MN (mean±SD) was 11.7±6.7 per 1000 BN cells. The frequencies of MN in the HLNRA (11.7±6.6) and NLNRA (11.6±6.7) were not statistically significantly different (P=0.59). However, a statistically significant (P<0.001) age-dependent increase in MN frequency was observed among individuals from both HLNRA and NLNRA. No natural background radiation dose-dependent increase in MN frequency was seen. MN frequency was not influenced by tobacco smoking or chewing but it was increased among individuals consuming alcohol. Chronic low-dose radiation in the Kerala coast did not have a significant effect on MN frequency among adult men.

  13. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V P

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group.

  15. The development of the nursing profession in a globalised context: A qualitative case study in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Evans, Catrin; Nair, Sreelekha

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, we are looking at the relationship between globalisation and the professional project, using nursing in Kerala as an exemplar. Our focus is on the intersection of the professional project, gender and globalisation processes. Included in our analysis are the ways in which gender affects the professional project in the global south, and the development of a professional project which it is closely tied to global markets and global migration, revealing the political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that influence the shape and consequences of nurse migration. The phenomenon that enabled our analysis, by showing these forces at work in a particular time and place, was an outbreak of strikes by nurses working in private hospitals in Kerala in 2011-2012.

  16. Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, C.; Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India preserves a distinct high-grade terrain that is interpreted to have been situated adjacent to Madagascar and Sri Lanka during Gondwana assembly. As such, it has become a major focus for testing models of supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal. The lithounits of KKB have remarkable petrological similarities to the Highland Complex (HC) of Sri Lanka and south-central Madagascar. However, there is no well-constrained petrogenetic model for the KKB that fits explicitly within a supercontinent reconstruction model. We present here results from our on-going studies on the origin and evolution of K-rich (potassic, where K2O/Na2O > 1) gneisses of KKB in relation to Proterozoic supercontinent events. Our results show, in a major departure from earlier metasedimentary origin, that potassic gneisses are metamorphosed granitoids. The metagranitoid samples display high K2O contents and low Al2O3/(FeO + MgO + TiO2) values. They are moderate to strongly peraluminous (ASI values ranging from 1.05 to 1.47) rocks showing mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. Typical of igneous suites, the high-K metagranites show minor variation in chemical compositions with most oxides showing negative correlation with SiO2. Geochemistry illustrates distinctive features of arc-related magmas with LILE (K, Rb, and Th) and LREE enriched patterns and considerable depletion of HSFE (Nb, Zr, and Ti). The high-K metagranites are further characterized by strong negative anomalies of Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.10-0.44) and Sr, suggesting melting in plagioclase stability field and retention of plagioclase in the residual phase. Petrogenetic discrimination for granitoids, using major and trace elements demonstrates that the high-K metagranites of the KKB formed by partial melting of igneous source in lower- to middle-crust levels. Overall the geochemical features are supportive of origin

  17. Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

    Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

  18. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India.

    PubMed

    Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-11-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤ 1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent.

  19. Dimensional and morphological analysis of various rugae patterns in Kerala (South India) sample population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Result: The total number of rugae was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in females than males. Regarding the shape, wavy pattern predominated in both males and females, followed by curve, straight, divergent, convergent and circular pattern. Circular pattern was more in males than females. The rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. Conclusion: The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae. PMID:26283818

  20. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  1. Ethnomedicinal plants used for snake envenomation by folk traditional practitioners from Kallar forest region of South Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Sulochana, Anaswara Krishnan; Raveendran, Dileepkumar; Krishnamma, Anoop Pushkaran; Oommen, Oommen V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional medicinal systems of Indian folklore abundantly use medicinal plants or its derivatives for the treatment of snakebites. However, this traditional knowledge is on the verge of extinction, and there is an immediate necessity to conserve this oral traditional knowledge primarily by proper documentation and scientific authentication. The present ethno botanical study carried out among the folk medicine practitioners in the rural settle mental areas of Kallar forest region of southern Kerala, aims to document the folk herbal knowledge particularly for snake envenomation. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted during the period of June 2012-July 2013 in the rural and forest settlement areas of Kallar in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Direct observation and oral communications with local folk medicine practitioners in this region were adopted to collect valid information regarding the herbal formulations used to treat snake bite patients. Results: The study enumerates a list of 24 plant species belonging to seventeen families with anti-venomous potential. The scientific, vernacular and family names of these plants, along with the part used and their application modes are also enumerated in this communication. Conclusions: Plants are believed to be potent snake bite antidotes from centuries back, and knowledge about the use of plants is strictly conserved among tribes through generations without recorded data. It is the need of the hour to document these old drug formulations and is the cardinal responsibility of the scientific community to validate it and come up with new potent drug molecule for the benefit of snake bite victims. PMID:26401384

  2. The 9th annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, “Principles, Practices, and Patients,” a level one international meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23–27, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    INDUS-EM is India’s only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium that was held in Thrissur, Kerala in October 2013. PMID:24884923

  3. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.

  4. Validation of WHOQOL-BREF in Malayalam and Determinants of Quality of Life Among People With Type 2 Diabetes in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Cherkil, Sandhya; Kuttikattu, Deepak Soman; Kamalamma, Leelamoni; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important health outcome in people with chronic conditions like diabetes and WHOQOL-BREF is a popular instrument used worldwide to assess QOL. However, QOL varies considerably from society to society depending on the culture of the person. Hence, the WHOQOL-BREF was translated to the local language, Malayalam. This article attempts to establish reliability, construct and discriminant validity of the translated WHOQOL-BREF, and determinants of QOL among people with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 patients with diabetes attending a primary care center in a rural area of Kerala, India. The translated version of WHOQOL-BREF was found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's α = .86) and demonstrated discriminant and construct validity. Education was found to be an independent determinant of QOL in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. Thus, the translated version had good psychometric properties and education was an independent determinant of QOL in 3 of 4 domains.

  5. Spatial and vertical distributions of heavy metals and their potential toxicity levels in various beach sediments from high-background-radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Paramasivam, K

    2015-02-15

    The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals and the sediment characteristics of beaches in Kerala, India (the upper surface sediments and the first, second and third one-foot-thick strata) were assessed in this study. The concentrations of most of the studied metals were highest at sampling site S1 (Cochin). The measured concentrations were compared with background and toxicological reference values. The results show that definite adverse biological effects are possible at most of the sampling sites due to the high Pb levels. Three different indexes were calculated to investigate the potential toxicity level. Most of the studied metals and all calculated indexes were highest in the third foot of sediment. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed and suggested that particular heavy metals, e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, may represent contamination from a common source. The Cd and Pb concentrations and all the calculated index values show a relationship with the content of organic matter. The results of the present study suggest the recommendation that a systematic analysis is needed to monitor heavy metal levels in the studied area.

  6. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  7. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SEDIMENTS AND RIVER BANK SOIL OF KALLADA RIVER OF KERALA, SOUTH INDIA AND ASSOCIATED RADIOLOGICAL RISK.

    PubMed

    Venunathan, N; Kaliprasad, C S; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in the sediments and river bank soil samples collected from the Kallada river environs of coastal Kerala. The radiological risks associated with these radionuclides were calculated. The samples were processed following standard procedure, and activity was counted using a high-efficiency 5″ × 5″ NaI (Tl) detector coupled to GSPEC gamma spectroscopy system. The mean values of measured activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in soil samples were found to be 98.1 ± 0.4, 60.3 ± 1.1 and 343.4 ± 1.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which results in an average absorbed dose rate of 103 nGy h(-1) The corresponding values for sediment samples were found to be 88.0 ± 0.4, 48.6 ± 0.9 and 423.2 ± 2.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with a resulting absorbed dose rate of 95 nGy h(-1) Radium equivalent activity, annual effective dose equivalent, the external and internal hazard indices were determined and compared with recommended limits. The results of the work provide background data on natural radioactive isotopes, which are useful in the assessment of human radiation exposure from natural environment. The accumulation of information on natural radiation is of great value for radiation protection.

  8. Evaluation of spontaneous DNA damage in lymphocytes of healthy adult individuals from high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P R Vivek; Cheriyan, V D; Seshadri, M

    2012-05-01

    Inhabitants of the high-level natural radiation areas (>1 mSv year(-1)) of Kerala in southwest India were evaluated for basal damage (spontaneous DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) by the alkaline comet assay and oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III- and hOGG1-sensitive sites) by the enzyme-modified comet assay. Of the 67 adult male subjects studied, 45 were from high-level natural radiation areas and 22 subjects were from a nearby normal-level natural radiation area (≤1 mSv year(-1)). Basal damage due to the age and residential area (normal-level natural radiation area/high-level natural radiation areas) of the donors showed significant interaction (P < 0.001) when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the normal-level natural radiation area (P = 0.02), while a significant negative correlation (P = 0.002) was observed in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas. Further, basal damage in elderly subjects from high-level natural radiation areas was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to the subjects from the normal-level natural radiation area. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. However, in a subgroup analysis, hOGG1-sensitive sites showed a significant increase with age in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas (P = 0.005). ENDO III-sensitive sites increased with natural radiation exposure in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas (P = 0.02), but when stratified according to smoking, a significant increase was observed only in smokers (P = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on basal and oxidative DNA damage in healthy adults of this population. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population.

  9. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Gangadharan, Paleth; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Nair, Raghu Ram K

    2011-02-01

    The Karunagapally cohort in Kerala, India was established in the 1990s. The present study examined oral cancer risk among 66,277 men aged 30-84 years in the cohort, using Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, stratified on attained age, calendar time, education, and family income. By the end of 2005, 160 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagapally Cancer Registry. Tobacco chewing increased oral cancer risk (P < 0.001). Particularly increased was the risk of cancers of the gum and mouth (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-7.9), which increased with higher daily frequencies (P < 0.001) and longer duration (P < 0.001) of tobacco chewing. Alcohol drinking was not significantly related to oral cancer risk regardless of tobacco chewing. Bidi smoking significantly increased oral cancer risk (RR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.4-4.9) only among men without tobacco chewing habits. The risk increased with higher daily consumption (P < 0.001), longer duration (P = 0.001), and younger age at start of bidi smoking (P = 0.007). In location-specific analysis, bidi smoking was significantly associated with cancer of the gum and mouth (RR = 3.6; 95%CI = 1.1-12.1), and its risk significantly increased with larger daily consumption of bidis (P = 0.013) and younger age at the start of smoking (P = 0.044). Tongue cancer risk was significantly increased among men who smoked bidis for 30 years or longer, and men started bidi smoking at 18 years old or younger. The present study is the first cohort study showing that tobacco chewing increases cancers of the gum and mouth among men keeping chewing tobacco in the cheek, and that bidi smoking strongly increased oral cancer risk among men without a tobacco chewing habit.

  10. Reaction textures in scapolite wollastonite grossular calc-silicate rock from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: evidence for high-temperature metamorphism and initial cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, M.; Harley, Simon L.

    1998-11-01

    Scapolite-wollastonite-grossular bearing calc-silicate rocks from the Vellanad area in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India preserve a number of reaction textures which help to deduce their P- T-fluid history. Textures include calcite+plagioclase±quartz symplectites after scapolite, grossular+quartz coronas between wollastonite and plagioclase, grossular coronas between wollastonite and plagioclase+calcite that replace former scapolite, and grossular blebs replacing anorthite+calcite+quartz pseudomorphs of scapolite. Garnet coronas are also observed between clinopyroxene and wollastonite or scapolite or plagioclase. The reactions, apart from those involving clinopyroxene, can be modelled in the simple CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 system and interpreted using partial reaction grids constructed for the activities of end-members in the analysed phases. The reaction topologies produced are good approximations for the peak as well as retrograde mineral assemblages and reaction textures. For the compositions of the phases present in this study, the medium pressure calc-silicate assemblages are defined by the stable pseudo-invariant points [Qtz], [Mei] and [Grs]. The textural features interpreted using these activity-corrected grids indicate a phase of isobaric cooling from about 835°C to 750°C at 6 kbar in the Vellanad area. This is inconsistent with earlier studies on other lithologies from the KKB, most of which imply a post-peak P- T path involving near-isothermal decompression. However, as the temperatures obtained for the KKB from the calc-silicates are higher than those previously deduced from metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene assemblages, the phase of near-isobaric cooling reported here is inferred to have proceeded prior to the onset of the decompression documented from studies of other rock types.

  11. Test characteristics of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) in cervical cancer screening in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Wesley, Ramani; Thara, Somanathan; Dhakad, Namrata; Chandralekha, Bharathykutty; Sebastian, Paul; Chithrathara, K; Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Nair, Madhavan Krishnan

    2003-09-01

    Simple and inexpensive methods based on visual examination of the cervix are currently being investigated as alternative methods of cervical screening. The test characteristics of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA), and Lugol's iodine (VILI) and conventional cytology were investigated in a cross-sectional study involving 4,444 women aged 25 to 65 years in Kerala, India. While detection of any acetowhite area constituted a low-threshold positive VIA, detection of well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesions close to or touching the squamocolumnar junction constituted a high-threshold positive VIA test. Detection of definite yellow iodine nonuptake areas in the transformation zone close to or touching the squamocolumnar junction constituted a positive VILI test. Cytology was considered positive if reported as atypia or worse lesions. All screened women were evaluated by colposcopy and biopsies were directed in 1,644 women (37.0%), which allowed the direct estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. The reference diagnosis was based on a combination of histology and/or colposcopy. True disease status was defined as CIN 2 and worse lesions. A total of 149 (3.4%) women had CIN 2 or worse lesions. The sensitivities of low-threshold VIA, high-threshold VIA, VILI and cytology to detect CIN 2 or worse disease were 88.6%, 82.6%, 87.2% and 81.9%, respectively; the corresponding specificities were 78.0%, 86.5%, 84.7% and 87.8%. Our results indicate that VIA and VILI are suitable alternate screening tests to cytology for detecting cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings.

  12. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5

  13. Lack of increased DNA double-strand breaks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinay; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-06-01

    The high level natural radiation area (HLNRA) of Kerala is a 55km long and 0.5km wide strip in south west coast of India. The level of background radiation in this area varies from <1.0mGy/year to 45.0mGy/year. It offers unique opportunity to study the effect of chronic low dose/low dose-rate radiation directly on human population. Spontaneous level of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 91 random individuals from HLNRA (N=61, mean age: 36.1±7.43years) and normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) (N=30, mean age: 35.5±6.35years) using gamma-H2AX as a marker. The mean annual dose received by NLNRA and HLNRA individuals was 1.28±0.086mGy/year and 8.28±4.96mGy/year, respectively. The spontaneous frequency of DSBs in terms of gamma-H2AX foci among NLNRA and HLNRA individuals were 0.095±0.009 and 0.084±0.004 per cell (P=0.22). The individuals from HLNRA were further classified as low dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 2.63±0.76mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG, >5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 11.04±3.57mGy/year). The spontaneous frequency of gamma-H2AX foci per cell in NLNRA, LDG and HDG was observed to be 0.095±0.009, 0.096±0.008 and 0.078±0.004 respectively. Individuals belonging to HDG of HLNRA showed marginally lower frequency of DSBs as compared to NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA. This could be suggestive of either lower induction or better repair of DSBs in individuals from HDG of HLNRA. The present study indicated that 5.0mGy/year could be a possible threshold dose for DSB induction at chronic low-dose radiation exposure in vivo. However, further studies on DNA damage induction and repair kinetics are required to draw firm conclusions.

  14. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V. J.; Sajinkumar, K. S.; Sajeev, K.; Kumar, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910 nm, 1470 nm, 1849-1864 nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940 nm and 2270 nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  15. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Harichandran, Deepa; Dinesh, Kavitha Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Background/purpose Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%), followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64%) and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%). Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%), ampicillin (77.21%), cotrimoxazole (75.94%) and azithromycin (78.48%). For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms was 0.5 μg/mL (intermediate) and MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms was 1 μg/mL (resistant). S. Typhimurium was 100% susceptible to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin

  17. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  18. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V J; Sajinkumar, K S; Sajeev, K; Kumar, S N

    2016-11-05

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910nm, 1470nm, 1849-1864nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940nm and 2270nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  19. Home-based Palliative Services under Two Local Self-government Institutions of Kerala, India: An Assessment of Compliance with Policy and Guidelines to Local Self-government Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, Rajeev; Suhita, Chatterjee Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Background: In contrast to India's poor performance in palliative and end-of-life care, the state of Kerala has gained considerable attention for its palliative care (PC) policy. This study tried to understand the structure, organization, and delivery of the program currently offered to the rural population, and its conformity to the state's PC policy and guidelines for Local Self-government Institutions (LSGIs). Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design involving a review of Kerala palliative policy and guidelines for LSGIs was followed by direct field observation and interviews of stakeholders. Two LSGIs in rural Kerala served also by a nongovernmental organization (NGO), were selected. Data were collected from health workers (doctors, nurses, and PC nurses), government stakeholders (LSGI members and representatives of the National Health Mission), and the health workers and officials of NGO. Results: The program in two LSGIs varies considerably in terms of composition of the palliative team, infrastructure and human resource, cost, and type of service provided to the community. A comparative assessment with a nongovernmental service provider shows that the services offered by the LSGIs seemed to be restricted in scope to meet the needs of the resource-stricken community. Compliance with policy guidelines seems to be poor for both the LSGIs. Conclusions: Despite a robust policy, the palliative program lacks a public health approach to end-of-life care. A structural reconfiguration of the delivery system is needed, involving greater state responsibility and political will in integrating PC within a broader social organization of care. PMID:28216866

  20. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  1. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-03-31

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  2. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240

  3. Do Caste and Class Define Inequality? Revisiting Education in a Kerala Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaria, Suma

    2014-01-01

    Is there a strong correlation between caste and class in access to education, especially higher education? This is the broader question addressed by the study in the context of Kerala, the southernmost state in India, with impressive conventional indicators in education. Micro-level insights based on the study of a village in Kerala show that old…

  4. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-08-13

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  6. THE AYURVEDIC HERITAGE OF KERALA

    PubMed Central

    Variar, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ayurveda has a long history of being enriched by different types of contributions from different stages befitting their geographical, climatic and cultural situations, and based on their thinking and living patterns, especially the practical aspects. Kerala has its own great role in this prcess of enrichment. It is unique and invaluable. The historical aspects the literary contributions by Kerala to the Ayurvedic system, the traditional and special treatments of Kerala etc., are discussed in this paper. PMID:22557501

  7. Radio-adaptive response in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals residing in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala in the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, E N; Karuppasamy, C V; Kumar, V Anil; Soren, D C; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-11-09

    The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was employed to study the radio-adaptive response. Seventeen individuals were from normal-level natural radiation area (NLNRA ≤1.5 mGy/year) and 37 from HLNRA (> 1.5 mGy/year). Based on the annual dose received, individuals from HLNRA were further classified into low-dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0 mGy/year, N = 19) and high-dose group (HDG >5.0 mGy/year, N = 18). Basal frequency of micronucleus (MN) was comparable across the three dose groups (NLNRA, LDG and HDG, P = 0.64). Age of the individuals showed a significant effect on the frequency of MN after challenging dose exposures. The mean frequency of MN was significantly lower in elder (>40 years) individuals from HDG of HLNRA as compared to the young (≤40 years) individuals after 1.0 Gy (P < 0.001) and 2.0 Gy (P = 0.002) of challenging doses. However, young and elder individuals within NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA showed similar frequency of MN after the challenging dose exposures. Thus, increased level of chronic low-dose radiation (>5.0 mGy/year) seems to act as a priming dose resulting in the induction of an in vivo radio-adaptive response in elder individuals of the Kerala coast.

  8. Phosphorous fractionation in mangrove sediments of Kerala, south west coast of India: the relative importance of inorganic and organic phosphorous fractions.

    PubMed

    Resmi, P; Manju, M N; Gireeshkumar, T R; Ratheesh Kumar, C S; Movitha, M; Shameem, K; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2016-06-01

    The study of phosphorous dynamics in mangrove ecosystems of the northern Kerala coast aims to delineate its relationships with other biogeochemical parameters. Our intension is to check the validity of the hypothesis that these mangrove ecosystems act as an efficient trap of organic phosphorous by acting as P sink. The dissolved inorganic phosphate displayed higher concentration in monsoon that could be correlated with higher P leaching from mangrove litter as well as terrigenous input during wet season. Fe(OOH)≈P was much higher in monsoon (235.23 to 557.70 μg g(-1)) and lower in pre-monsoon (36.50 to 154.97 μg g(-1)), and displayed significant contribution towards the inorganic sedimentary P fractions. In monsoon, adsorption of P on iron hydroxides is enhanced by fresh water conditions, but pre-monsoon is characterised by the reductive dissolution of iron oxy hydroxides and the subsequent efflux of P to water column. CaCO3≈Pinorg may be present as an inert fraction in the sediment matrix, and did not display any interrelationship with other geochemical parameters. The abundant total organic P (25 to 73 %) fractions, largely derived from P bound with humic/fulvic acid, played a major role in immobilising P and regulating its dynamics in the nearby estuarine and coastal environment.

  9. Government Medical College Trivandrum - Fifty years of Neurosurgery in Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Peethambaran, Anil Kumar; Chandran, Raj S

    2017-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.

  10. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  11. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  12. Water use of eucalypts in Kerala

    SciTech Connect

    Kallarackal, J.

    1992-12-31

    The water use of the introduced eucalypt trees has been much debated in southern India. The present study looks at the water loss of eucalyptus by transpiration in an area in Kerala where the evaporative demands are relatively higher than in other zones. The results presented here have been obtained from the initial stages of project with a much wider scope. The microclimatic data above the tree canopy has been measured on three sample days in October to December, 1990. Stomatal resistance was also measured hourly on all of these days. Using these measured parameters, transpiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. The cumulative transpiration loss during the sample days in October and November was approximately 5 mm, whereas it increased to approximately 8 mm in December. The reason for this increase is discussed.

  13. English in Kerala: Plus ca Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, P. Bhaskaran

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews the status, ecology, use, and the teaching/learning of English in the southern Indian state of Kerala. It does so along two overlapping dimensions. A socio-demographic dimension situates the ecology of English in Kerala in the general Indian context, and relates it to the ethno-linguistic identity of Kerala. A second applied…

  14. Higher Education, Reservation and Scheduled Castes: Exploring Institutional Habitus of Professional Engineering Colleges in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malish, C. M.; Ilavarasan, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel the institutional context of the educational experience of scheduled caste engineering students in Kerala, a federal state in India. Though much has been debated about equity of access in the domain of reservation policies in higher education while studying the caste question and educational equity, process and outcome…

  15. The "Kerala model" of development: development and sustainability in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Parayil, G

    1996-12-01

    The Indian state of Kerala with a population of 29 million has made the transition to a society with low infant mortality rate, low population growth, and a low crude death rate in less than 30 years. The average life expectancy for women is 74 years (vs. 60 years for India as a whole) and 71 years for men (vs. 59 years for India), the infant mortality rate is 16.5/1000 live births (vs. 91/1000 for India), and literacy is almost universal. The population growth rate fell from 44/1000 in the 1950s to 18/1000 in 1991. By 1985 the population growth rate had stabilized to a demographic replacement level net reproduction rate. Kerala's female/male ratio is 1.04:1 as opposed to the Indian average of 0.93:1 and China's 0.94:1. All this was achieved without coercion by democratically elected state governments. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. This development came about despite a low per capita income. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. In addition, the HDI (Human Development Index) of Kerala was more than twice the national average. The HDI was 0.925 for the US in 1994 vs. 0.775 for Kerala, where the per capita income was one-hundredth of the US per capita income. This progress was accomplished by the elimination of absentee landlords and the return of the land to the tiller; and large amounts of funds spent on education, health care, infrastructure, agricultural credits, and housing. Staples were made available to the poor at subsidized prices. The Kerala model may be taken as an early prototype of sustainable development because of improvements in the quality of life, environmental stability, social and economic equality, and the decline in political strife.

  16. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  17. CDC Kerala--The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Leela, Leena Mundapalliyil; George, Babu; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Pillai, Asokan Nataraja; Sarasamma, Harikumaran Nair Gopinathan Nair

    2016-05-01

    This article is our life time experience in conceptualizing and systematically developing Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala in the last 25 years, from a research project to a national training centre in child and adolescent development and premarital counseling. CDC Kerala's major contribution was in creating a 'conceptual framework' of a valid link between childhood disability, low birth weight, adolescent girls' nutrition and fetal onset adult lifestyle diseases. It all started with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) proving beyond doubt that early stimulation is effective in improving the neurodevelopmental status of high risk babies at one and two years and the same cohort was followed-up in detail at 5, 13, 16, 19 and 24 completed years. The process of establishing CDC Kerala is being presented under (i) clinical child development, (ii) adolescent care counseling, (iii) young adults and premarital counseling and (iv) institution building.

  18. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  19. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  20. Contrasting geochemistry of arc-related metagranitoids in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: evidence for flat to steep transition in subduction style at the end of the Archaean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gr, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) occupying southernmost part of the south Indian granulite terrain (SGT) is characterized by the presence of high-grade metagranitoids equilibrated at granulite-facies (ca. 7 to 9.5 kbar and 840-1070 °C) conditions. The mechanisms of granulite genesis within the SGT are poorly understood as these metagranitoids have not been unequivocally correlated to the important evolutionary models applicable to granulite genesis like crustal thickening during continental collision or magmatic underplating. Recent studies suggesting subduction-accretion-collision geodynamic model for the genesis of KKB metagranitoids implores the role of classical mechanisms for the petrogenesis of granulites in this region. In this contribution, we present and synthesize the contrasting major, trace, and REE geochemical patterns of tonalitic and high-K granitic rocks of the KKB as a consequence of the change in geodynamic setting. The contrasting granitoid groups of the KKB comprise (i) tonalites with characteristic Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) affinity and (ii) high-K granites showing geochemical patterns archetypal of the post-Archaean granites. The tonalite groups show low-K, magnesian character with moderate to high SiO2 (57-76 wt.%) contents, moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6), characteristic high Sr/Y (27-934; average 331) and high [La/Yb]N (average 39) ratios, and strongly positive and/or no europium (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67) anomalies. The geochemical features suggests that protolith for the tonalites are derived from partial melting of a subducting slab/thickened lower continental crust composed of mafic composite source rocks (eclogitic or basaltic crust) in the Neoarchaean (ca. 2.73-2.89 Ga). The absence of volcanism associated with the tonalite genesis possibly indicates that the subducting lithosphere was an old and cold plate. On contrary, the high-K granite group show ferroan nature, low to moderate

  1. Biosignatures of Kerala red rain cells: Implications in understanding their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, R.; Thomas, M.; Hogg, S.

    2013-09-01

    The red rain that fell over Kerala, southern India (2001-2012) was characterised by the red pigmented particles. Earlier proposal claiming that these are known algal bloom blown from trees (Sampath et al, 2001; DiGregorio, 2007) has been studied by us and disproved. Also, further investigation reporting their extraordinary properties including a suggestion that they lack DNA (Louis and Kumar 2003; 2006; 2008) has been invalidated (Gangappa and Hogg, 2013). However, their claim regarding the growth and replication of these cells at 300ºC needs more investigation if it is to gain acceptance. Current study provide evidences regarding the biological properties of Kerala red rain cells to gain insights into environmental conditions from which they may have originated. Combined with various research strategies and high resolution instruments, we have demonstrated the following interesting properties of Kerala red rain cells: (1) unusually thick external envelope enclosing the central core; (2)stability of red pigment at temperatures about 100ºC and pH variations; (3) absence of eukaryotic ultrastructures; (4) possible replication at 121ºC with nanostructures (possible daughter cells) having similar morphological features inside the large mother cells at such high temperature. They contain high percentage of carbon, iron, silicon and aluminum and often enclosed in a silicon rich biofilms. Further investigation shows that the positive detection of DNA in these cells was possible only after the complete removal of red pigment, thereby providing an explanation for the negative outcome of earlier studies in this regard. Moreover, evidences are shown to support that these cells contain high amounts of UV absorbing compounds, porphyrin complexes and possible scytonemin. Kerala red rain cells may prove to be polyextermophiles belonging to prokaryotes and may have possibly originated from the environment containing above mentioned chemical elements, high energy UV exposure and

  2. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.

  3. Psychological Approaches to Learner Centered Curriculum in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.; Sajitha, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    The major curricular innovations that have taken place in Kerala secondary education system in recent years is so revolutionary. This paper examines the basic psychological theories of the learner centered curriculum of school education in the state of Kerala. Initially the curriculum was based on the principles of behaviorism. The curriculum then…

  4. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  5. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  6. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  7. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Paniya Tribes in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Valsan, Iris; Joseph, Joe; Mohamed, Shamaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tribal communities of Kerala have been largely left out of the gains of the Kerala model of development. Aim The study was aimed to obtain baseline data of oral health status and treatment needs of Paniyas, in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive population based survey of adult Paniya belonging to index age groups of 35-44 years and 65-74 years was conducted. The study population comprised of 420 subjects drawn from three talukas by stratified cluster sampling. Modified version of WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used to assess the oral health status. Results Caries prevalence was 40%. The mean DMFT in the 35-44 years age group was 1.52±1.95 and in 65-74 age group it was 18.47 ± 13.10. Oral mucosal lesions were seen in 4.52% and 76.9% had periodontal disease. Tooth brushing was reported by 55.5% of the subjects. Paan chewing, with tobacco or without tobacco, habit was reported by 89.3%. Bi-variate analyses between the CPI scores and age groups showed high statistical significance. The maximum mean treatment requirement was for extraction (1.37 ± 4.01) and was observed in 65-74 age groups. Conclusion The lack of basic oral health care access is important for high oral disease burden in these populations. Efforts are to be done for basic oral health care facility to these marginal populations. PMID:27891449

  8. Gneiss-charnockite transformation at Kottavattam, Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raith, M.; Klatt, E.; Spiering, B.; Srikantappa, C.; Staehle, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    At Kottavattam, leucocratic granitic garnet-biotite gneisses (age less than 2 Ga) were partially transformed to coarse-grained charnockite along a system of conjugate fractures (N70E and N20W) and the foliation planes (N60 to 80W; dip 80 to 90 SW) about 550 m.y. ago. To examine and quantify changes in fabric, mineralogy, pore fluids and chemical composition associated with this process, large rock specimens showing gneiss-charnockite transition were studied in detail. The results of the present study corroborate the concept that charnockite formation at Kottavattam is an internally-generated phenomenon and was not triggered by the influx of carbonic fluids from a deep-seated source. It is suggested that charnockitization was caused by the following mechanism: (1) near-isothermal decompression during uplift of the gneiss complex led to an increase of the pore fluid pressure (P sub fluid greater than P sub lith) which - in a regime of anisotropic stress - triggered or at least promoted the development of conjugate fractures; (2) the simultaneous release of pore fluids from bursting fluid inclusions and their escape into the developing fracture system resulted in a drop of fluid pressure; and (3) the internal generation and buffering of the fluids and their, probably, limited migration in an entirely granitic rock system explains the absence of any significant metasomatic mass transfer.

  9. Automation of University Libraries in Kerala: Status, Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suku, J.; Pillai, Mini G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the present scenario of automation activities of university libraries in Kerala. The survey findings mainly cover various aspects of library automation such as information technology infrastructure, in-house activities, information services and their usage, manpower development, and budget. The paper briefly describes the role…

  10. Keeping the doctor in the loop: Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Kudlu, Chithprabha

    2016-12-01

    Ethnographic inquiry into Ayurvedic commodification in Kerala revealed the prevalence of a distinct regional pharmaceutical market dominated by physician-manufacturers, oriented towards supplying classical medicines to Ayurvedic doctors. This stands in sharp contrast to mainstream Ayurveda that is observed to have undergone biomedicalization and pharmaceuticalization. This paper argues that Kerala's classical-medicine-centric pharmaceutical market constitutes an alternative modernity because it provided Kerala Ayurveda with a different route to modernization impervious to the biomedical regime, as well as endowing it with the institutional power to safeguard its regional identity. Although physician-entrepreneurs are its key architects, it is sustained by value regimes shaped by a unique regional medico-cultural milieu. Even when industrially produced, classical medicines remain embedded within Ayurveda's socio-technical network; unlike proprietary drugs sold as individual product-identities through non-Ayurvedic channels, they travel together as a pharmacopeia, distributed through exclusive doctor-mediated agencies. This clinic-centric distribution format is best conceptualized as an open-source business model as it made low-margin generics viable by packaging them with therapies and services. Besides ensuring better access and affordability, it provided resistance to pharmaceuticalization and intellectual property concentration. By keeping the doctor in the loop, it prevented medicines from degenerating into de-contextualized commodities; the service component of Ayurveda therein preserved went on become the unique selling point in the health-tourism market. The tourism-inspired proliferation of Brand Kerala eventually triggered a paradigm shift in mainstream Ayurveda - shifting focus from 'pharmaceuticals' to 'services' and from 'illness' to 'wellness'. Furthermore, interacting with hybrid Ayurvedas in transnational markets, Kerala Ayurveda co-produces new

  11. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  12. Powering the Women in Agriculture: Lessons on Women Led Farm Mechanisation in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jiju P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how an initiative on farm mechanisation by a local government in Kerala in South India evolved into a formal organisation that provides sustainable livelihood options to women and small and marginal farmers and revived the rice production system. Design/methodology/approach: The study followed the case analysis…

  13. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) – a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  14. Kyasanur Forest Disease - First Reported Case in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Shiji, P V; Viswanath, Veena; Sreekumar, Sreena; Sreejith, R; Majeed, Abdul; Udayabhaskaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.

  15. Pathways to catastrophic health expenditure for acute coronary syndrome in Kerala: ‘Good health at low cost’?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage through the removal of financial and other barriers to access, particularly for people who are poor, is a global priority. This viewpoint describes the many pathways to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) based on two case studies and the thematic analysis of field notes regarding 210 patients and their households from a study based in Kerala, India. Discussion There is evidence of the severe financial impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which is in contradiction to the widely acclaimed Kerala model: Good health at low cost. However, it is important to look beyond the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and CHE to the possible pathways and identify the triggers that make families vulnerable to CHE. The identified pathways include a primary and secondary loop. The primary pathway describes the direct path by which families experience CHE. These include: 1) factors related to the pre-event period that increase the likelihood of experiencing CHE, such as being from the lower socio-economic strata (SES), past financial losses or loans that leave families with no financial shock absorber at the time of illness; 2) factors related to the acute event, diagnosis, treatment and hospitalization and expenditures incurred for the same and; 3) factors related to the post-event period such as loss of gainful employment and means of financing both the acute period and the long-term management particularly through distress financing. The secondary pathway arises from the primary and includes: 1) the impact of distress financing and; 2) the long- and short- term consequences of CHE. These factors ultimately result in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty through non-compliance and repeat acute events. Summary This paper outlines the direct and indirect pathways by which patients with ACS and their families are trapped in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty. It also contradicts the prevailing

  16. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education

  17. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls of Central Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Sobha, A.; Manjula, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent age group is the window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. If we intervene correctly during this period we can prevent future consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Very few studies have been conducted in kerala regarding adolescent anaemia. Aim To estimate prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent girls of central Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 adolescent girls of ettumanoor panchayat, the field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with anaemia. Relevant clinical examination of participants were done. Blood samples were analysed using an auto-analyser and stool examination for ova or cyst was done under microscopy. Diagnosis of anaemia was established when haemoglobin was less than 12gm/dl. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Association between Categorical variables were tested with Chi-square test and continuous variables independent t-test was used. Logistic regression was used to find out independent risk factors. The level of significance was fixed at p-value of < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anaemia was 21%. Risk factors associated with anaemia in the univariate analysis were presence of ova or cyst in stool (p = 0.003, OR = 2.94) and number of pads per day during menstruation (p = 0.004). Protective factors were hand washing after toileting (p = 0.021, OR = 0.311), hand washing before food intake (p = 0.026, OR = 0.5), foot wear usage (p = 0.022, OR = 0.25) and jaggery consumption (0.042). The factors which were significant in logistic regression were worm infestation, number of pads per day, washing hands before food intake and foot wear usage. Conclusion Worm infestation and number of pads per day during menstruation were found to be risk factors for anaemia. Personal hygiene practices

  18. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  19. The Ashtavaidya physicians of Kerala: A tradition in transition.

    PubMed

    Menon, Indudharan; Spudich, Annamma

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents what we have learned from the Ashtavaidya Ayurveda physicians of Kerala regarding the status of their unique medical tradition of Ayurveda in the contemporary context. We extensively interviewed several practicing Ashtavaidyas for the "Living History of Indian Scientific Traditions" archive, a new initiative at the NCBS, Bangalore to study the history of Indian sciences. As heirs of a tradition that has adapted and evolved over centuries without compromising its fundamental principles, their views on Ayurveda presented here represent an important contribution to the current debate on the role of traditional medicine in the Indian public health system.

  20. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  1. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Design Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. Setting 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Participants 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD and/or its risk factors, 5 physicians treating CVD and 5 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). Patients were sampled for maximum variation on the basis of age, sex, CVD diagnoses and risk factors. All participants had access to a mobile phone. Results The main themes identified relating to the current challenges of CVD were poor patient disease knowledge, difficulties in implementing primary prevention and poor patient lifestyles. Participants noted phone calls as the main function of current mobile phone use. The expectations of mHealth use are to: improve accessibility to healthcare knowledge; provide reminders of appointments, medication and lifestyle changes; save time, money and travel; and improve ASHA job efficacy. All perceived barriers to mHealth were noted within physician interviews. These included fears of mobile phones negatively affecting physicians’ roles, the usability of mobile phones, radiation and the need for physical consultations. Conclusions There are three main potential uses of mHealth in this population: (1) as an educational tool, to improve health education and lifestyle behaviours; (2) to optimise the use of limited resources, by overcoming geographical barriers and financial constraints; (3) to improve use of healthcare, by providing appointment and treatment reminders in order to improve disease prevention and management. Successful mHealth design, which takes barriers into account, may complement current practice and optimise use of limited

  2. Gulf money in Kerala: coping with the problems of plenty.

    PubMed

    Kurian, R; Thakore, D

    The recent phenomenon of emigration from Kerala to the Gulf countries and the increasing inflow of remittances is having a tremendous impact on Kerala's economy. The state planning board reports that the remittances from the Gulf to this tiny state are Rs. 400 crones/year. An annual inflow of this amount cannot help influence the fortunes of the population. Although emigration from Kerala is not new, the current outflow reached massive proportions only in the wake of the intensive construction boom in the West Asian countries, after a huge volume of petro dollars flowed into those countries in the aftermath of the 1973 hike in oil price. In December 1977 a total of 135,000 Keralities were employed in foreign countries, mainly in West Asia. These adventurous migrants, in their quest for a wage, emigrated mainly from 4 areas in the state: Varkala in Trivandrum district; Thiruvalla in Alleppey district; Chavakkad in Trichur district; and almost all parts of Malappuram district. The bulk of the remittances are sent to households and next of kin concentrated in these areas. This unprecedented inflow of remittances has kindled the hopes of politicians and administrators of tapping these resources to solve the problems of economic development of the state. 1 category of emigrants come from poor households, are poorly educated, and are masons, carpenters, or even unskilled laborers. Because of their ignorance and gullibility they are exploited by middlemen who charge them Rs. 12,000 for a no objection certificate (NOC). Moneylenders are also doing a thriving business. Another type of emigrant is from relatively well off households, better educated, and able to obtain better jobs. There are also rich businessmen and contractors among them. It is this category of better educated emigrant who is able to save a substantial part of his income. State administrative circles note that remittances at best can provide only the financial capital. According to T.C. Razajm a

  3. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  4. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Ravindran, T.K. Sundari; Sarma, P.S.; Sivasankaran, S.; Thankappan, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. Methods This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Discussion Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary procurement

  5. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  6. Lineage shift in Indian strains of Dengue virus serotype-3 (Genotype III), evidenced by detection of lineage IV strains in clinical cases from Kerala

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Local epidemiology of Dengue is defined by the genetic diversity of the circulating Dengue virus (DENV) strains. This important information is not available for the virus strains from most parts of the Indian subcontinent. The present study focused on the genetic diversity of the serotype 3 DENV strains (DENV-3) from India. Results A total of 22 DENV-3 strains identified by reverse-transcription PCR analysis of serum samples from 709 patients were studied. These samples were collected over a period of 4 years (2008–2011) from dengue fever suspected patients from Kerala, a dengue endemic state in South India. Comparison of a 1740bp nucleotide sequence of the viral Capsid-Pre-membrane-Envelope coding region of our strains and previously reported DENV-3 strains from India, South Asia and South America revealed non-synonymous substitutions that were genotype III-specific as well as sporadic. Evidence of positive selection was detected in the I81 amino acid residue of the envelope protein. Out of the 22 samples, three had I81A and 18 had I81V substitutions. In the phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method the strains from Kerala clustered in two different lineages (lineage III and IV) within genotype III clade of DENV-3 strains. The ten strains that belonged to lineage IV had a signature amino acid substitution T219A in the envelope protein. Interestingly, all these strains were found to be closely related to a Singapore strain GU370053 isolated in 2007. Conclusions Our study identifies for the first time the presence of lineage IV strains in the Indian subcontinent. Results indicate the possibility of a recent exotic introduction and also a shift from the existing lineage III strains to lineage IV. Lineage shifts in DENV-3 strains have been attributed to dramatic increase in disease severity in many parts of the world. Hence the present observation could be significant in terms of the clinical severity of future dengue cases in the region. PMID

  7. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  8. Participatory GIS in action, a public health initiative from Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    Community ownership is essential for sustainable public health initiatives. The advantages of getting active involvement of homebound village women in a public health campaign to establish community health surveillance are being reported in this paper. With the support of the local self government authorities, we had selected 120 village women, and they were given extensive training on various healthcare schemes, home based management of local ailments, leadership skills and survey techniques. Afterwards, they had been asked to share their knowledge with at least 10-15 women in their neighbourhood. This had improved their status in the neighbourhood, as more and more people started getting their advice on healthcare and social services related matters. Subsequently, they had collected the socio-demographic and morbidity details of the entire households, including the geometric coordinates (longitude and latitude) of the households and public offices. In this process, they began to use the geographic position system (GPS) machines, dismissing the myth that women are not that techno savvy, further improving their acceptability in the community. Many among them were seen proudly describing the implications of the thematic maps to the village people and line department staff in the monthly subcentre meetings. Many were offered seats in the local body elections by leading political parties, a few of them did stand in the elections and three of them had won the elections. This experience reinforces our belief that the empowerment of villagers with newer technology could be a public health tool with much wider positive implications.

  9. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to quantify the upper limit of the root cohesion at the stand level in combination with land use maps. This is an indispensable component in the evaluation of slope stability in the region.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of an Environmental trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus K23 Strain Isolated from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Divya Meparambu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a trh+ strain, V. parahaemolyticus K23, isolated from seafood. The sequence will be useful for comparative analysis between environmental and clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:27081143

  11. Methanogenesis: Seasonal changes in human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary (Kerala, South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshmi, R. R.; Deepa Nair, K.; Zachariah, E. J.; Vincent, Salom Gnana Thanga

    2015-04-01

    Environmental variables as well as methanogenic abundance and activity were analysed in selected human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary. Sediment samples were collected during summer and monsoon of 2013. Each was analysed for environmental variables such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate, total kjeldahl nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter and redox potential. Abundance and methanogenic potential of two distinct groups of methanogenic archaea (i.e. aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens) were quantified by incubating the sediment samples in basal media, added with acetate or methanol as substrate. Most of the environmental variables showed significant differences spatially and temporally. Among the environmental variables, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and salinity were higher during summer, while total kjeldahl nitrogen, sulphate and organic carbon were higher during monsoon. Abundance of both aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens showed significant variations both spatially and temporally. Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant during monsoon, with a maximum value of 810 ± 13 CFU g-1, and methylotrophic methanogens were abundant during summer, with a maximum value of 1770 ± 30 CFU g-1. Results of methanogenic potential of sediment samples showed a range of 0.01 ± 0.00 to 12.03 ± 0.35 mol m-3. Among the two substrates, methanol favoured the abundance of methylotrophic methanogens, while acetate induced the methanogenic activity. Methanogenic activity was higher during monsoon than summer that can be attributed to the favourable sedimentary conditions (like reduced redox potential and increased substrate availability). Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant at bottom layers and methylotrophic methanogens in top layers of the sediments. The results of canonical correspondence analysis revealed the existence of linear relationship between methanogenic archaea and environmental variables among the sampling stations. Higher values of salinity, electrical conductivity and total kjeldahl nitrogen favoured the distribution and abundance of aceticlastic methanogens. However, the abundance of methylotrophic methanogens was favoured by highly reduced conditions and high pH values.

  12. Awareness of Dental Trauma Management among School Teachers of Kannur, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Premkumar, Chandru T; Narasimhan, Dhanesh; Jose, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental trauma can overtake dental caries and periodontal disease as the most significant threat to dental health among young people. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment. The role of school teachers in the prevention of traumatic dental injuries is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, studies conducted in different regions of the world have demonstrated that teachers and other lay people’s knowledge about traumatic dental injuries is inadequate and their behavior does not contribute to reduce the sequelae. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Kannur district. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted under the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry; Kannur Dental College among 303 school teachers randomly selected from 16 schools. Four schools were selected from 16 schools using stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross sectional study design was used. A stratified cluster sampling method was done to select the study subjects. The nature and purpose of the study was first explained to the teachers in local language. Following this the printed questionnaire was distributed to school teachers. The questionnaire was prepared based on the needs of the study after referring similar questionnaires used in studies conducted in different parts of the world. Results A statistically significant association was found between the teacher’s knowledge regarding trauma and their teaching experience. Out of the total school teachers who participated in the study, 90.1% responded correctly that the teeth most frequently affected by traumatic accidents are the upper front teeth. Nearly 23.4% responded correctly regarding management of traumatic tooth fracture. Almost 46.5% had correct knowledge regarding the reimplantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Only 14.2% responded correctly to the proper storage medium for avulsed teeth. Conclusion It was concluded from the study that among the school teachers surveyed there was significantly very low knowledge of emergency management of dental trauma. PMID:28384971

  13. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  14. Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in India.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L

    2007-07-01

    Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.

  15. Hemodialysis outcomes and practice patterns in end-stage renal disease: Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, G. R.; Sheetal, L. G.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to analyze the hemodialysis practice patterns from a tertiary care referral centre as there is very limited data from India. All patients of ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in dialysis unit at AIMS, Kochi, Kerala for a minimum period of 3 months were included. A total of 134 patients (M: F 2:1) with age of 20 to 84 years (Mean: 59.83; SD: 11.98) were studied. The most common causes of ESRD in study population were diabetic nephropathy (DN) (59.7%) followed by unclassified group (19.4%), chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) (11.9%). Majority (81%) were initiated on MHD through temporary vascular access on emergency basis. Majority (79%) of the patients were on twice weekly MHD. The range of eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) at the time of initiation of MHD was 1.26-11.78 by CG formula and 2.18-16.4 by MDRD equation. The mean duration on hemodialysis was 37.16 months and 50.7% patients had died during the follow-up period (3-108 months). The mean survival time on hemodialysis was 40.31 months (SD = 26.69). The mean survival time was lower in diabetic nephropathy (35.93 months) than in non-diabetic renal disease (47.46 months). The most common causes of deaths were cardiovascular events (51.5%), and infections (26.5%). In conclusion, males outnumbered females, among those on hemodialysis. There was no significant difference in eGFR at initiation of MHD based on etiologies. Initiation of MHD via temporary access, presence of LVH, acute coronary syndrome, use of acetate dialysate, need for parenteral iron therapy had impact on mortality. Survival rates while on hemodialysis at end 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th years were 87.31, 45.52, 21.64 and 7.46 percentages respectively. PMID:28182039

  16. Recent fertility declines in China and India: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P M; Rani, S

    1995-12-01

    This paper compares fertility transitions in China and parts of India. It is argued that China experienced a more rapid and more "impressive" decline than that of India. Socioeconomic conditions in China were more conducive to fertility decline. Kerala State in India experienced a similar decline as China but at a slower pace. The birth control campaign in China is credited with an important role in speeding the transition. It is posited that the political and administrative system and economic conditions in India are not compatible with the Chinese style program strategies. Both countries had similar fertility levels in the immediate post-revolutionary period. The most rapid decline occurred during the 1970s in China. The fertility transition was almost completed by 1981. In India, the total fertility rate (TFR) declined by only 1 point between the 1950s and 1981. In China TFR declined over 3 points during 1970-81. 76.7% of the decline in China during 1970-81 is attributed to a marked decline in marital fertility in all age groups, with the exception of ages 15-19 years. The decline in India is attributed to the decline in marital fertility. Female age at marriage rose in India, but less "impressively." In 1981 the mean age at marriage in India was 18.4 years, but it was 22.8 years in China. Marital fertility among women aged older than 30 years was considerably lower in China. Both countries experienced an increase in literacy, but in China the level of literacy was much greater. Both countries faced food shortages, but China improved food availability and calorie consumption per capita. Health services also improved in both countries, but the Chinese system of "barefoot" doctors brought services with easier reach of rural populations. Political structures differed in their dominance and organization. Family planning programs were introduced earlier in India, but prevalence was 64.4% in China in 1981 and about 22% in India.

  17. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  18. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  19. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  20. Health in India -- a futuristic scenario.

    PubMed

    Ali, A

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in the health situation in India over the last five decades following its independence. Mortality decreased dramatically, the death rate declined from 27.4 to 8.9, and the infant mortality rate decreased by almost half in 1997. Life expectancy, on the other hand, almost doubled from 32 years at the time of independence to 62 years in 1997. However, there are wide variations in the values of these health indicators among different regions. Progress has been uneven and confined to more advanced states. Improvements in the health status of the people have been most notable in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, and Punjab, whereas states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan had the least progress. These neglected areas are considered as the result of various factors in India's political economy, which hinders health policy development and its implementation. In the last part of this article, major health problems, as well as recommendations for remedial actions are outlined.

  1. Experiences of Junior Public Health Nurses in Delivery of Maternal Healthcare Services to Tribal Women in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Jinu A.; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu S.; Kumar, S. Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The maternal health care indicators are better in Kerala even in the tribal districts than the national averages. The tribal population scattered in hilly areas or other difficult terrains heavily constraints the MPHW female (Junior Public Health Nurse in Kerala) from providing services. The study was intended to describe the experiences of the Junior Public Health Nurses (JPHN) in delivery of maternal health care services to tribal women in Kerala. Materials and Methods: JPHNs posted in Thariode panchayat under the sub centers of CHC Thariode in Wayanad district of Kerala. This is a Qualitative study with in-depth interview of the JPHNs using an interview guide. Results and Inferences: The various difficulties experienced by JPHNs in delivering the services in tribal areas were lack of sufficient time for field work, travel difficulties faced due to the hilly terrain and lack of public transport facilities, more time spent on travel than actual time spent for field work, cultural and language barriers and extra inputs put up in service delivery to tribal women. Conclusion and Recommendations: The JPHNs serving in tribal areas overcame various constraints in service delivery like hilly terrain, limited public transport facilities, long hours spent in travelling, cultural and language barriers by putting in extra effort, time and personal money to fulfill their responsibilities. It is suggested that the JPHNs be given compensatory off to complete records and extra remuneration to cover their out of pocket expenditure on travelling to difficult areas. PMID:24479046

  2. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  3. Demographic profile and future strategies for development of the girl child in India.

    PubMed

    Bhavan, S

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a demographic profile of female children in India: sex ratios, age structure, death rate, infant mortality, child mortality, and early marriage. The analysis is based on data from the 1981 and 1991 Censuses of India and the 1992 Sample Registration System. The sex ratio in 1991 was 927 females per 1000 males, which represents a declining sex ratio since 1901. Sex ratios by state during 1971-91 indicate a declining sex ratio in Bihar, followed by Manipur and 10 other states. Kerala was the only state with a favorable sex ratio of 1036 females per 1000 males in 1991. 4 states showed some improvement in the sex ratio. The percentage distribution of male and female population in various age groups under 14 years did not differ significantly in 1991. The highest proportion of children 0-4 years old was in Bihar, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana, in 1991. The lowest proportion of female children 0-4 years old was in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The highest proportion of female children 5-9 years old was in Assam. The highest proportion of female children 10-14 years old was in Bihar. The highest proportion of male children 10-14 years old was in Haryana. Except for male children 0-4 years old, Kerala had the lowest proportion of children in all 3 age groups. Crude death rates in 1991 were 10.6 in rural areas to 7.1 in urban areas. Kerala had the lowest death rate, and Madhya Pradesh had the highest death rate. Female infants had higher mortality in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan had the highest female death rates and Madhya Pradesh had the highest male death rates in the ages 0-4 years. 9 states had a mean age at marriage lower than the national average. India's National Plan of Action for the 1990s for girl children stresses survival and protection, development, and special protection of vulnerable girls.

  4. Making time for the children: self-temporalization and the cultivation of the antisuicidal subject in south India.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jocelyn Lim

    2011-01-01

    This article examines suicide prevention among children in India's “suicide capital” of Kerala to interrogate the ways temporalization practices inform the cultivation of ethical, life-avowing subjects in late capitalism. As economic liberalization and migration expand consumer aspiration in Kerala, mental health experts link the quickening of material gratification in middle-class parenting to the production of insatiable, maladjusted, and impulsively suicidal children. Experiences of accelerated time through consumption in “modern” Kerala parenting practice reflect ideas about the threats of globalization that are informed both by national economic shifts and by nostalgia for the state's communist and developmentalist histories, suggesting that late capitalism's time–space compression is not a universalist phenomenon so much as one that is unevenly experienced through regionally specific renderings of the past. I demonstrate how experts position the Malayali child as uniquely vulnerable to the fatal dangers of immediate gratification, and thus exhort parents to retemporalize children through didactic games built around the deferral of desires for everyday consumer items. Teaching children how to wait as a pleasurable and explicitly antisuicidal way of being reveals anxieties, contestations, and contradictions concerning what ought to constitute “quality” investment in children as temporal subjects of late capitalism. The article concludes by bringing efforts to save elite lives into conversation with suicide prevention among migrants to draw out the ways distinct vulnerabilities and conditions of precarity situate waiting subjects in radically different ways against the prospect of self-destruction.

  5. Achutha Menon Centre Diabetes Risk Score: A Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool for Primary Health Care Providers in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P. Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to develop a diabetes risk score for primary care providers in rural India. They used the baseline data of 451 participants (15-64 years) of a cohort study in a rural area of Kerala, India. The new risk score with age, family history of diabetes, and waist circumference identified 40.8% for confirmatory testing, had a sensitivity of 81.0%, specificity of 68.4%, positive predictive value of 37.0%, and negative predictive value of 94.0% for an optimal cutoff ≥4 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.812 (95% confidence interval = 0.765-0.860). The new risk score with 3 simple, easy-to-measure, less time-consuming, and less expensive variables could be suitable for use in primary care settings of rural India. PMID:22865719

  6. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  7. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E S Challaraj; Ananthi, T; Anandkumar, B; Maruthamuthu, S

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  8. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  9. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  10. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  11. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  12. Mafic Dykes from the Southwest Coast of India: Palaeomagnetism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, M.; Perrin, M.; Radhakrishna, T.; Camps, P.; Balasubramonium, G.; Punoose, J.

    2009-04-01

    Late Cretaceous magmatism, south of the Deccan Traps, is widely distributed in the south west coast of India, mainly in the form of dyke intrusions. Most prominent dykes were emplaced around 70-65 Ma and are distributed in central Kerala, north Kerala and Goa. The strike trend of these dykes is NW-SE in central Kerala, whereas two orthogonal directions with NW-SE and NE-SW trends are found in north Kerala. In Goa region, they are mostly perpendicular to the coast. A subordinate magmatism, 90-85 Ma in age, is also traced in Agali and in the St. Mary Group of Islands off the Malpe coast. This magmatism is coeval with the leucogabbro dykes in central and north Kerala. Samples were collected from fifteen dykes with NW-SE trend. Samples belonging to the older episode of magmatism include one dyke from Agali and two sites from Coconut Island of the St. Mary volcanics. Most of the doleritic dykes are fine to medium grained with typical mineral assemblages of plagioclase, augite, olivine, and Fe-Ti oxides. Olivine is often transformed to iddingsite. Fe-Ti oxides are found either as early inclusions within pyroxene or as interstitial and may constitute the late crystallization phases. Selected specimens from each site were subjected to low and high temperature susceptibility measurements to define the magnetic carriers and the thermal stability of the samples. They have indicated titanomagnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Palaeomagnetic measurements were carried out by detailed step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetizations. After removal of sometime significant secondary components of magnetization, characteristic remanent magnetizations could be defined for most samples and mean directions of magnetization were obtained for twelve sites. Six of these sites come from the 70-65 Ma dykes, three being of reverse polarity with a mean direction of (D/I = 139/62) and a mean pole (Lat/Long = -26/101) and three yielding normal polarity (D/I = 340/-68 and Lat

  13. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least three months after completion of treatment were included. The decision on whether primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced ovarian cancer was based on age, performance status, clinical and imaging findings. Results A total of 178 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were operated on during this four year period. Among them 28 patients were recurrent cases, 22 had early stages of ovarian cancer, and the rest 128 had stage III and IV ovarian cancer. In these 128 patients, 50(39.1%) underwent primary surgery and 78(60.9%) had NACT followed by surgery. In the primary surgery group 36(72.0%) patients had optimal debulking while in the NACT group 59(75.6%) patient had optimal debulking. With a median follow-up of 34 months, the median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was 53 and 49 months respectively. Patients who underwent primary surgery had better median PFS than patients who had NACT (56 months versus 39 months, p = 0.002). In stage III C the difference median PFS was significant for those treated with primary surgery when compared with NACT (55 months versus 39 months, p = 0.012). In patients who had optimal debulking to no residual disease (n = 90), primary surgery gave a significant improved PFS (59 months versus 38 months, p = 0.001) when compared with NACT. In univariate analysis, NACT was associated with increased risk of death (HR: 0.350; CI: 0.177–0.693). Conclusion In advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, primary surgery seems to have a definite survival advantage over NACT in patients who can be optimally debulked to no residual disease. PMID:26913070

  14. Factors influencing the sinuosity of Pannagon River, Kottayam, Kerala, India: an assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, M V; Vijith, H; Satheesh, R

    2008-03-01

    The present study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the sinuosity of the Pannagon river, using the IRS P6 LISS III data and Geographical Information System (GIS) on 1:50,000 scale. The river follows meandering course and exhibits a narrow, highly sinuous and incised channel. Several lines of evidence including satellite and topographic data, geological maps and field investigations and the generated themes on lithology, structure, geomorphology, slope, riparian vegetation and hydrology have analyzed to understand the controls on the channel morphology of the Pannagon river. The average of sinuosity index of the selected reaches in the river on 1967 was 1.6 and of 2004 was 1.8. The sinuous patches are more in the lower reaches of the river and most of the area comes under floodplain with thick column of alluvial deposits. The analysis shown that the style and degree of sinuosity of the Pannagon river depends on a number of geological factors, including tectonics and the riparian vegetation also plays a major role.

  15. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with key to species and discussion of tuberculate setae.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhir; Martin, Jon H

    2014-11-03

    The genus Acanthaleyrodes Takahashi is reported for the first time from India. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. is described from Bridelia retusa in Kerala, India, with a key to puparia of Acanthaleydes species. The new species differs in its exceptionally elevated eighth abdominal tergite, circular vasiform orifice and eight pairs of subdorsal setae. The generic characteristics of Acanthaleyrodes are redefined and distinguished from those of Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi. A. styraci Takahashi is re-described in detail with illustrations of puparia and immatures from Hong Kong. A lectotype puparium is designated for A. callicarpae Takahashi. The development of tuberculate setae is discussed, in whitefly puparia and earlier nymphal instars, and considered to be subject to environmental modification.

  16. Unintentional injuries among children admitted in a tertiary care hospital in North Kerala.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Akbar; Rahim, Asma; Lailabi, M P; Gopi, Jibin

    2011-01-01

    World Health Organization global disease update (2004) points out injuries as the sixth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. A descriptive hospital based study was conducted to find out the common types of unintentional injuries among children admitted for management of unintentional injuries in Pediatric Surgery department and Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital of North Kerala and to find out the contributing risk factors. A total of 400 children admitted during the study period of 6 months of 2009 constituted the study population. Mechanical injuries comprising of Road traffic accidents and accidental fall were the major cause of unintentional injuries (36%), followed by Poisoning (22.3%). A higher proportion of unintentional injuries were noted to occur among children of younger mothers, overactive child, children belonging to extended or joint families, child left alone or with friends, pre-school children, male child and from urban dwellings. The study highlights the need to identify the different types of unintentional injuries and the risk factors of childhood injuries which require hospitalisation. Identification of risk factors will help to formulate strategies aimed at risk reduction and prevention of childhood injuries.

  17. “Why not psychiatry??” Interns of a medical college in Northern Kerala responds

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K. Niranjan; Sajeev Kumar, P. B.; Narayanankutty, O. K.; Abraham, Amal; Raj, Zoheb; Madanagopal, Vinayak; Balu, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study is to assess the attitude of the medical interns toward psychiatry, psychiatrists and patients with mental health problems. Materials and Methods: A personal data sheet and the Balon et al. questionnaire was used to assess the attitude among medical interns (n = 44) of a medical college in Northern Kerala. Results: There was modestly good attitude toward psychiatry throughout the study. Data were compared between interns who have completed their posting in psychiatry and those who have not. There was no significant difference except for their awareness about consultation liaison services and the authoritative power of psychiatrists in mental health field. The stigma toward psychiatry is on the decline at least among medical professionals, and more interns are interested in taking up psychiatry as a future specialty. Conclusion: Although the study has evidenced a positive attitude to psychiatry, there is still room to improve. A clearer picture could be attained by conducting similar studies in a bigger sample size. A structured curriculum and compulsory internship during the undergraduate course have greatly contributed toward building a more positive opinion of the subject. PMID:27385855

  18. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxy, M. S.; Sumithranand, V. B.; Renuka, G.

    2014-06-01

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0-0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux G ∗ is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen's ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

  19. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated. PMID:27601809

  20. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs--a case study from SW India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-), SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use.

  2. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  3. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Characterization and FTIR spectral studies of human urinary stones from Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. V.; Bushiri, M. Junaid; Vaidyan, V. K.

    2010-10-01

    Urinary stones resected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Kollam district of Kerala State, India were analyzed by SEM, XRD and by thermal analysis techniques. The analytical results indicate that, stones have different composition, i.e., calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide and sodium calcium carbonate. Infrared spectral studies also reveal the presence of phosphates or carbonates in these samples. Further, IR spectral investigations have revealed that amorphous carbonated species are occupied in PO 4 sites in calcium phosphate type stone and OH sites in calcium phosphate hydroxide sample. Thermal studies of these samples also reveal that, carbon dioxide is released from carbonated samples upon heating which is related to amount of carbon content and bond strength. Crystals with defects and irregular morphology are grown inside the urinary bladder due to variation in crystal growth conditions.

  5. "Just some spirits": the erosion of spirit possession and the rise of "tension" in South India.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Murphy

    2005-01-01

    Based on research among possessed and mentally ill patients and an examination of depictions of mental health issues in the popular media in the state of Kerala, India, this article examines apparent changes in the incidence and form of spirit possession and the proliferation of psychological idioms such as "tension" and "depression." These changes involve a decline in the incidence of possession as well as the homogenization of the identities of spirits: spirits that were described as having names and personalities a few decades earlier are now presented as more anonymous. The homogenization of spirits and the use of psychological idioms are interpreted as signaling an erosion of context and the ascendance of universal categories, which, according to some theorists, is a characteristic of "modernity." It will also be shown that at the same time the "modern" can appear as simply another context, as when the idiom of possession permeates a psychological advice column in the print media.

  6. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India.

  7. First verified record of the ant genus Calyptomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India, along with a revised key to known Indomalayan species

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The members of genus Calyptomyrmex are mostly encountered under rotten logs, in the soil, under stones and in leaf litter samples. These ants are seldom in collections making estimation of their true distributional patterns problematic (Shattuck 2011). The deep antennal scrobes and the unique configuration of the clypeus are distinct to the genus (Bolton 1981). New information Herein Calyptomyrmex wittmeri Baroni Urbani, 1975 is redescribed and reported for the first time from India. This also confirms the first valid published record of the genus from the country. The image hosted by AntWeb as C. vedda (CASENT0280817; AntWeb 2015b) collected by Besuchet, Löbl, Mussard from Kerala, India and identified by Brown is actually C. wittmeri (Brown was uncertain of his determination of C. vedda and cautiously inserted an interrogation point in front of his determination). Two workers recently collected at Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Kerala present similarities to the specimen identified by Brown. However, characters as the lack of well-developed promesonotal suture, absence of clavate setae, and narrow petiolar node, concur with the diagnosis of C. wittmeri. A revised key to known Indomalayan species of the genus is provided herewith. PMID:26696759

  8. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-06-24

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  9. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  10. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  11. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  12. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  13. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI) tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation. PMID:26286613

  14. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  15. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

    PubMed

    Filmer, D; Pritchett, L H

    2001-02-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.

  16. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Mathew, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. PMID:28050494

  17. Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

    2014-05-01

    An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to

  18. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However

  19. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised.

  20. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.

  1. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  2. Impact of socio-economic factors in delayed reporting and late-stage presentation among patients with cervix cancer in a major cancer hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Michelle; Mathew, Aleyamma; Rajan, B

    2008-01-01

    The impact of socio- economic and demographic status (SEDS) factors on the stage of cervical cancer rat diagnosis, symptom duration and delay-time from diagnosis to registration was determined by analysing data for the year 2006 from the Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Patients (n=349) were included if they were from the states of Kerala or Tamil Nadu. SEDS factors included age, residing district, religion, marital status, income, education and occupation. Associations between SEDS factors by stage at diagnosis and symptom duration were tested using chi-square statistics with odds ratios (OR) estimated through logistic regression modeling. Elevated risks for late stage reporting among cervical cancer patients were observed for women who were widowed/divorced (OR=2.08; 95%CI: 1.24-3.50) and had a lower education (OR=2.62; 95%CI:1.29-5.31 for women with primary school education only). Patients who had symptoms of bleeding/bleeding with other symptoms (77%) were more likely to seek treatment within one month, compared to patients with other symptoms only (23%) (p=0.016). This analysis helped to identify populations at increased risk of diagnosis at later stages of cancer with the ultimate intent of providing health education and detecting cancer at earlier stages.

  3. Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Bhartendu; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, Karen C.

    2013-08-01

    India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales. DMSP/OLS dataset however lacks continuity and comparability; hence the dataset was first intercalibrated using second order polynomial regression equation. The intercalibrated dataset along with SPOT-VGT dataset for the year 1998 and 2008 were subjected to a support vector machine (SVM) method to extract urban areas. SVM is semi-automated technique that overcomes the problems associated with the thresholding methods for NTLs data and hence enables for regional and national scale assessment of urbanization. The extracted urban areas were validated with Google Earth images and global urban extent maps. Spatial metrics were calculated and analyzed state-wise to understand the dynamism of urban areas in India. Significant changes in urban proportion were observed in Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Kerala while other states also showed a high degree of changes in area wise urban proportion.

  4. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  5. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  6. Photonics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bishnu

    2011-08-01

    India has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, India is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.

  7. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" – an executive course to support genomics policy

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tara; Kumar, Nandini K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    Background The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. Methods The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and ensure broad-based input into

  8. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" - an executive course to support genomics policy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Kumar, Nandini K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-05-19

    BACKGROUND: The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. METHODS: The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and ensure broad-based input

  9. Transforming the self and healing the body through the use of testimonies in a divine retreat center, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eva; Lang, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we analyze the collective healing process that takes place on a weekly basis in the Divine Retreat Center (DRC) in Muringoor, Kerala. We argue that disease in the DRC is understood either as a psycho-somatic or as a spirito-somatic phenomenon. In contrast to other Charismatic communities, however, the body is the locus on which the medical effects of the healing become visible. The whole process is divided into several phases: First, there is a cleansing and disengagement procedure that aims to purify and liberate the participants through confession and counseling. Thereafter comes a climatic phase of personal emptying, transition and re-orientation during which the healing itself takes place. The procedure is finally completed with the person being spiritually "refilled" by the Holy Spirit. The dominant recurring element in the whole process is the continuous statement of healing "testimonies." As an integral part of the healing procedure, these statements are used to share personal experiences among the participants in the center. They are produced in a strict format in order to be spread far beyond through various media (TV, newspaper, Internet, etc.). They thereby constitute a speech genre that follows specific rules and patterns. Through shaping one's own biography in the frame of the testimonies, so we argue, the actual transformation of the self and therefore the miracle healing takes place.

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  11. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B.; S., Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic—rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub—coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon—lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0–3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of

  12. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  13. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  14. Palaeomagnetism of the Ezhimala Granite-Granophyre-Gabbro Complex, Southwest Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Mathew; Perrin, Mireille; Radhakrishna, Tallavjhala; Dautria, Jean Marie; Camps, Pierre; Balasubramonium, G.

    2010-05-01

    The igneous complex at Ezhimala, southwestern coast of India, consists mainly of granite, granophyre and gabbro and is cut by dolerites. It occurs as a linear ridge with a NNW-SSE trend. This complex is considered to be Precambrian in age, following Rb-Sr determinations at 678 Ma. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from one site in the doleritic dyke and six sites in the complex, out of which three are from gabbro, two from granophyre and one from granite. The high-temperature susceptibility measurements on selected specimens from each site have indicated magnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Samples were subjected to detailed step-wise alternating field demagnetisation. After removal of a secondary viscous component, a characteristic mean remanent magnetization could be estimated for all samples. The mean directions per sites are very well defined with 95 confidence circles between 2.5° and 5.0° (kappa between 243 and 580). The mean paleomagnetic direction associated with the complex corresponds to D/I = 308.6/-58.9 (k = 473 and α95 = 3.1°) with a paleopole position at 66.0°W/19.4°N. This direction is almost identical to the direction obtained from the cross-cutting doleritic dyke with D/I = 301.8/-62.9 (kappa = 755 and α95 = 1.9°), and similar to 90 Ma poles derived from other areas in south western India (St. Mary Group of Islands, leucogabbro dykes of central and north Kerala and dykes of the Coimbatore-Agali area). Therefore palaeomagnetic analysis of the complex strongly suggests a Cretaceous age for the Ezhimala complex and would indicate a much more widespread magmatic activity around 90 Ma along the south western coast of India. Geochemical studies and Ar-Ar dating of the complex are in progress to confirm the paleomagnetic observation.

  15. Pan-African alkali granites and syenites of Kerala as imprints of taphrogenic magmatism in the South Indian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Drury, S. A.; Iyer, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    Granite and syenite plutons with alkaline affinities ranging in age from 550 to 750 Ma sporadically puncture the Precambrian granulites of the Kerala region. All the bodies are small (20 to 60 sq km), E-W to NW-SE elongated elliptical intrusives with sharp contacts and lie on or close to major late Proterozoic lineaments. Geochemical plots of A-F-M and An-Ab-Or relations show an apparent alkali enrichment trend on the former, but the plutons define relatively distinct fields on the latter. Most of the plutons are adamellitic to granitic by chemistry. The variations of SiO2 with log sub 10 K2O/MgO (1) brings out the distinct alkaline nature of the plutons. Some of the granites are extremely potassic, like the Peralimala pluton, which shows up to 11.8 percent K2O. On a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O+K2O (mol percent) plot, the plutons vary from peraluminous to peralkaline, but none are nepheline normative. Low MgO, low to moderate CaO and high Fe2O3/FeO values are other common characteristics. Among trace elements, depletion of Ba, Sr and Rb with high K/Ba and K/Rb values are typical. Overall, the plutons show a trend of decreasing K/Rb ratio with increasing K content. Individual plutons show more clearly defined trends similar to those from granitic masses characterized by plagioclase fractionation.

  16. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  17. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  18. Five new species of Inocybe (Agaricales) from tropical India.

    PubMed

    Latha, K P Deepna; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Inocybe, I. iringolkavensis, I. keralensis, I. kuruvensis, I. muthangensis and I. wayanadensis, are described from Kerala state, India, based on morphological and molecular data. All are associated with trees belonging to Dipterocarpaceae. Inocybe iringolkavensis is characterized by nodulose to somewhat stellate basidiospores, 1-4-spored basidia, and caulocystidia restricted to the stipe apex. Inocybe keralensis has a yellowish brown pileus, lamellae with whitish, serrate edges, smooth, ellipsoidal basidiospores and a duplex pileipellis with the superficial hyphae devoid of encrustations and encrusted hyphae beneath. The diagnostic features of I. kuruvensis include a dark brown pileus, stipe with a whitish base and grayish brown, floccose-fibrillose surface, nodulose basidiospores with saddle-shaped projections and faintly encrusted paracystidia with refractive contents. Violet basidiomata with a rimose, hygrophanous pileus, densely pruinose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, and nodulose basidiospores are the major features of I. muthangensis. Inocybe wayanadensis is characterized by small, whitish basidiomata, a viscid pileus with a rimulose surface, a densely pruinose and fibrillose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, nodulose basidiospores, thick-walled pleuro- cheilo- and caulocystidia and an ixotrichoderm-type pileipellis. The phylogenetic relationships of these new species are inferred from an analysis of nuc rDNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and the 28S gene. Except I. keralensis, which belongs to the Pseudosperma clade, all other species belong to the Inocybe clade. This study represents the second report of an Inocybe species (I. muthangensis) that combines violet basidiomata with nodulose basidiospores.

  19. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  20. Characteristics and carbon stable isotopes of fluids in the Southern Kerala granulites and their bearing on the source of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Jackson, D. H.; Mattey, D. P.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich inclusions commonly occur in the banded charnockites and khondalites of southern Kerala as well as in the incipient charnockites formed by desiccation of gneisses along oriented zones. The combined high density fluid inclusion isochores and the range of thermometric estimates from mineral assemblages indicate entrapment pressures in the range of 5.4 to 6.1 Kbar. The CO2 equation of state barometry closely compares with the 5 plus or minus 1 Kbar estimate from mineral phases for the region. The isochores for the high density fluid inclusions in all the three rock types pass through the P-T domain recorded by phase equilibria, implying that carbon dioxide was the dominating ambient fluid species during peak metamorphic conditions. In order to constrain the source of fluids and to evaluate the mechanism of desiccation, researchers undertook detailed investigations of the carbon stable isotope composition of entrapped fluids. Researchers report here the results of preliminary studies in some of the classic localities in southern Kerala namely, Ponmudi, Kottavattom, Manali and Kadakamon.

  1. First records of ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius species (Agaricales, Basidiomycetes) from tropical India and their phylogenetic position based on rDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Peintner, Ursula; Moser, Meinhard M; Thomas, K Agretious; Manimohan, P

    2003-04-01

    Three new Cortinarius species, Cortinarius conopileus, C. keralensis, and C. phlegmophorus spp. nov., are described from Kerala State in southern India. This is the first record of ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius spp. in the tropical part of India. In addition to distinct morphological characters, the comparative analysis of rDNA ITS sequences of the collections from India and morphologically similar species support the recognition of these taxa as new species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the three Indian Cortinarius spp. belong to both larger subclades of the genus Cortinarius, clade/cortinarius and clade/telamonia. As supported by morphological and molecular data, C. phlegmophorus belongs to Cortinarius subgen. Myxacium sect. Defibulati. Based on classical morphological characters, both C. keralensis and C. conopileus are representatives of subgen. Telamonia. However, C. conopileus belongs to clade/obtusi, which is a well-supported subclade of clade/cortinarius. Thus, in contrast to classical taxonomy, the clade/obtusi represents an independent evolutionary origin of telamonioid taxa. This result is also reflected by the distinct morphological characters of taxa of clade/obtusi, namely the lamellar trama with ellipsoid inflated hyphae and the presence of cystidia. In contrast, C. keralensis is a typical member of clade/telamonia. Within/telamonia, only relationships of closely related taxa are resolved due to the low genetic divergence found in ITS sequences. Based on morphological and molecular criteria, C. keralensis is a distinct taxon of sect. Saturnini.

  2. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and…

  3. Need for Equipping Teachers for Quality Higher Education: Exploring How Teachers in Kerala Perceive Quality Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnthodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, India's higher education sector has witnessed remarkable progress. Though the country has the largest and the second largest higher education system in the world in terms of the number of institutions and enrolment respectively, it still faces challenges on several fronts. Quality of higher education (HE) is a function of…

  4. Molecular characterization of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses infecting tomato in india

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl viruses, which are the members of the genus Begomovirus, have emerged as devastating pathogens worldwide causing huge economic losses and threatening production of crops like cassava, cotton, grain legumes and vegetables. Even though the ToLCV isolates from Northern India have been shown to possess bipartite genome (designated as DNA A and DNA B), those from Australia, Taiwan and Southern India have a single genomic component (DNA A). We describe here the genetic diversity of two isolates of monopartite Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato in two extreme regions (North and South) of Indian subcontinent. Results The rolling circle amplification (RCA) products obtained from symptomatic samples were digested, cloned and sequenced. The complete DNA sequence of two Tomato leaf curl virus isolates identified as ToLCV-CTM (India, New Delhi, 2005) and ToLCVK3/K5 (India, Kerala, 2008) are reported here. These isolates had the characteristic features of Begomovirus genome organization with six conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The ToLCV-K3 and ToLCV-K5 isolates may be the strains of the same virus since they show sequence homology of 97% over their entire genome. This, according to the guidelines established by the ICTV Geminiviridae Study-Group is higher than threshold (92%) for delineation of different viral variants and hence single, average value has been assigned for all their analyses presented here. The ToLCV-CTM and ToLCV-K3/K5 viruses were found to be monopartite, as neither DNA-B component nor betasatellite associated with begomovirus species, were detected. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A genome of CTM exhibited highest sequence homology (88%) to Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (AJ507777), and of isolates K3/K5 (88.5%) to Tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus (DQ116884). This is less than the threshold value for demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. Conclusion K3/K5 and CTM are considered to be novel isolates of

  5. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  6. Woman's lot in India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  7. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  8. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  9. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  10. The importance of a pleasant process of treatment: lessons on healing from South India.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Murphy

    2003-06-01

    This paper considers the significance of the positive and negative aesthetic qualities of different therapies--in other words, how "pleasant" (a term that is elaborated in the paper) it is to undergo various treatments. Interviews were conducted with patients undergoing three forms of healing for mental illness and related problems in the state of Kerala in southern India--ayurvedic (indigenous) psychiatry, allopathic (biomedical) psychiatry, and religious healing. Informants revealed concerns about the aesthetic process of therapy, reporting adverse reactions to allopathic treatments and in some cases asserting that they enjoyed ayurvedic procedures. Some informants with long-term illnesses had chosen to live in the process of therapy and reside indefinitely in the aesthetically engaging environment of a mosque, temple, or church after pursuing medical therapies for years. Thus considerations of the quality of the process of therapy also call for an examination of the limitations of the concept of "cure" for describing what is accomplished in healing in some therapeutic settings.

  11. Post-tsunami changes in the littoral environment along the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumar, S; Naik, K A; Ramanamurthy, M V; Ilangovan, D; Gowthaman, R; Jena, B K

    2008-10-01

    The 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated coastal regions of the Indian subcontinent. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, coastal stretches of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were the most affected regions of India. Changes in the beach profiles, long shore currents, breaking wave characteristics in the surf zone at selected locations along the Tamil Nadu coast were studied during January, April, October 2005 and January 2006. Long shore sediment transport rates were estimated from the observed parameters. Studies were carried out earlier (1995-1996 and 1998) to understand the coastal environment over a one-year cycle in the study region. The post-tsunami observations were compared with the earlier studies to establish the variations in the littoral environment and to ascertain the normalcy of the littoral environment in the post-tsunami scenario. From the changes in the beach profiles, the shoreline was observed to recede by about 20 m and built-up of backshore by about 0.5 m at most locations. Observations from the field investigations and comparisons with earlier studies along this stretch of the coastline indicate that the coastline is yet to return completely to normalcy.

  12. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers. PMID:23388196

  13. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  14. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  15. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  16. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  17. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  18. Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Piriyatharisini; Muthuraman, Krishna Raj; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the “most neglected” tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods. Only a few studies from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry are available regarding the seropositive levels of NCC in South India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on NCC suspected patients attending outpatient or inpatient department of different clinics majorly from neurology, medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and skin at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 391 patient samples (either serum or cerebrospinal fluid or urine) for 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015 were taken into the study. Serological investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot were performed for assessing the seropositivity levels of NCC. Results: The overall seropositive cases of NCC in the study population were found to be 32.5% of which positive male cases (59.1%) exceeding females (40.9%). The frequency of adult positive cases (77.2%) was more than that of pediatrics cases (22.8%) with an average of 30.9 years of age. Conclusions: NCC seropositive levels show an increasing trend with the study period. This necessitates a proper attention to the unnoticed spread of the parasitic disease, which affects the quality of life in the community. Quality screening and diagnostic strategy should be implied along with proper awareness for preventive measure practices

  19. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for

  20. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853

  1. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  2. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2017-01-31

    India is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In India, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural India, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride

  3. Improving Security Ties with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  4. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  5. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  6. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  7. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  8. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  9. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  10. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  11. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  12. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  13. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  14. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  15. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  16. Detection of natural infection of Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a forest ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2016-04-01

    A new focus of transmission of Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous manifestations (CL) was reported by us earlier, in the Western Ghats region of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. 12,253 sand fly specimens, comprising of three species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (24.7%) and 16 species belonging to the genus Sergentomyia (57.3%) were collected from the region during 2012-2014. Among Phlebotomus species, Phlebotomus argentipes was found predominant (77.3%), followed by Phlebotomus colabaensis (21.7%) and Phlebotomus stantoni (1.6%). From these collections, 793 P. argentipes (88 pools), 123 P. colabaensis (31 pools) and three P. stantoni (three pools) female specimens were processed for detection of natural infection with L. donovani parasites using a multiple genetic marker (kinetoplast DNA; 3'UTR of HSP70 gene & HSP70 gene) approach. Five pools of P. argentipes specimens (Unfed (one), Fulfed (one) and Gravid (two)) among these, were found positive for L. donovani infection. HSP70 gene sequences of the parasites in the vector species was found genetically identical with the human isolates reported earlier, evincing the role of P. argentipes in the transmission of CL in this region. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. argentipes with L. donovani (causing CL) from India.

  17. Miocene climate seasonality in southern India - first direct evidence for a weak Indian monsoon during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, W. E.; Reuter, M.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian monsoon is an integral component of the global climate system. This large-scale atmospheric circulation comprises the East Asian summer and winter monsoon and the Indian monsoon subsystems, all characterized by seasonal reversing winds and precipitation changes associated with asymmetric heating of land and sea. The Neogene monsoon history is mainly reconstructed from chemical and physical weathering rates recorded in widely continuous marine sequences of the Indus Fan, Bengal Fan and South China Sea, which, depending on the source, physiography and sediment, indicate drier or wetter climates. These indirect climate proxies display an unusually dry period during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, 16.5-15 Ma). As part of the FWF-projects P18189, P21414 and P23492, we present an Early/Middle Miocene coastal palynoflora record from the siliciclastic Ambalapuzha Formation at the coastal cliff of Varkala (Kerala Basin, SW India). Pollen assemblages and facies document a coastal wetland with mangrove vegetation. The Coexistence Approach was applied for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. This method uses climatic tolerances of all nearest living relatives known for a fossil flora by assuming that the tolerances of a fossil taxon are not significantly different from its modern counterpart. The maximum overlap of the environmental tolerances of all nearest living relatives (coexistence interval) is then regarded as being indicative of the most likely palaeoenvironment. By enquiring the Palaeoflora Database (http://www.palaeoflora.de/), the palaeoclimatic parameters of the pollen flora were calculated. The reconstructed climatic parameters for the MMCO show a seasonal precipitation pattern with a dry and a wet period and moderate rainfalls during the warmest period, which is comparable to the present day annual precipitation cycle in coastal Kerala, and affirms the presence of a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation over South India during the MMCO. However, the

  18. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  19. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  20. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  1. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  2. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  3. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your…

  4. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  5. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  6. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  7. A subterranean generalist predator: diet of the soil-dwelling caecilian Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Amphibia; Gymnophiona; Caeciliidae) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Measey, John G; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Biologists have paid relatively little attention to subterranean predators, especially their ecology. Although diets of some subterranean lower vertebrates suggest specialisation, there remains a lack of quantitative data. The diet of the caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii was investigated through analyses of gut contents of 67 specimens collected in randomised surveys at three localities in Kerala, southern India, in early and mid-monsoon. Although termites were the most frequently ingested items in the mid-monsoon, the specialist predator hypothesis was rejected because of differences in diet found in early monsoon samples, when earthworms contributed the greatest mass. That guts of some G. ramaswamii contained many individuals of only a single dietary taxon was interpreted as feeding on patchily distributed prey rather than specialisation. No ontogenetic differences in diet were apparent, but more sampling is required to investigate this further. Subadults largely feed on fewer items of the same prey as adults, though there is an indication that subadult diet is less diverse. The data do not support differences between male and female diet. High densities of G. ramaswamii, and perhaps of other terrestrial caecilians and subterranean lower vertebrates feeding on soil-ecosystem engineers (termites, earthworms and ants), might substantially impact soil ecology.

  8. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  9. Socio-economic & demographic determinants of hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Laxmaiah, A.; Meshram, I.I.; Arlappa, N.; Balakrishna, N.; Rao, K. Mallikharjuna; Reddy, Ch Gal; Ravindranath, M.; Kumar, Sharad; Kumar, Hari; Brahmam, G.N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: An increase in prevalence of hypertension has been observed in all ethnic groups in India. The objective of the present study was to estimate prevalence and determinants of hypertension among tribals and their awareness, treatment practices and risk behaviours in nine States of India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage random sampling procedure was carried out. About 120 Integrated Tribal Development Authority villages were selected randomly from each State. From each village, 40 households were covered randomly. All men and women ≥ 20 yr of age in the selected households were included for various investigations. Results: A total of 21141 men and 26260 women participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension after age adjustment was 27.1 and 26.4 per cent among men and women, respectively. It was higher in the States of Odisha (50-54.4%) and Kerala (36.7-45%) and lowest in Gujarat (7-11.5%). The risk of hypertension was 6-8 times higher in elderly people and 2-3 times in 35-59 yr compared with 20-34 yr. Only <10 per cent of men and women were known hypertensives and more than half on treatment (55-68%). Men with general and abdominal obesity were at 1.69 (CI: 1.43-2.01) and 2.42 (CI: 2.01-2.91) times higher risk of hypertension, respectively, while it was 2.03 (CI=1.77-2.33) and 2.35 (CI 2.12-2.60) times higher in women. Those using tobacco and consuming alcohol were at a higher risk of hypertension compared with the non users. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed high prevalence of hypertension among tribals in India. Age, literacy, physical activity, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and health seeking behaviour were low. Appropriate intervention strategies need to be adopted to increase awareness and treatment practices of hypertension among tribals. PMID:26139790

  10. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  11. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  12. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  14. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  15. Research on antidepressants in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

  16. Surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Gupta, T

    1997-06-01

    Surgical practice in India is mostly managed by the central and state governments and is totally government financed, offering free medical aid. However, with the economic growth and affluence of the middle-class population in urban areas, more and more hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics managed by the private sector are arising in cities and towns. Privately owned hospitals are built and managed by large industrial houses and trusts. It is essential, according to government directives, for these hospitals to have certain numbers of general beds that will provide for the economically weaker sections of the population. Medical insurance is popular amongst the urban population; in addition to well-established insurance companies, many new medical service reimbursement organizations are forming. Surgical care standards are uniformly high in the larger teaching institutions and hospitals run by the private sector in major cities in India, in which superspecialty surgical care that meets worldwide standards is available in addition to general surgical care. These hospitals are manned by surgeons holding master's degrees in general surgery, superspecialties, and subspecialties. In the hospitals and dispensaries in rural areas, only basic surgical facilities are available; for major surgical procedures, the patients are referred to the closest urban hospitals. Therefore, the government of India is placing more and more emphasis on building hospitals that offer better surgical facilities away from the cities and towns. A diploma course in surgery is run by the National Board of Surgery, and these diplomates are encouraged to practice more in rural areas and small hospitals. Economic constraints and the population explosion are the biggest hurdles to progress in surgical care, teaching, and research activities. With the advancement in education and growth of the economy, more and more multinationals are walking into the field of medical care, which is proving to be a

  17. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  18. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.

  19. School Physics Teaching in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes current difficulties in teaching physics in Indian secondary schools, including the existence in all states of India of different syllabi of varying standards and content without the syllabi being related to the conditions and hardware available. (PR)

  20. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  1. (Coal utilization in India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  2. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-02

    Delhi), August 22, 2007. 26 Ashok Sharma ,” US Admiral Says Military Cooperation With India Improving Steadily,” Associated Press, August 23, 2007...and Power Minister Sushil Shinde. Among formal bilateral sessions over the past year were the following: ! In October 2006, a meeting of the U.S...Committee Hearing on U.S. Military Command Budgets, April 24, 2007; Ashok Sharma ,” US Admiral Says Military Cooperation With India Improving Steadily

  3. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-13

    and political assassinations continue to date. ! On December 18, President Bush signed into law H.R. 5682, the Henry J . Hyde United States-India...Washington, where Counterterrorism Coordinator Henry Crumpton led the U.S. delegation. ! Indian Power Minister Sushil Shinde paid an April visit to...H.Rept. 109-721). On December 18, President Bush signed the Henry J . Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006 into

  4. Reproductive health in India.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In India, prenatal tests are used to determine the sex of the fetus and, if it is female, it is often aborted. In response to sex discrimination in utero, the Forum against Sex Determination and Sex Preselection was formed in 1985. It began a campaign against using prenatal tests to determine sex for the subsequent abortion of female fetuses. The 1989 Maharashtra Regulation of Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques was a direct result of this campaign. The forum expanded to examine other reproductive technologies, particularly long-lasting contraceptives that cause systemic changes in women's bodies, and it has become more concerned about women's rights in general. It has renamed itself the Forum for Women's Health. The state translates the need for contraceptives into population control. It provides health care through primary health centers and subcenters. The maternal and child health program provides health care only to 15-45 year old women. The government knows that abortion and childbirth are major contributors to maternal mortality, so it provides safe abortion through its centers. Yet, prevailing conditions and social values keep women from using these services, so they resort to unhygienic abortions. The government considers repeated childbearing as the only cause of maternal mortality and ignores that poverty, malnutrition, and social position can also be responsible for maternal deaths. This attitude justifies its coercion of women to use contraception. India's government is presently pushing provider-controlled, long-acting methods. It supports high tech research of antifertility vaccines. Female barrier methods are not marketed. The family planning program is based on targets and incentives/ disincentives. The government has recently set up sterilization camps in Bombay. The forum is concerned that providers will not fully inform women about side effects of the injectables and about other possible contraceptive methods. Women are being trained in self-help and

  5. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  6. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

    PubMed Central

    TS, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. Aims This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. Method We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. Conclusions This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. Declaration of

  7. Rock magnetic properties of lateritic soil profiles from southern India: Evidence for pedogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabha, A. L.; Shankar, R.; Sandeep, K.

    2014-12-01

    We report here data on the pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and environmental magnetic properties (χlf, χfd, χARM, IRMs at different field strengths) of modern tropical lateritic soils from Aribail, Miyapadavu and Uliyathadka, all in the Kasaragod District of Kerala, southern India. This study aims to characterize the rock magnetic properties of lateritic soils that formed under tropical high-rainfall conditions and determine the effects of pedogenesis on soil magnetic properties in comparison with temperate soils. The profiles may be divided into two or three zones based on differences in magnetic mineral concentration, grain size and mineralogy. There is no magnetic enhancement of topsoil in any of the profiles studied. As the lateritic rocks in the region are ferruginous, the lateritic soils developed over them contain significant amounts of coarse grained lithogenic magnetite as well as hematite. Because of the presence of this 'laterite-derived' magnetite and hematite, the lateritic soils have much higher susceptibility values when compared to temperate soils. The upper zone is characterized by a higher proportion of lithogenic grains and the lower zone by superparamagnetic (SP) grains. This is probably because of iron reduction and dissolution of fine magnetic grains at the profile-top because of the excessively high rainfall (average = ~ 3500 mm/year) in the region. The slight increase in χlf and SIRM values toward the top of the Aribail and Miyapadavu profiles is due to the presence of coarse magnetic grains. This characteristic is common to all the three profiles irrespective of the topography. Compared to pre-monsoon samples, post-monsoon samples exhibit an increase in the proportion of SP grains. However, the magnetic grain size of lateritic soils from the three locations is similar to that of temperate soils.

  8. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  9. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2015-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  10. Use of Lung Ultrasound For Diagnosing Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Department of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrigakshi; Vijan, Vikrant; Vupputuri, Anjith; Chintamani, Sanjeev; Rajendran, Bishnukiran; Thachathodiyal, Rajesh; Chandrasekaran, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosing heart failure is often a challenge for the healthcare providers due to it’s non-specific and usually subtle physical presentations. The outcomes for treatment are strongly related to the stage of the disease. Considering the importance of early and accurate diagnosis, it is important to have an easy, inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method for diagnosis of heart failure. Recent advancement in radiology and cardiology are supporting the emerging technique of lung ultrasound through B-line evaluation for identifying extravascular lung water. Aim To establish lung ultrasound as an easy, inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method for diagnosing Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) in emergency department. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional, prospective, observational, diagnostic validation study of lung ultrasound for diagnosis of acute heart failure in an emergency department and was performed at Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 42 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated by plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Echocardiography (ECHO) and X-ray. Lung ultrasound was done to look for the presence of B-lines. Statistical Analysis Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of diagnostic modalities were calculated using Mc Nemar’s Chi-square test for the presence and absence of heart failure. Results Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosing acute heart failure comparable to plasma BNP which had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 60%. It was also superior to other methods of diagnosing ADHF namely X-ray and ECHO and showed a good association. Conclusion Lung ultrasound and its use to detect ultrasonographic B-lines is an early, sensitive and an equally accurate predictor of ADHF in the emergency setting as compared to BNP. PMID:28050472

  11. End-of-life Characteristics of the Elderly: An Assessment of Home-based Palliative Services in Two Panchayats of Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, R; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra; Chatterjee, Debolina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home-based palliative services form the cornerstone of Kerala's palliative program. However, two issues need research: (a) whether family-homes can be considered as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations who experience deprivation and poverty and (b) whether the present delivery structure meets the needs of elderly population. These issues are examined in the context of two rural areas. The study explores end-of-life characteristics of the elderly – their sociodemographic status and living patterns, morbidity profile, and functional status. It also looks into the accessibility and utilization of palliative services and respondents’ satisfaction with different components of the services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey design is used. Data were collected based on the interviews of sixty service users sampled randomly from a roster of palliative care services. Semi-structured interviews were substantiated by personal field observations. Results: The study has found people living under extreme financial distress with inadequate shelter and poor social security provisions. The health profile is characterized by high level of functional dependence. Many dependent widowed women were living alone without appropriate care and shelter. The palliative program as perceived by the respondents is characterized by few doctor visitations and poor frequency. Conclusion: The study concludes that home-based palliation in its present form does not promote good end-of-life care. It lacks an integrated approach with good service-mix. It raises serious questions on family-home as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations, and suggests need for restructuring of the palliative program. PMID:27803573

  12. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  13. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  14. Delhi: India's urban example.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  15. Newborn screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rama Devi, A Radha; Naushad, S M

    2004-02-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) is aimed for early detection and intervention of treatable inborn errors of metabolism and also to establish incidence of these disorders in this part of the globe. The first expanded NBS programme initiated in the capital city of Andhra Pradesh to screen all the newborns born in four major Government Maternity Hospitals in Hyderabad by heel prick capillary blood collected on S&S 903 filter paper. Chromatographic (TLC and HPLC), electrophoretic (cellulose acetate and agarose) and ELISA based assays have been employed for screening of common inborn errors of metabolism. This study has shown a high prevalence of treatable Inborn errors of metabolism. Congenital hypothyroidsm is the most common disorder (1 in 1700) followed by congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (1 in 2575) and Hyperhomocystenemia (1 in 100). Interestingly, a very high prevalence of inborn errors of metabolism to the extent of 1 in every thousand newborns was observed. The study reveals the importance of screening in India, necessitating nation wide large-scale screening.

  16. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  17. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  18. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  19. The Drivers of Indias Nuclear Weapons Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    135 Ankit Panda , “India Inches Closer to Credible Nuclear Triad with K-4 SLBM Test,” The Diplomat, May 13, 2014, http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/india...212 Panda , “India Inches Closer to Credible Nuclear Triad with K-4 SLBM Test.” 213 Rajagopalan, “The Logic of Assured Retaliation...Ankit Panda , “The Nuclear Problem in India-Japan Relations,” The Diplomat, October 31, 2013, http://thediplomat.com/2013/10/the-nuclear-problem-in-india

  20. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  1. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  2. Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B; Rahman, P M; Murphy, S T; Sudheendrakumar, V V

    2012-08-01

    Field surveys were conducted monthly between December 2008 and July 2009 in Kerala, south-west India to compare the population dynamics of the red palm mite Raoiella indica (RPM) on two host plants Areca catechu and Cocos nucifera during one non-monsoon season when, in general, RPM populations increase. The aim was to examine the effects of host plant, host plant locality and the impact of climatic factors on RPM and related phytoseiid predators. There were significantly higher RPM densities on areca in peak season (May/June) compared to coconut; although significantly more coconut sites were infested with RPM than areca. Although no one climatic factor was significantly related to RPM numbers, interactions were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and the partitioning of host plant locality showed that where conditions were warmer and drier, RPM densities were significantly higher. Specifically on coconut, there was a significant relation between RPM densities and the combined interaction between site temperature, site humidity and phytoseiid densities. There was a marked difference in the density of phytoseiids collected between areca and coconut palms, with significantly more on the latter, in several months. Amblyseius largoensis was the most commonly collected phytoseiid in association with RPM, although Amblyseius tamatavensis species group and Amblyseius largoensis species group were collected in association with RPM also. There was also evidence of a weak numerical response of the combined phytoseiid complex in relation to RPM density the previous month on coconut but this was not observed on areca.

  3. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  4. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  5. Total and methyl mercury in the water, sediment, and fishes of Vembanad, a tropical backwater system in India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, E V; Jayasooryan, K K; Chandran, M S Shylesh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2017-03-01

    Mercury contamination in the water bodies of developing countries is a serious concern due to its toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation. Vembanad, a tropical backwater lake situated at the southwest coast of India, is the largest Ramsar site in southern India. The lake supports thousands of people directly and indirectly through its resources and ecosystem services. It is highly polluted with toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, as it receives effluent discharges from Kerala's major industrial zone. In the present study, water, pore water, sediment, and fish samples collected from Vembanad Lake were analysed for total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MHg) contents. The maximum concentrations of THg and MHg in surface water samples were31.8 and 0.21 ng/L, respectively, and those in bottom water samples were 206 and 1.22 ng/L, respectively. Maximum concentration of THg in surface sediment was observed during monsoon season (2850 ng/g) followed by that in the pre-monsoon season (2730 ng/g) and the post-monsoon season (2140 ng/g). The highest sediment concentration of MHg (202.02 ng/g) was obtained during monsoon season. The spatial variation in the mercury contamination clearly indicates that the industrial discharge into the Periyar River is a major reason for pollution in the lake. The mercury pollution was found to be much higher in Vembanad Lake than in other wetlands in India. The bioaccumulation was high in carnivorous fishes, followed by benthic carnivores. The THg limit in fish for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg dry wt.) was exceeded for all fish species, except for Glossogobius guiris and Synaptura orientalis. The concentration of THg was five times higher in Megalops cyprinoides and four times higher in Gazza minuta. Significant variation was observed among species with different habits and habitats. Overall, risk assessment factors showed that the mercury levels in the edible fishes of Vembanad Lake can pose serious health impacts to the human

  6. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India.

    PubMed

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-09-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  7. Networked Distance Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has made remarkable progress in the area of networking. An education network is being developed to provide mass training and resource-based learning. The development of networked education in India is highlighted and a model is suggested for the virtual classroom. (Author/AEF)

  8. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-06

    Liberation Front of Tripura, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), and the United National Liberation Front (seeking an independent Manipur ...operations in late 2004 may have overrun numerous Manipur separatist bases near the Burmese border. “Naxalites”. Also operating in India are Naxalites

  9. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  10. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  11. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena.

  12. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  13. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  14. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajpai, Shrish; Khare, Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of…

  15. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature.

  16. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  17. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  18. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  19. English Language Teaching Profile: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form examines the English language teaching situation and the role of English in India. The profile considers these issues by region, that is, the eastern, southern and northern regions of the country. For each region, the following topics are covered: the role of English; English within the educational system, including a…

  20. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  1. Computer Science Research in India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-07

    This paper begins with a discussion of the nature of Computer Science Research in India. The type of institutions in which Computer Science research...Finally we study the influence on Indian Computer Science research of the phenomenal growth in exports by the Indian software industry and the arrival

  2. Epidemiology of filariasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N. G. S.

    1957-01-01

    The author reviews the history of filarial infections in India and discusses factors affecting the filariae, their vectors, and the human reservoir of infection. A detailed description is given of techniques for determining the degree of infection, disease and endemicity of filariasis in a community, and aspects which require further study are indicated. PMID:13472411

  3. Study of snow-monsoon relationship and changes in rainfall and temperature characteristics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamgain, Ashu

    In the recent past, there are indications of changes in the surface air temperature, extreme weather events, snow and Indian summer monsoon. This thesis analyses the above weather phenomena based on observed data and climate model simulations for the present as well as the near future. Earlier studies show a strong negative relationship between Eurasian snow cover/depth and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Limitations of such studies are that both the parameters snow and rainfall were seasonally averaged over large areas. Indian summer monsoon has its own characteristics of evolution such as onset, active, break and withdrawal phases which have been studied extensively. However, the evolution of Eurasian snow is yet to be examined. Further, it is interesting to explore the characteristics of evolution of snow over the different regions of Eurasia and their relationship with the evolution characteristics of summer monsoon. In this thesis, a detailed examination has been done on the starting and the ending dates of snowfall over different regions of Eurasia and attempts have been made to explore any relationship with onset of Indian summer monsoon. It is observed that the regions where snowfall starts early, it ends late. Further, in those regions maximum snow depth also occurs late. In some years, more snowfall in East Eurasia is followed by less snowfall in West Eurasia. Also snow depths particularly in the northernmost and southwest regions of East Eurasia are opposite in phase. The results of this study indicate a weak relationship between snow starting dates in Eurasia and summer monsoon onset dates in the Kerala coast. However, the relationship between the northernmost Eurasian snow depth and the summer monsoon precipitation in the Peninsular India is significant. Today, regional weather/climate models are increasingly used to study several atmospheric phenomena. The Regional Climate Model, RegCM3 has been successfully integrated to simulate the salient features

  4. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  5. Seven new species of Night Frogs (Anura, Nyctibatrachidae) from the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot of India, with remarkably high diversity of diminutive forms

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sonali; Suyesh, Robin; Sukesan, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    The Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus (Family Nyctibatrachidae) represents an endemic anuran lineage of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India. Until now, it included 28 recognised species, of which more than half were described recently over the last five years. Our amphibian explorations have further revealed the presence of undescribed species of Nights Frogs in the southern Western Ghats. Based on integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence, seven new species are formally described here as Nyctibatrachus athirappillyensis sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus manalari sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus pulivijayani sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus radcliffei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus robinmoorei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus sabarimalai sp. nov. and Nyctibatrachus webilla sp. nov., thereby bringing the total number of valid Nyctibatrachus species to 35 and increasing the former diversity estimates by a quarter. Detailed morphological descriptions, comparisons with other members of the genus, natural history notes, and genetic relationships inferred from phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial dataset are presented for all the new species. Additionally, characteristics of male advertisement calls are described for four new and three previously known species. Among the new species, six are currently known to be geographically restricted to low and mid elevation regions south of Palghat gap in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and one is probably endemic to high-elevation mountain streams slightly northward of the gap in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, four new species are also among the smallest known Indian frogs. Hence, our discovery of several new species, particularly of easily overlooked miniaturized forms, reiterates that the known amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats of India still remains underestimated. PMID:28243532

  6. Seven new species of Night Frogs (Anura, Nyctibatrachidae) from the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot of India, with remarkably high diversity of diminutive forms.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sonali; Suyesh, Robin; Sukesan, Sandeep; Biju, S D

    2017-01-01

    The Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus (Family Nyctibatrachidae) represents an endemic anuran lineage of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India. Until now, it included 28 recognised species, of which more than half were described recently over the last five years. Our amphibian explorations have further revealed the presence of undescribed species of Nights Frogs in the southern Western Ghats. Based on integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence, seven new species are formally described here as Nyctibatrachus athirappillyensis sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus manalari sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus pulivijayani sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus radcliffei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus robinmoorei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus sabarimalai sp. nov. and Nyctibatrachus webilla sp. nov., thereby bringing the total number of valid Nyctibatrachus species to 35 and increasing the former diversity estimates by a quarter. Detailed morphological descriptions, comparisons with other members of the genus, natural history notes, and genetic relationships inferred from phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial dataset are presented for all the new species. Additionally, characteristics of male advertisement calls are described for four new and three previously known species. Among the new species, six are currently known to be geographically restricted to low and mid elevation regions south of Palghat gap in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and one is probably endemic to high-elevation mountain streams slightly northward of the gap in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, four new species are also among the smallest known Indian frogs. Hence, our discovery of several new species, particularly of easily overlooked miniaturized forms, reiterates that the known amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats of India still remains underestimated.

  7. Air assimilative capacity-based environment friendly siting of new industries--a case study of Kochi region, India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-09-01

    Air pollution has become a matter of grave concern, particularly in mega-cities and urban areas, where the situation is alarming and becoming more and more severe day-by-day and warrants, therefore, careful planning to facilitate future industrial development. Site selection, with the objective of minimizing adverse environmental impacts based on environmental criteria is a vital prerequisite, particularly for air polluting industries. In order to locate any air polluting industry, the assimilative capacity of the region needs to be assessed carefully and planned accordingly, so that the receiving environment is not adversely affected. Assimilative capacity of a region/airshed, widely represented through the ventilation coefficient by many researchers in the past, does not give a clear picture about the amount of emission load that can be assimilated in a given region. The ventilation coefficient, at best, can only present a broad picture about the air pollution dispersion potential (low, medium or high) of the region. A modified approach, which utilizes air quality modelling as a tool to estimate the maximum allowable emission load that a region can assimilate without violating the stipulated standards, has been used for estimating the assimilative capacity of the air environment. Details of this approach have been presented in this paper through a case study carried out for the Kochi region, located in the Kerala State of India. A variety of emission and meteorological scenarios have been considered and critical emission loads have been estimated. This approach shall provide necessary technical guidance to the environmental regulatory authorities as well as to the industries in planning environment friendly industrial development.

  8. India eradicates guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-03-11

    The WHO officially certifies India and other countries of the South East Asian regions as free of guinea worm disease. The eradication was made possible through the efforts of the Indian government to launch a national guinea worm eradication program in 1983-84, and a sustained campaign at the grass-roots level by agencies such as the UN International Children's Fund and the WHO in collaboration with the government. The recognition was based on the report gathered by three members of the 4th International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication, who visited India in November 1999 and conducted an investigation in 62 villages in 5 states where the disease had been endemic. Also, the national eradication program had been evaluated 7 times and showed remarkable achievement.

  9. Health Data Publications No. 24. India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Geography and climate; Languages, religion and government; Agriculture and industry; Housing and education; Animals of medical importance; Plants of medical significance; Diseases of India; Medical organization.

  10. Development of biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  11. India in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fourth-largest economy (in purchasing-power-parity terms) in the world, and one almost 70 percent dependent on foreign oil (the figure is expected to...46:30 AM Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen economy and the sudden disappearance of the Cold War framework, has been...Thailand, and Singa- pore, and by 2016 with the rest of ASEAN—the Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Vietnam. Within ASEAN, India has focused

  12. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  13. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  14. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    public comment. India takes pains to avoid even the perception of meddling in Pakistan’s domestic political problems and so has been reticent and...the Siachen Glacier to tourism , saying the region was “illegally occupied” by Indian troops in 1984 and its final status has yet to be determined due...dispute). In April 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee extended a symbolic “hand of friendship” to Pakistan. The initiative resulted in slow, but perceptible

  15. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-30

    Be a Special Envoy,” Foreign Policy (online), January 2009; Lisa Curtis, U.S. South Asia Regional—Not Kashmir—Envoy Needed, Heritage Foundation...sites attacked in the peninsular city known as India’s business and entertainment capital were two luxury hotels —the Taj Mahal Palace and the Oberoi...See Lisa Curtis, After Mumbai: Time to Strengthen U.S.-India Counterterrorism Cooperation, Heritage Foundation Backgrounder, December 9, 2008, http

  16. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  17. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence.

  18. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi…

  19. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  20. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  1. Language and Literacy: The Case of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    Language and literacy issues in India are reviewed in terms of background, steps taken to combat illiteracy, and some problems associated with literacy. The following facts are noted: India has 106 languages spoken by more than 685 million people, there are several minor script systems, a major language has different dialects, a language may use…

  2. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research.

  4. PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.

  5. Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

    This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

  6. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted.

  7. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed.

  8. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  9. Newborn healthcare in urban India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  10. Newborn healthcare in urban India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-12-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood.

  11. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  12. Research on antipsychotics in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Aggarwal, Munish; Grover, Sandeep; Khan, Mohd Khalid Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic as a class of medications became available for treatment of various psychiatric disorders in the early 1950’s. Over the last 60 years many antipsychotics have become available. In line with the west, Indian researchers have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in various conditions. Additionally, researchers have also evaluated the important safety and tolerability issues. Here, we review data originating from India in the form of drug trials, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of antipsychotics. Additionally, data with respect to other important treatment related issues is discussed. PMID:21836703

  13. Intestinal Parasite Profile in the Stool of HIV Positive Patients in relation to Immune Status and Comparison of Various Diagnostic Techniques with Special Reference to Cryptosporidium at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Moorkoth, Anitha Puduvail; Mathew, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related opportunistic infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in susceptible population. This study aims to negate the paucity of data regarding the relation between CD4 levels, prevalence of enteric parasites, and the outcome of treatment with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) and Cotrimoxazole in Kerala, India. Multiple stool samples from 200 patients in a cross-sectional study were subjected to microscopy and Cryptosporidium stool antigen ELISA. Parasites were identified in 18 samples (9%). Cystoisospora and Cryptosporidium spp. were seen in 9 cases (4.5%) and 5 cases (2.5%), respectively. Microsporidium spores and Chilomastix mesnili cysts were identified in 1 case each (0.5% each). Seven cases of Cystoisospora diarrhoea recovered after treatment with Cotrimoxazole. Diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. in all 5 cases subsided after immune reconstitution with HAART. This study concludes that a positive association was seen between low CD4 count (<200 cells/μL) and overall parasite positivity (P value < 0.01). ELISA is a more sensitive modality for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea. Chilomastix mesnili, generally considered a nonpathogen, may be a cause of diarrhoeal disease in AIDS. Immune reconstitution and Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis remain to be the best therapeutic approach in AIDS-related diarrhoea. PMID:27493988

  14. Intestinal Parasite Profile in the Stool of HIV Positive Patients in relation to Immune Status and Comparison of Various Diagnostic Techniques with Special Reference to Cryptosporidium at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Kaniyarakkal, Vishnu; Mundangalam, Nizamuddin; Moorkoth, Anitha Puduvail; Mathew, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related opportunistic infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in susceptible population. This study aims to negate the paucity of data regarding the relation between CD4 levels, prevalence of enteric parasites, and the outcome of treatment with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) and Cotrimoxazole in Kerala, India. Multiple stool samples from 200 patients in a cross-sectional study were subjected to microscopy and Cryptosporidium stool antigen ELISA. Parasites were identified in 18 samples (9%). Cystoisospora and Cryptosporidium spp. were seen in 9 cases (4.5%) and 5 cases (2.5%), respectively. Microsporidium spores and Chilomastix mesnili cysts were identified in 1 case each (0.5% each). Seven cases of Cystoisospora diarrhoea recovered after treatment with Cotrimoxazole. Diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. in all 5 cases subsided after immune reconstitution with HAART. This study concludes that a positive association was seen between low CD4 count (<200 cells/μL) and overall parasite positivity (P value < 0.01). ELISA is a more sensitive modality for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea. Chilomastix mesnili, generally considered a nonpathogen, may be a cause of diarrhoeal disease in AIDS. Immune reconstitution and Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis remain to be the best therapeutic approach in AIDS-related diarrhoea.

  15. Gas-less Video-assisted Thyroidectomy for a Solitary Thyroid Nodule: Technical Report of the First Case Performed at a Rural Teaching Hospital in India and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive thyroidectomy is still in its phase of evolution with various techniques being practiced only in certain centers internationally. The conventional thyroidectomy performed by the Kocher's cervicotomy often leaves an undesirable scar over the neck, the size of which is usually around 8–10 cm long. The main aim of minimally invasive thyroid surgery is to minimize or avoid the scar over the neck. Endoscopic thyroid surgery in India, especially in the state of Kerala, is still in its infancy. Here, we describe the first case report of a modified technique of video-assisted thyroid surgery using a laparoscope and conventional open surgical instruments. Video-assisted thyroidectomy enables adequate visualization of the operative field and provides a magnified view of the vital structures like the parathyroid gland, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the thyroid vasculature. The procedure described here can be considered as a more cost-effective alternative to the conventional minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), and therefore is feasible in a rural setup. PMID:23066460

  16. Protein malnutrition in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Someswara; Swaminathan, M. C.; Swarup, S.; Patwardhan, V. N.

    1959-01-01

    A protein malnutrition survey was carried out in ten areas of four States of South India among children under 5 years of age in families with a monthly income of less than Rs 100, estimated to constitute 85% of the population. The agricultural situation and socio-economic conditions are described. The diets investigated consisted largely of cereals, with small quantities of pulses and green vegetables; milk, meat and eggs were little eaten. The survey covered investigation of infant care, feeding and weaning practices, clinical examinations, anthropometric measurements, determinations of haemoglobin and serum protein, and analysis of hospital records. Although infants were usually breast-fed for a long time, the quantity of breast milk was found to be low after 6 months, at which time supplementary foods were introduced, but these were usually inadequate. Extreme growth retardation was seen after weaning. Diarrhoea was complained of in some 20% of children. Such deficiency signs as dyschromotrichia, hepatomegaly, moon face, angular stomatitis and xerophthalmia were frequently seen. Frank cases of kwashiorkor and marasmus were observed in 1% and 1.7% respectively of children at home. These findings and others clearly show protein malnutrition to be a problem of very considerable magnitude in the poorer communities of South India. A comparison is made with the results of surveys conducted in Africa and in Central America. ImagesFIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 2 PMID:14436226

  17. History of rocketry in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Gowarikar; Suresh, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) to the current gigantic satellite launchers, PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Though we had failures in the initial launches of SLV-3, ASLV and PSLV, these failures gave Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) a thorough and in depth understanding of the nuances of launch vehicle technology that later led to successful missions. An entirely new dimension was added to the Indian space programme when a space capsule was recovered very precisely after it had orbited the Earth for 12 days. The future for launch vehicles in ISRO looks bright with the GSLV MKIII, which is currently under development and the pursuit of cutting edge technologies such as reusable launch vehicles and air-breathing propulsion.

  18. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation.

  19. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  20. The issue that inflamed India.

    PubMed

    1977-04-04

    The 1 issue, more than anything else, that cost Indira Gandhi the election in India was her mass sterilization campaign. Although no one questions India's need for an effective family planning program, the government's program to vasectomize millions of Indian men who had fathered 2 or more children was ruthlessly and often illegally applied and came to symbolize the dangers of authoritarian rule. The program's target was 4.3 million sterilizations; the campaign produced 7.8 million between April 1976 and January 1977. In an effort to ensure the program's success, the government censors prohibited newspapers from publishing any criticism of family planning. 6 months ago the Family Planning Council claimed that "a most favorable climate" has been created for the voluntary acceptance of sterilization. In a recent tour of the Indian countryside this claim was found to be untrue. None of the villagers this writer spoke to had been offered any guidance by a family planning worker. There had been no explanation, for example, that sterilization is not responsible for impotence. By last week when the votes were counted, the pattern was clear. In states where the sterilization program had been pursued with the most zeal but the least preparation, the defection from the Congress Party was the most severe.

  1. Globalisation and women in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general.

  2. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges.

  3. Cervical cancer: is vaccination necessary in India?

    PubMed

    Farhath, Seema; Vijaya, P P; Mumtaj, P

    2013-01-01

    In India, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. The rate of cervical cancer in India is fourth worldwide. Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, both targeting HPV-16 and 18 which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity in active female population but numerous questions arise in vaccinating like cost effectiveness, lack of proven efficacy against other HPV strains, social acceptance of HPV vaccination and other ethical issues. The main objective of this study is to emphasis the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination in India.

  4. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  5. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  6. Groundwater Depletion in India Revealed by GRACE

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists using data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have found that the groundwater beneath Northern India has been receding by as much as one foot per year over the p...

  7. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  8. Zika: How safe is India?

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Siva, R; Christopher, B Prabhu; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Zhu, Hailong

    2017-01-31

    Zika virus, which originated from a forest in Uganda, has affected countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Most people infected with Zika are asymptomatic and present with clinical manifestations ranging from mild fever to severe neurological disorders. Recent outbreaks in Southeast Asian countries, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has warned pregnant woman to avoid nonessential traveling to 11 Asian countries. Reports about the sexual transmission route of Zika have pushed the World Health Organization to declare it a 'public health emergency'. Having this current warning status, it has become mandatory to consider where second highly populated country India stands in terms of spreading awareness and taking precautionary measures against the Zika virus infection. Therefore, this paper aims to highlight the importance of Zika in Indian population by considering several indicators such as the population size and ratio, rates of mortality, closely related diseases, government initiatives, and other micro-level factors which are prone to Zika effects.

  9. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  10. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    India and Pakistan Civil -Military Relations A Monograph by MAJ Brent Williams United States Army School of Advanced...2015 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE India and Pakistan Civil Military...explains civil -military relationships throughout a wide range of interactions between a society and the society’s military. The monograph uses this

  11. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  12. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C.; Sengupta, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  13. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    London: Routledge, 2006), Sunil Khilnani, India as a Bridging Power (The Foreign Policy Centre, 2005) and Edward Luce, In Spite of the Gods: The...ocean navy: the Pacific and the Indian oceans. 122 Indian scholar Sunil Khilnani, of King’s College London and an expert in strategic thought...Policy Review 135 (February/March 2006): 43- 61. Khilnani, Sunil . India as a Bridging Power. The Foreign Policy Centre, 2005. Kolodziej, Edward A

  14. Population and geography in India.

    PubMed

    Chandna, R C

    1991-01-01

    The field of population geography was first introduced during the 1960s in India and advanced under the direction of Gosal at the Punjab University. Teaching and research in population geography were introduced by Chandigarh at Punjab University, which today is the main center of research activity. Population geography in India has followed the main tenets of geography in general and is based on spatial perspectives. Deficits are apparent in the paucity of research on socioeconomic implications of spatial distributions, but there is infrastructural feedback to support theory development. Theoretical advances moving from theory to fact or from empirical fact to theory are limited. Comprehensive training in methodology and quantitative techniques is needed for further development of population theory: multivariate analysis, factor analysis, principal component analysis, model building, hypothesis testing, and theory formulation. Methodological sophistication will also help in understanding and interpreting the diverse and complex Indian demographic situation. The analysis of population geography in the Indian spatial, cultural, political, and historical context may be applied to other less developed countries of similar sociocultural background. The Indian Census has contributed over the 100 years of its existence reliable and efficiently produced data on a wide variety of measures at assorted scales down to the village level. Field work among geographers has not achieved a level of development commensurate with population censuses. Recent doctoral research has focused on qualitative studies of local situations. Research topics range from the distribution and structure of population, mortality, fertility, and migration to peripheral issues of social segregation. Popular topics include urbanization, labor force, sex composition, literacy, and population growth. Distribution of population and density studies have amounted to only 2 in 30 years. Population texts are in

  15. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  16. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  17. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  18. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue.

  19. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  1. Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in India.

    PubMed

    Broor, Shobha; Ghosh, Dhrubaa; Mathur, Purva

    2003-08-01

    Rotaviruses cause an estimated 140 million cases of gastroenteritis and 800,000 deaths in children between the ages of 6 months to 2 yr in developing countries. In India, one of every 250 children or about 100-150,000 children die of rotavirus diarrhoea each year. The prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea in India has been found to vary from 5-71 per cent in hospitalized children <5 yr of age with acute gastroenteritis. The seasonal variation of rotavirus diarrhoea in India varies in different geographical regions with high incidence in winter months at low relative humidity in north India. The distinctive features of rotavirus infection in India include the occurrence of severe disease at an early age and common neonatal rotavirus infections which are often asymptomatic. Rotavirus shows genetic and antigenic diversity in terms of subgroup, electropherotypes and G and P serotypes/genotypes. There are a few studies in terms of prevalence of different antigenic and genetic variants from various regions of India. In most studies on subgroup distribution from India a higher prevalence of subgroup II was reported compared to subgroup I. Electropherotyping has also demonstrated that a number of multiple electropherotypes co-circulate at one time in a particular community leading to extensive genomic variation and the appearance of new strains which may become the predominant electropherotype during the peak season. The most common G types reported from India are G1 and G2 and P types are P[4] and P[8]. A significant number of children also have mixed rotavirus infections. G9 strains are also quite commonly seen in Indian children. In addition P6 strains of probable bovine origin have been reported from India. A novel neonatal strain P type 11 human rotavirus (116 E) was isolated from neonates in Delhi, the VP4 of which was closely related to the bovine serotype G10P[11] strain B223 and VP7 was closely related to the human serotype G9 strain. Another neonatal strain G10P[11

  2. Women's Life Experiences in Contemporary India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Ruthanne

    This unit, intended for high school use, examines the role of women in India as portrayed in selected literature. The books used include: (1) "Women in India: Two Perspectives" (Doranne Jacobson; Susan S. Wadley); (2) "Through Indian Eyes, Volume l. The Wheel of Life" (Donald J. Johnson, Ed.; Jean E. Johnson, Ed.); (3)…

  3. Hinduism and the Culture of India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winikur, Ilene

    This packet contains sixth and seventh grade level interdisciplinary lesson outlines about India. Concepts to be developed include: (1) "Geography and Its Impact upon the Development of India's Different Cultures"; (2) "Religion and Philosophy Focusing on Hinduism and Festivals"; (3) "Literature using the Ramayana and…

  4. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  5. Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

    There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

  6. Liberalization of India`s electric power sector: Evolution or anarchy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1996-03-01

    The past two years have seen the bloom off the rose of India`s highly promising electricity sector restructuring. But take heart: Dabhol and other disappointments that may have seemed like a nightmare through much of 1995 may be only a mid-course correction in a robust restructuring that has still a long and promising distance to travel.

  7. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is…

  8. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  9. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Subrat K.

    2014-01-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL. PMID:25755607

  10. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL.

  11. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  13. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India

    PubMed Central

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K.; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha. PMID:27708188

  14. Ancient wolf lineages in India.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

  15. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  16. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  17. [Global Studies]. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Susan Strong

    This unit contains a sampling of lessons from a unit on India designed for ninth-grade students. Sections of the unit include: (1) "Geography of India"; (2) "Comparison of Major Religions"; (3) "The Caste System"; (4) "Empires of India"; (5) "Gandhi and Independence"; (6) "Division of the…

  18. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  19. U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    4 Global Partnership...of assistance as NPT parties in good standing. India tested several nuclear weapons in 1998. Global Partnership16 The Bush Administration had been...34 Global Partnership", by K. Alan Kronstadt, and CRS Report RL33529, India-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. . U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India

  20. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  1. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  2. 76 FR 62843 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China... USITC Publication 4270 (October 2011), entitled Sulfanilic Acid From China and India: Investigation...

  3. 76 FR 50756 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India. AGENCY: United... on sulfanilic acid from China and India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  4. A study of changes in rainfall and temperature patterns at four cities and corresponding meteorological subdivisions over coastal regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Panda, S. K.; Sharma, Neha

    2013-09-01

    Changes in the surface air temperature and rainfall, extreme events and their future projections at four Indian cities and corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones have been analyzed in this study based on observed gridded datasets from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and climate projections from nine IPCC models. The cities include Howrah, Vishakhapatnam, Madurai and Kochi. Their corresponding meteorological subdivisions are Gangetic West Bengal, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry and Kerala. When one considers the larger spatial scale, these cities and meteorological subdivisions are situated in the temperature homogeneous zones of North East, East Coast and West Coast. Similarly, North East and Peninsular India are the rainfall homogeneous zones where these four cities are situated. In this study, indication of change in any climate parameter is assumed to be strong if the same is found in a city and also in its meteorological subdivision and homogeneous zone. When the indications are of the same nature in a city and either in its meteorological subdivision or homogeneous zone, it is termed as weak. Comparison shows that the values of annual mean temperature and summer monsoon precipitation simulated by MIROC 3.2 (medres) and NCAR_CCSM3 models are close to the corresponding observed values at each of the four cities. Analysis shows similar trends in the annual mean observed temperature and monsoon precipitation in the selected four cities and their corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones. Based on IMD gridded datasets, the rise in annual mean temperature at 1% significant level during 1969-2005 in Kochi and its subdivision and homogeneous zone is a strong indication of warming. At Madurai such warming is weak. Whereas, at Howrah and Vishakhapatnam, there are no strong indications of warming based on the available IMD gridded data. So far as the future is concerned, the results show that in

  5. Comparison of the physical and geotechnical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from offshore India and other gas-hydrate-reservoir systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.; Wilcox-Cline, R.W.; Long, P.; Dewri, S.K.; Kumar, P.; Stern, Laura A.; Kerr, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    The sediment characteristics of hydrate-bearing reservoirs profoundly affect the formation, distribution, and morphology of gas hydrate. The presence and type of gas, porewater chemistry, fluid migration, and subbottom temperature may govern the hydrate formation process, but it is the host sediment that commonly dictates final hydrate habit, and whether hydrate may be economically developed.In this paper, the physical properties of hydrate-bearing regions offshore eastern India (Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins) and the Andaman Islands, determined from Expedition NGHP-01 cores, are compared to each other, well logs, and published results of other hydrate reservoirs. Properties from the hydrate-free Kerala-Konkan basin off the west coast of India are also presented. Coarser-grained reservoirs (permafrost-related and marine) may contain high gas-hydrate-pore saturations, while finer-grained reservoirs may contain low-saturation disseminated or more complex gas-hydrates, including nodules, layers, and high-angle planar and rotational veins. However, even in these fine-grained sediments, gas hydrate preferentially forms in coarser sediment or fractures, when present. The presence of hydrate in conjunction with other geologic processes may be responsible for sediment porosity being nearly uniform for almost 500 m off the Andaman Islands.Properties of individual NGHP-01 wells and regional trends are discussed in detail. However, comparison of marine and permafrost-related Arctic reservoirs provides insight into the inter-relationships and common traits between physical properties and the morphology of gas-hydrate reservoirs regardless of location. Extrapolation of properties from one location to another also enhances our understanding of gas-hydrate reservoir systems. Grain size and porosity effects on permeability are critical, both locally to trap gas and regionally to provide fluid flow to hydrate reservoirs. Index properties corroborate more advanced

  6. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-02

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  7. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  8. Productive trends in India's energy intensive industries

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Sanstad, A.; Mongia, P.; Schumacher, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of productivity growth and input trends in six energy intensive sectors of the Indian economy, using growth accounting and econometric methods. The econometric work estimates rates and factor price biases of technological change using a translog production model with an explicit relationship defined for technological change. Estimates of own-price responses indicate that raising energy prices would be an effective carbon abatement policy for India. At the same time, the authors results suggest that, as with previous findings on the US economy, such policies in India could have negative long run effects on productivity in these sectors. Inter-input substitution possibilities are relatively weak, so that such policies might have negative short and medium term effects on sectoral growth. The authors study provides information relevant for the analysis of costs and benefits of carbon abatement policies applied to India and thus contributes to the emerging body of modeling and analysis of global climate policy.

  9. Genomic view on the peopling of India.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Rakesh; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2012-10-01

    India is known for its vast human diversity, consisting of more than four and a half thousand anthropologically well-defined populations. Each population differs in terms of language, culture, physical features and, most importantly, genetic architecture. The size of populations varies from a few hundred to millions. Based on the social structure, Indians are classified into various caste, tribe and religious groups. These social classifications are very rigid and have remained undisturbed by emerging urbanisation and cultural changes. The variable social customs, strict endogamy marriage practices, long-term isolation and evolutionary forces have added immensely to the diversification of the Indian populations. These factors have also led to these populations acquiring a set of Indian-specific genetic variations responsible for various diseases in India. Interestingly, most of these variations are absent outside the Indian subcontinent. Thus, this review is focused on the peopling of India, the caste system, marriage practice and the resulting health and forensic implications.

  10. Asbestos-related morbidity in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Gupta, Rohit K

    2003-01-01

    In India, locally mined asbestos is not enough for its current needs, hence a great deal of asbestos is imported from Canada. Asbestos products manufacturers have prevailed upon the government to reduce tariffs on imported material. The efforts of the health and safety professionals who joined with nongovernmental organizations to form the Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) are being consistently sabotaged by the industry, using its influence and false propaganda that chrysotile asbestos can be safely used in a controlled manner. Weak legislation and lack of data are being exploited by the industry to convince policymakers that asbestos use in India has caused no major health problems. Despite this, the ban-asbestos movement has gained momentum and was able to persuade government to consider banning asbestos use. With the growing strength of the movement it is expected that asbestos manufacturers may find it increasingly difficult to manipulate the government in the future.

  11. Genomic view on the peopling of India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    India is known for its vast human diversity, consisting of more than four and a half thousand anthropologically well-defined populations. Each population differs in terms of language, culture, physical features and, most importantly, genetic architecture. The size of populations varies from a few hundred to millions. Based on the social structure, Indians are classified into various caste, tribe and religious groups. These social classifications are very rigid and have remained undisturbed by emerging urbanisation and cultural changes. The variable social customs, strict endogamy marriage practices, long-term isolation and evolutionary forces have added immensely to the diversification of the Indian populations. These factors have also led to these populations acquiring a set of Indian-specific genetic variations responsible for various diseases in India. Interestingly, most of these variations are absent outside the Indian subcontinent. Thus, this review is focused on the peopling of India, the caste system, marriage practice and the resulting health and forensic implications. PMID:23020857

  12. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  13. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-08

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  14. India's Participation in the Thirty-Meter Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. Eswar

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, approved astronomers' proposal of India joining the international consortium of the USA, Japan, Canada and China to build and operate the next generation mega ground based optical and infrared telescope known as the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) after its aperture size of 30-meter diameter. Since then, India is engaged in many aspects of the TMT project, both at technical and policy levels. In this article, I confine to the description of India's efforts leading up to the decision to join the consortium, and the progress made since then with respect to India's technical contributions to the project.

  15. Distance Education in India Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datt, Ruddar

    Distance education is offered by 4 universities and 34 institutes/directorates in India. All open universities have been brought under the direction of the Indira Gandhi National Open University with regard to networking and determination of grants. The networking has avoided unnecessary duplication of course preparation costs. Distance education…

  16. Outline of Vocational Training in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    Approximately 70 percent of India's 1963 population of 460,000,000 engage in agricultural pursuits and cottage industries. Some progress has been made in developing industry. The Indian Constitution provides for universal, free, and compulsory education through 14 years of age, but full application has been hindered by inadequate facilities,…

  17. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  18. Oman-India pipeline route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Paper describes the geological setting in the Arabian Sea for a proposed 28-inch gas pipeline from Oman to India reaching 3,500-m water depths. Covers planning, execution, quality control and results of geophysical, geotechnical and oceanographic surveys. Outlines theory and application of pipeline stress analysis on board survey vessel for feasibility assessment, and specifies equipment used.

  19. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  20. Reservoir hosts of Leptospira inadai in India.

    PubMed

    Gangadhar, N L; Rajasekhar, M; Smythe, L D; Norris, M A; Symonds, M L; Dohnt, M F

    2000-12-01

    Isolation of Leptospira from the kidneys of Rattus rattus wroughtoni hinton, Rattus rattus rufescens, Bandicota bengalensis and Bandicota indica was attempted in Bangalore in southern India. In total, 296 spirochaetes were isolated from 1,348 kidney cultures (an isolation rate of 22%). A batch of fifty-six isolates from India was identified, based on serological and polymerase chain reaction analysis, of which twenty-three isolates were identified as L. inadai by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, in Brisbane. This is the first record of isolation of L. inadai from rodents. The preponderance of L. inadai in four different species of rodents suggests that these animals could be the natural reservoir hosts of L. inadai, and raises a critical question as to the likely impact of this species of Leptospira on the renal carrier status of other Leptospira pathogenic to humans and animals in this part of India. Virulence studies conducted at the University of Trieste in Italy, revealed that isolates of L. inadai from India were moderately or totally serum resistant when subjected to a serum killing test. To establish the possible seroprevalence of this species in the population, the inclusion of L. inadai in the battery of leptospiral antigens used for sero-epidemiological studies is recommended.

  1. K12 Inc. Scraps India Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A company that runs one of the nation's largest networks of online schools recently decided to discontinue a program that arranged for high school teachers in the United States to send their students' English essays to India for evaluations by reviewers there. The existence of the program by Herndon, Virginia-based K12 Inc. is an example of the…

  2. Open Universities in India 2000: Brief Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Bharat, Comp.; Lele, Nalini A., Comp.; Rausaria, R. R., Comp.

    This report contains information on the following open universities in India: (1) Indira Gandhi National Open University; (2) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University; (3) Kota Open University; (4) Nalanda Open University; (5) Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University; (6) Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University; (7) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open…

  3. The enchantment of science in India.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Shruti

    2010-03-01

    In critiquing methodologies of the "global" as a spatial unit of analysis or a receptacle for influence across the planet, this essay positions India so as to assess the role and forms of science in the modern world. By taking the mid-nineteenth century as a moment of departure, it asks why, under what conditions, and to what effects Indians accepted science, but not biomedicine, in the high noon of colonialism. Existing imperial histories of science that are primarily fixated on the eighteenth century cast science as a site of exchange and dialogue, thus replicating the narrative of European expansion overseas. Instead, the power of science is here understood in the context of the politics of religion and rationality. In a synoptic overview, the essay assesses the archaeology of science and the blurred practices between religion and science, described here as "insurgent." It argues that science in India was a form of enchantment, while religion had become a form of disenchanted but rational knowledge. Unlike in Europe, and contrary to orientalist positions, science in India neither declared the death of God nor became "spiritualized" via religion. Instead, science inflected religion; and religion, in turn, facilitated a rational mediation between science and man. This specific relationship accounts for the "soft landing" of science in India and its usurpation in the service of an unapologetic national modernity.

  4. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80–40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70–43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52–51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  5. Special Education in India at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirumurthy, Vidya; Jayaraman, Brinda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors first discuss the multi-tiered Indian education system. Then, they examine the challenges for special education in India, including: (1) the issues surrounding appropriate assessment in a multilingual country, which is enhanced by marked differences in children's socioeconomic status; (2) social stigma of disabilities…

  6. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  7. Rhetoric of India: A Selected, Interdisciplinary Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    Focusing on the philosophical and religious literature of India, this updated annotated bibliography discusses 33 books published between 1961 and 1993. Books annotated in the bibliography discuss: the foundations of Indian culture, the rhetorical tradition, Indian literary traditions, the historical-cultural context, toward a rhetorical-cultural…

  8. Open Educational Resources in India's National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2009-01-01

    As India marches rapidly towards an ambitious agenda of economic and social advancement, one of the greatest challenges it faces is to provide extensive access to quality higher education opportunities. An evident and expanding Open Education Resources movement offers great promise for meeting this challenge through initiatives that make quality…

  9. Primary Education in India. Development in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Having steadily raised primary enrollment rates over the past 4 decades, India now has 67 million children aged 6-10 who are attending primary school, but 28-32 million who are not. This book draws on a wide range of sources, including original analytical work by Indian researchers and others, to describe the current state of primary education in…

  10. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  11. Girls' and Women's Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…

  12. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-23

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  13. Epidemiology & social costs of haemophilia in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Anita; Phadnis, Supriya; Dharmarajan, Sumedha; Nakade, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    India lacks a national policy on the prevention and control of genetic disorders. Although the haemoglobinopathies have received some attention, there are scarce data on the epidemiology of other genetic disorders in India. Haemophilia, an inherited single gene disorder with an incidence of 1 per 10,000 births, manifests as spontaneous or trauma-induced haemorrhagic episodes in patients, progressing to chronic disability and premature mortality in untreated patients or patients with sub-optimal treatment. Although the genetic basis of this disorder has been well studied in India, data on the number of patients, trends of the disorder in India, social costs of the condition and opportunities and competencies for offering genetic counselling through a public health programme have not been reported. This review article summarizes the available Indian data, which show that the country harbours the second highest number of global patients with haemophilia A. The reported number of patients with haemophilia A is 11,586 while the estimated prevalence could be around 50,000 patients. This review also identifies the need to immediately initiate a national programme for haemophilia, with components of prevention, care for patients, surveillance and education and support for families. PMID:25222774

  14. Rhetoric of India: A Selected, Interdisciplinary Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    This 98-item bibliography lists works pertaining to the philosophical and religious literature of India, a literature which has long earned the respect of distinguished Western scholars. Included are: foundational works of Indian culture, such as the Bhagavad-Gita, the Holy Vedas, and the Upanishads; works on the rhetorical tradition and…

  15. Internationalizing Geography Education: A Focus on India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Michael; Balachandran, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Geographers (AAG), through its Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) project, recently published a collection of online educational resources examining important geographic issues affecting people, places, and environments in India. The resources were created by a delegation of high school teachers and academic…

  16. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time. PMID:22557403

  17. Training for Community Development Personnel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhija, H. R.

    The book traces the development of training schemes in India for community development workers. It is divided into four parts which deal with: origin and growth of the Community Development Training Programme; problems encountered and the process of solutions through trial and error; major reorganization of the initial program and the research…

  18. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

  19. Unlocking the Creative Potential of Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Ramji

    2007-01-01

    "Rural education": the phrase conjures up unflattering images of broken blackboards and slates, lackadaisical teachers and students, rote learning and of outdated teaching techniques and suppressed creativity. Yet, these images are completely out of consonance with modern India and a knowledge-based society. This article describes a new…

  20. The Evolving Relations of Japan and India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number...kenkyusyo/p_7kqmsx.html; Center for the Study of Contemporary India at Kyoto University, Kyoto University, accessed October 7, 2014, http

  1. Functional Literacy in India: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhargava, Alka

    2008-01-01

    Literacy has been a priority for the leaders of India since before Independence. Since the independence of the country in 1947, eradication of illiteracy has been a major concern of the national Government. The nation's constitution includes specific articles and amendments to guarantee the advancement of education. During the country's first Five…

  2. The Classical Performing Arts of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Marie Joy

    A monograph of the numerous activities that have contributed to the current renaissance of India's classical performing arts covers the theoretical aspects, musical instruments, the main schools of classical dance, and drama. Besides the basic research described, the total project produced a set of 300 slides with annotated listing, picturing the…

  3. Rural Education in India: Unity Through Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E.

    A discussion of rural education in India presents an overview of the subcontinent's geography, history, philosophy, economy, rural environment, and population and relates these factors to problems and changes in rural educational practices and conditions. The paper points out increases in school and college enrollment, education of more females,…

  4. ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

  5. India (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented at the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, India's population increased by 24.8% between the 1961 and 1971 censuses and by 25% between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The population was 685.2 million in 1981 and is projected to increase to 996.0 million in 2001. The growth rate is expected to decline to 2% during 1981-91 and to 1.6% from 1991-2001. Life expectancy at birth in 1980 was estimated at 54.1 for males and 54.7 for females. The national health policy envisages health as a vital component of overall integrated socioeconomic development but emphasizes the need to ensure adequate nutrition, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. The family welfare program is voluntary and involves intensive efforts to create awareness of population through multimedia and interpersonal channels and to provide a wide choice of contraceptives for eligible couples. Emphasis has been placed on increasing female literacy and on population education for youth. The goal is a net reproduction rate of 1 by the year 2000. Currently 40 million of the 126 million reproductive aged couples use an effective method of birth control. Sterilization continues to be an important method, but emphasis on spacing methods began at the outset of the 6th 5-year plan in 1980 and will continue during the 7th 5-year plan. Adequate training will be provided for rural health workers as part of the strategy to lower birth rates. The urban family welfare infrastructure will be strengthened to cover low-income population groups, and the mass media infrastructure is being restructured and strengthened. Efforts are underway to encourage participation in family planning by voluntary organizations. The medical education curriculum is undergoing revision to introduce formal family planning training. It is expected that the combined impact of improvement in social and economic living conditions and the national program

  6. Quitline Activity in Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh; Verma, Vinit; Mathur, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Quitline activity in Rajasthan, India is a voluntary activity of Rajasthan Cancer Foundation (RCF) since April 2013. To kick-off, it took the benefit of the State Government- PIRAMAL SWASTHYA (PS)1 collaborative 104 Health Information Helpline that existed already in public-private partnership. It is a reactive quitline that helps callers through the counselors and nursing staff trained specifically through the weekly sessions held by the first author, the RCF resource on quitline. Besides structuring of the scripts for primary intervention and follow-ups after 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and a year, he also monitors calls, advices and coordinates with the supervisors to manage and analyze the data base, and reports to the PS lead at the Jaipur Center on overall performance and to plan strategic communication with the State Government on its outcomes. The quitline has limitations of its informal existence through a voluntary effort of RCF, no specific resource allocation, suboptimal data management, minimal awareness in the masses due to poor IEC (Information, Education and Communication; except its efforts made by RCF in last 1 year through the government-run State TV and City Radio) and staff shortage and its attrition due to lack of plan for career advancement. Despite these challenges in the year 2013, the quit line has registered a quit rate (for complete abstinence) of 19.93% amongst 1525 callers. The quit rate were 58.01% (304/ 524) among the responders at the 3rd follow-up at 18 months (in September 2014)2. In view of an increase in quit rate by 5- 9 times over the prevailing quit rate in the former ever daily users [both smokers and the users of smokeless tobacco (SLT)], efforts are being made by RCF in concurrence with PS to have this cost-effective model established formally with optimal resource allocation in collaboration with willing agencies (the State and Central Governments and the International Quitline Agencies) and its replication in 4 more states

  7. An assessment of EIA system in India

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, Jitendra K.; Amirapu, Susruta

    2012-07-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis

  8. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  9. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  10. Survey and RT-PCR Based Detection of Cardamom mosaic virus Affecting Small Cardamom in India.

    PubMed

    Biju, C N; Siljo, A; Bhat, A I

    2010-10-01

    Mosaic or marble or katte disease caused by Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is an important production constraint in all cardamom growing regions of the world. In the present study, 84 cardamom plantations in 44 locations of Karnataka and Kerala were surveyed. The incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 85%. The incidence was highest in Madikeri (Karnataka) while no incidence was recorded in Peermade (Kerala). In general, incidence and severity of the disease was higher in cardamom plantations of Karnataka. A procedure for total RNA isolation from cardamom and detection of CdMV through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting the conserved region of coat protein was standardized and subsequently validated by testing more than 50 field cardamom samples originating from Karnataka and Kerala states. The method can be used for indexing the planting material and identifying resistant lines/cultivars before either they are further multiplied in large scale or incorporated in breeding.

  11. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates pro- duced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 +/- 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya be- tween approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 +/- 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"- Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  12. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  13. 77 FR 9892 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary Intent to Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January 1, 2010, through... Vacmet and Polypacks. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission,...

  14. 3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency Presidential Documents Other Presidential... of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement...

  15. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  16. Population control and the women of India.

    PubMed

    Batra, B K

    1973-01-01

    14% of the world's population, (547,000,000 people) live on 2.4% of its land in India. 18% of the population of India live in 2690 cities, the rest in rural villages, with roughly an average of 700 people per village. The woman's role in India was mainly to produce children, most importantly sons. In 1956 India began the program of planned parenthood at a governmental level, aiming at restricting births. This met with some negativism on the part of the older generation especially due to its depriving them of the privilege and benefits of large families, and the lesser guarantee of a male heir. But due to the effects of agricultural and industrial reforms, rapid urbanization has occurred bringing better communication and helping to spread the ideas and information about family planning to the village. Urbanization also brought about a crashing economic situation. Motivation for planned parenthood has its most persuasive impetus when social and economic pressures are at their peak. Thus the message that a "small family is a happy family" has from necessity become accepted. The poor housing conditions with a total lack of privacy has contributed to the inability of Indian women to use more sophisticated methods of contraception. The pill is too expensive for most Indian women. The IUD therefore was the most practical to start with in 1956 and thereafter has been freely available. India's national leadership is committed to the success of the planned parenthood program which aims at the adoption of the norm of a small family as a social and personal ideal. The 2 facets of the program have been to persuade people to accept the new norms and to provide contraceptive services within easy reach. If the birth rate declines from its present level of 39 to 30 per 1000 by 1986, the population will still reach 792,000,000 by 1991, and 941,000,000 by 2001. The reason for the past increase in growth has been due to the rapidly declining death rate. Legislation has been passed to

  17. Literary Vision of Symbolic India: Removing the Veil and Stepping into Spiritual India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1996 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Patricia

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist middle-school students in understanding the complexity of India. A slide presentation is used in combination with several activities for interdisciplinary study of India through literature and social studies. A comprehensive bibliography provides suggestions for further reading. Sections of the guide…

  18. Multinational Alcohol Market Development and Public Health: Diageo in India.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and alcohol consumption is rising steadily in India. The growth of multinational alcohol corporations, such as Diageo, contributes to India's changing alcohol environment. We provide a brief history of India's alcohol regulation for context and examine Diageo's strategies for expansion in India in 2013 and 2014. Diageo is attracted to India's younger generation, women, and emerging middle class for growth opportunities. Components of Diageo's responsibility strategy conflict with evidence-based public health recommendations for reducing harmful alcohol consumption. Diageo's strategies for achieving market dominance in India are at odds with public health evidence. We conclude with recommendations for protecting public health in emerging markets.

  19. Mercury exposure and Alzheimer's disease in India - An imminent threat?

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi

    2017-03-02

    India is an industrial giant with one of the fastest growing major economies in the world. Primary energy consumption in India is third after China and the USA. Greater energy production brings the burden of increasing emissions of mercury (Hg). India ranks second for Hg emissions. Rising atmospheric Hg release, high Hg evasion processes, and increasing monomethylmercury (highly neurotoxin) accumulations in marine food products increase the potential for human and ecosystem Hg exposure. Hg has been identified to increase the risk of getting Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are increasing reports of AD and dementia in different age groups in India. The relationship between increasing Hg exposure and increasing neurodegenerative disorder in India is not known. This commentary points to the need for better understanding of the relationship between Hg release and AD in India, and other countries, and how to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of Hg.

  20. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Poornima; Kapur, Malavika

    2003-01-01

    The increasing focus on child mental health in developing countries like India points to the importance of epidemiological data in developing training, service and research paradigms.This review attempts to synthesise and evaluate the available research on the prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India and highlight significant conceptual and methodological trends. It identified 55 epidemiological studies conducted between 1964 and 2002 in the community and school settings. Despite considerable progress, various methodological lacunae continue to limit the value of the epidemiological surveys. These include issues related to sampling, case definition methods, tools, multi-informant data and data analysis. The importance of a socio-culturally relevant research framework has been highlighted. The review suggests directions for future research to guide planning of services that meet the mental health needs of vulnerable children and adolescents PMID:21206860

  1. Fifty years of stroke researches in India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  2. Impediments of reporting dengue cases in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Sushmita; Sarfraz, Asim; Jaiswal, Nitesh; Das, Pradeep

    2017-03-02

    Dengue has emerged as one of the most important mosquito-borne, fatal flaviviral disease, apparently expanding as a global health problem. An estimated 3.6 billion people are at risk for dengue, with 50 million infections per year occurring across 100 countries globally. The annual number of dengue fever cases in India is many times higher than it is officially reported. This under reporting would play a major role in the government's decision-making. Underestimating of the disease in India encumbers its people from taking preventive measures, discourages efforts to ensnare the sources of the disease and deliberates efforts for vaccine research. In this article, we highlight the probable impediments of under reporting leading to its impact on national and global public health and also offer key remedies to effectively address the issues across the clinics to the community level.

  3. Treating troubled families: therapeutic scenario in India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bino

    2012-04-01

    India, a country of diverse cultures, languages, life styles, and ethnicities, is becoming a land of economic change, political stability, technological advancement, and changing traditional structures of relationships as well as health consciousness. Being known for its ancient traditions, rituals, religious orientation, spiritual outlook and folk beliefs, Indian families attempt to continue certain healthy and traditional elements such as warmth, strong bond, hierarchy, extended support, cultural orientation, shared values and time, tolerance, respect for the aged and inculcation of religious teachings and traditions in families. These factors, or practices, in fact have strong therapeutic value in supplementing the growth and development of individuals in the family system in spite of its transitional position. This paper deals with the review of family-based mental health services and focuses on the changing trends of those practices in India and the advancement of Indian families in their engaging ability with mentally ill members as well as with the treating team.

  4. Psychological Dimensions of Celiac Disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    An epidemic of celiac disease is being witnessed in India as well as several other parts of the world. Awareness is important for early diagnosis and treatment so as to avoid long-term morbidity as well as irreversible complications. However, the key for resolution of the disease is good compliance to a gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, the current scenario in India is that either gluten free foods are not easily available or are expensive and often not tested. This is especially true in schools and colleges and smaller towns. In addition, the stigma attached to gluten-free food makes it socially undesirable, and this is made worse by the lack of knowledge among peers, family members, advisors, and even health care providers. We need to make a strong pitch to overcome the confusion regarding the disease as well as the diet to avoid psychological and medical complications. PMID:27335528

  5. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  6. Multiple sclerosis in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Bhim S.; Advani, Hemali

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is being increasingly diagnosed in India mainly due to increase in the number of practicing neurologists and easy and affordable availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical features and course are largely similar to those seen in the West. The term optico-spinal MS (Asian MS) was coined in the pre-MRI days. Many such patients turn out to be cases of neuromyelitis optica — a distinct disorder and not a variant of MS. Others have shown the classical features of MS on MRI scan. Several of the disease-modifying agents, not all, are now available in India. Their use, however, has been limited in view of the high cost. PMID:26538844

  7. The first multituberculate mammal from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Varun; Prasad, Guntupalli V. R.; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic deposits of the former Gondwanaland are depauperate in early mammals, in general, and multituberculate mammals, in particular. Until now, the oldest multituberculate mammals known from the Gondwanan continents come from the Early Cretaceous of Morocco, NW Africa. Here, we report the presence of a new multituberculate mammal, Indobaatar zofiae gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower/Middle Jurassic Kota Formation, Pranhita-Godavari valley in peninsular India. This is the first record of a multituberculate from the Mesozoic rocks of India and possibly predates the oldest known multituberculates from Gondwanan continents. The new specimen, representing an upper premolar (P4), compares well with the upper premolar morphology of Eobaatariinae multituberculates known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia, China, England, and Spain. Together with the recent findings of cimolodontan multituberculates from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Late Cretaceous of South America, the new discovery indicates a wide temporal and spatial distribution for multituberculate mammals in the former Gondwanaland.

  8. Euthanasia: the perceptions of nurses in India.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajaiah; Konduru, Reddemma; Math, Suresh Bada

    2013-04-01

    Euthanasia provokes controversies in various domains, such as the moral, ethical, legal, religious, scientific, and economic. India legalised passive euthanasia (withdrawal of life support) for patients with brain death or who are in a permanent vegetative state in 2011, but research on perceptions of euthanasia among people in India is limited. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of the practice of euthanasia as well as factors influencing those perceptions. A non-probability quantitative, cross-sectional design was adopted for a sample of 214 nurses working at a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through self-reported questionnaires at the nurses workplace.The findings revealed mixed opinions on euthanasia among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants did not agree with the practice of euthanasia. Nonetheless, further research is needed on this issue across the country among various health professionals in the context of current legislation.

  9. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  10. Chronic pancreatitis in India and Asia.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is widely prevalent in Asian countries much more so in India and Japan. The phenotype of CP is somewhat similar to that reported from western countries. The prevalent types of CP are mainly idiopathic and alcohol related. Current evidence suggests that the term "tropical pancreatitis" used for idiopathic CP from India is a misnomer. Gallstones' association with CP reported from China remains controversial. There has been ample evidence that mutations in the SPNIK1 and CFTR genes are strongly associated with idiopathic CP in patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Oxidative stress is important in the pathophysiology and antioxidants have been shown to result in significant pain relief with CP. Home-made balanced diet is effective for treating malnutrition in patients with CP. Endoscopic therapy combined with ESWL may provide significant relief in patients with pancreatic ductal calculi/stricture. Surgery is quite effective in CP and may be better than endotherapy.

  11. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  12. The first multituberculate mammal from India.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Varun; Prasad, Guntupalli V R; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic deposits of the former Gondwanaland are depauperate in early mammals, in general, and multituberculate mammals, in particular. Until now, the oldest multituberculate mammals known from the Gondwanan continents come from the Early Cretaceous of Morocco, NW Africa. Here, we report the presence of a new multituberculate mammal, Indobaatar zofiae gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower/Middle Jurassic Kota Formation, Pranhita-Godavari valley in peninsular India. This is the first record of a multituberculate from the Mesozoic rocks of India and possibly predates the oldest known multituberculates from Gondwanan continents. The new specimen, representing an upper premolar (P(4)), compares well with the upper premolar morphology of Eobaatariinae multituberculates known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia, China, England, and Spain. Together with the recent findings of cimolodontan multituberculates from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Late Cretaceous of South America, the new discovery indicates a wide temporal and spatial distribution for multituberculate mammals in the former Gondwanaland.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  14. U.S.-India Military Relationship: Matching Expectations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    Banerjee , Joint U.S. India Army Exercise in Mizoram,” The Times of India, 23 March 2004, http://times of india.indiatimes.com/articleshow/577610.cms. 127...rediff.com, September 9, 2005 <http://www.rediff.com//news/2005/sep/09anti.htm>. 154 Saikat Datta and Rajesh Ramachandran, “No Bang for the Buck...India,” The Economist, June 3, 2006, 14. 165 Ibid. 166 Saikat Dutta, “So Many Slugs in the Underbelly: Can We Never Be Rid of Arms Dealers? Are they

  15. India's poliomyelitis eradication: a milestone in public health.

    PubMed

    Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2013-12-01

    India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.

  16. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  17. Prospects of Sino-India Relations 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Myanmar , a country that lies at the strategic crossroads between South West China, North East India, the Indian Ocean, and South East Asia. Ties...Influence in Burma - A New Assessment, 51. 50 This assessment of Myanmar may be applicable to other places in the region as the quiet rivalry...brewing in Myanmar over China‘s attempt to connect Kunming to the Indian Ocean, and India‘s push to connect its North East to Southeast Asia, can

  18. Research on mood stabilizers in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Mood stabilizers have revolutionized the treatment of bipolar affective disorders. We review data originating from India in the form of efficacy, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of mood stabilizers. Data is mainly available for the usefulness and side-effects of lithium. A few studies in recent times have evaluated the usefulness of carbamazepine, valproate, atypical antipsychotics and verapamil. Occasional studies have compared two mood stabilizers. Data for long term efficacy and safety is conspicuously lacking. PMID:21836705

  19. Autoimmune retinopathy: A case report from India

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sudha K.; Ahmed, Arshee S.

    2017-01-01

    A first case report of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) from India. A middle-aged female patient presented with subacute loss of vision in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed a near normal fundus in both the eyes. A presumed diagnosis of nonparaneoplastic AIR was made based on clinical features and suggestive investigations. Early detection and management with steroids or immunosuppression may be beneficial to patients with AIR. PMID:28298865

  20. The development of biogas technology in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K. V.

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed, illustrated by a popular digester model. The need for the development of community digesters for the needs of a village and its implications are mentioned. The research work on biogasification at Andhra University is summarized.

  1. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  2. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  3. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  4. Tuberculosis Risk among Medical Trainees, Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, Anita; Chandanwale, Ajay; Patil, Akhil; Kadam, Dileep; Joshi, Samir; Gupte, Nikhil; McIntire, Katie; Jain, Divyashri; Dalal, Hamza; Badave, Rohan; DeLuca, Andrea; Gupta, Amita; Bollinger, Robert; Mave, Vidya

    2016-03-01

    During 2012-2013, at a public hospital in Pune, India, 26 (3.9%) cases of tuberculosis were reported among 662 medical trainees, representing an estimated incidence of 3,279 cases/100,000 person-years. Three of these infections were isoniazid-resistant, 1 was multidrug-resistant, and 1 occurred in a trainee who had fulminant hepatitis after starting treatment for TB.

  5. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training. PMID:21836724

  6. Chronic myeloid leukemia data from India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shweta; Prabhash, Kumar; Parikh, Purvish

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to collaborate the data of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient from all over India,meeting was conceived by ICON (Indian Cooperative Oncology Network) in 2010. This article presents the summarized picture of the data presented in the meeting. In the meeting 8115 patients data was presented and 18 centres submitted their manuscripts comprising of 6677 patients. This data represents large series of patients from all over the country treated on day to day clinical practice and presents the actual outcomes of CML patients in India. The compilation of data confirms the younger age at presentation, increased incidence of resistance and poor outcomes in patients with late chronic phase. It also addresses the issues like Glivec versus Generic drug outcomes, safety of Imatinib during pregnancy and mutational analysis among resistant patients. It concludes that survival and quality of life of CML patients in India has improved over the years especially when treated in early chronic phase. The generic drug is a good option where original is unable to reach the patient due to various reasons. Hopefully, this effort will provide a platform to conduct systematic studies in learning the best treatment options among CML patients in Indian settings. PMID:24516297

  7. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India's contribution.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Ramesh, B N; Vasudevaraju, P; Rao, K S J

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders.

  9. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  11. Dental public health in India: An insight

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Arshdeep; Sandhu, Anmol Rattan Singh; Dhaliwal, Angad Prakash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among DPH personnel. The literature search for the present study was conducted utilizing various search engines and electronic databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE. Documents related to the Central and State Governments of India were also considered. Finally, 26 articles were selected for the present study from which relevant information can be extracted. The present study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to DPH in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care, role of mobile dental vans, and research in DPH. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of public health dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs. PMID:28348984

  12. Healthcare financing: approaches and trends in India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Saraya, Anoop

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of healthcare for the well-being of society, there is little public debate in India on issues relating to it. The 'human capital approach' to finance healthcare largely relies on private investment in health, while the 'human development approach' envisages the State as the guarantorof preventive as well as curative care to achieve universalization of healthcare. The prevailing health indices of India and challenges in the field of public health require a human developmentapproach to healthcare. On the eve of independence, India adopted the human development approach, with the report of the Bhore Committee emphasizing the role of the State in the development and provision of healthcare. However, more recently, successive governments have moved towards the human capital approach. Instead of increasing state spending on health and expanding the public health infrastructure, the government has been relying more and more on the private sector. The public-private partnership has been touted as the new-age panacea for the ills of the Indian healthcare system. This approach has led to a stagnation of public health indices and a decrease in the access of the poor to healthcare.

  13. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Khandare, Shobha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3–4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need–supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower. PMID:25598615

  14. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India.

    PubMed

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene

    2015-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions.

  15. Nutrition and child survival in India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2010-03-01

    India recognized the importance of improving the health and nutritional status of children, and initiated steps to improve access to nutrition and health services soon after independence. Over the years, the infrastructure and human resources for manning the health and nutrition services have been built up and currently cover the entire country. However these are inadequacies in terms of content and quality of services and undernutrition rates and under five morality rates continue to be high. Undernutrition begins in utero, and with low birthweight, effective antenatal care can help in reducing low birth weight. The poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, repeated morbidity due to infections and poor utilization of health and nutrition services are other causes of undernutrition in children in India. The key intervention to prevent undernutrition is nutritional and health education through all modes of communication, to bring about is a behavioral change towards appropriate IYCF and utilization of health care. Appropriate convergence and synergy between health and nutrition functionaries can play a major role in early detection and effective management of both undernutrition and infections, accelerate the pace of reduction in both undernutrition and under five mortality and enable India to reach Millennium Development Goals.

  16. The Benefits of the E-Learning Agricultural Project Kissankerala to Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy V., Manoj; Ghosh, Chimoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In recent times Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been able to make inroads into the ways information is disseminated among those involved in direct farming and farming related enterprises. This paper arose from a two-year study of the KissanKerala, the e-learning project underway in Kerala, a small state in India. It is more…

  17. Problems and Challenges in Medical Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Sribas; Sahai, Manjari

    2015-01-01

    As India marches towards an exciting new future of growth and progress, medical education will play a pivotal role in crafting a sustained development agenda. The idea of creating a healthy society is no longer a debatable luxury; its significance has been grasped by policy shapers worldwide. In a developing nation like India, medical services…

  18. Soil degradation in India: Challenges and potential solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil degradation in India is estimated to occur on 147 Mha of land, including 94 Mha from water erosion, 16 Mha from acidification, 14 Mha from flooding, 9 Mha from wind erosion, 6 Mha from salinity, and 7 Mha from a combination of factors. India supports 18% of the world’s human population and 15%...

  19. U.S. Ambassador Says India Should Welcome Foreign Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. ambassador to India, in an interview with "The Chronicle" last week, criticized the opposition of some Indian government officials and politicians to legislation that would allow U.S. and other foreign universities to establish campuses or programs in the country. He spoke favorably, however, about India's willingness to take on…

  20. Realizing the Potential of Education Management in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapre, Padmakar

    2002-01-01

    Explains emergence of management in India; reviews sources of management concepts; compares meaning of the terms "management" and "administration"; discusses characteristics of organizational culture in India; describes efforts to introduce management concepts in Indian education; offers suggestions for realizing the potential…