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  1. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  2. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  3. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, C.; Amma, N. S.; Chitrathara, K.; Dhakad, N.; Rani, P.; Malathy, L.; Nair, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study in Kerala, India, confirmed the importance of genital hygiene in the fight against infections that have a role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Many women cannot afford sanitary pads, while adequate facilities for washing after coitus are often unavailable. Health education, satisfactory living standards, and the empowerment of women are prerequisites for reducing the incidence of cervical dysplasia. PMID:10212523

  4. Social justice and the demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J

    1978-01-01

    Kerala is a small, densely crowded state in South India. It is a poor state, even by Indian standards. Its per capita income of US$80 lies well below the all-India average of US$120, and it suffers from the lowest per capita caloric intake in India. Nevertheless, Kerala has managed to achieve the demographic transition from high (premodern) to low (modern) birth and death rates-something no other Indian state has been able to attain. Indeed, the magnitude of Kerala's fertility decline-the birth rate fell from 39 in 1961 to 26.5 in 1974-has never before been observed in a nation with comparable levels of income and undernutrition. Other indices of Kerala's soical development are equally surprising: levels of literacy, life expectancy, female education, and age at marriage are the highest in India, while mortality rates, including infant and child mortality, are the lowest among Indian states. But Kerala's anomalous and unexpected demographic trends and levels are not the result of the direct interventions designed to influence health and fertility levels elsewhere in India-conventional strategies of population control and health services delivery that thus far are notable for their failure to generate such positive results. Instead, Kerala's demographic levels evidently reflect a broad social response to structural reforms in its political economy.

  5. Literacy in India and the Example of Kerala (Changes in Literacy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandran, K. Narayana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the National Literacy Mission (NLM) launched in 1988 in India. Notes the barriers to successful campaigns for literacy in India. Describes the reasons for the particularly successful campaign in the state of Kerala, including the fact that it was in every sense a people's campaign. (SR)

  6. Understanding levels of morbidity and hospitalization in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Dilip, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of ailments and hospitalization in Kerala was examined using data from the 52 nd National Sample Survey Data on Health Care in Kerala in 1995-6. The survey included 24401 people from 4928 households. Age and seasonality had considerable effects on the morbidity of individuals. The burden of ill health was higher in rural areas than in urban areas. People who were more likely to have a better lifestyle had a higher level of morbidity and hospitalization. Regional differences were seen, with levels of morbidity and hospitalization higher in the comparatively developed regions of Southern Kerala than in Northern Kerala. Factors like physical accessibility of health care services and capacity to seek health care services could create artificial differences in morbidity and hospitalization among different subgroups of the population in Kerala. PMID:12378294

  7. Trick or treat? Muslim Thangals, psychologisation and pragmatic realism in northern Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Thangals are an endogamous community in Kerala, India, of Yemeni heritage who claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad's family. Due to their sacrosanct status, many thangals work as religious healers and thus are part of the informal mental health care system in Northern Kerala. Using the case of one thangal healer as an illustration of the many ritual healers in Kerala who engage the modern discourse of psychology in their practices, I argue that the psychologisation of ritual healing is part of a wider trend: the increasing rationalisation and scientification of traditional medical practices, whereby an increasing number of traditional healers negotiate science, modernity and religion and position their practice within these contested fields. Based on the analysis of this thangal's healing practice in the local context of Northern Kerala, I further argue that in order to understand "ritual" healing, scholars should emphasise pragmatic realism more than doctrinal purity.

  8. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R

    1992-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala.

  9. Landslide fatalities in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., EG, 2009) has compiled and presented the history and chorology of landslide prone areas of the region. An attempt to collect and compile a reliable fatal landslide inventory of the region resulted in a database of 63 landslides from 1961 to 2009. The data base was compiled from the news paper reports and research reports of the CESS and GSI. Most landslides were visited in and the locations were mapped using a handheld GPS. Date and fatality information was also collected. For twelve of the landslides accurate location information was not available and hence was plotted at the nearest known village centre. Three landslides did not have any location information but was recorded in the district gazetteer and hence included in the data base. A total of 257 valuable lives were lost in landslides. The landslide that caused the highest number of deaths was the Amboori landslide (Thiruvananthapuram) which occurred on 11 September 2001 that caused 39 fatalities. Idukki district experienced the largest number of fatal landslides during this period, 20 events resulting in 67 fatalities. Thiruvananthapuram district experienced the highest average number of fatalities per landslide (47 deaths from 5 events). The district wise statistics from north to south are, Kannur (6 from 5), Kasargodu (24 from 6), Wayanad (36 from 6), Kozhikode (44 from 10), Malappuram (9 from 3), Palakkad (3 from 3), Thrissur (2 from 1), Kottayam (5 from 3), and Pathanamthitta (14 from 3). It was noted that there exists a spatial trend in the occurrence of fatal landslides which follows the general monsoon rainfall trends and the population density. About 55% of the events occurred during the south west monsoon (June to September) season. It was also observed that there exists a strong upward trend in the number of fatal landslides. This upward trend can be directly

  10. Appropriating depression: biomedicalizing Ayurvedic psychiatry in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia; Jansen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The appropriation of biopsychiatric concepts such as depression, and their reframing in clinical and academic discussions, are important parts of the revitalization of bhūt vidyā as Ayurvedic psychiatry. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Kerala from 2009 to 2011, in this article we explore the process and the controversies of translating and correlating the biopsychiatric notion of depression, as a discrete and biologic pathological entity, with Ayurvedic notions of body, mind, and mental distress. Depression, conceptualized as a neurochemical imbalance, is, we argue, relatively compatible with Ayurvedic notions of a fluent body and mind, and so is easier to correlate with Ayurvedic concepts of do[Formula: see text]ic imbalances and blockages of channels than the former psychoanalytically dominated model of depression. The appropriation of depression within Ayurvedic discourse challenges the dichotomy of universal and culture-specific disorders, and this has a significant impact on mental health programs in Kerala. PMID:23206173

  11. Genetic characterization of dengue viruses prevalent in Kerala State, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Jayakumar, P R; George, Kochurani; Kamaraj, T; Krishnamoorthy, K; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2013-04-01

    Dengue fever is re-emerging as a major scourge in south-east Asian countries, affecting about 50-100 million people and causing about 25,000 deaths annually. The Indian population as a whole is at risk of succumbing to this disease. This study genetically characterized viruses causing dengue infection in Kerala, one of the worst affected states of the country, during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2010. All four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV), DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4, were found to be prevalent in the state. The genotypes recognized for these were III, IV, III and I, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the re-emergence of serotype DENV-4 reported in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh recently is spreading to different regions of the country. The circulation of all four DENV serotypes in Kerala may lead to an increase in the prevalence of more severe complications of this emerging disease, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.

  12. Improving quality for maternal care - a case study from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Ioana; Paily, VP; Sadanandan, Rajeev; Cluzeau, Françoise; Beena, M; Nair, Rajasekharan; Newbatt, Emma; Ghosh, Sujit; Sandeep, K; Chalkidou, Kalipso

    2016-01-01

    Background: The implementation of maternal health guidelines remains unsatisfactory, even for simple, well established interventions. In settings where most births occur in health facilities, as is the case in Kerala, India, preventing maternal mortality is linked to quality of care improvements. Context: Evidence-informed quality standards (QS), including quality statements and measurable structure and process indicators, are one innovative way of tackling the guideline implementation gap. Having adopted a zero tolerance policy to maternal deaths, the Government of Kerala worked in partnership with the Kerala Federation of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (KFOG) and NICE International to select the clinical topic, develop and initiate implementation of the first clinical QS for reducing maternal mortality in the state. Description of practice: The NICE QS development framework was adapted to the Kerala context, with local ownership being a key principle. Locally generated evidence identified post-partum haemorrhage as the leading cause of maternal death, and as the key priority for the QS. A multidisciplinary group (including policy-makers, gynaecologists and obstetricians, nurses and administrators) was established. Multi-stakeholder workshops convened by the group ensured that the statements, derived from global and local guidelines, and their corresponding indicators were relevant and acceptable to clinicians and policy-makers in Kerala. Furthermore, it helped identify practical methods for implementing the standards and monitoring outcomes. Lessons learned: An independent evaluation of the project highlighted the equal importance of a strong evidence-base and an inclusive development process. There is no one-size-fits-all process for QS development; a principle-based approach might be a better guide for countries to adapt global evidence to their local context. PMID:27441084

  13. Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Nimisha; Ravishankar, Chintu; Rajasekhar, R; Sumod, K; Sumithra, T G; John, Koshy; Mini, M; Ravindran, Reghu; Shaji, Shiju; Aishwarya, J

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important disease of pigs caused by CSF virus (CSFV) belonging to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. The disease is endemic in many countries including India. A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the type of CSFV circulating in the South Indian state of Kerala. During the period 2013-2014, clinical samples were collected from 19 suspected CSF outbreaks of domestic pigs in different districts of Kerala. The samples were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the E2 gene and RT-PCR for 5'UTR of the virus. Partial 5' UTR and E2 gene regions of six CSFV isolates were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the CSFV isolates belonged to subgroup 2.2. The isolates showed close resemblance to the other CSFV isolates circulating in India. It was also observed that the CSFV viruses from Kannur district were distinct from those circulating in the other districts as evidenced by their divergence from other Kerala isolates in the phylogenetic tree. Close relationship was seen to the CSFV isolates from South East Asian countries. PMID:26645036

  14. High school students' knowledge, attitude, and practice with respect to epilepsy in Kerala, southern India.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2006-11-01

    Very little information is available on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to epilepsy among schoolchildren from developing countries. We quantified KAP with respect to epilepsy among 1213 tenth-grade students of Kerala, southern India. Ninety-eight percent of them had heard or read about epilepsy. However, nearly 60% of students thought that epilepsy was a form of insanity. Allopathic treatment was preferred by more than half of the respondents; however, many had faith in exorcism and visiting religious places as ways to cure epilepsy. Half of the students considered epilepsy a hindrance to education, employment, and marriage. Thirteen percent would be unwilling to sit adjacent to or play with a child with epilepsy. We conclude that although familiarity with epilepsy was high among high school students in Kerala, misconceptions and negative attitudes were alarmingly high. Persistent and effective information campaigns, therefore, are necessary to change their attitudes toward fellow students with epilepsy.

  15. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work. PMID:15242211

  16. Investigation of an Outbreak of Hepatitis A in a Coastal Area, Kerala, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sandhya; Rakesh, P S; Dev, Soumya; Vijayakumar, Nithin; Prasannakumar, Prathibha

    2016-10-01

    An outbreak investigation was initiated following an unusual occurrence of hepatitis A reported among people residing in the coastal belt of Vadi to Vedikunnu area, Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. The time frame of disease occurrence, pattern of its distribution, and the incubation period of hepatitis A infection indicated the probability of occurrence of the outbreak as a result of pipe line water contamination due to mixing of sewage from a canal. The results add evidence to the epidemiology of hepatitis A in the state and warrant the establishment of an efficient water quality surveillance system.

  17. Toward a social justice theory of demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J W

    1983-06-01

    Recent research evidence, which suggests that observed demographic trends and patterns are largely consequences of broad structural changes in society, has raised serious doubts about the validity of traditional demographic theory and the framework for action it has generated. This theoretical essay 1st recasts classical demographic transition theory in general systems terms in order to make it consistent with the evidence and to place the processes of fertility and mortality in a larger social context. The demographic transition experience of Kerala State, India is then recounted to provide a concrete example of the demographic response in society to structural reforms based primarily on equity considerations.

  18. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladosporium bantianum in Kerala (India).

    PubMed

    Amma, S M; Paniker, C K; Iype, P T; Rangaswamy, S

    1979-12-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladosporium bantianum is reported from India for the first time. It is also the first known case of infection involving the foot caused by this fungus. The cultural characteristics and animal pathogenicity of the isolate are described.

  19. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, R. H.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.; Amin, Y. M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  20. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mahat, R. H.; Amin, Y. M.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.

    2011-03-30

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  1. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  2. The Impact of General Strike on Government Healthcare Delivery in Kerala State in India

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Aasems; Weiss, Heidi; Mathew, Aju

    2016-01-01

    General strike (also known as hartal) is used as a mode of protest by organizations and political parties in India. It is generally thought that hartals negatively impact the healthcare delivery in a society. We used the Right to Information Act to obtain data from government health centers in Kerala state in India for four hartal days (H-day) and two control days (A-day and B-day) for each H-day, from sixteen health centers including 6 Community Health Center (CHC), 6 Secondary Health Center (SHC), and 4 Tertiary Health Center (THC). Data on emergency room visits was available for six HCs. 15 HCs had a statistically significant decrease in the number of outpatient visits on H-day. There was no difference in the number of outpatient visits between the two control days (A and B) in 15 HCs, suggesting the lack of a posthartal surge in visits. Median decrease in outpatient visits in CHCs, SHCs, and THCs was 50.4%, 59.5%, and 47.4%, respectively. Hartal did not impact the number of emergency room visits in 6 out of 7 health centers assessed. Our study identified a significant harmful impact on government healthcare delivery due to hartals in Kerala. These findings have major public health implications. PMID:27242908

  3. The Impact of General Strike on Government Healthcare Delivery in Kerala State in India.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Aasems; Weiss, Heidi; Mathew, Aju

    2016-01-01

    General strike (also known as hartal) is used as a mode of protest by organizations and political parties in India. It is generally thought that hartals negatively impact the healthcare delivery in a society. We used the Right to Information Act to obtain data from government health centers in Kerala state in India for four hartal days (H-day) and two control days (A-day and B-day) for each H-day, from sixteen health centers including 6 Community Health Center (CHC), 6 Secondary Health Center (SHC), and 4 Tertiary Health Center (THC). Data on emergency room visits was available for six HCs. 15 HCs had a statistically significant decrease in the number of outpatient visits on H-day. There was no difference in the number of outpatient visits between the two control days (A and B) in 15 HCs, suggesting the lack of a posthartal surge in visits. Median decrease in outpatient visits in CHCs, SHCs, and THCs was 50.4%, 59.5%, and 47.4%, respectively. Hartal did not impact the number of emergency room visits in 6 out of 7 health centers assessed. Our study identified a significant harmful impact on government healthcare delivery due to hartals in Kerala. These findings have major public health implications. PMID:27242908

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  5. The racial and gendered experiences of immigrant nurses from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of a group of immigrant women nurses regarding their life and work in a culture other than their own. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses who were born in Kerala, India, educated in India, and are actively employed as nurses in the United States. The participants told stories that were about (a) the challenges of living between two cultures and countries, (b) the racism they experience, and (c) their marginalization as female nurses of color. This study underscores the continuing inequities of our health care system. Our challenge is to establish a more just and effective environment for those who provide care as well as those who receive it.

  6. The racial and gendered experiences of immigrant nurses from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of a group of immigrant women nurses regarding their life and work in a culture other than their own. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses who were born in Kerala, India, educated in India, and are actively employed as nurses in the United States. The participants told stories that were about (a) the challenges of living between two cultures and countries, (b) the racism they experience, and (c) their marginalization as female nurses of color. This study underscores the continuing inequities of our health care system. Our challenge is to establish a more just and effective environment for those who provide care as well as those who receive it. PMID:14768413

  7. Clinical Profile of Chikungunya Patients during the Epidemic of 2007 in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Krishna Pillai; Nair Anish, Thekkumkara Surendran; George, Biju; Lawrence, Tony; Muthukkutty, Sujina C; Ramachandran, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association of the present Chikungunya pandemic with a mutation in the Chik virus is already established in many parts of the world, including Kerala. Kerala was one of the worst-affected states of India in the Chikungunya epidemic of 2006–2007. It is important to discuss the clinical features of patients affected by Chikungunya fever in the context of this change in the epidemiology of the disease. Aim: This study tries to analyze the clinical picture of the Chikungunya patients in Kerala during the epidemic of 2007. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in five of the most affected districts in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect the information. Ten clusters each were selected from all the five districts, and the size of the clusters were 18 houses each. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and symptoms was the major case-finding strategy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 3623 residents in the surveyed households, 1913 (52.8%) had Chikungunya clinically. Most of the affected were in the adult age group (73.4%). Swelling of the joints was seen in 69.9% of the patients, followed by headache (64.1%) and itching (50.3%). The knee joint was the most common joint affected (52%). The number of patients with persistence of any of the symptoms even after 1 month of illness was 1388 (72.6%). Taking bed rest till the relief of joint pain was found to be a protective factor for the persistence of the symptoms. Recurrence of symptoms with a period of disease-free interval was complained by 669 (35.0%) people. Older age (>40 years), a presentation of high-grade fever with shivering, involvement of the small joints of the hand, presence of rashes or joint swelling during the first week of fever and fever lasting for more than 1 week were the significant risk factors for recurrence of symptoms predicted by a binary

  8. Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in the high natural radiation belt of Kerala, south India.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, R.; Raju, G. K.; Nair, S. M.; Balasubramanian, G.

    1992-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a crippling disorder which is confined almost exclusively to the Indian subcontinent. Despite its association with a significantly increased risk of cancer, the etiology is still not clear. An epidemiological assessment showed 0.4% prevalence for OSMF in Kerala, South India, which is among the highest recorded. Recently the National Tumour Registry in Trivandrum reported the highest recorded site-specific incidence rate for oral cancer (ICD 140-145) in this area. The coastal belt of the Trivandrum and Quilon districts of Kerala has a very high natural radioactivity (over 1500 mR (387 microC) per year); about 500 mR (129 microC) per year is considered to be the maximum permissible dose for populations in general. An epidemiological survey in this area and in a comparable population (without exposure to high background radiation) as a control showed that the percentage prevalence of OSMF in the study area was 0.27 and in the control area 0.32. It appears highly improbable that the OSMF in the study area was induced by high background radiation. PMID:1486676

  9. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  10. Development of a web geoservices platform for School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheendran, S.; John, C. M.; Fasalul, F. K.; Aanisa, K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Web geoservices is the obvious graduation of Geographic Information System in a distributed environment through a simple browser. It enables organizations to share domain-specific rich and dynamic spatial information over the web. The present study attempted to design and develop a web enabled GIS application for the School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India to publish various geographical databases to the public through its website. The development of this project is based upon the open source tools and techniques. The output portal site is platform independent. The premier webgis frame work `Geomoose' is utilized. Apache server is used as the Web Server and the UMN Map Server is used as the map server for this project. It provides various customised tools to query the geographical database in different ways and search for various facilities in the geographical area like banks, attractive places, hospitals, hotels etc. The portal site was tested with the output geographical database of 2 projects of the School such as 1) the Tourism Information System for the Malabar region of Kerala State consisting of 5 northern districts 2) the geoenvironmental appraisal of the Athirappilly Hydroelectric Project covering the entire Chalakkudy river basin.

  11. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  13. Pesticide residues in two frog species in a paddy agroecosystem in Palakkad district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kittusamy, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Chandrasekar; Kandan, Nambirajan; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides residues were quantified in 109 frogs comprising two species (Fejervarya limnocharis and Hoplobatrachus crassus) from organic and conventional paddy farms in Kerala, India. Seven frogs from conventional but none from the organic farms revealed deformities. Levels of total Organochlorines (OCs) (33.22 ng/g) and Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate-II (26.91/42.15 ng/g) in deformed F. limnocharis and H. crassus were significantly greater than in healthy frogs. Among OCs in healthy frogs, traces of γ (gamma)-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) (2.12 ng/g) were found only in F. limnocharis from organic farm. Among Organophosphates, Phorate (1.02 ng/g) and Quinalphos (2.62 ng/g) were present in traces in deformed F. limnocharis, while Parathion ethyl (1.02 ng/g) was detected in deformed H. crassus. The data indicate that the high level of pesticides may have contributed to the deformity of frogs. Therefore, an elaborative study will be essential to conserve amphibians in India.

  14. A nested case-control study of female breast cancer in Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, P; Varughese, Sunoj C; Kalavathi; Nair, M Krishnan; Jayaprakash, V; Gangadharan, P; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Akiba, Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle factors related to breast cancer risk were examined in a case-control study nested in a cohort in Karunagappally, Kerala, South India. We sought interviews with all the residents in Karunagappally with the population of 385,103 (191,149 males and 193,954 females) in the 1991 census and established a cohort of 359,619 (93% of the population in 1991) in 1990. For analysis 264 breast cancer cases with age > or = 20 years were selected from 438 breast cancer cases reported during the period 1990-2004 and for each case 3 non-cancer controls were randomly selected matched for age, religion and place of residence through the Cancer Registry, Karunagappally. Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis. In the present study, in addition to a low number of pregnancies (P <0.001 and P for trend <0.001), more frequent intake of roots and tubers except tapioca (cassava) (OR for > or = 5 times =1.56, 95% CI=1.09, 3.09, P for trend <0.05), milk drinking (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.17-2.69, P<0.01) and consumption of chicken meat (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.09-3.09, P<0.05) were found to increase breast cancer risk. The present study further showed that consumption of tapioca which is a commonly used food item in South India, particularly in Kerala, reduced breast cancer risk (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37-0.83, P<0.01). Risk analysis was attempted among pre- and post-menopausal women separately and similar odds ratio were obtained. Consumption of tapioca (cassava) decreased risk of developing breast cancer among premenopausal women (P<0.001 and OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.18, 0.65) and a low number of pregnancies (P<0.01), consumption of roots & tubers (P<0.05), usage of chicken meat (P=0.05) increased the risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women. Further studies seem warranted to confirm the possible protective effect of tapioca consumption. There is an increasing need of breast cancer prevention programs responsive to the cultural practices of the people and the study results

  15. Returns and determinants of technical efficiency in small-scale Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Alex, Rani; Kunniyoor Cheemani, Raghavan; Thomas, Naicy

    2013-11-01

    A stochastic frontier production function was employed to measure technical efficiency and its determinants in smallholder Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India. Data were obtained from 100 goat farmers in northern Kerala, selected using multistage random sampling. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Cost and return analysis showed that the major expenditure was feed and fodder, and veterinary expenses were secondary. The chief returns were the sale of live animals, milk and manure. Individual farm technical efficiency ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.88. The study found herd size (number of animal units) and centre (locality of farm) significantly affected technical efficiency, but sex of farmer, education, land size and family size did not. Technical efficiency decreased as herd size increased; half the units with five or more adult animals had technical efficiency below 60 %.

  16. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  17. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA.

  18. Estimation of External Dose by Car-Borne Survey in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7–2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y. PMID:25885680

  19. Estimation of external dose by car-borne survey in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7-2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y.

  20. Population study in the high natural background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K; Nambi, K S; Amma, N S; Gangadharan, P; Jayalekshmi, P; Jayadevan, S; Cherian, V; Reghuram, K N

    1999-12-01

    A comprehensive survey of the population exposed to high-level natural radiation is presented. The population living in Karunagappally taluk in Kerala, India, presents a unique opportunity for studies on the health effects of chronic exposure to low-level radiation. The environmental radiation emanates largely from the thorium deposited mostly along coastal areas. In certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/year and on average is 7.5 times the level seen in interior areas. Using portable scintillometers, radiation levels in more than 66,306 houses were measured; outside levels were also measured in the same house compound. Of the total population of 400,000, 100,000 lived in areas with high natural radiation. Information on lifestyle, socio-demographic features, occupation, housing, residence history, and tobacco and alcohol use was obtained by house-to-house visits and enumeration of every resident individual. A population cancer registry system has been established to obtain cancer incidence rates. In this preliminary analysis, there is no evidence that cancer occurrence is consistently higher because of the levels of external gamma-radiation exposure in the area. Further dosimetry-level studies are needed along with biological studies. Studies of soil, thoron-in-breath, and the radon-thoron levels in houses are ongoing, and further case-control analyses are continuing.

  1. Risk factors of mortality among dengue patients admitted to a tertiary care setting in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Aswath; Ilyas, Waseem Mohammed; Sheen, S F; Jose, Nelson K; Nujum, Zinia T

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most serious and rapidly emerging tropical mosquito-borne diseases. The state of Kerala in India is hyperendemic for the disease and is one of the leading states in the reporting of deaths due to dengue. As primary prevention of dengue has had limited success, the prevention of mortality through the identification of risk factors and efficient patient management is of utmost importance. Hence, a record-based case control study was conducted in the Medical College Hospital in Thiruvananthapuram to identify the risk factors of mortality in patients admitted with dengue. Dengue patients over 40years of age were 9.3 times (95% CI; 1.9-44.4) more likely to die compared with younger patients. The clinical features associated with mortality from dengue were altered sensorium (odds ratio (OR) - 156, 95% CI; 12.575-1935.197), abnormal reflexes (OR - 8.5, 95% CI; 1.833-39.421) and edema (OR - 13.22, 95% CI; 2.651-65.951). Mortality was also higher in those patients with co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus (OR - 26, 95% CI; 2.47-273.674) and hypertension (OR - 44, 95% CI; 6.23-315.499). The independent predictors of mortality were altered sensorium and hypertension. Dengue fever patients with these clinical features and those who are elderly should be more rigorously monitored and promptly referred from lower settings when required to reduce mortality.

  2. Petrology and tectonic development of supracrustal sequence of Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Chacko, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The granulite terrain of southern India, of which the Kerala Khondalite belt (KKB) is a part, is unique in exposing crustal sections with arrested charnockite growth in different stages of transformation and in varied lithological association. The KKB with rocks of surficial origin and incipient charnockite development, poses several problems relating to the tectonics of burial of vast area and mechanisms involved in expelling initial H2O (causes of dryness) for granulite facies metamorphism. It is possible to infer the following sequence of events based on the field and laboratory studies: (1) derivation of protoliths of KKB from granitic uplands and deposition in fault bounded basin (cratonic rift); (2) subhorizontal deep burial of sediments; (3) intense deformation of infra and supracrustal rocks; (4) early granulite facies metamorphism predating F sub 2 - loss of primary structure in sediments and formation of charnockites from amphibole bearing gneisses and khondalites from pelites; (5) migmatisation and deformation of metasediments and gneisses; (6) second event of charnockite formation probably aided by internal CO2 build-up; and (7) isothermal uplift, entrapment of late CO2 and mixed CO2-H2O fluids, formation of second generation cordierites and cordierite symplectites.

  3. Rock inhabiting potassium solubilizing bacteria from Kerala, India: characterization and possibility in chemical K fertilizer substitution.

    PubMed

    Anjanadevi, Indira Parameswaran; John, Neetha Soma; John, Kuzhivilayil Susan; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The role of rock inhabiting bacteria in potassium (K) solubilization from feldspar and their application in crop nutrition through substitution of fertilizer K was explored through the isolation of 36 different bacteria from rocks of a major hill station at Ponmudi in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. A comprehensive characterization of K solubilization from feldspar was achieved with these isolates which indicated that the K solubilizing efficiency increases with decrease in pH and increase in viscosity and viable cell count. Based on the level of K solubilization, two potent isolates were selected and identified as Bacillus subtilis ANctcri3 and Bacillus megaterium ANctcri7. Exopolysaccharide production, scanning electron microscopic and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies with these efficient strains conclusively depicted the role of low pH, increase in viscosity, and bacterial attachment in K solubilization. They were also found to be efficient in phosphorus (P) solubilization, indole acetic acid production as well as tolerant to wide range of physiological conditions. Moreover, the applicability of K containing rock powder as a carrier for K solubilizing bacteria was demonstrated. A field level evaluation on the yield of a high K demanding tuberous vegetable crop, elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (dennst.) nicolson) established the possibility of substituting chemical K fertilizer with these biofertilizer candidates successfully.

  4. The prevalence, risk factors and awareness of hypertension in an urban population of Kerala (South India).

    PubMed

    Vimala, Avadaiammal; Ranji, Suja Ann; Jyosna, Mattummal Thodi; Chandran, Vincy; Mathews, Swetha Reba; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2009-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for hypertension and prehypertensive state in Trivandrum City of Kerala (South India) using Joint National Committee (JNC) VII criteria, a team of trained fourth year medical students conducted a 10% random household survey in certain wards of the City. Households were selected using a random start and interval and all the members above the age of 10 years were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. The blood pressure (BP) was measured twice in each participant and the mean value of the two measurements was taken. A total of 482 individuals (212 males and 270 females) were interviewed in the survey. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 47% (n = 226) with equal sex ratio; 109 (21.6%) had stage-I hypertension, 45 (9.34%) had stage-II hypertension and 72 were taking drug treatment. Only 55 (11.4%) individuals had normal BP, while 201 (41.7%) were prehypertensives. Only 81 (16.8%) hypertensive patients were aware of their disease. Among the parameters such as dietary habits, physical activity, educational standards, salt intake, and diabetes mellitus, only high salt diet (P= 0.03) and diabetes mellitus (P= 0.004) had a significant association with hypertensive state. In conclusion, the prevalence of hypertension is high but the awareness is low in our community, and intervention is necessary to impose control measures and to improve awareness. PMID:19587522

  5. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice.

  6. Debt, shame, and survival: becoming and living as widows in rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health and well-being of widows in India is an important but neglected issue of public health and women’s rights. We investigate the lives of Indian women as they become widows, focussing on the causes of their husband’s mortality and the ensuing consequences of these causes on their own lives and identify the opportunities and challenges that widows face in living healthy and fulfilling lives. Methods Data were collected in a Gram Panchayat (lowest level territorial decentralised unit) in the south Indian state of Kerala. Interviews were undertaken with key informants in order to gain an understanding of local constructions of ‘widowhood’ and the welfare and social opportunities for widows. Then we conducted semi-structured interviews with widows in the community on issues related to health and vulnerability, enabling us to hear perspectives from widows. Data were analysed for thematic content and emerging patterns. We synthesized our findings with theoretical understandings of vulnerability and Amartya Sen’s entitlements theory to develop a conceptual framework. Results Two salient findings of the study are: first, becoming a widow can be viewed as a type of ‘shock’ that operates similarly to other ‘economic shocks’ or ‘health shocks’ in poor countries except that the burden falls disproportionately on women. Second, widowhood is not a static phenomenon, but rather can be viewed as a multi-phased process with different public health implications at each stage. Conclusion More research on widows in India and other countries will help to both elucidate the challenges faced by widows and encourage potential solutions. The framework developed in this paper could be used to guide future research on widows. PMID:23126457

  7. First record of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) maggots from a sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sreejith; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar Karapparambu; Ravindran, Reghu; Rajagopal, Kavitha; Sooryadas, Surendran; Promod, Kanjirakuzhiyil

    2012-10-01

    Fully grown third stage larvae (LIII) of Chrysomya albiceps were recovered from aberrant sites viz. trachea and rumen during necropsy of a free-range sambar deer that had been observed to bear an inflamed tongue infested with maggots and subsequently died due to starvation. Five dead maggots of C. bezziana were also recovered from rumen. The aberrant locations of the recovery of the maggots indicated that they might have reached these sites accidentally. This is the first report of LIII of C. albiceps from a sambar deer from Kerala, South India.

  8. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of

  9. A Study of the Effects of a University Education upon the Ministerial Behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God Pastors in the State of Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The main research question of this study was, "What effects does a university education have on the ministerial behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPCG) pastors in Kerala, India?" Three data collection methods were used: interview, questionnaire, and participant observation. There were 10 university-educated (UE) pastors interviewed,…

  10. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India: An ensialic mobile belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Meen, James K.; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Rogers, John J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite belt of the Southern Indian Shield is described, a belt dominated by granulite grade (750 C, 5 to 6 kbar) supracrustal rocks whose protoliths included arkoses and shales with cratonic provenances. Rare earth elements and other geochemical signatures suggest a granitic source for these metasediments, possibly the spatially associated charnockite massifs. The presence of intercalated mafic gneisses, interpreted as basalts, implies a cratonic rift basin rather than a foreland basin setting. It was argued that the Kerala, as well as other early Proterozoic mobile belts formed during abortive continental rifting without major additions of new crust.

  11. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  12. Mass drug administration against filariasis in India: perceptions and practices in a rural community in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, S; Beteena, K; Leelamoni, K

    2009-10-01

    In India, annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole are used to control filariasis, which is a major public-health problem. In December 2007/January 2008, a few weeks after one such MDA, a household survey was conducted in the Ernakulam district of Kerala to evaluate coverage and compliance. After one member aged >14 years from each of 599 households was interviewed, coverage of the last MDA was estimated to be 77.0% and compliance only 39.6%. Most (67.4%) of the interviewees were not aware of the term 'mass drug administration' but 20.9% of the others thought that MDA prevented the occurrence of filariasis. Most (62.3%) of those interviewed said that they obtained information about MDA from television or radio programmes and/or newspapers and most (66.3%) considered MDA to be useful (only 5.0% said that MDA were not useful, the other interviewees saying that they did not know whether MDA were useful or not). Those who had not ingested the tablets given to them in the last MDA said that they were fearful of the drugs (39.4% of the non-compliers), were too ill to take the drugs (22.5%) or had misconceptions about the aims of the MDA (12.5%). Only 2.7% of the interviewees who had ingested the distributed tablets reported adverse effects and these were mild (fever, drowsiness, swelling/oedema and/or vomiting) and only occurred within 24 h of tablet ingestion. In a univariate analysis, individual compliance in the last MDA was found to be positively associated with perceived benefits to the individual (P<0.001), the perceived usefulness of MDA (P=0.001) and certain study wards within the panchayat (P=0.032). It therefore appears that communication exercises targeted at the areas with relatively low compliance and designed to improve perceptions of the benefits and usefulness of MDA against filariasis could be the key to a successful control programme. PMID:19825283

  13. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  14. Characterization of fluids involved in the Gneiss-Charnockite transformation in Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klatt, E.; Hoernes, S.; Raith, M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterization of fluids involved in the gneiss-charnockite transformation in southern Kerala are discussed. Using a variety of techniques, including microthermometry, Raman laser probe analysis, and mass spectrometry, it was concluded that the CO2-rich, N2-bearing metamorphic fluids in these rocks were internally-derived rather than having been introduced by CO2-streaming.

  15. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  16. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  17. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition.

  18. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition. PMID:26602174

  19. Dinurus ivanosi sp. nov. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from the stomach of dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, caught off the Kerala Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rekha, R Y; John, M V

    2004-03-01

    A new species of stomach fluke, Dinurus ivanosi (sp. nov.), was recovered from the dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, off the Kerala Coast, India. It is similar to other Dinurus species in the plicated prosoma, trilobed seminal vesicle and seven vitellaria, but differs from them in the length of the pharynx, unequal lobes of the seminal vesicle and unequal size of the testes. The most important diagnostic features of the new species are the general shape and proportions of the body, the position of the oral sucker, elongated pharynx, small distal lobe of the seminal vesicle, and larger anterior testis, smaller egg size, short and slender vitellaria and the limited extent of the vitelline field. PMID:14745548

  20. "Maybe at birth there was an injury": drivers and implications of caretaker explanatory models of autistic characteristics in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2015-03-01

    Explanatory models (EMs) are the way people explain the presence and meaning of an illness or disability and are reliant on and reflective of culturally specific values of normalcy, disability, health, and illness. EMs about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are particularly revealing because there is no known cause, and so people can explain this disability in ways more appropriate for and useful to them. This article presents caretaker EMs about children with autistic characteristics in Kerala, India. I argue that the reliance on biological, but not genetic, causal models is reflective of the state's high access to biomedical heath care. These EMs are used to deflect the stigma of 'bad blood' and reflect a nuanced relationship between stigma and biological EMs. Understanding how caretakers talk about ASD and related conditions is critical for anyone interested in engaging in crosscultural or international autism-related work.

  1. The Kerala formula.

    PubMed

    Nag, M

    1988-01-01

    Although many of Kerala's socioeconomic indicators have lagged considerably behind those of India as a whole, this state has the lowest fertility and mortality levels in the country. With a view to explaining this paradox, the areas of land reform, social equity, education, women's status, and health care--among others-- have been examined in both Kerala and West Bengal. As expected, equity in health care and education were found to be important. But it was notable that the development of political awareness and action among the masses was also very important. Kerala provides a good example of good health at low cost, relative to other Indian states. The relatively rapid decline in mortality in rural Kerala, in comparison with that in West Bengal, can be attributed mainly to Kerala's more equitable distribution of health facilities and to their better utilization. This has been possible because of their greater accessibility, the more equitable distribution of educational services, and a higher degree of political awareness among the people in rural Kerala. This analysis suggests that in countries or regions with large proportions of economically and socially deprived people, interventions aimed at reducing mortality should give higher priority to social equity than to economic equity. PMID:3254226

  2. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  3. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  4. HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

  5. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis.

  6. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  7. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension: A hospital-based case–control study from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Pilakkadavath, Zarin; Shaffi, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Kerala. Excess dietary salt, low dietary potassium, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, excess alcohol, smoking, socioeconomic status, psychosocial stressors, and diabetes are considered as modifiable risk factors for hypertension. Objectives: To estimate and compare the distribution of modifiable risk factors among hypertensive (cases) and nonhypertensive (controls) patients and to estimate the effect relationship of risk factors. Materials and Methods: Age- and sex-matched case–control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala using a pretested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire based on the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done. Results: A total of 296 subjects were included in the study. The mean age of study sample was 50.13 years. All modifiable risk factors studied vis-ΰ-vis obesity, lack of physical activity, inadequate fruits and vegetable intake, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol use were significantly different in proportion among cases and controls. Obesity, lack of physical activity, smoking, and diabetes were found to be significant risk factors for hypertension after adjusting for other risk factors. Conclusion: Hypertension is strongly driven by a set of modifiable risk factors. Massive public awareness campaign targeting risk factors is essential in controlling hypertension in Kerala, especially focusing on physical exercise and control of diabetes, obesity, and on quitting smoking. PMID:27453854

  8. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, M.; Rajavel, M.; Surendran, U.

    2016-07-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  9. P-T history and geochemical characteristics of mafic granulites and charnockites from west of Periya, North Kerala, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, D.; Chandra Singh, P.; Arima, M.; Singh, Triveni

    2012-11-01

    The study region forms the northern part of Kerala (south India) and constitutes part of granulite-facies rocks of the exhumed Proterozoic south Indian Granulite Terrain (SGT). The SGT consists of a large variety of rock types with a wide range of mineral parageneses and chemical compositions, namely charnockite, mafic granulite, gneiss, schist, anorthosite, granite and minor meta-sedimentary rocks. Garnet-bearing mafic granulites occur as small enclaves within charnockites. We report for the first time P-T constraints on the prograde path preceding peak metamorphism in the northernmost part of Kerala. An increase of the Mg, Fe and decrease of Ca and Mn contents from the core towards the rim of garnet in the mafic granulites suggest prograde garnet growth. The prograde path was followed by peak metamorphism at a temperature of c. 800 °C and a pressure of c. 7.5 kbar as computed by isopleths of XMg garnet, XCa garnet and XAn plagioclase. The resorption of garnet in various reaction textures and the development of spectacular orthopyroxene-plagioclase, biotite-quartz and hornblende-plagioclase symplectites characterize the subsequent stages of metamorphism. The PT path is characteristically T-convex suggesting an isothermal decompression path and reflects rapid uplift followed by cooling of a tectonically thickened crust. Diffusion modeling of Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and hornblende suggests a near-peak cooling rate of 10-70 °C/myr. Such cooling rates are too high to be accounted for by normal isostatic uplift and erosion and suggest that the terrain was tectonically exhumed. Charnockites are richer in SiO2 and lower in MgO and CaO when compared to mafic granulites. Their REE patterns are relatively flat and show prominent negative europium anomalies. The mafic granulites are metamorphosed tholeiitic basalts as revealed by major- and trace-element geochemistry.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  11. Ethnomedical and ethnobotanical investigations among some scheduled caste communities of Travancore, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, P; Atal, C K

    1986-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on the traditional life, culture and medical lore of some prominent scheduled caste communities, namely Pulayar, Kuravar, Vedar, Parayar and Nayadi, inhabiting the Travancore region of Kerala. These communities were perhaps some of the original inhabitants of Kerala who have evolved their own peculiar cultural traditions, religious customs, cults, totems, legends, myths, folklores and medicinal practices. But in recent years these communities are being enveloped in the rising tide of civilization and their age old cultural heritage and knowledge systems are fast disappearing. Considering the great importance of conserving/preserving this knowledge system the present study was undertaken. Much interesting information on the cultural life of these communities was gathered. Special attention was paid to the study of their medicinal practices which is essentially a magico-religious-herbal therapy. These tribals have an indepth knowledge of the surrounding flora and utilize over 500 plant species for treating various ailments. The present communication reports only those medical claims for plants that have not been previously published. PMID:3747563

  12. Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Kerala state (India).

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-eight soil samples were collected from various areas of four districts of Kerala and screened for prevalence of keratinophilic fungi and related dermatophytes. From the positive samples (60.75%), a total of eight genera with 15 species were isolated viz., Arthroderma simii (0.63%), Chrysosporium indicum (20.25%), C. keratinophilum (6.96%). C. lobatum (1.26%), C. pannicola (1.26%), C. tropicum (5.06%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma cuniculi (1.26%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (2.53%), Gymnascella hyalinospora (1.26%), Malbranchea aurantiaca (0.63%) M. fulva (1.26%), Microsporum gypseum complex (12.65%), Pseudogymnoascus roseus (1.26%), Trichophyton mentragrophytes (1.26%), and T. terrestre (3.16%). PMID:12749581

  13. Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India.

    PubMed

    Kutty, V R

    2000-03-01

    Kerala's development experience has been distinguished by the primacy of the social sectors. Traditionally, education and health accounted for the greatest shares of the state government's expenditure. Health sector spending continued to grow even after 1980 when generally the fiscal deficit in the state budget was growing and government was looking for ways to control expenditure. But growth in the number of beds and institutions in the public sector had slowed down by the mid-1980s. From 1986-1996, growth in the private sector surpassed that in the public sector by a wide margin. Public sector spending reveals that in recent years, expansion has been limited to revenue expenditure rather than capital, and salaries at the cost of supplies. Many developments outside health, such as growing literacy, increasing household incomes and population ageing (leading to increased numbers of people with chronic afflictions), probably fueled the demand for health care already created by the increased access to health facilities. Since the government institutions could not grow in number and quality at a rate that would have satisfied this demand, health sector development in Kerala after the mid-1980s has been dominated by the private sector. Expansion in private facilities in health has been closely linked to developments in the government health sector. Public institutions play by far the dominant role in training personnel. They have also sensitized people to the need for timely health interventions and thus helped to create demand. At this point in time, the government must take the lead in quality maintenance and setting of standards. Current legislation, which has brought government health institutions under local government control, can perhaps facilitate this change by helping to improve standards in public institutions.

  14. Custodial Homes, Therapeutic Homes, and Parental Acceptance: Parental Experiences of Autism in Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    The home is a critical place to learn about cultural values of childhood disability, including autism and intellectual disabilities. The current article describes how the introduction of autism into a home and the availability of intervention options change the structure and meaning of a home and reflect parental acceptance of a child's autistic traits. Using ethnographic data from Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA, a description of two types of homes are developed: the custodial home, which is primarily focused on caring for basic needs, and the therapeutic home, which is focused on changing a child's autistic traits. The type of home environment is respondent to cultural practices of child rearing in the home and influences daily activities, management, and care in the home. Further, these homes differ in parental acceptance of their autistic children's disabilities, which is critical to understand when engaging in international work related to autism and intellectual disability. It is proposed that parental acceptance can be fostered through the use of neurodiverse notions that encourage autism acceptance.

  15. Coir geotextile for slope stabilization and cultivation - A case study in a highland region of Kerala, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, K. R.

    A sloping field is not only vulnerable to soil erosion it may also suffer from soil moisture deficiency. Farmers that cultivate on slopes everywhere face similar problems. Conservation technologies may reduce soil and nutrient losses, and thus enhance water holding capacity and soil fertility. But although these technologies promote sustainable crop production on steep slopes, the construction of physical structure such as bench terraces are often labour intensive and expensive to the farmers, since construction and maintenance require high investments. Here we studied the efficiency of coir geotextile with and without crop cultivation in reducing soil moisture deficiency on marginal slopes in Kerala, India. From the results it is evident that the slopes treated with geotextile and crops have the highest moisture retention capacity followed by geotextiles alone, and that the control plot has the lowest moisture retention capacity. As the poor and marginal farmers occupy the highland region, this method provides an economically viable option for income generation and food security along with slope stabilization.

  16. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  17. Distribution of coastal cliffs in Kerala, India: their mechanisms of failure and related human engineering response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avinash; Seralathan, P.; Jayappa, K. S.

    2009-08-01

    The 560-km-long Kerala coast is characterised by long barriers with narrow beaches and steep cliffs. Distribution of cliffs from nine sections measuring a cumulative length of 63.5 km is evaluated in ArcGIS Software using topomaps and field survey data. The cliff sections in the southern coast comprise both permeable and impermeable rocks, whereas those along northern coast are comprised of either Precambrian crystalline and/or Tertiary formations. Notches, caves and even small arches are developed in Cannanore, Dharmadam and Kadalundi cliffs, where only primary laterites are exposed to wave attack. Stacks composed of laterite and Precambrian crystallines found in nearshore of cliffed coast indicate recession of shoreline. Mass wasting, mudslide and mudflow type of cliff failures are common in permeable to semi-permeable rocks, whereas rotational sliding, rockfall and toppling failure are found in hard rock cliffs. Retreat of cliff sections are induced by natural or anthropogenic activities or both. Rate of recession vary from a few centimetres to one metre/year depending upon the nature of lithology, structures and recession agents acting upon the cliffs. Various methods of cliff protection for e.g. hard structures—revetments, groins, seawalls, breakwater and jetties—and soft measures—artificial reefs/marsh creation, floating breakwaters, beach nourishment, beach scraping and vegetation planting—are suggested.

  18. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-01-01

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea.  PMID:25113495

  19. Views and Attitudes Towards Sexual Functioning in Men Living with Spinal Cord Injury in Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury. Few first-hand reports exist about the experience of living with an altered sense of sexual identity and the inability to express sexual concerns. Aims: In this qualitative study, the authors explore views and attitudes towards sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with seven participants according to IE Seidman's phenomenological approach. Thematic analysis followed the analytic process outlined by Moustakas (1990). Results: Identification of seven interconnected themes included: Recalling an active sexual life, disconnection with sexual identity, incongruence between emotional and physical capability, spousal isolation, social readjustment of spouse, physical barriers to sexual functioning, coping, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patient's descriptions of suffering demonstrate complexities of experience in sexual functioning. All patients were sexually active prior to the injury. This was now lost causing anxiety, distress, and sadness. A huge gap existed between sexual desire and physical capability. The patient and spouse were now isolated emotionally, socially, and physically. Physical barriers included urinary incontinence and indwelling catheters. While several self-evolved coping strategies were identified, support from palliative care services was not evident. Two important gaps exist in research and practice: (1) Attention to sexual issues and whole-person care. (2) Attention to quality of sexual life. Future qualitative studies on sexual dysfunction could provide a useful adjunct to current literature which is predominantly biomedical in its approach. PMID:25709179

  20. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with oral lichen planus in Malayalam-speaking ethnicity from South India (Kerala).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Isha; Beena, V T; Srinivas, Lekshmy; Sathyan, Sanish; Banerjee, Moinak

    2013-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous condition that affects the oral mucous membrane as well as skin. It is a chronic cell-mediated autoimmune condition where the T-cell-mediated immune response plays an important part in the pathogenesis by causing damage to basal keratinocytes in oral mucosa. Cytokine gene polymorphisms have an unquestionable role in the orchestration of the immune response, leading to different functional scenarios, which in turn influence the outcome of the disease establishment and evolution. The purpose of this study was to understand the role of these cytokine gene polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 genes with OLP in 101 individuals of Malayalam-speaking ethnicity from South India (Kerala). We further investigated the role of these polymorphisms in patients suffering from OLP with other comorbid factors. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the A allele in the TNF-α -308 polymorphism could play an important role in the susceptibility to OLP. IL-1β +3954 in OLP was associated with other comorbid factors in both allelic and genotypic combinations. However, when patients suffering from OLP were stratified to understand the involvement of other comorbid factors, we observed that the T and C alleles were independent risk factors for chronic periodontitits and diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, IL-6 -597 did not show any disease association with OLP in the study population. This study indicates that proinflammatory cytokines are an important factor in understanding the disease burden of OLP and their comorbid factors. PMID:23651237

  1. Assessment of well water quality in Tsunami affected regions of south-west coast of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Chandran, R Pratap; Sukumar, B; Santhosh, S; Vijayamohanan; Sobha, V

    2013-07-01

    The quality of well waters, based on 23 parameters of water, at 12 stations of south-west coast of Kerala, India, was assessed during monsoon, 2009 and summer, 2010, to determine their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. The stations selected were grouped into four regions viz. least, slightly, moderately and severely affected ones based on the severity of 2004 Asian Tsunami at each station. The depths of wells showed variations depending on the seasons and on their distance from the seacoast. The average water temperatures during monsoon and summer seasons were 28.5 degrees C and 30.2 degrees C respectively. The pH of well waters were below 6.5 in least and slightly affected regions and above this value in moderately and severely affected regions. In all the four regions, the well water parameters of electrical conductivity, hardness, fluoride, free chlorine, copper, zinc, calcium and nickel were below, and phosphorus, lead, iron cadmium and manganese were above the standard permissible levels set for them in drinking water. The values of salinity, sodium and potassium in the well waters of moderately and severely affected regions, and the values of nitrate-nitrogen, nitrate and magnesium in the well waters of severely affected regions were above the permissible limits set for them in drinking water. Water quality index calculated on the basis of drinking water standards revealed that the well waters of least and slightly affected regions were moderately polluted in both monsoon and summer seasons and the same of moderately affected region were excessively polluted during monsoon and severely polluted during summer seasons, whereas the well waters of severely affected regions were severely polluted in both seasons. Suitable recommendations were made to improve the quality of well waters of least and slightly affected regions.

  2. Radionuclides and Radiation Indices of High Background Radiation Area in Chavara-Neendakara Placer Deposits (Kerala, India)

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara – Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th) and Potassium (40K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between 238U and 232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h−1) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA. PMID:23185629

  3. Compliance with infection control practices in sputum microscopy centres: a study from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Ubaid, N P; Nagaraja, S B; Shewade, H D; Padmanabhan, K V; Naik, B R; Satpati, M; Blesson, S; Jayasree, A K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Une des stratégies du Programme national révisé de lutte contre la tuberculose (RNTCP) en Inde consiste à lutter contre la tuberculose en augmentant la détection des cas à travers un réseau national de Centres de Diagnostic par Microscopie (DMC). La mise en oeuvre des précautions standard de lutte contre les infections dans ces DMC est très importante pour prévenir la transmission des infections, non seulement vis-à-vis du personnel de laboratoire, mais également vis-à-vis de la population générale. Cependant, en Inde, ceci n'a pas été évalué par une agence externe.Méthode : Une étude transversale a été réalisée pour évaluer les connaissances, la structure et l'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection (ICP) dans les 38 DMC du district de Kannur, état du Kerala, Inde en 2015. Grâce à des observations et à des entretiens, les investigateurs ont recueilli des données dans un format structuré.Résultats : Les connaissances d'ensemble relatives à la lutte contre l'infection ont été jugées satisfaisantes pour 29% des techniciens de laboratoire. Le niveau d'ensemble des centres en matière de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisant dans 61% des DMC. L'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisante dans 45% des DMC. Les connaissances relatives aux pratiques d'ICP ont été meilleures dans les DMC du gouvernement tandis que les installations et l'adhésion aux directives de gestion des déchets biomédicaux ont été meilleures dans les DMC privés.Conclusion : Connaissant le risque très élevé d'infection parmi les techniciens de laboratoire, il y a un besoin urgent de corriger les déficiences des pratiques de lutte contre l'infection.

  4. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  5. The adherence to medications in diabetic patients in rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Uma V; Lipska, Kasia; Mini, G K; Sarma, P S; Thankappan, K R

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a study to determine medications adherence and factors associated with poor adherence in community-dwelling adults with diabetes in southern India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 346 diabetes patients selected using multistage cluster sampling. The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to collect information on adherence. Prevalence of poor adherence was 74% (95% confidence interval = 69.2-78.3). Multiple regression analysis showed that patients using oral hypoglycemic agents, who had lower per capita monthly expenditure, those with irregular blood sugar monitoring, who received limited diabetes management instructions from health professionals, who resorted to only symptomatic management, and those who did not receive family member's help to remember medications were more likely to report poor adherence compared with their counterparts. Interventions for patients using oral hypoglycemic agents, with lower expenditure, with irregular blood sugar monitoring, and which focus on better education and enhanced family support, are likely to enhance adherence in this population. PMID:23417905

  6. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  7. Peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in men from areas of Kerala, India, with high vs normal levels of natural background ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, C V; Ramachandran, E N; Kumar, V Anil; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) in adult male individuals living in areas of the Kerala coast, southwest India, with either high (HLNRA, >1.5mGy/year) or normal levels of natural ionizing radiation (NLNRA, ≤1.5mGy/year). Blood samples were obtained from 141 individuals, 94 from HLNRA and 47 from NLNRA, aged 18-72, and were subjected to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. An average of 1835 binucleated (BN) cells per individual were scored. The overall frequency of MN (mean±SD) was 11.7±6.7 per 1000 BN cells. The frequencies of MN in the HLNRA (11.7±6.6) and NLNRA (11.6±6.7) were not statistically significantly different (P=0.59). However, a statistically significant (P<0.001) age-dependent increase in MN frequency was observed among individuals from both HLNRA and NLNRA. No natural background radiation dose-dependent increase in MN frequency was seen. MN frequency was not influenced by tobacco smoking or chewing but it was increased among individuals consuming alcohol. Chronic low-dose radiation in the Kerala coast did not have a significant effect on MN frequency among adult men. PMID:27085474

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V P

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group.

  9. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  10. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan; Geetha, Seema; Mohanan Nair, Jagathnath Krishna Kumara Pillai; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86-8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25-6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  11. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem.

  12. Late quaternary evolution of Ashtamudi-Sasthamkotta lake systems of Kerala, south west India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. M.; Padmalal, D.; Kumaran, K. P. N.; Sreeja, R.; Limaye, Ruta B.; Srinivas, Reji

    2010-03-01

    Sedimentological and palynological analysis of two borehole samples collected from the confluence of Kallada River with the Ashtamudi lake in the south west coast of India have been addressed while ascertaining the late quaternary evolution. Of the two borehole samples, the one collected from Pangod (9°03'N-76°42'E) reveals a fining upward sequence with medium to coarse sand (3.05 m) at base, organic carbon rich, silt and fine sand dominated sediments (2 m) at the middle and yellowish brown, muddy sediments (3.2 m) at the top. The middle layer embeds a suite of partly carbonized, sub-fossil logs of wet evergreen to semi-evergreen vegetation. The palynoflora of this layer reveals that the depositional site is within the tidal limit and deposition occurred under high precipitation and atmospheric humidity. The similarity in 14C dates of a wood at 5 m bgl (7490 ± 90 yrs BP) and the embedding sediments (7480 ± 80 yrs BP) indicate quick burial of the riparian vegetation. The West Kallada borehole (9°30'N-76°37'E) reveals Middle to Late Holocene sequence of clayey silt (6250 ± 110 yrs BP-3880 ± 80 yrs BP) and sand resting unconformably over greyish white, clayey sand with pebbles and granules derived from laterite provenance. Palynological analysis shows that the Holocene sedimentation took place under marine/nearly marine environment and later changed to brackish water and finally to freshwater environment. Marine transgression ˜6000 yrs BP coupled with heavy rainfall in the hinterlands was responsible for faster sedimentation in the region. The heavy mineral contents, especially opaques, garnet and sillimanite in the sediment samples of the study area as well as the bathymetric configuration of the Ashtamudi, Sasthamkotta and Chelupola lakes reiterate the fact that these lakes have been evolved from an embayment consequent to incomplete/partial silting up during Early to Middle Holocene higher sea levels and also under high rainfall of the Holocene climatic

  13. The development of the nursing profession in a globalised context: A qualitative case study in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Evans, Catrin; Nair, Sreelekha

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, we are looking at the relationship between globalisation and the professional project, using nursing in Kerala as an exemplar. Our focus is on the intersection of the professional project, gender and globalisation processes. Included in our analysis are the ways in which gender affects the professional project in the global south, and the development of a professional project which it is closely tied to global markets and global migration, revealing the political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that influence the shape and consequences of nurse migration. The phenomenon that enabled our analysis, by showing these forces at work in a particular time and place, was an outbreak of strikes by nurses working in private hospitals in Kerala in 2011-2012. PMID:27529143

  14. The development of the nursing profession in a globalised context: A qualitative case study in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Evans, Catrin; Nair, Sreelekha

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, we are looking at the relationship between globalisation and the professional project, using nursing in Kerala as an exemplar. Our focus is on the intersection of the professional project, gender and globalisation processes. Included in our analysis are the ways in which gender affects the professional project in the global south, and the development of a professional project which it is closely tied to global markets and global migration, revealing the political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that influence the shape and consequences of nurse migration. The phenomenon that enabled our analysis, by showing these forces at work in a particular time and place, was an outbreak of strikes by nurses working in private hospitals in Kerala in 2011-2012.

  15. The 9th annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, "Principles, Practices, and Patients," a level one international meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23-27, 2013.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Mamta; Galwankar, Sagar C; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A; Balakrishnan, Jayaraj M; Worlton, Tamara; Tripathi, Ravi S; Bahner, David P; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kaide, Colin; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2014-05-06

    INDUS-EM is India's only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium that was held in Thrissur, Kerala in October 2013.

  16. Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

    Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

  17. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. PMID:27638121

  18. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region.

  19. Temporal analysis of rainfall (1871-2012) and drought characteristics over a tropical monsoon-dominated State (Kerala) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jobin; Prasannakumar, V.

    2016-03-01

    The climate of Kerala is controlled by the monsoon, and the analysis of rainfall and drought scenario, for a period of 141 years (1871-72 to 2011-12), reveals a decreasing trend in southwest monsoon, and increasing trends for post-monsoon-, winter- and pre-monsoon-rainfall. The inconsistent periodicity (2-8 years) of annual- and seasonal-rainfall agrees with the periodicity of El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The annual rainfall shows an irregular distribution, and is concentrated roughly in half of the year, which is due to the monsoon-driven climatic seasonality. The rainfall concentration at annual-, southwest monsoon-, and winter-scales exhibits significant decreasing trends, implying decline in the degree of irregularity in annual- and seasonal-rainfall. Temporal distribution as well as severity of the drought events have been analyzed using various drought indicators. The drought pattern is not only related to the rainfall trends, but also to the rainfall concentration (or monthly rainfall heterogeneity). The decreasing rainfall during southwest monsoon contributes to short-term meteorological droughts, which have serious implications on the agricultural sector and water resources of Kerala, while the increasing rainfall during other seasons helps to reduce the drought severity.

  20. Dimensional and morphological analysis of various rugae patterns in Kerala (South India) sample population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Result: The total number of rugae was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in females than males. Regarding the shape, wavy pattern predominated in both males and females, followed by curve, straight, divergent, convergent and circular pattern. Circular pattern was more in males than females. The rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. Conclusion: The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae. PMID:26283818

  1. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

  2. The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2014-06-01

    The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described.

  3. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  4. The 9th annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, “Principles, Practices, and Patients,” a level one international meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23–27, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    INDUS-EM is India’s only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium that was held in Thrissur, Kerala in October 2013. PMID:24884923

  5. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  6. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.

  7. Validation of WHOQOL-BREF in Malayalam and Determinants of Quality of Life Among People With Type 2 Diabetes in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Cherkil, Sandhya; Kuttikattu, Deepak Soman; Kamalamma, Leelamoni; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important health outcome in people with chronic conditions like diabetes and WHOQOL-BREF is a popular instrument used worldwide to assess QOL. However, QOL varies considerably from society to society depending on the culture of the person. Hence, the WHOQOL-BREF was translated to the local language, Malayalam. This article attempts to establish reliability, construct and discriminant validity of the translated WHOQOL-BREF, and determinants of QOL among people with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 patients with diabetes attending a primary care center in a rural area of Kerala, India. The translated version of WHOQOL-BREF was found to be internally consistent (Cronbach’s α = .86) and demonstrated discriminant and construct validity. Education was found to be an independent determinant of QOL in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. Thus, the translated version had good psychometric properties and education was an independent determinant of QOL in 3 of 4 domains. PMID:26419636

  8. Spatial and vertical distributions of heavy metals and their potential toxicity levels in various beach sediments from high-background-radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Paramasivam, K

    2015-02-15

    The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals and the sediment characteristics of beaches in Kerala, India (the upper surface sediments and the first, second and third one-foot-thick strata) were assessed in this study. The concentrations of most of the studied metals were highest at sampling site S1 (Cochin). The measured concentrations were compared with background and toxicological reference values. The results show that definite adverse biological effects are possible at most of the sampling sites due to the high Pb levels. Three different indexes were calculated to investigate the potential toxicity level. Most of the studied metals and all calculated indexes were highest in the third foot of sediment. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed and suggested that particular heavy metals, e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, may represent contamination from a common source. The Cd and Pb concentrations and all the calculated index values show a relationship with the content of organic matter. The results of the present study suggest the recommendation that a systematic analysis is needed to monitor heavy metal levels in the studied area.

  9. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  10. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline. PMID:26784381

  11. Role of Social, Cultural and Economic Capitals in Perceived Quality of Life Among Old Age People in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Dongre, Amol R; Rajendran, KP; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out the relationship of collective social, economic, and cultural properties of a population on the perceived quality of life (QOL) among old age people. Materials and Methods: In a community-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed information on a representative sample of 900 old age (aged > 60 years) from 28 villages in Kollam district of Kerala. WHO-Quality of Life - BREF questionnaire was used. Ethical clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee was obtained. The mean scores for perceived QOL for domains such as physical health, psychological health, social relations, and control of environments were calculated. The three scales (social capital, cultural capital, and economic capital) were standardized using z-score transformation to make them comparable. Using multiple linear regression, we calculated the independent effect of economic capital, social capital, and cultural capital on perceived QOL among old people adjusted for age, sex, and the presence of chronic disease. Results: For overall QOL, only cultural capital contributed significantly. An increase of one unit z-score cultural capital led to three units increase in overall QOL score (β = 3.362; 95% CI: 2.645-4.078). Social capital and cultural capital contributed significantly to the physical health domain of QOL. With one z-score increase in social capital and cultural capital, QOL score of physical health domain increased by 0.2 units (β = 0. 227; 95% CI: 0.020-0.434), and 0.5 (β = 0. 596; 95% CI: 0.384-0.808) units, respectively. Psychological health domain and environmental domain were affected by all three capitals significantly. But, the social relations domain was significantly affected only by cultural capital (β = 0. 576; 95% CI: 0.373-0.779). Conclusion: Hence, the policies for old people should envision retaining our cultural and social norms along with the economic interventions for a better palliative care. PMID:25709184

  12. Genetic characterization of dengue virus serotypes causing concurrent infection in an outbreak in Ernakulam, Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Anoop, M; Issac, Aneesh; Mathew, Thomas; Philip, Sairu; Kareem, Nabeel Abdul; Unnikrishnan, R; Sreekumar, E

    2010-08-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral infection, causes significant morbidity and has become endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Virus strains currently circulating in many parts of the country are not well studied at the molecular level. In the present study, genetic characterization of virus strains from a dengue outbreak that occurred in and around a tertiary care hospital in Ernakulam, Kerala in the year 2008 has been reported. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 37 out of 75 (49.3%) clinically suspected cases were positive for dengue viral RNA. Among these, 21 (56.8%) samples showed concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of the virus. Majority of the combined infections were caused by dengue serotype 2 and 3. Co-infections with type 1 and 2 in two patients, and type 1, 2 and 3 in one patient were also observed. The core-pre-Membrane (CprM) junction nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type 1 strains were related to the viral strains reported from Delhi-2001 and Gwalior-2002 dengue outbreaks, while the type 2 strains were related to the strains from Gwalior-2001 epidemic. Sequences of type 3 strains did not show clear relation to any of the previous Indian isolates, and in the phylogenetic analysis, they formed a distinct lineage within the Indian type 3 strains. This study indicates hyperendemicity of dengue in the region with the presence of multiple serotypes and high rates of co-infection, and local genomic evolution of the viral strains involved in this outbreak.

  13. Outcomes of West Nile encephalitis patients after 1 year of West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Thekkekara, Romy Jose; Tandale, Babasheb V

    2016-11-01

    We reported an acute encephalitis syndrome outbreak in Alappuzha district in Kerala, India during the year 2011. The etiology was confirmed to be West Nile virus lineage 1. Many encephalitis patients from this outbreak exhibited neurological sequelae post recovery. This study was aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of West Nile encephalitis confirmed case-patients after 1 year of acute illness. Forty West Nile virus confirmed encephalitis patients were selected from the 2011 outbreak was included in this study. Out of 40 cases, only 30 survived after 12 months. Among these 30 recovered case-patients, 27 (90%) consented for clinical follow-up and 23 (73.67%) of them consented for assessment of cognitive impairment and deposition of blood sample for antibody testing. The most common symptom observed in these patients was fatigue (25.93%). Other symptoms included dizziness (7.4%), decreased sense of hearing (7.4%) and decreased sense of smell (7.4%). Reduced power in limbs was found in 33.33% of the cases. Most of the patients (23.1%) were dependent on others for normal daily living activities. The patients also had probable risk of poor cognition (29.41%) and dementia (57.14%). None of the patients were positive for WNV specific IgM at 12 months post onset of disease. The study concluded that the long-term sequelae were noticed in WNV positive patients. Prevention effort should be focused on the elderly (≥60 years old) people who have a higher risk of severe sequelae. The state health authorities should create awareness among people in order to prevent the transmission of disease. J. Med. Virol. 88:1856-1861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061922

  14. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Gangadharan, Paleth; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Nair, Raghu Ram K

    2011-02-01

    The Karunagapally cohort in Kerala, India was established in the 1990s. The present study examined oral cancer risk among 66,277 men aged 30-84 years in the cohort, using Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, stratified on attained age, calendar time, education, and family income. By the end of 2005, 160 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagapally Cancer Registry. Tobacco chewing increased oral cancer risk (P < 0.001). Particularly increased was the risk of cancers of the gum and mouth (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-7.9), which increased with higher daily frequencies (P < 0.001) and longer duration (P < 0.001) of tobacco chewing. Alcohol drinking was not significantly related to oral cancer risk regardless of tobacco chewing. Bidi smoking significantly increased oral cancer risk (RR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.4-4.9) only among men without tobacco chewing habits. The risk increased with higher daily consumption (P < 0.001), longer duration (P = 0.001), and younger age at start of bidi smoking (P = 0.007). In location-specific analysis, bidi smoking was significantly associated with cancer of the gum and mouth (RR = 3.6; 95%CI = 1.1-12.1), and its risk significantly increased with larger daily consumption of bidis (P = 0.013) and younger age at the start of smoking (P = 0.044). Tongue cancer risk was significantly increased among men who smoked bidis for 30 years or longer, and men started bidi smoking at 18 years old or younger. The present study is the first cohort study showing that tobacco chewing increases cancers of the gum and mouth among men keeping chewing tobacco in the cheek, and that bidi smoking strongly increased oral cancer risk among men without a tobacco chewing habit.

  15. Outcomes of West Nile encephalitis patients after 1 year of West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Thekkekara, Romy Jose; Tandale, Babasheb V

    2016-11-01

    We reported an acute encephalitis syndrome outbreak in Alappuzha district in Kerala, India during the year 2011. The etiology was confirmed to be West Nile virus lineage 1. Many encephalitis patients from this outbreak exhibited neurological sequelae post recovery. This study was aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of West Nile encephalitis confirmed case-patients after 1 year of acute illness. Forty West Nile virus confirmed encephalitis patients were selected from the 2011 outbreak was included in this study. Out of 40 cases, only 30 survived after 12 months. Among these 30 recovered case-patients, 27 (90%) consented for clinical follow-up and 23 (73.67%) of them consented for assessment of cognitive impairment and deposition of blood sample for antibody testing. The most common symptom observed in these patients was fatigue (25.93%). Other symptoms included dizziness (7.4%), decreased sense of hearing (7.4%) and decreased sense of smell (7.4%). Reduced power in limbs was found in 33.33% of the cases. Most of the patients (23.1%) were dependent on others for normal daily living activities. The patients also had probable risk of poor cognition (29.41%) and dementia (57.14%). None of the patients were positive for WNV specific IgM at 12 months post onset of disease. The study concluded that the long-term sequelae were noticed in WNV positive patients. Prevention effort should be focused on the elderly (≥60 years old) people who have a higher risk of severe sequelae. The state health authorities should create awareness among people in order to prevent the transmission of disease. J. Med. Virol. 88:1856-1861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V. J.; Sajinkumar, K. S.; Sajeev, K.; Kumar, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910 nm, 1470 nm, 1849-1864 nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940 nm and 2270 nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  17. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V J; Sajinkumar, K S; Sajeev, K; Kumar, S N

    2016-11-01

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910nm, 1470nm, 1849-1864nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940nm and 2270nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  18. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  19. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  20. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  1. Lack of increased DNA double-strand breaks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinay; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-06-01

    The high level natural radiation area (HLNRA) of Kerala is a 55km long and 0.5km wide strip in south west coast of India. The level of background radiation in this area varies from <1.0mGy/year to 45.0mGy/year. It offers unique opportunity to study the effect of chronic low dose/low dose-rate radiation directly on human population. Spontaneous level of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 91 random individuals from HLNRA (N=61, mean age: 36.1±7.43years) and normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) (N=30, mean age: 35.5±6.35years) using gamma-H2AX as a marker. The mean annual dose received by NLNRA and HLNRA individuals was 1.28±0.086mGy/year and 8.28±4.96mGy/year, respectively. The spontaneous frequency of DSBs in terms of gamma-H2AX foci among NLNRA and HLNRA individuals were 0.095±0.009 and 0.084±0.004 per cell (P=0.22). The individuals from HLNRA were further classified as low dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 2.63±0.76mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG, >5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 11.04±3.57mGy/year). The spontaneous frequency of gamma-H2AX foci per cell in NLNRA, LDG and HDG was observed to be 0.095±0.009, 0.096±0.008 and 0.078±0.004 respectively. Individuals belonging to HDG of HLNRA showed marginally lower frequency of DSBs as compared to NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA. This could be suggestive of either lower induction or better repair of DSBs in individuals from HDG of HLNRA. The present study indicated that 5.0mGy/year could be a possible threshold dose for DSB induction at chronic low-dose radiation exposure in vivo. However, further studies on DNA damage induction and repair kinetics are required to draw firm conclusions.

  2. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V J; Sajinkumar, K S; Sajeev, K; Kumar, S N

    2016-11-01

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910nm, 1470nm, 1849-1864nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940nm and 2270nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  3. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240

  4. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240

  5. Variations in concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients related to catchment scale human interventions in Pamba River, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. E.; Jennerjahn, T. C.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    River basins are geo-hydrological units. Water flowing out of the basin bears the imprint of natural factors such as geology, soil, vegetation and rainfall along with anthropogenic factors including the type and degree of human intervention within the basin. Pamba, a small mountainous river in the SW coast of India with a population density of ~1,400 persons km-2 was studied for its varying land use and human interventions as the global database are biased towards temperate regions while little is know about the smaller catchments from tropical regions. Land use comprised of dense forest in the highland region together with forest plantation and the human impacted Sabarimala temple- the second largest pilgrim, settlement with mixed tree crop (smt) in the midland and lowland paddy cultivated region. 50-60 million devotees visiting Sabarimala during November to January every year associated with the ritual bathing, discharge of human wastes emanating from the influx of millions of pilgrims due to inadequate number of sanitary latrines and the lack of facilities for sewage collection and treatment caused several ecological variations during pilgrim season. In order to asses the effect of land use and pilgrims in combination with seasonal variations in hydrology we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations in physicochemical and nutrient concentrations. Samples were collected from March 2010 to February 2012 during premonsoon (January-May), SW(June to September) and NE monsoon(October to December), from sites varying in land use. Nutrient budgets (load and yield) were calculated to quantify the inputs from various land use segments. Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and dissolved nutrient concentrations were observed along the course of the river. Upstream forest region had highest dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH together with lowest dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) values indicating almost pristine conditions. DIN in the temple region had the

  6. Do Caste and Class Define Inequality? Revisiting Education in a Kerala Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaria, Suma

    2014-01-01

    Is there a strong correlation between caste and class in access to education, especially higher education? This is the broader question addressed by the study in the context of Kerala, the southernmost state in India, with impressive conventional indicators in education. Micro-level insights based on the study of a village in Kerala show that old…

  7. Rediscovery and range extension of Ciliopagurus liui Forest, 1995 and description of a new species of Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguroidea) from the Kerala State, southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Reshmi, Rema; Kumar, Appukuttan Nair Biju

    2013-01-01

    Two species of paguroid hermit crabs, Ciliopagurus liui Forest, 1995 (Diogenidae) and Pagurus spinossior n. sp. (Paguridae), are reported from the Kerala State, southwestern India. Ciliopagurus liui, is first recorded from the Indian Ocean. This species was originally described on the basis of a single male specimen from the Tonkin Gulf in the South China Sea, though its geographical range also included Japan, based on literature. Supplemental description and illustrations are provided for better understanding of the diagnostic features of this little known species. Pagurus spinossior n. sp., described on the basis of a single male specimen, appears closest to P. spinulentus (Henderson, 1888), known only by the holotype from the Philippines, but the lack of spinules on the dorsal margins of the dactyli of the second pereopods, the different shape of the anterior lobe of the thoracic stemite 6, and the more numerous spines on the terminal to posterior margins of the telson distinguish the new species from P. spinulentus.

  8. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  9. THE AYURVEDIC HERITAGE OF KERALA

    PubMed Central

    Variar, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ayurveda has a long history of being enriched by different types of contributions from different stages befitting their geographical, climatic and cultural situations, and based on their thinking and living patterns, especially the practical aspects. Kerala has its own great role in this prcess of enrichment. It is unique and invaluable. The historical aspects the literary contributions by Kerala to the Ayurvedic system, the traditional and special treatments of Kerala etc., are discussed in this paper. PMID:22557501

  10. Kerala School of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, Krishnamurthi

    It is well known that the Kerala school of astronomy, pioneered by Mādhava in the fourteenth century, made remarkable contributions to the development of calculus. In this chapter, we shall summarize the equally significant contribution made by the Kerala astronomers to the development of planetary theory. By 1500 CE, Nīlakaṇṭha Somayājī came up with a remarkable revision of the traditional Indian planetary theory, in which, for the first time in the History of Astronomy, he arrives at a correct formulation of the equation of center and the latitudinal motion of the interior planets, which in turn makes his model computationally equivalent to the Keplerian theory under certain approximation.

  11. Phosphorous fractionation in mangrove sediments of Kerala, south west coast of India: the relative importance of inorganic and organic phosphorous fractions.

    PubMed

    Resmi, P; Manju, M N; Gireeshkumar, T R; Ratheesh Kumar, C S; Movitha, M; Shameem, K; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2016-06-01

    The study of phosphorous dynamics in mangrove ecosystems of the northern Kerala coast aims to delineate its relationships with other biogeochemical parameters. Our intension is to check the validity of the hypothesis that these mangrove ecosystems act as an efficient trap of organic phosphorous by acting as P sink. The dissolved inorganic phosphate displayed higher concentration in monsoon that could be correlated with higher P leaching from mangrove litter as well as terrigenous input during wet season. Fe(OOH)≈P was much higher in monsoon (235.23 to 557.70 μg g(-1)) and lower in pre-monsoon (36.50 to 154.97 μg g(-1)), and displayed significant contribution towards the inorganic sedimentary P fractions. In monsoon, adsorption of P on iron hydroxides is enhanced by fresh water conditions, but pre-monsoon is characterised by the reductive dissolution of iron oxy hydroxides and the subsequent efflux of P to water column. CaCO3≈Pinorg may be present as an inert fraction in the sediment matrix, and did not display any interrelationship with other geochemical parameters. The abundant total organic P (25 to 73 %) fractions, largely derived from P bound with humic/fulvic acid, played a major role in immobilising P and regulating its dynamics in the nearby estuarine and coastal environment.

  12. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  13. Water use of eucalypts in Kerala

    SciTech Connect

    Kallarackal, J.

    1992-12-31

    The water use of the introduced eucalypt trees has been much debated in southern India. The present study looks at the water loss of eucalyptus by transpiration in an area in Kerala where the evaporative demands are relatively higher than in other zones. The results presented here have been obtained from the initial stages of project with a much wider scope. The microclimatic data above the tree canopy has been measured on three sample days in October to December, 1990. Stomatal resistance was also measured hourly on all of these days. Using these measured parameters, transpiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. The cumulative transpiration loss during the sample days in October and November was approximately 5 mm, whereas it increased to approximately 8 mm in December. The reason for this increase is discussed.

  14. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  15. The "Kerala model" of development: development and sustainability in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Parayil, G

    1996-12-01

    The Indian state of Kerala with a population of 29 million has made the transition to a society with low infant mortality rate, low population growth, and a low crude death rate in less than 30 years. The average life expectancy for women is 74 years (vs. 60 years for India as a whole) and 71 years for men (vs. 59 years for India), the infant mortality rate is 16.5/1000 live births (vs. 91/1000 for India), and literacy is almost universal. The population growth rate fell from 44/1000 in the 1950s to 18/1000 in 1991. By 1985 the population growth rate had stabilized to a demographic replacement level net reproduction rate. Kerala's female/male ratio is 1.04:1 as opposed to the Indian average of 0.93:1 and China's 0.94:1. All this was achieved without coercion by democratically elected state governments. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. This development came about despite a low per capita income. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. In addition, the HDI (Human Development Index) of Kerala was more than twice the national average. The HDI was 0.925 for the US in 1994 vs. 0.775 for Kerala, where the per capita income was one-hundredth of the US per capita income. This progress was accomplished by the elimination of absentee landlords and the return of the land to the tiller; and large amounts of funds spent on education, health care, infrastructure, agricultural credits, and housing. Staples were made available to the poor at subsidized prices. The Kerala model may be taken as an early prototype of sustainable development because of improvements in the quality of life, environmental stability, social and economic equality, and the decline in political strife. PMID:12321040

  16. The "Kerala model" of development: development and sustainability in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Parayil, G

    1996-12-01

    The Indian state of Kerala with a population of 29 million has made the transition to a society with low infant mortality rate, low population growth, and a low crude death rate in less than 30 years. The average life expectancy for women is 74 years (vs. 60 years for India as a whole) and 71 years for men (vs. 59 years for India), the infant mortality rate is 16.5/1000 live births (vs. 91/1000 for India), and literacy is almost universal. The population growth rate fell from 44/1000 in the 1950s to 18/1000 in 1991. By 1985 the population growth rate had stabilized to a demographic replacement level net reproduction rate. Kerala's female/male ratio is 1.04:1 as opposed to the Indian average of 0.93:1 and China's 0.94:1. All this was achieved without coercion by democratically elected state governments. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. This development came about despite a low per capita income. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. In addition, the HDI (Human Development Index) of Kerala was more than twice the national average. The HDI was 0.925 for the US in 1994 vs. 0.775 for Kerala, where the per capita income was one-hundredth of the US per capita income. This progress was accomplished by the elimination of absentee landlords and the return of the land to the tiller; and large amounts of funds spent on education, health care, infrastructure, agricultural credits, and housing. Staples were made available to the poor at subsidized prices. The Kerala model may be taken as an early prototype of sustainable development because of improvements in the quality of life, environmental stability, social and economic equality, and the decline in political strife.

  17. Contextual Influences on Sources of Academic Self-Efficacy: A Validation with Secondary School Students of Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Ashraf, P. Muhammed

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the theorized sources of Academic Self-Efficacy among the higher secondary school students of Kerala, India. Mastery Experience in the form of Academic Achievement, vicarious experience in the form of School Image and Social Persuasion in the form of Parental Encouragement are included as the predictor variables of Academic…

  18. CDC Kerala--The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Leela, Leena Mundapalliyil; George, Babu; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Pillai, Asokan Nataraja; Sarasamma, Harikumaran Nair Gopinathan Nair

    2016-05-01

    This article is our life time experience in conceptualizing and systematically developing Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala in the last 25 years, from a research project to a national training centre in child and adolescent development and premarital counseling. CDC Kerala's major contribution was in creating a 'conceptual framework' of a valid link between childhood disability, low birth weight, adolescent girls' nutrition and fetal onset adult lifestyle diseases. It all started with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) proving beyond doubt that early stimulation is effective in improving the neurodevelopmental status of high risk babies at one and two years and the same cohort was followed-up in detail at 5, 13, 16, 19 and 24 completed years. The process of establishing CDC Kerala is being presented under (i) clinical child development, (ii) adolescent care counseling, (iii) young adults and premarital counseling and (iv) institution building.

  19. CDC Kerala--The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Leela, Leena Mundapalliyil; George, Babu; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Pillai, Asokan Nataraja; Sarasamma, Harikumaran Nair Gopinathan Nair

    2016-05-01

    This article is our life time experience in conceptualizing and systematically developing Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala in the last 25 years, from a research project to a national training centre in child and adolescent development and premarital counseling. CDC Kerala's major contribution was in creating a 'conceptual framework' of a valid link between childhood disability, low birth weight, adolescent girls' nutrition and fetal onset adult lifestyle diseases. It all started with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) proving beyond doubt that early stimulation is effective in improving the neurodevelopmental status of high risk babies at one and two years and the same cohort was followed-up in detail at 5, 13, 16, 19 and 24 completed years. The process of establishing CDC Kerala is being presented under (i) clinical child development, (ii) adolescent care counseling, (iii) young adults and premarital counseling and (iv) institution building. PMID:26988580

  20. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  1. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  2. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  3. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  4. Family size, sex composition of children and contraceptive use: a case study of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Suchindran, C M; Ramakumar, R; Sathi Devi, K

    1993-01-01

    With the sudden decline of fertility it was particularly interesting to examine the situation in Kerala, regarding parental sex preference in formulating family planning policies for the rest of India with high fertility and son preference. The 1980 Kerala Fertility Survey included nearly 3000 households with about 2700 ever married women in reproductive age. Maternity history and fertility regulation data were collected. Data from 2500 currently married women were used, cross-classified by the number of male and female living children and contraceptive use status. A multiplicative model was used to study various interaction effects and to construct standardized rates of contraceptive use. Measures adjusted for both male and female composition and differential use of contraceptives among male-female combinations were obtained by the model to avoid arbitrariness in choosing rates and to preclude objections raised in previous research on Arnold's index. The model was generalized to facilitate simultaneous effects of the number of male and female children and family size on contraceptive use. Initial analysis showed that the effect of sex preference on contraceptive acceptance was rather negligible. However, there was a significant male-female interaction effect on contraceptive use. Contraception was high when the family size was large, with children of the same sex. With the effect of family size removed, the contraceptive use rate seemed to be in the inverse direction of the number of male or female children. This was possibly the result of two factors: 1) high contraception rate with large families of the same sex, and 2) low use of contraception among large families with a high number of children of both sexes. The Kerala situation partly supports McClelland's theory that couples already having proportionally more daughters may terminate fertility earlier. In Kerala such termination also occurs when couples have proportionally more sons, and family size also

  5. Biosignatures of Kerala red rain cells: Implications in understanding their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, R.; Thomas, M.; Hogg, S.

    2013-09-01

    The red rain that fell over Kerala, southern India (2001-2012) was characterised by the red pigmented particles. Earlier proposal claiming that these are known algal bloom blown from trees (Sampath et al, 2001; DiGregorio, 2007) has been studied by us and disproved. Also, further investigation reporting their extraordinary properties including a suggestion that they lack DNA (Louis and Kumar 2003; 2006; 2008) has been invalidated (Gangappa and Hogg, 2013). However, their claim regarding the growth and replication of these cells at 300ºC needs more investigation if it is to gain acceptance. Current study provide evidences regarding the biological properties of Kerala red rain cells to gain insights into environmental conditions from which they may have originated. Combined with various research strategies and high resolution instruments, we have demonstrated the following interesting properties of Kerala red rain cells: (1) unusually thick external envelope enclosing the central core; (2)stability of red pigment at temperatures about 100ºC and pH variations; (3) absence of eukaryotic ultrastructures; (4) possible replication at 121ºC with nanostructures (possible daughter cells) having similar morphological features inside the large mother cells at such high temperature. They contain high percentage of carbon, iron, silicon and aluminum and often enclosed in a silicon rich biofilms. Further investigation shows that the positive detection of DNA in these cells was possible only after the complete removal of red pigment, thereby providing an explanation for the negative outcome of earlier studies in this regard. Moreover, evidences are shown to support that these cells contain high amounts of UV absorbing compounds, porphyrin complexes and possible scytonemin. Kerala red rain cells may prove to be polyextermophiles belonging to prokaryotes and may have possibly originated from the environment containing above mentioned chemical elements, high energy UV exposure and

  6. Psychological Approaches to Learner Centered Curriculum in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.; Sajitha, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    The major curricular innovations that have taken place in Kerala secondary education system in recent years is so revolutionary. This paper examines the basic psychological theories of the learner centered curriculum of school education in the state of Kerala. Initially the curriculum was based on the principles of behaviorism. The curriculum then…

  7. Professional Development of Academic Library Professionals in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, K. Susan; Baby, M. D.; Pillai, S. Sreerekha

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to bring out the problems and prospects of the professional development opportunities of academic library professionals in the Universities in Kerala. The study is a part of research undertaken to survey the professional development activities and educational needs of library professionals in the major Universities of Kerala in the…

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  9. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  10. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  11. How Ernakulam Became the First Fully Literate District of India = Comment l'Ernakulam devint le premier District entierement alphabete de l'Inde. Notes, Comments...No. 195.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivadas, S.

    "Lead Kindly Light" was an extensive campaign for the total eradication of illiteracy within 1 year in the Ernakulam District of India. A major sponsor was Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), the Science and Education Center of Kerala; responsibility for the project was later handed over to the National Literacy Mission (NLM). The project had…

  12. The Red Rain Phenomenon of Kerala and its Possible Extraterrestrial Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Godfrey; Kumar, A. Santhosh

    2006-04-01

    A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. Strangely, a test for DNA using Ethidium Bromide dye fluorescence technique indicates absence of DNA in these cells. In the context of a suspected link between a meteor airburst event and the red rain, the possibility for the extraterrestrial origin of these particles from cometary fragments is discussed.

  13. Low level deltamethrin resistance in ticks from cattle of Kerala, a south Indian state.

    PubMed

    Jyothimol, G; Ravindran, R; Juliet, S; Ajithkumar, K G; Suresh, N N; Vimalkumar, M B; Lenka, D R; Varghese, S; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-08-29

    The deltamethrin resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from cattle of five organized farms of Kerala, south India was evaluated. Resistance was characterized using biological (larval packet test), biochemical (esterase enzyme activity assay) and molecular tools (PCR amplification and sequencing of deltamethrin resistance-associated genes). Characterization of field isolates revealed level I resistance in ticks collected from four out of five farms. Elevated level of α/β esterase activity was not recorded in isolates showing level I resistance. Previously reported point mutations in the carboxyl esterase (G1120A) and sodium channel (T2134A and C190A) genes were not observed in any of the field isolates. The present study showed a low level (level I) resistance is developed in the most economically important ticks infesting cattle of this state and it cautions the development of large scale resistance in future. PMID:24877788

  14. Automation of University Libraries in Kerala: Status, Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suku, J.; Pillai, Mini G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the present scenario of automation activities of university libraries in Kerala. The survey findings mainly cover various aspects of library automation such as information technology infrastructure, in-house activities, information services and their usage, manpower development, and budget. The paper briefly describes the role…

  15. Incidence of Tobacco Use Among Adults (15-64 Years) in Rural Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P. Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from a cohort study in rural Kerala, India, to study the incidence of current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use. At baseline, of 452 individuals aged 15 to 64 years, 385 were current nonsmokers and 402 were current nonusers of smokeless tobacco. Over a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.2 years, 5.5% became current smokers and 9.0% became current smokeless tobacco users. Among men, 21.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.1-36.4) of younger individuals (15-24 years) became current smokers and 22.2% (CI = 10.6-40.8) of older individuals (55-64 years) became current smokeless tobacco users. No women smoked both at baseline and at follow-up, but 9.7% (CI = 3.4-24.9) of older women (55-64 years) became current smokeless tobacco users. These findings call for effective implementation of India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003. PMID:23666836

  16. Epidemiology, Pathological Characteristics and Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status of Operated Cases of Female Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Review of 266 Cases from Kerala.

    PubMed

    Vettuparambil, Ajith; Rajan, Gautham; Chirukandath, Ravindran; Culas, Terence B

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is presently the most common cancer among women in Kerala, in Southern India. The objectives of this study were to analyze the epidemiology and pathological characteristics of female breast carcinoma in Kerala. 266 patients who were diagnosed with operable breast cancer between April 2009 and June 2010 were studied. Various pathological characteristics including stage, grade, axillary lymph nodal status, tumor size, and estrogen and progesterone receptor status were studied. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Chi-square test and frequency tables were used for statistical analysis. The mean age at presentation was 50 years. 48.9 % of the patients were premenopausal. 53.76 % had grade II tumors. Positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 70.3 % patients, and 68 % presented with stage II disease. 54.13 % were ER positive and 62 % were PR positive. The relatively young age at diagnosis, late presentation of the disease, and lower estrogen and progesterone receptor expression compared to patients from the West point toward the need for better breast cancer awareness and screening programmes in Kerala. PMID:27065660

  17. A crypto-Dravidian origin for the nontribal communities of South India based on human leukocyte antigen class I diversity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Nair, S B; Banerjee, M

    2006-09-01

    The Dravidian communities are considered to be the original inhabitants of India, now restricted to South India. The southern most state, Kerala, is socio-culturally stratified into Hindus, Muslims and Christians on the basis of religion. The origin of these religious communities in Kerala is considered to be unique in comparison with that in other parts of the country. These communities were later influenced by the hierarchical caste structure established by the Hindu Brahmins. In the present study, we compared six nontribal (Namboothiri, Nair, Ezhava, Pulaya, Malabar Muslim and Syrian Christian) communities belonging to the major religious groups in Kerala (Hindu, Muslim and Christian) based on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B and -C diversity. Our aim was to understand the genomic substructuring associated with the changing social scenario in various caste and religious groups and compare it with the Dravidian tribal and other world populations. The present study reveals that the HLA diversity of the Dravidian communities is very distinct from that in the other world populations. It is obvious that the nontribal communities of Kerala display a greater Dravidian influence, but traces of genetic admixture with the Mediterranean, western European, central Asian and East Asian populations can be observed. This characterizes the crypto-Dravidian features of the nontribal communities of Kerala. Demic diffusion of the local progressive communities with the migrant communities may have given rise to crypto-Dravidian features among the nontribal communities of Kerala.

  18. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  19. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  20. Report of Workshop on Reconceptualization of Pre-service Teacher Education in the University of Kerala. Organized by the Department of Education, University of Kerala on 22 December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the Kerala Higher Education Council, the Department of Education of the University of Kerala organized a half-day workshop for reconceptualization of the teacher education curriculum of the University of Kerala as a preliminary step in the original plan of the Council for introducing an unified BEd curriculum in the state of…

  1. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) - a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C

    2016-01-01

    The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  2. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) – a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  3. Powering the Women in Agriculture: Lessons on Women Led Farm Mechanisation in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jiju P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how an initiative on farm mechanisation by a local government in Kerala in South India evolved into a formal organisation that provides sustainable livelihood options to women and small and marginal farmers and revived the rice production system. Design/methodology/approach: The study followed the case analysis…

  4. Pathways to catastrophic health expenditure for acute coronary syndrome in Kerala: ‘Good health at low cost’?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage through the removal of financial and other barriers to access, particularly for people who are poor, is a global priority. This viewpoint describes the many pathways to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) based on two case studies and the thematic analysis of field notes regarding 210 patients and their households from a study based in Kerala, India. Discussion There is evidence of the severe financial impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which is in contradiction to the widely acclaimed Kerala model: Good health at low cost. However, it is important to look beyond the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and CHE to the possible pathways and identify the triggers that make families vulnerable to CHE. The identified pathways include a primary and secondary loop. The primary pathway describes the direct path by which families experience CHE. These include: 1) factors related to the pre-event period that increase the likelihood of experiencing CHE, such as being from the lower socio-economic strata (SES), past financial losses or loans that leave families with no financial shock absorber at the time of illness; 2) factors related to the acute event, diagnosis, treatment and hospitalization and expenditures incurred for the same and; 3) factors related to the post-event period such as loss of gainful employment and means of financing both the acute period and the long-term management particularly through distress financing. The secondary pathway arises from the primary and includes: 1) the impact of distress financing and; 2) the long- and short- term consequences of CHE. These factors ultimately result in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty through non-compliance and repeat acute events. Summary This paper outlines the direct and indirect pathways by which patients with ACS and their families are trapped in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty. It also contradicts the prevailing

  5. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education

  6. The Ashtavaidya physicians of Kerala: A tradition in transition

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indudharan; Spudich, Annamma

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents what we have learned from the Ashtavaidya Ayurveda physicians of Kerala regarding the status of their unique medical tradition of Ayurveda in the contemporary context. We extensively interviewed several practicing Ashtavaidyas for the “Living History of Indian Scientific Traditions” archive, a new initiative at the NCBS, Bangalore to study the history of Indian sciences. As heirs of a tradition that has adapted and evolved over centuries without compromising its fundamental principles, their views on Ayurveda presented here represent an important contribution to the current debate on the role of traditional medicine in the Indian public health system. PMID:21731370

  7. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  8. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  9. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Design Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. Setting 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Participants 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD and/or its risk factors, 5 physicians treating CVD and 5 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). Patients were sampled for maximum variation on the basis of age, sex, CVD diagnoses and risk factors. All participants had access to a mobile phone. Results The main themes identified relating to the current challenges of CVD were poor patient disease knowledge, difficulties in implementing primary prevention and poor patient lifestyles. Participants noted phone calls as the main function of current mobile phone use. The expectations of mHealth use are to: improve accessibility to healthcare knowledge; provide reminders of appointments, medication and lifestyle changes; save time, money and travel; and improve ASHA job efficacy. All perceived barriers to mHealth were noted within physician interviews. These included fears of mobile phones negatively affecting physicians’ roles, the usability of mobile phones, radiation and the need for physical consultations. Conclusions There are three main potential uses of mHealth in this population: (1) as an educational tool, to improve health education and lifestyle behaviours; (2) to optimise the use of limited resources, by overcoming geographical barriers and financial constraints; (3) to improve use of healthcare, by providing appointment and treatment reminders in order to improve disease prevention and management. Successful mHealth design, which takes barriers into account, may complement current practice and optimise use of limited

  10. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  11. Decentralization of health services: the Kerala People's Campaign.

    PubMed

    Elamon, Joy; Franke, Richard W; Ekbal, B

    2004-01-01

    The 1996-2001 Kerala People's Campaign for Decentralized Planning has provided much new information about the possibilities and potential of decentralizing public health and health care services. Analysis of investment patterns of the various government levels involved in the campaign, supplemented with case study materials, allows for an evaluation of the decentralization project against its own stated goals. These included (1) creating a functional division among government levels appropriate to the health tasks each level can best perform; (2) generating projects that reflect the felt needs of the people, as voiced through local participatory assemblies; (3) maintaining or increasing levels of equality in health, especially with regard to income, caste, and gender; (4) stimulating communities to mobilize voluntary resources to supplement devolved public funds; (5) stimulating communities to create innovative programs that could become models for others; and (6) making the health services function more effectively overall. The analysis supports the conclusion that the campaign achieved each of the goals to a large degree. Shortcomings arose from the inexperience of many local communities in drafting effective projects as well as problems deriving from the fact that some sections of the health bureaucracy could not be decentralized. Lessons of the campaign are already being applied to new programs in Kerala.

  12. Occurrence of Gnathostoma spinigerum in a leopard cat from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Dibya Ranjan; Johns, Joju; Gopi, Jyothimol; Chandy, George; Narayanan, Priya Manakkulamparambil; Kalarikkal, Deepa Chundayil; Ravindran, Reghu

    2016-06-01

    The post-mortem examination of a leopard cat from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, died in a road accident, revealed presence of gastric tumours containing worms which were identified as Gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological characteristics. PMID:27413340

  13. Gulf money in Kerala: coping with the problems of plenty.

    PubMed

    Kurian, R; Thakore, D

    The recent phenomenon of emigration from Kerala to the Gulf countries and the increasing inflow of remittances is having a tremendous impact on Kerala's economy. The state planning board reports that the remittances from the Gulf to this tiny state are Rs. 400 crones/year. An annual inflow of this amount cannot help influence the fortunes of the population. Although emigration from Kerala is not new, the current outflow reached massive proportions only in the wake of the intensive construction boom in the West Asian countries, after a huge volume of petro dollars flowed into those countries in the aftermath of the 1973 hike in oil price. In December 1977 a total of 135,000 Keralities were employed in foreign countries, mainly in West Asia. These adventurous migrants, in their quest for a wage, emigrated mainly from 4 areas in the state: Varkala in Trivandrum district; Thiruvalla in Alleppey district; Chavakkad in Trichur district; and almost all parts of Malappuram district. The bulk of the remittances are sent to households and next of kin concentrated in these areas. This unprecedented inflow of remittances has kindled the hopes of politicians and administrators of tapping these resources to solve the problems of economic development of the state. 1 category of emigrants come from poor households, are poorly educated, and are masons, carpenters, or even unskilled laborers. Because of their ignorance and gullibility they are exploited by middlemen who charge them Rs. 12,000 for a no objection certificate (NOC). Moneylenders are also doing a thriving business. Another type of emigrant is from relatively well off households, better educated, and able to obtain better jobs. There are also rich businessmen and contractors among them. It is this category of better educated emigrant who is able to save a substantial part of his income. State administrative circles note that remittances at best can provide only the financial capital. According to T.C. Razajm a

  14. Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadananan, K.

    Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio

  15. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  16. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  17. Lineage shift in Indian strains of Dengue virus serotype-3 (Genotype III), evidenced by detection of lineage IV strains in clinical cases from Kerala

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Local epidemiology of Dengue is defined by the genetic diversity of the circulating Dengue virus (DENV) strains. This important information is not available for the virus strains from most parts of the Indian subcontinent. The present study focused on the genetic diversity of the serotype 3 DENV strains (DENV-3) from India. Results A total of 22 DENV-3 strains identified by reverse-transcription PCR analysis of serum samples from 709 patients were studied. These samples were collected over a period of 4 years (2008–2011) from dengue fever suspected patients from Kerala, a dengue endemic state in South India. Comparison of a 1740bp nucleotide sequence of the viral Capsid-Pre-membrane-Envelope coding region of our strains and previously reported DENV-3 strains from India, South Asia and South America revealed non-synonymous substitutions that were genotype III-specific as well as sporadic. Evidence of positive selection was detected in the I81 amino acid residue of the envelope protein. Out of the 22 samples, three had I81A and 18 had I81V substitutions. In the phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method the strains from Kerala clustered in two different lineages (lineage III and IV) within genotype III clade of DENV-3 strains. The ten strains that belonged to lineage IV had a signature amino acid substitution T219A in the envelope protein. Interestingly, all these strains were found to be closely related to a Singapore strain GU370053 isolated in 2007. Conclusions Our study identifies for the first time the presence of lineage IV strains in the Indian subcontinent. Results indicate the possibility of a recent exotic introduction and also a shift from the existing lineage III strains to lineage IV. Lineage shifts in DENV-3 strains have been attributed to dramatic increase in disease severity in many parts of the world. Hence the present observation could be significant in terms of the clinical severity of future dengue cases in the region. PMID

  18. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Varghese, C; Duffy, S W; Padmakumary, G; Day, N E; Nair, M K

    1994-09-01

    A total of 281 male lung-cancer patients were identified from the hospital cancer registry in the Regional Cancer Centre in Trivandrum. The controls were selected from the visitors and patients' bystanders in the hospital. The recruitment of cases and controls started in 1990, and the present study used the cases registered in the first year. The questionnaire administered to cases and controls collected information on tobacco smoking and alcohol habits. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and were analyzed by multiple logistic regression producing odds ratio estimates of the relative risk and deviance chi-squared tests of significance. Analysis was done on the computer package, EGRET. All models included age, education, religion and smoking to adjust for the effect of confounding. Green vegetables and bananas were found to have a protective association with lung cancer. The odds ratio associated with the highest quartile of vegetable consumption compared with the lowest was 0.32 (95% confidence interval 0.13, 0.78). Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated pumpkins and onions as the most consistently significant protective factors. Animal protein foods and dairy products were found to have a predisposing effect on lung cancer in this study. The expected influence of smoking on lung cancer (a considerable increase in risk among smokers) provided evidence of the reliability of the data. In conclusion the results from this study show that diet has a role in lung cancer aetiology, although the association is weak compared to the effects of smoking. PMID:8077047

  19. Participatory GIS in action, a public health initiative from Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    Community ownership is essential for sustainable public health initiatives. The advantages of getting active involvement of homebound village women in a public health campaign to establish community health surveillance are being reported in this paper. With the support of the local self government authorities, we had selected 120 village women, and they were given extensive training on various healthcare schemes, home based management of local ailments, leadership skills and survey techniques. Afterwards, they had been asked to share their knowledge with at least 10-15 women in their neighbourhood. This had improved their status in the neighbourhood, as more and more people started getting their advice on healthcare and social services related matters. Subsequently, they had collected the socio-demographic and morbidity details of the entire households, including the geometric coordinates (longitude and latitude) of the households and public offices. In this process, they began to use the geographic position system (GPS) machines, dismissing the myth that women are not that techno savvy, further improving their acceptability in the community. Many among them were seen proudly describing the implications of the thematic maps to the village people and line department staff in the monthly subcentre meetings. Many were offered seats in the local body elections by leading political parties, a few of them did stand in the elections and three of them had won the elections. This experience reinforces our belief that the empowerment of villagers with newer technology could be a public health tool with much wider positive implications.

  20. Impact of human interventions on nutrient biogeochemistry in the Pamba River, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    David, Shilly Elizabeth; Chattopadhyay, Mahamaya; Chattopadhyay, Srikumar; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2016-01-15

    Anthropogenic inputs nowadays are the major source of nutrients to the coastal area. While a wealth of data exists from high latitude regions, little is known on the amount and composition of nutrient fluxes from densely populated tropical catchments. The South Indian Pamba River is a prime example in this respect because of its manifold human interventions such as the Sabarimala pilgrimage, the largest pilgrim centre in the world and agricultural practices. In order (i) to identify direct cause-effect relationships, (ii) to quantify land use specific nutrient inputs and (iii) to assess the respective impacts water was sampled along the river course during the pre monsoon, south west monsoon and north east monsoon periods in 2010 to 2012. Sampling segments were chosen according to prevailing land use. A socioeconomic survey on agricultural practices was conducted to collect information on the type, time and quantity of fertilizer application. Our results indicate (i) little human activities in the forest segment resulted in a low nutrient yield; (ii) pilgrim activities led to high ammonium and phosphate yields in the temple segment; (iii) specific fertilizer management resulted in moderate and maximum nitrate yields in the respective agriculture segments. Annual NPK fertilizer inputs to the catchment were 95 kg ha(-1) yr(-1).The average yield for the Pamba River catchment amounted to 3.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of DIN and 0.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of phosphate-P. As opposing predictions for densely-populated regions the N and P yields of the Pamba River are moderate to low on a global scale. It highlights the need for land use specific quantitative estimates from tropical regions in order to improve the global database and local water quality management. PMID:26479915

  1. Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

    2013-06-01

    A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

  2. Deathbed visions from India: a study of family observations in northern Kerala.

    PubMed

    Muthumana, Sandhya P; Kumari, Meena; Kellehear, Allan; Kumar, Suresh; Moosa, Feroze

    This is an interview-based study of 104 families and their observations of the last weeks and days of a dying family member. Forty families reported "unusual experiences and behaviors" from the dying person in their last period of life. Thirty of these dying persons displayed behavior consistent with deathbed visions-interacting or speaking with deceased relatives, mostly their dead parents. There were six cases of reported premonitions of death and five possible confusional states with one patient reported to have had both a deathbed vision and confusional experiences. Socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, occupation, or cause and place of death were not found to be significant. Hindu patients appeared to be more likely than Muslim patients to report these experiences. Use of opiates (or not) did not appear to influence reports. The findings are discussed with reference to past studies of deathbed visions as well as their implications for the future pastoral care of dying people and their families. PMID:21375116

  3. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to quantify the upper limit of the root cohesion at the stand level in combination with land use maps. This is an indispensable component in the evaluation of slope stability in the region.

  4. Impact of human interventions on nutrient biogeochemistry in the Pamba River, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    David, Shilly Elizabeth; Chattopadhyay, Mahamaya; Chattopadhyay, Srikumar; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2016-01-15

    Anthropogenic inputs nowadays are the major source of nutrients to the coastal area. While a wealth of data exists from high latitude regions, little is known on the amount and composition of nutrient fluxes from densely populated tropical catchments. The South Indian Pamba River is a prime example in this respect because of its manifold human interventions such as the Sabarimala pilgrimage, the largest pilgrim centre in the world and agricultural practices. In order (i) to identify direct cause-effect relationships, (ii) to quantify land use specific nutrient inputs and (iii) to assess the respective impacts water was sampled along the river course during the pre monsoon, south west monsoon and north east monsoon periods in 2010 to 2012. Sampling segments were chosen according to prevailing land use. A socioeconomic survey on agricultural practices was conducted to collect information on the type, time and quantity of fertilizer application. Our results indicate (i) little human activities in the forest segment resulted in a low nutrient yield; (ii) pilgrim activities led to high ammonium and phosphate yields in the temple segment; (iii) specific fertilizer management resulted in moderate and maximum nitrate yields in the respective agriculture segments. Annual NPK fertilizer inputs to the catchment were 95 kg ha(-1) yr(-1).The average yield for the Pamba River catchment amounted to 3.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of DIN and 0.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of phosphate-P. As opposing predictions for densely-populated regions the N and P yields of the Pamba River are moderate to low on a global scale. It highlights the need for land use specific quantitative estimates from tropical regions in order to improve the global database and local water quality management.

  5. Strategies to reduce infant mortality rate in India.

    PubMed

    Ghai, O P

    1985-01-01

    As a systems approach is needed to develop strategies to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR), it is appropriate to analyze the present situation in India, reasons for low IMR in some Indian states vis-a-vis others, the status in some neighboring countries, and the cost effectiveness of various available technological interventions and their organizational constraints. A 1981 survey revealed 1) a low IMR for the state of Kerala, one which was comparable with Western nations, despite the fact that nearly half of the population in Kerala lived below the poverty line; 2) a very high IMR for the state of Uttar Pradesh, even though the number of people living below the poverty line was not significantly by different from the state of Kerala; and a moderate IMR reduction in the state of Punjab, even though only 15% of the population was below the poverty line. Favorable factors for low IMR appear to be a high female literacy rate, good medical and educational facilities close to the place of residence, and an excellent transportation and communication system. To significantly reduce IMR in a short period of time, it is necessary to adopt certain immediate measures. Nearly 55% of infant deaths occur in the 1st month of life, and these generally are not amenable to general measures and technological interventions. The problem is difficult, but a solution can be found by reaching a broad consensus among professionals and administrators. The major recommendations of a seminar on the Strategies for Reducing infant Mortality in India, held during January 1984, were: provide antenatal care to 100% of pregnant women; work for early registration of pregnancy and identification of high risk pregnancies; immunize 100% of pregnant women with tetanus toxoid; make available intrapartum care for all pregnant women; delineate anticipated job requirements, duties, and functions of village level health workers; make presterilized packaged delivery kits available to all female health

  6. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  7. Recent fertility declines in China and India: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P M; Rani, S

    1995-12-01

    This paper compares fertility transitions in China and parts of India. It is argued that China experienced a more rapid and more "impressive" decline than that of India. Socioeconomic conditions in China were more conducive to fertility decline. Kerala State in India experienced a similar decline as China but at a slower pace. The birth control campaign in China is credited with an important role in speeding the transition. It is posited that the political and administrative system and economic conditions in India are not compatible with the Chinese style program strategies. Both countries had similar fertility levels in the immediate post-revolutionary period. The most rapid decline occurred during the 1970s in China. The fertility transition was almost completed by 1981. In India, the total fertility rate (TFR) declined by only 1 point between the 1950s and 1981. In China TFR declined over 3 points during 1970-81. 76.7% of the decline in China during 1970-81 is attributed to a marked decline in marital fertility in all age groups, with the exception of ages 15-19 years. The decline in India is attributed to the decline in marital fertility. Female age at marriage rose in India, but less "impressively." In 1981 the mean age at marriage in India was 18.4 years, but it was 22.8 years in China. Marital fertility among women aged older than 30 years was considerably lower in China. Both countries experienced an increase in literacy, but in China the level of literacy was much greater. Both countries faced food shortages, but China improved food availability and calorie consumption per capita. Health services also improved in both countries, but the Chinese system of "barefoot" doctors brought services with easier reach of rural populations. Political structures differed in their dominance and organization. Family planning programs were introduced earlier in India, but prevalence was 64.4% in China in 1981 and about 22% in India.

  8. Cross-cultural standardization of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition in India

    PubMed Central

    Cherkil, S.; Satish, S.; Mathew, S.S.; Dinesh, N.; Kumar, C.T.S.; Lombardo, L.E.; Glahn, D.C.; Frangou, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite the central role of cognition for mental disorders most studies have been conducted in western countries. Similar research from other parts of the world, particularly India, is very limited. As a first step in closing this gap this cross-cultural comparability study of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN) battery was conducted between USA and India. Methods: One hundred healthy adults from Kerala, India, were administered six language independent subtests of the Java Neuropsychological Test (JANET) version of the STAN, assessing aspects of general intellectual ability (Matrix Reasoning), attention (Identical Pairs Continuous Performance, 3 Symbol Version Test; IPCPTS), working memory (Spatial Capacity Delayed Response Test; SCAP), response inhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time; SSRT), Emotional Recognition and Risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task; BART). Test results were compared to a demographically matched US sample. Results: Overall test performance in the Kerala sample was comparable to that of the US sample and commensurate to that generally described in studies from western countries. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results support the metric equivalence of currently available cognitive test batteries developed in western countries for use in India. However, the sample was restricted to individuals who were literate and had completed basic primary and secondary education. PMID:22960896

  9. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  10. Spatial changes of estuary in Ernakulam district, Southern India for last seven decades, using multi-temporal satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dipson, P T; Chithra, S V; Amarnath, A; Smitha, S V; Harindranathan Nair, M V; Shahin, Adhem

    2015-01-15

    The study area, located in the western side of Kerala State, South India, is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetlands - the largest estuary in India's western coastal wetland system and one of the Ramsar Sites of Kerala. Major portion of this estuary comes under the Ernakulam district which includes the Cochin City - the business and Industrial hub of Kerala, which has seen fast urbanization since independence (1947). Recently, this region is subjected to a characteristic fast urban sprawl, whereas, the estuarine zone is subjected to tremendous land use/land cover changes (LULC). Periodic monitoring of the estuary is essential for the formulation of viable management options for the sustainable utilization of this vital environmental resource. Remote sensing coupled with GIS applications has proved to be a useful tool in monitoring wetland changes. In the present study, the changes this estuarine region have undergone from 1944 to 2009 have been monitored with the help of multi-temporal satellite data. Estuarine areas were mapped with the help of Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat ETM (1990) and IRS LISS-III (1998 and 2009) using visual interpretation and digitization techniques in ArcGIS 9.3 Environment. The study shows a progressive decrease in the estuarine area, the reasons of which are identified chronologically. PMID:24823281

  11. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  12. New Paleomagnetic Results from Late Cretaceous Volcanics and Dykes, SouthWest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Joseph, M.; Monie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Late Cretaceous magmatism is widely distributed along the south west coast of India, mainly in the form of dyke intrusions. Most prominent dykes were emplaced around 65 Ma and are distributed in central Kerala, north Kerala and Goa. The strike trend of these dykes is NW-SE in central Kerala, whereas two orthogonal directions with NW-SE and NE-SW trends are found in north Kerala. In Goa region, they are mostly perpendicular to the coast. 25 sites (232 samples) have been collected in Kerala and Goa areas. A subordinate magmatism, around 90 Ma in age, is also traced in Agali area and St Mary Archipelago off the Malpe coast. Nine dykes (79 samples) with NW-SE trend were collected, and 9 flows (63 samples) from 8 different islands of the St Mary Archipelago. Finally, following some field evidences, the Ezhimala igneous complex, south of St Mary Islands, that occurs as a linear ridge with a NNW-SSE trend and consists mainly of granite, granophyre and gabbro, cut by dolerites, was also sampled (9 sites, 58 samples) despite its inferred Precambrian age (Rb-Sr determinations at 678 Ma). Finally, in order to constrain the duration of the Deccan volcanism, some of the younger and of the older flows (55 sites, 309 samples) were also collected. Most of the doleritic dykes are fine to medium grained with typical mineral assemblages of plagioclase, augite, olivine, and Fe-Ti oxides. All the mafic dykes of Kerala plot within the sub-alkalic field but three groups can be distinguished chemically. Fe-Ti oxides are found either as early inclusions within pyroxene or as interstitial and may constitute the late crystallization phases. Selected specimens from each site were subjected to low and high temperature susceptibility measurements to define the magnetic carriers and the thermal stability of the samples. They have indicated titanomagnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Palaeomagnetic measurements were carried out by detailed step-wise alternating field and thermal

  13. The numbers game: a demographic profile of free India.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N

    1997-01-01

    India's population has grown since independence from 350 million in 1947 to 950 million in 1997 and will probably reach 1 billion by the year 2000. Projections made from the most recent census indicate that India will be the world's most populous country by 2040. According to World Bank projections, India's population will surpass 1.7 billion by 2097. India's leaders, allocating funds to industrialization, but not enough to health care and education, failed to understand the nature and consequences of high population growth. Rapid population growth in India has led to considerable unemployment among the working-age population, considerable population pressure upon renewable and nonrenewable resources, and a demand for basic facilities which surpasses their supply. The quality of life and the environment have been adversely affected. This paper considers how investments in social development led to the achievement of replacement level fertility in Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu; the sex ratio; child survival; neglect of girls; the politics of population control; and the future.

  14. The numbers game: a demographic profile of free India.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N

    1997-01-01

    India's population has grown since independence from 350 million in 1947 to 950 million in 1997 and will probably reach 1 billion by the year 2000. Projections made from the most recent census indicate that India will be the world's most populous country by 2040. According to World Bank projections, India's population will surpass 1.7 billion by 2097. India's leaders, allocating funds to industrialization, but not enough to health care and education, failed to understand the nature and consequences of high population growth. Rapid population growth in India has led to considerable unemployment among the working-age population, considerable population pressure upon renewable and nonrenewable resources, and a demand for basic facilities which surpasses their supply. The quality of life and the environment have been adversely affected. This paper considers how investments in social development led to the achievement of replacement level fertility in Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu; the sex ratio; child survival; neglect of girls; the politics of population control; and the future. PMID:12321221

  15. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  16. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures.

  17. A new iridescent tarantula of the genus Thrigmopoeus Pocock, 1899 from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sanap, Rajesh V; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults. PMID:25103834

  18. Cefotaximase and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri in case of dysentery from southern India.

    PubMed

    Oommen, S; Pillai, P M Sivan; Sushamabai, S; Paul, P Jose

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea and dysentery caused by Shigella spp. are major public health concerns. Emerging multidrug resistance (MDR) in this pathogen further complicates this disease. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been described in this pathogen, which significantly compromises the treatment options for shigellosis. The usual ESBLs seen are sulfhydryl variable (SHV)-type; cefotaximases (CTX-M) are very uncommonly detected. Here, we report a CTX-M type and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri from a three-year-old boy residing in Central Kerala, South India.

  19. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  20. Health in India -- a futuristic scenario.

    PubMed

    Ali, A

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in the health situation in India over the last five decades following its independence. Mortality decreased dramatically, the death rate declined from 27.4 to 8.9, and the infant mortality rate decreased by almost half in 1997. Life expectancy, on the other hand, almost doubled from 32 years at the time of independence to 62 years in 1997. However, there are wide variations in the values of these health indicators among different regions. Progress has been uneven and confined to more advanced states. Improvements in the health status of the people have been most notable in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, and Punjab, whereas states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan had the least progress. These neglected areas are considered as the result of various factors in India's political economy, which hinders health policy development and its implementation. In the last part of this article, major health problems, as well as recommendations for remedial actions are outlined.

  1. Making time for the children: self-temporalization and the cultivation of the antisuicidal subject in south India.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jocelyn Lim

    2011-01-01

    This article examines suicide prevention among children in India's “suicide capital” of Kerala to interrogate the ways temporalization practices inform the cultivation of ethical, life-avowing subjects in late capitalism. As economic liberalization and migration expand consumer aspiration in Kerala, mental health experts link the quickening of material gratification in middle-class parenting to the production of insatiable, maladjusted, and impulsively suicidal children. Experiences of accelerated time through consumption in “modern” Kerala parenting practice reflect ideas about the threats of globalization that are informed both by national economic shifts and by nostalgia for the state's communist and developmentalist histories, suggesting that late capitalism's time–space compression is not a universalist phenomenon so much as one that is unevenly experienced through regionally specific renderings of the past. I demonstrate how experts position the Malayali child as uniquely vulnerable to the fatal dangers of immediate gratification, and thus exhort parents to retemporalize children through didactic games built around the deferral of desires for everyday consumer items. Teaching children how to wait as a pleasurable and explicitly antisuicidal way of being reveals anxieties, contestations, and contradictions concerning what ought to constitute “quality” investment in children as temporal subjects of late capitalism. The article concludes by bringing efforts to save elite lives into conversation with suicide prevention among migrants to draw out the ways distinct vulnerabilities and conditions of precarity situate waiting subjects in radically different ways against the prospect of self-destruction. PMID:21510329

  2. Invitational rhetoric: Alternative rhetorical strategy for transformation of perception and use of energy in the residential built environment from the Keweenaw to Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindred, Merle Niemi

    This dissertation explores the viability of invitational rhetoric as a mode of advocacy for sustainable energy use in the residential built environment. The theoretical foundations for this study join ecofeminist concepts and commitments with the conditions and resources of invitational rhetoric, developing in particular the rhetorical potency of the concepts of re-sourcement and enfoldment. The methodological approach is autoethnography using narrative reflection and journaling, both adapted to and developed within the autoethnographic project. Through narrative reflection, the author explores her lived experiences in advocating for energy-responsible residential construction in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. The analysis reveals the opportunities for cooperative, collaborative advocacy and the struggle against traditional conventions of persuasive advocacy, particularly the centrality of the rhetor. The author also conducted two field trips to India, primarily the state of Kerala. Drawing on autoethnographic journaling, the analysis highlights the importance of sensory relations in lived advocacy and the resonance of everyday Indian culture to invitational principles. Based on field research, the dissertation proposes autoethnography as a critical development in encouraging invitational rhetoric as an alternative mode of effecting change. The invitational force of autoethnography is evidenced in portraying the material advocacy of the built environment itself, specifically the sensual experience of material arrangements and ambience, as well as revealing the corporeality of advocacy, that is, the body as the site of invitational engagement, emotional encounter, and sensory experience. This study concludes that vulnerability of self in autoethnographic work and the vulnerability of rhetoric as invitational constitute the basis for transformation. The dissertation confirms the potential of an ecofeminist invitational advocacy conveyed autoethnographically for

  3. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  4. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E S Challaraj; Ananthi, T; Anandkumar, B; Maruthamuthu, S

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  5. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  6. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  7. The palliative care movement in India: another freedom struggle or a silent revolution?

    PubMed

    Koshy, Cherian

    2009-01-01

    The message of palliative care in India has become a movement in several parts of India in a short span of time. The past two decades have seen palpable changes in the mindset of health care providers, and policy makers with respect to the urgency in providing palliative care. With a population of over a billion spread over a vast geo-political mosaic, the reach and reliability of palliative care programmes may appear staggering and insurmountable. Nonetheless we have reasons to be proud in that we have overcome several hurdles and is presently in a 'consolidation mode'. It is only a matter of time before the 'aam admi' has access to good palliative care. Easing narcotic licensing procedures, creation of standard operating procedures for morphine availability and the passing of the 'Palliative Care Policy' by the Government of Kerala are commendable milestones. We are today having more of 'silver linings' and less of 'dark clouds'.

  8. Democratic Decentralization and Primary Education: A Comparison of Continuity and Change in Two Districts of Kerala (India)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, M. V.

    2003-01-01

    Adopting policies of decentralization has become more or less a universal fashion among governments. Institutional redesigning as regard to affirmative state is favored by the political left and right in capitalist democracies. However, their arguments revolve around the decision-making powers of ordinary citizens. Some academics argue that the…

  9. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  10. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of proterozoic mafic dykes in north Kerala, southwestern Indian Shield - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishna, T.; Gopakumar, K.; Murali, A. V.; Mitchell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Mafic dyke intrusions occur in three distinct orientations ( NNW-SSE and NW-SE and NE-SW) in north Kerala regions, the southwestern part of the Indian Shield. Dating of two NNW-SSE trending dykes by K-Ar method has yielded Middle Proterozoic ages (ca. 1660 Ma and ca. 1420 Ma respectively). Our initial geochemical results on these dyke rocks (0.65-0.15 wt pct K2O, 0.37-0.38 wt pct P2O5, 3.30-1.00 wt pct TiO2, 11-1 p.p.m. Rb, 250-90 p.p.m. Sr, 230-40 p.p.m. Ba, 160-40 p.p.m. Zr, and 30-10 x chondrite rare earth elemental abundances) indicate a transitional character between abyssal and plateau tholeiites. Petrogenetic modelling suggests that the dyke compositions have been derived by different degrees of partial melting of a heterogenous source mantle. The mantle sources with accessory amphibole and/or garnet, variably enriched in LREE and LIL elements, are compatible with the observed geochemical data.

  11. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated.

  12. Interaction between microalgal species richness and environmental variables in Peringalkuthu Reservoir, Western Ghats, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nasser, K M Mohamed; Sureshkumar, S

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae are the most diverse group of aquatic organisms and are the primary food source for animals of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food web. Biomonitoring the fresh water habitats in terms of phycological evaluation provide useful information about the pollution status of the water body. The present investigation aimed to delineate the interaction between microalgal species richness and environmental variables in Peringalkuthu Reservoir of Western Ghats, Kerala. Samples were collected during 2009-2011 for the analysis of environmental variables and microalgal community. Ninety four species of microalgae belonged to 42 genera under the classes Chlorophyceae, Desmidiaceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophycea were recorded from the samples. The dominant groups were desmids followed by diatoms. Factor analysis and multivariate analysis were applied to evaluate the extent of interaction between the microalgal species richness and the environmental variables. Temperature, total alkalinity, BOD, phosphate, silicate and chloride showed positive relationship with the species richness of the microalgae. While pH, total hardness, nitrate, fluoride, calcium and magnesium hinder the microalgal species richness. Elucidation of the interactions between microalgae and various environmental parameters suggested a control over the anthropogenic interventions to the reservoir to check the conversion of the lake oligotrophic to eutrophic condition. PMID:24555328

  13. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated. PMID:27601809

  14. Unintentional injuries among children admitted in a tertiary care hospital in North Kerala.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Akbar; Rahim, Asma; Lailabi, M P; Gopi, Jibin

    2011-01-01

    World Health Organization global disease update (2004) points out injuries as the sixth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. A descriptive hospital based study was conducted to find out the common types of unintentional injuries among children admitted for management of unintentional injuries in Pediatric Surgery department and Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital of North Kerala and to find out the contributing risk factors. A total of 400 children admitted during the study period of 6 months of 2009 constituted the study population. Mechanical injuries comprising of Road traffic accidents and accidental fall were the major cause of unintentional injuries (36%), followed by Poisoning (22.3%). A higher proportion of unintentional injuries were noted to occur among children of younger mothers, overactive child, children belonging to extended or joint families, child left alone or with friends, pre-school children, male child and from urban dwellings. The study highlights the need to identify the different types of unintentional injuries and the risk factors of childhood injuries which require hospitalisation. Identification of risk factors will help to formulate strategies aimed at risk reduction and prevention of childhood injuries.

  15. “Why not psychiatry??” Interns of a medical college in Northern Kerala responds

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K. Niranjan; Sajeev Kumar, P. B.; Narayanankutty, O. K.; Abraham, Amal; Raj, Zoheb; Madanagopal, Vinayak; Balu, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study is to assess the attitude of the medical interns toward psychiatry, psychiatrists and patients with mental health problems. Materials and Methods: A personal data sheet and the Balon et al. questionnaire was used to assess the attitude among medical interns (n = 44) of a medical college in Northern Kerala. Results: There was modestly good attitude toward psychiatry throughout the study. Data were compared between interns who have completed their posting in psychiatry and those who have not. There was no significant difference except for their awareness about consultation liaison services and the authoritative power of psychiatrists in mental health field. The stigma toward psychiatry is on the decline at least among medical professionals, and more interns are interested in taking up psychiatry as a future specialty. Conclusion: Although the study has evidenced a positive attitude to psychiatry, there is still room to improve. A clearer picture could be attained by conducting similar studies in a bigger sample size. A structured curriculum and compulsory internship during the undergraduate course have greatly contributed toward building a more positive opinion of the subject. PMID:27385855

  16. Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.

  17. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  19. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    PubMed

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability.

  20. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. Characterization and FTIR spectral studies of human urinary stones from Southern India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E V; Bushiri, M Junaid; Vaidyan, V K

    2010-10-01

    Urinary stones resected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Kollam district of Kerala State, India were analyzed by SEM, XRD and by thermal analysis techniques. The analytical results indicate that, stones have different composition, i.e., calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide and sodium calcium carbonate. Infrared spectral studies also reveal the presence of phosphates or carbonates in these samples. Further, IR spectral investigations have revealed that amorphous carbonated species are occupied in PO(4) sites in calcium phosphate type stone and OH sites in calcium phosphate hydroxide sample. Thermal studies of these samples also reveal that, carbon dioxide is released from carbonated samples upon heating which is related to amount of carbon content and bond strength. Crystals with defects and irregular morphology are grown inside the urinary bladder due to variation in crystal growth conditions.

  2. Canine filarial infections in a human Brugia malayi endemic area of India.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Reghu; Varghese, Sincy; Nair, Suresh N; Balan, Vimalkumar M; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Ashruf, Riyas M; Kumar, Swaroop S; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar K; Nair, Archana S; Malayil, Aparna; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Juliet, Sanis; Kopparambil, Devada; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Kunjupillai, Regu; Kakada, Showkath Ali M

    2014-01-01

    A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state), a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of "local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body" was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out. PMID:24971339

  3. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. PMID:26065929

  4. First verified record of the ant genus Calyptomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India, along with a revised key to known Indomalayan species

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The members of genus Calyptomyrmex are mostly encountered under rotten logs, in the soil, under stones and in leaf litter samples. These ants are seldom in collections making estimation of their true distributional patterns problematic (Shattuck 2011). The deep antennal scrobes and the unique configuration of the clypeus are distinct to the genus (Bolton 1981). New information Herein Calyptomyrmex wittmeri Baroni Urbani, 1975 is redescribed and reported for the first time from India. This also confirms the first valid published record of the genus from the country. The image hosted by AntWeb as C. vedda (CASENT0280817; AntWeb 2015b) collected by Besuchet, Löbl, Mussard from Kerala, India and identified by Brown is actually C. wittmeri (Brown was uncertain of his determination of C. vedda and cautiously inserted an interrogation point in front of his determination). Two workers recently collected at Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Kerala present similarities to the specimen identified by Brown. However, characters as the lack of well-developed promesonotal suture, absence of clavate setae, and narrow petiolar node, concur with the diagnosis of C. wittmeri. A revised key to known Indomalayan species of the genus is provided herewith. PMID:26696759

  5. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-06-24

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  6. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  7. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-06-24

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  8. Genetic characterization of Bagaza virus (BAGV) isolated in India and evidence of anti-BAGV antibodies in sera collected from encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Bondre, Vijay P; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yergolkar, Prasanna N; Fulmali, Pradip V; Sankararaman, Vasudha; Ayachit, Vijay M; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Gore, Milind M

    2009-11-01

    During investigations into the outbreak of encephalitis in 1996 in the Kerala state in India, an arbovirus was isolated from a Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito pool. It was characterized as a Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus cross-reactive arbovirus by complement fixation test. A plaque reduction-neutralization test was performed using hyperimmune sera raised against the plaque-purified arbovirus isolate. The sera did not show reactivity with Japanese encephalitis virus and were weakly reactive with West Nile virus. Complete open reading frame sequence analysis characterized the arbovirus as Bagaza virus (BAGV), with 94.80 % nucleotide identity with African BAGV strain DakAr B209. Sera collected from the encephalitic patients during the acute phase of illness showed 15 % (8/53) positivity for anti-BAGV neutralizing antibodies. This is the first report of the isolation of BAGV from India. The presence of anti-BAGV neutralizing antibodies suggests that the human population has been exposed to BAGV.

  9. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  10. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries. PMID:26701522

  11. Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India.

    PubMed

    Manikutty, S

    1997-06-01

    This comparative study on the two rural drinking water supply and sanitation projects in the state of Kerala, India, was conducted to determine the impact of community participation on the project outcomes. Both were piped water schemes delivered by the Kerala Water Authority (KWA); one had adopted community participation by the beneficiary community, the other contained no community participation component. Project 1 was served by the Dutch/Danish project and Project 2 was served by KWA alone. A total of 160 respondents were involved in the study, 80 individuals belonged to each project. Technological outcomes, particularly in terms of water quality, were found to be better in project 1 than in project 2. 40% of the people in Project 1 villages and 25% in Project 2 villages switched over completely to the "safe" water supply provided by the project. It was also found that the health habits of the beneficiaries in project 1 were far better compared to project 2, specifically in covering drinking water containers and use of latrines. In addition, there was more continued community involvement in project 1 than in project 2. Satisfaction-wise, the majority (75%) of respondents in project 1 areas claimed satisfaction with the project as compared to 30% of project 2 respondents.

  12. A revisit to prevailing care and challenges of managing diabetes in India: Focus on regional disparities

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Manash P.; Pathak, Ankit; Kalra, Sanjay; Das, Ashok K.; Zargar, Abdul H.; Bajaj, Sarita; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Sahay, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    An unprecedented rise in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence in India is the outcome of lifestyle changes in the background of genetic predisposition. Moreover, there are substantial regional variations in diabetes prevalence and management. The highest prevalence of DM was observed in southern region (Ernakulum, Kerala) and lowest prevalence was observed in North Eastern region (Manipur). Similarly large variations have been evident in overall awareness and diabetes care across the geographies within India. The regional challenges are largely affected by poor disease awareness, socioeconomic disparity and underutilization of the public health-care services. Though government has taken initiatives to address this issue, overall situation demands a collaborative effort from patients, health care professionals and the state. An exhaustive literature search was performed for articles and studies published on electronic databases. Present article assesses the regional disparity of diabetes epidemiology, current management practices and government policies for T2DM in India, identifies policy and research gaps, and suggests corrective measures to address the lacunae in diabetes care. PMID:24944916

  13. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  14. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  15. How safe motherhood in India is.

    PubMed

    Rao, K B

    1995-02-01

    According to a 3-year collaborative study estimating maternal mortality rates from 41 hospitals affiliated with teaching centers in India, maternal mortality was 721 per 100,000 live births. Community studies in rural areas of Sirur, Pachod, and Ambula reported maternal mortality as 210-253 per 100,000. Cohort studies conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research reported maternal mortality as 530 per 100,000 based on data from rural areas of Varanasi, 460 per 100,000 in urban Delhi, and 450 per 100,000 in urban Madras. The Ministry of Health gave the rate as 460 per 100,000 in 1984, while UNICEF gave a figure of 400 per 100,000 for 1980-91. India has 1 out of 4 of the world's maternal deaths, or 1 every 6 minutes. The risk of maternal death has been calculated to be one in 64. Risk is unevenly distributed geographically. Risk is low in Kerala compared to Uttar Pradesh or Madya Pradesh. In 1992 maternal mortality was calculated to be 1320 per 100,000 births based on 5 district hospitals. The cause of maternal deaths was anemia in 25% of cases. 75% of cases were accounted for by eclampsia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and abortion. Anemia (pre-existing the pregnancy) is acerbated by the demands of pregnancy and causes congestive heart failure and death. Blood losses of greater than 150 ml (due to hemorrhages of pregnancy and labor) can be fatal. During 1982-89 anemia was responsible for 17-24% of all maternal deaths in rural areas. Morbidity from pregnancy-related causes included obstetric fistulae, pelvic inflammatory disease, anemia, genital prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Quality of maternal care is an important factor in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. Societal factors such as illiteracy and malnutrition, early marriage, poorly supervised pregnancies, and lack of transportation during emergencies are other determinants of mortality and morbidity. About 10% of maternal deaths are attributed to unsafe abortion. The government aim for the year 2000 of

  16. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. PMID:26317688

  17. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  18. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  19. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure. PMID:25029406

  20. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI) tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation. PMID:26286613

  1. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

    PubMed

    Filmer, D; Pritchett, L H

    2001-02-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.

  2. Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for

  3. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised.

  4. Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

    2014-05-01

    An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to

  5. Phytochemical investigation of Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Sheriff.--a nutrient-rich leafy vegetable from Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Pradeesh; Nair, Archana G; Chinmayee, Devi M; Mini, I; Sukumaran, Swapna T

    2012-07-01

    Bidens biternata, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is an erect annual herb, up to 1 cm in height, and a widespread weed of cultivated areas. This plant is common, particularly in the Western Ghats regions of Kerala state in India. It is used as a leafy vegetable by the Paniya and Kattunaayika tribes of Waynadu Districts in Kerala and also to cure hepatitis, cold, cough, dysentery, etc. The multiplication and utilization of this leafy vegetable will help to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem and also to maintain the biodiversity. For effective biochemical analysis, plant extract was taken using different solvents. Various phytochemicals like reducing sugar, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins, saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannins and iridoids were estimated. Different nutritional factors like total carbohydrates, total proteins, total reducing sugar, different amino acids, free fatty acids, crude fibre, lipids, total moisture content, vitamins, etc. were tested by standard estimation methods. Anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid, total phenol, tannic acid, etc., were also estimated. Micronutrients and different pigments were quantified. The present studies revealed that this wild leafy plant has numerous nutritional factors with a low level of anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, this nutritive herb with diverse health-promoting compounds can be effectively utilized to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem around the globe. PMID:22538981

  6. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  7. First authenticated cases of life-threatening envenoming by the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J K; Simpson, I D; Menon, N C S; Jose, M P; Kulkarni, K J; Raghavendra, G B; Warrell, D A

    2007-01-01

    In Kerala, south-western India, five patients developed systemic envenoming after bites by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale), proved by identification of the snakes responsible. Two of the dead snakes had been misidentified as saw-scaled vipers (Echis carinatus), while three had remained unidentified. Symptoms of local envenoming were pain, swelling, haemorrhagic blistering, bruising and regional lymphadenopathy. Systemic symptoms included headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal and chest pain. There was evidence of haemostatic dysfunction (coagulopathy, fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia or spontaneous systemic haemorrhage) in all cases and of microangiopathic haemolysis in two. Two patients were haemodialysed for acute renal failure, one of whom developed pulmonary oedema requiring mechanical ventilation. In India, H. hypnale has not previously been regarded as a cause of frequent or potentially dangerous envenoming. Its medical importance has been overlooked throughout its geographical range, probably because of confusion with other small species. No specific antivenom exists, yet most patients are treated with non-specific antivenoms, risking reactions without hope of benefit. An effective antivenom is urgently needed in south India and in Sri Lanka, where this species is also a common cause of bites. PMID:16839578

  8. Transforming the self and healing the body through the use of testimonies in a divine retreat center, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eva; Lang, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we analyze the collective healing process that takes place on a weekly basis in the Divine Retreat Center (DRC) in Muringoor, Kerala. We argue that disease in the DRC is understood either as a psycho-somatic or as a spirito-somatic phenomenon. In contrast to other Charismatic communities, however, the body is the locus on which the medical effects of the healing become visible. The whole process is divided into several phases: First, there is a cleansing and disengagement procedure that aims to purify and liberate the participants through confession and counseling. Thereafter comes a climatic phase of personal emptying, transition and re-orientation during which the healing itself takes place. The procedure is finally completed with the person being spiritually "refilled" by the Holy Spirit. The dominant recurring element in the whole process is the continuous statement of healing "testimonies." As an integral part of the healing procedure, these statements are used to share personal experiences among the participants in the center. They are produced in a strict format in order to be spread far beyond through various media (TV, newspaper, Internet, etc.). They thereby constitute a speech genre that follows specific rules and patterns. Through shaping one's own biography in the frame of the testimonies, so we argue, the actual transformation of the self and therefore the miracle healing takes place.

  9. Utilization of Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala: A Comparative Study of Insured and Uninsured Below-Poverty-Line Households.

    PubMed

    Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the sociodemographics, health care utilization pattern, and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses of 149 insured and 147 uninsured below-poverty-line households insured under the Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala, through a comparative cross-sectional study. Family size more than 4 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-4.82), family member with chronic disease (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.18-3.57), high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.74-5.03), and an employed household head (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.44-5.02) were significantly associated with insured households. Insured households had higher inpatient service utilization (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34). Only 40% of inpatient service utilization among the insured was covered by insurance. The mean OOP expenses for inpatient services among insured (INR 448.95) was higher than among uninsured households (INR 159.93); P = .003. These findings show that urgent attention of the government is required to redesign and closely monitor the scheme. PMID:26316502

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  11. Utilization of Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala: A Comparative Study of Insured and Uninsured Below-Poverty-Line Households.

    PubMed

    Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the sociodemographics, health care utilization pattern, and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses of 149 insured and 147 uninsured below-poverty-line households insured under the Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala, through a comparative cross-sectional study. Family size more than 4 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-4.82), family member with chronic disease (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.18-3.57), high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.74-5.03), and an employed household head (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.44-5.02) were significantly associated with insured households. Insured households had higher inpatient service utilization (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34). Only 40% of inpatient service utilization among the insured was covered by insurance. The mean OOP expenses for inpatient services among insured (INR 448.95) was higher than among uninsured households (INR 159.93); P = .003. These findings show that urgent attention of the government is required to redesign and closely monitor the scheme.

  12. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different.

  13. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  14. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2005-09-01

    The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

  15. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  16. A new thrust and dynamism. India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S

    1992-08-01

    The 1991 census indicated that India's population was 844.3 million, increasing from the 342 million of 1947 and 683.6 million of 1981. The annual rate of increase is 16 million. The Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951 and the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971. The National Health policy of 1983 set demographic goals for 2000: infant mortality rate of 60, population growth rate of 1.2% (with a birth rate of 21/1000 and death rate of 9), and a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 60%. Owing to the decline in mortality, the rate of population growth increased from 1.3 in 1931-41 to 2.2 in 1971-81; infant mortality rate decreased from 114 in 1980 to 80 in 1990; CPR reached 44.1%; and total fertility declined from 5.9 in 1960 to 4 in 1988. An extensive infrastructure was also proposed in 1985 in order to establish 1 subcenter for every 5000 population in normal areas and 3000 population in tribal areas; primary health centers for 30,000 in normal areas and 20,000 in hilly and tribal areas; and community health centers for 120,000 in normal areas and 80,000 in hilly and tribal areas. The universal immunization program was launched in 1985 with the aim of immunizing all pregnant women and all children. In 1985-86 coverage levels ranged between 29% for BCG and 41% for DPT. By the end of March 1991 it is estimated that 98% of infants were immunized with DPT3 and OPV3; 97% of infants with BCG and 89% of infants with measles vaccine. 78% of pregnant women were immunized with tetanus toxoid. The total number of poliomyelitis cases was only about 4000 in 1991 decreasing from 32,000 cases in 1981. In states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu population growth rated declined to 1.31% and 1.39%, respectively. However, the growth rates have stayed at 2.37% in Madhya Pradesh, 2.47% in Rajasthan, and 2.26% in Uttar Pradesh. PMID:12343894

  17. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  18. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  19. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" - an executive course to support genomics policy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Kumar, Nandini K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-05-19

    BACKGROUND: The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. METHODS: The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and ensure broad-based input

  20. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B.; S., Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic—rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub—coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon—lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0–3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of

  1. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  2. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  3. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  4. India: the human factor in overcoming population problems.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, I

    1984-01-01

    Population control is an integral part of India's plans for development. Special funds and staff are earmarked for this program. It is also recognized that the task must be dovetailed into the country's general programs of health and education. The country is democratic, and the government can act only with the consent and cooperation of the people. The family planning program is totally voluntary. The birthrate, which was above 40/1000 in 1951, has dropped to 33/1000 for India as a whole. In those states where education, particularly of girls, is higher, and where economic progress has been faster and rural health services better developed, the birthrate has fallen even more markedly. It is 25.6/1000 in Kerala and 30.3/1000 in Punjab. The goal is to reduce the national average to 21/1000 by the year 2000. The task is a difficult one. Millions of couples, many of them illiterate, must be persuaded and given the means. With low incomes and crowded homes, few can afford to, or have the ability to, use contraceptives. Consequently, they choose sterilization. There is some opposition, more for political than for religious reasons. The people have accepted laparoscopy. With the assurance of reversibility, more will avail themselves of sterilization services. Medical research needs to develop more effective and safe formulations to confer long lasting immunity on men and women, and these should be inexpensive, easy to use, and without harmful side effects. In India the main obstacle is economic backwardness. In agricultural and craft societies, the children are regarded as extra hands to help the family. For the same reason boys are preferred. Currently, younger women, even those who may not be educated, have ambitions for their children and are enthusiastic about family planning. It is said that prosperity is a good contraceptive, yet the effects of development are lost unless a low birthrate is achieved. Family planning is an input for development, an indispensable

  5. Pan-African alkali granites and syenites of Kerala as imprints of taphrogenic magmatism in the South Indian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Drury, S. A.; Iyer, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    Granite and syenite plutons with alkaline affinities ranging in age from 550 to 750 Ma sporadically puncture the Precambrian granulites of the Kerala region. All the bodies are small (20 to 60 sq km), E-W to NW-SE elongated elliptical intrusives with sharp contacts and lie on or close to major late Proterozoic lineaments. Geochemical plots of A-F-M and An-Ab-Or relations show an apparent alkali enrichment trend on the former, but the plutons define relatively distinct fields on the latter. Most of the plutons are adamellitic to granitic by chemistry. The variations of SiO2 with log sub 10 K2O/MgO (1) brings out the distinct alkaline nature of the plutons. Some of the granites are extremely potassic, like the Peralimala pluton, which shows up to 11.8 percent K2O. On a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O+K2O (mol percent) plot, the plutons vary from peraluminous to peralkaline, but none are nepheline normative. Low MgO, low to moderate CaO and high Fe2O3/FeO values are other common characteristics. Among trace elements, depletion of Ba, Sr and Rb with high K/Ba and K/Rb values are typical. Overall, the plutons show a trend of decreasing K/Rb ratio with increasing K content. Individual plutons show more clearly defined trends similar to those from granitic masses characterized by plagioclase fractionation.

  6. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  7. Characteristics and carbon stable isotopes of fluids in the Southern Kerala granulites and their bearing on the source of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Jackson, D. H.; Mattey, D. P.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich inclusions commonly occur in the banded charnockites and khondalites of southern Kerala as well as in the incipient charnockites formed by desiccation of gneisses along oriented zones. The combined high density fluid inclusion isochores and the range of thermometric estimates from mineral assemblages indicate entrapment pressures in the range of 5.4 to 6.1 Kbar. The CO2 equation of state barometry closely compares with the 5 plus or minus 1 Kbar estimate from mineral phases for the region. The isochores for the high density fluid inclusions in all the three rock types pass through the P-T domain recorded by phase equilibria, implying that carbon dioxide was the dominating ambient fluid species during peak metamorphic conditions. In order to constrain the source of fluids and to evaluate the mechanism of desiccation, researchers undertook detailed investigations of the carbon stable isotope composition of entrapped fluids. Researchers report here the results of preliminary studies in some of the classic localities in southern Kerala namely, Ponmudi, Kottavattom, Manali and Kadakamon.

  8. Rising private sector and falling 'good health at low cost': health challenges in China, Sri Lanka, and Indian state of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Thresia, C U

    2013-01-01

    Despite having a captivating history of outstanding health achievements during the second half of the 20th century, China, Sri Lanka, and the Indian state of Kerala face several health challenges, particularly in the context of a shift in financing health care from a predominantly public-sector to a market-oriented provision. Over the 1990s, these "good health at low cost" (GHLC) regions faced widening health inequities and adverse health outcomes in relation to social, economic, and geographical marginalization, compared to another GHLC country, Costa Rica, and to Cuba, which have a similar history of health and economic profile. While the historical process of health development in China, Sri Lanka, and Kerala is closely entangled with the interrelated policies on health and allied social sectors with an abiding public-sector support, the retreat of the state and resultant increase in private-sector medical care and out-of-pocket spending resulted in widening inequities and medical impoverishment. Investigating the public health challenges and associated medical care-induced impoverishment, this article argues that the fundamental root causes of health challenges in these regions are often neglected in policy and in practice and that policymakers, planners, and researchers should make it a priority to address health inequities. PMID:23527452

  9. Hospice and palliative care development in India: a multimethod review of services and experiences.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Selman, Lucy; Wright, Michael; Clark, David

    2008-06-01

    Palliative care has been developing in India since the mid-1980s, but there is a dearth of evidence about service provision on which to base national policy and practice. The aim of this study was to assess the current state of palliative care in India, mapping the existence of services state by state, and documenting the perspectives and experiences of those involved. A multimethod review was used, which included synthesis of evidence from published and grey literature, ethnographic field visits, qualitative interviews with 87 individuals from 12 states, and collation of existing public health data. The review identified 138 hospice and palliative care services in 16 states and union territories. These are mostly concentrated in large cities, with the exception of Kerala, where they are much more widespread. Nongovernmental organizations, public and private hospitals, and hospices are the predominant sources of provision. We were unable to identify palliative care services in 19 states/union territories. Development of services is uneven, with greater provision evident in the south than the north, but for the majority of states, coverage is poor. Barriers to the development of palliative care include: poverty, population density, geography, opioid availability, workforce development, and limited national palliative care policy. Successful models exist for the development of affordable, sustainable community-based palliative care services. These have arisen from adapting Western models of hospice and palliative care for implementation in the Indian cultural context. Further work is required to ensure that the growing interest in hospice and palliative care in India is used to increase the momentum of progress.

  10. Five new species of Inocybe (Agaricales) from tropical India.

    PubMed

    Latha, K P Deepna; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Inocybe, I. iringolkavensis, I. keralensis, I. kuruvensis, I. muthangensis and I. wayanadensis, are described from Kerala state, India, based on morphological and molecular data. All are associated with trees belonging to Dipterocarpaceae. Inocybe iringolkavensis is characterized by nodulose to somewhat stellate basidiospores, 1-4-spored basidia, and caulocystidia restricted to the stipe apex. Inocybe keralensis has a yellowish brown pileus, lamellae with whitish, serrate edges, smooth, ellipsoidal basidiospores and a duplex pileipellis with the superficial hyphae devoid of encrustations and encrusted hyphae beneath. The diagnostic features of I. kuruvensis include a dark brown pileus, stipe with a whitish base and grayish brown, floccose-fibrillose surface, nodulose basidiospores with saddle-shaped projections and faintly encrusted paracystidia with refractive contents. Violet basidiomata with a rimose, hygrophanous pileus, densely pruinose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, and nodulose basidiospores are the major features of I. muthangensis. Inocybe wayanadensis is characterized by small, whitish basidiomata, a viscid pileus with a rimulose surface, a densely pruinose and fibrillose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, nodulose basidiospores, thick-walled pleuro- cheilo- and caulocystidia and an ixotrichoderm-type pileipellis. The phylogenetic relationships of these new species are inferred from an analysis of nuc rDNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and the 28S gene. Except I. keralensis, which belongs to the Pseudosperma clade, all other species belong to the Inocybe clade. This study represents the second report of an Inocybe species (I. muthangensis) that combines violet basidiomata with nodulose basidiospores.

  11. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  12. Need for Equipping Teachers for Quality Higher Education: Exploring How Teachers in Kerala Perceive Quality Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnthodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, India's higher education sector has witnessed remarkable progress. Though the country has the largest and the second largest higher education system in the world in terms of the number of institutions and enrolment respectively, it still faces challenges on several fronts. Quality of higher education (HE) is a…

  13. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Retnakumari, N.; Cyriac, Gibi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child's and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %(177). Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child's age(P<0.001), female gender(P<0.05),low socioeconomic status (P<0.05), feeding frequency (P<0.05), type of feeding(P<0.01), fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05), duration of breast feeding(P<0.001), consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01), age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05), brushing frequency(P<0.05), oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001), DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001), and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001). PMID:22557889

  14. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  15. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  16. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  17. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  18. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  19. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  20. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1).

  1. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

  2. Emerging Vector-Borne Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology and Public Health Implications in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  3. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators in physical activity participation among women in Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Elezebeth; Lakshmi, J. K.; Sundari Ravindran, T. K.; Pratt, Michael; Thankappan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the known benefits of physical activity, very few people, especially women, are found to engage in regular physical activity. This study explored the perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to physical activity among women in Thiruvananthapuram City, India. Methods Four focus group discussions were conducted among individuals between 25 and 60 years of age, in a few areas of Thiruvananthapuram City Corporation limits in Kerala, preparatory to the design of a physical activity intervention trial. An open-ended approach was used and emergent findings were analyzed and interpreted. Results Women associated physical activity mostly with household activities. The majority of the women considered their activity level adequate, although they engaged in what the researchers concluded were quite low levels of activity. Commonly reported barriers were lack of time, motivation, and interest; stray dogs; narrow roads; and not being used to the culture of walking. Facilitators of activity were seeing others walking, walking in pairs, and pleasant walking routes. Walking was reported as the most feasible physical activity by women. Conclusion Physical activity promotion strategies among women should address the prevailing cultural norms in the community, and involve social norming and overcoming cultural barriers. They should also target the modifiable determinants of physical activity, such as improving self-efficacy, improving knowledge on the adequacy of physical activity and its recommendations, facilitating goal-setting, and enhancing social support through peer support and group-based activities. PMID:25829405

  4. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  5. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  7. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  8. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  9. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  10. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  11. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  12. Biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires in the Deccan Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Eaturu, Anuradha

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious environmental problems in several forested regions of India. In the Indian sub-continent, relatively few studies have focused on the assessment of biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires at a landscape scale and the spatial aspects of these relationships. In this study, we used fire count data sets from satellite remote sensing data covering 78 districts over four different states of the Deccan Plateau, India, for assessing the underlying causes of fires. Spatial data for explanatory variables of fires pertaining to topography, vegetation, climate, anthropogenic and accessibility factors have been gathered corresponding with fire presence/absence. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of fires as a function of the explanatory variables. Results for fire area estimates suggested that, of the total fires covering 47,043km(2) that occurred during the year 2000 for the entire Indian region, 29.0% occurred in the Deccan Plateau, with Andhra Pradesh having 13.5%, Karnataka 14.7%, Kerala 0.1%, and Tamilnadu 1.15%. Results from the logistic regression suggest that the strongest influences on the fire occurrences were the amount of forest area, biomass densities, rural population density (PD), average precipitation of the warmest quarter, elevation (ELE) and mean annual temperature (MAT). Among these variables, biomass density (BD) and average precipitation of the warmest quarter had the highest significance, followed by others. These results on the best predictors of forest fires can be used both as a strategic planning tool to address broad scale fire risk concerns, and also as a tactical guide to help forest managers to design fire mitigation measures at the district level.

  13. Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Piriyatharisini; Muthuraman, Krishna Raj; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the “most neglected” tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods. Only a few studies from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry are available regarding the seropositive levels of NCC in South India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on NCC suspected patients attending outpatient or inpatient department of different clinics majorly from neurology, medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and skin at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 391 patient samples (either serum or cerebrospinal fluid or urine) for 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015 were taken into the study. Serological investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot were performed for assessing the seropositivity levels of NCC. Results: The overall seropositive cases of NCC in the study population were found to be 32.5% of which positive male cases (59.1%) exceeding females (40.9%). The frequency of adult positive cases (77.2%) was more than that of pediatrics cases (22.8%) with an average of 30.9 years of age. Conclusions: NCC seropositive levels show an increasing trend with the study period. This necessitates a proper attention to the unnoticed spread of the parasitic disease, which affects the quality of life in the community. Quality screening and diagnostic strategy should be implied along with proper awareness for preventive measure practices

  14. Genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus, India 2006-2010: evolutionary dynamics and serotype analyses.

    PubMed

    Sumathy, K; Ella, Krishna M

    2012-03-01

    The genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causing recurring outbreaks in India since 2006 was studied. The 2006 epidemic was caused by a virus strain of the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype with 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The variant strain with E1-A226V mutation caused outbreaks since 2007 in the state of Kerala where Aedes albopictus is the abundant mosquito vector. Molecular epidemiology data since 2007 is scarce from other regions of the country. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of CHIKV isolates from the 2009 to 2010 epidemics in the States of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh placed them in a separate clade within the ECSA lineage. The isolates of the study had 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The isolates had a novel E1-K211E mutation that was under significant positive selection. E1-211E is highly conserved in the Asian genotype of the virus circulated by Aedes aegypti. Unique mutations in E2 glycoprotein were identified. The two sub-lineages of ECSA genotype circulating in India parallel the abundance of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Novel mutations in the envelope glycoproteins suggest adaptive evolution of the virus to local vector abundance. Cross neutralization of the virus isolates from recurring Indian epidemics indicated that no distinct serotypes had evolved. The study has provided insights into the origin, distribution and evolutionary adaptation of the virus to local vector abundance in the region that has reportedly, the highest incidence of CHIKV infection in the world.

  15. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for

  16. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  17. Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type B3 strains associated with acute flaccid paralysis in south-western India.

    PubMed

    Laxmivandana, Rongala; Cherian, Sarah S; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species Enterovirus B is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009-2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI (n = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) (n = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5' non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5' non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

  18. Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, B.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture

  19. Epilepsy surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P

    2011-10-01

    Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

  20. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  1. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it has been applied to pharmaceutical and biological research. In due course, several research centers with advanced mass spectrometry facilities have been established for specific areas of research such as gas-phase ion chemistry, ion-molecule reactions, proscribed chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmacokinetics, protein/peptide chemistry, nuclear chemistry, geochronological studies, archeology, petroleum industry, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. Day-by-day the mass spectrometry centers/facilities in India have attracted young students for their doctoral research and other advanced research applications.

  2. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  3. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  4. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  6. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  7. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  8. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  9. Bioinformatics education in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Sawant, Sangeeta; Chavan, Vishwas

    2010-11-01

    An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India in the 1980s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community. Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology. As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. Educational programmes gradually evolved from the organisation of short-term workshops to the institution of formal diploma/degree programmes. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification (BINC) examination initiated in 2005 by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions. The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments.

  10. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  11. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  12. Stroke program for India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K.; Khadilkar, Satish V.

    2010-01-01

    India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards “Fighting Stroke”. This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an “Indian Fight Stroke Program.” PMID:20436743

  13. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  14. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  15. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  16. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  17. Dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C

    2012-09-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country.

  18. Occupational health in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R

    2002-01-01

    The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world.

  19. Detection of natural infection of Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a forest ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2016-04-01

    A new focus of transmission of Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous manifestations (CL) was reported by us earlier, in the Western Ghats region of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. 12,253 sand fly specimens, comprising of three species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (24.7%) and 16 species belonging to the genus Sergentomyia (57.3%) were collected from the region during 2012-2014. Among Phlebotomus species, Phlebotomus argentipes was found predominant (77.3%), followed by Phlebotomus colabaensis (21.7%) and Phlebotomus stantoni (1.6%). From these collections, 793 P. argentipes (88 pools), 123 P. colabaensis (31 pools) and three P. stantoni (three pools) female specimens were processed for detection of natural infection with L. donovani parasites using a multiple genetic marker (kinetoplast DNA; 3'UTR of HSP70 gene & HSP70 gene) approach. Five pools of P. argentipes specimens (Unfed (one), Fulfed (one) and Gravid (two)) among these, were found positive for L. donovani infection. HSP70 gene sequences of the parasites in the vector species was found genetically identical with the human isolates reported earlier, evincing the role of P. argentipes in the transmission of CL in this region. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. argentipes with L. donovani (causing CL) from India.

  20. Miocene climate seasonality in southern India - first direct evidence for a weak Indian monsoon during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, W. E.; Reuter, M.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian monsoon is an integral component of the global climate system. This large-scale atmospheric circulation comprises the East Asian summer and winter monsoon and the Indian monsoon subsystems, all characterized by seasonal reversing winds and precipitation changes associated with asymmetric heating of land and sea. The Neogene monsoon history is mainly reconstructed from chemical and physical weathering rates recorded in widely continuous marine sequences of the Indus Fan, Bengal Fan and South China Sea, which, depending on the source, physiography and sediment, indicate drier or wetter climates. These indirect climate proxies display an unusually dry period during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, 16.5-15 Ma). As part of the FWF-projects P18189, P21414 and P23492, we present an Early/Middle Miocene coastal palynoflora record from the siliciclastic Ambalapuzha Formation at the coastal cliff of Varkala (Kerala Basin, SW India). Pollen assemblages and facies document a coastal wetland with mangrove vegetation. The Coexistence Approach was applied for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. This method uses climatic tolerances of all nearest living relatives known for a fossil flora by assuming that the tolerances of a fossil taxon are not significantly different from its modern counterpart. The maximum overlap of the environmental tolerances of all nearest living relatives (coexistence interval) is then regarded as being indicative of the most likely palaeoenvironment. By enquiring the Palaeoflora Database (http://www.palaeoflora.de/), the palaeoclimatic parameters of the pollen flora were calculated. The reconstructed climatic parameters for the MMCO show a seasonal precipitation pattern with a dry and a wet period and moderate rainfalls during the warmest period, which is comparable to the present day annual precipitation cycle in coastal Kerala, and affirms the presence of a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation over South India during the MMCO. However, the

  1. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  2. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U.; Sharma, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  3. Maternal and child health in India: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1995-10-01

    The Lady Dufferin Fund, founded in 1885 in India, had by 1940 established 400 hospitals to alleviate diseases and mortality related to childbirth. After independence 2328 community health centers and 21254 primary health centers were created in the country. During 1974-94 more than 131,000 subcenters were set up and about 620,000 auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) had been trained. The Ministry of Health introduced four health prevention schemes in 1969: 1) immunization of children against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; 2) immunization of pregnant women against tetanus; 3) prophylaxis of mothers and children against nutritional anemia; and 4) prophylaxis of children against blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency. As a result, infant mortality declined from 146/1000 live births to 74/1000 in 1993; but maternal mortality still stayed around 4-5/1000. In 1993 an estimated 117,356 maternal deaths occurred out of a total of 26,057,000 births, equalling 4.5 deaths per 1000 live births. The main causes of maternal deaths are hemorrhage, anemia, abortion, toxemia, and puerperal sepsis. Only about 411 first referral units in community health centers are functioning properly. Prenatal care of mothers includes the administration of tetanus toxoid and iron-folic acid tablets. However, the prenatal coverage reached only about 50% of mothers; and the coverage was only 21.4% in Bihar, 23.8% in Nagaland, 29.3% in Rajasthan, and 29.6% in Uttar Pradesh. In these areas administrative inefficiency is widespread with nonavailability of essential drugs for malaria, infections, sepsis, dysentery, and colds. During 1992-93 the rate of hospital deliveries ranged from 6.1% in Nagaland to 88.4% in Kerala, with a national average of only 25.6%. 71% of deliveries in rural areas and 30% in urban areas were conducted by untrained assistants. Although there are 450 ANM training schools in the country, the level of training has deteriorated. The major causes of infant deaths are respiratory

  4. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  5. Teaching about India. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex

    Although world history and global studies programs in U.S. public schools have expanded in recent years, teaching about India and South Asia has remained insufficient. As a result, students often develop cultural misunderstandings and false stereotypes. India, as a focus of study, provides students with the opportunity to examine an ancient…

  6. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  7. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  8. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  9. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  10. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  11. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  12. Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The growth in astronomy and astrophysics (A&A) in India has been mostly since the country achieved independence in 1947. The present work is carried out in a few select research institutes and in some university departments. The Astronomical Society of India has around 300 working A&A scientists as members, with another 50-60 graduate students....

  13. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  14. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  15. Status of women in India.

    PubMed

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  16. Periodontal diseases and risk of oral cancer in Southern India: Results from the HeNCe Life study.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Shahul, Hameed Puthiyannal; Madathil, Sreenath Arekunnath; Thekkepurakkal, Akhil Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Varghese, Ipe; Shiraz, Shameena; Allison, Paul; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    Some studies suggest that periodontal diseases increase the risk of oral cancer, but contradictory results also exist. Inadequate control of confounders, including life course exposures, may have influenced prior findings. We estimate the extent to which high levels of periodontal diseases, measured by gingival inflammation and recession, are associated with oral cancer risk using a comprehensive subset of potential confounders and applying a stringent adjustment approach. In a hospital-based case-control study, incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) were recruited from two major referral hospitals in Kerala, South India, from 2008 to 2012. Controls (N = 371), frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited from clinics at the same hospitals. Structured interviews collected information on several domains of exposure via a detailed life course questionnaire. Periodontal diseases, as measured by gingival inflammation and gingival recession, were evaluated visually by qualified dentists following a detailed protocol. The relationship between periodontal diseases and oral cancer risk was assessed by unconditional logistic regression using a stringent empirical selection of potential confounders corresponding to a 1% change-in-estimates. Generalized gingival recession was significantly associated with oral cancer risk (Odds Ratio = 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-3.04). No significant association was observed between gingival inflammation and oral cancer. Our findings support the hypothesis that high levels of periodontal diseases increase the risk of oral cancer. PMID:27215979

  17. A subterranean generalist predator: diet of the soil-dwelling caecilian Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Amphibia; Gymnophiona; Caeciliidae) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Measey, John G; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Biologists have paid relatively little attention to subterranean predators, especially their ecology. Although diets of some subterranean lower vertebrates suggest specialisation, there remains a lack of quantitative data. The diet of the caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii was investigated through analyses of gut contents of 67 specimens collected in randomised surveys at three localities in Kerala, southern India, in early and mid-monsoon. Although termites were the most frequently ingested items in the mid-monsoon, the specialist predator hypothesis was rejected because of differences in diet found in early monsoon samples, when earthworms contributed the greatest mass. That guts of some G. ramaswamii contained many individuals of only a single dietary taxon was interpreted as feeding on patchily distributed prey rather than specialisation. No ontogenetic differences in diet were apparent, but more sampling is required to investigate this further. Subadults largely feed on fewer items of the same prey as adults, though there is an indication that subadult diet is less diverse. The data do not support differences between male and female diet. High densities of G. ramaswamii, and perhaps of other terrestrial caecilians and subterranean lower vertebrates feeding on soil-ecosystem engineers (termites, earthworms and ants), might substantially impact soil ecology.

  18. A subterranean generalist predator: diet of the soil-dwelling caecilian Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Amphibia; Gymnophiona; Caeciliidae) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Measey, John G; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Biologists have paid relatively little attention to subterranean predators, especially their ecology. Although diets of some subterranean lower vertebrates suggest specialisation, there remains a lack of quantitative data. The diet of the caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii was investigated through analyses of gut contents of 67 specimens collected in randomised surveys at three localities in Kerala, southern India, in early and mid-monsoon. Although termites were the most frequently ingested items in the mid-monsoon, the specialist predator hypothesis was rejected because of differences in diet found in early monsoon samples, when earthworms contributed the greatest mass. That guts of some G. ramaswamii contained many individuals of only a single dietary taxon was interpreted as feeding on patchily distributed prey rather than specialisation. No ontogenetic differences in diet were apparent, but more sampling is required to investigate this further. Subadults largely feed on fewer items of the same prey as adults, though there is an indication that subadult diet is less diverse. The data do not support differences between male and female diet. High densities of G. ramaswamii, and perhaps of other terrestrial caecilians and subterranean lower vertebrates feeding on soil-ecosystem engineers (termites, earthworms and ants), might substantially impact soil ecology. PMID:15015756

  19. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment. PMID:22727009

  20. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  1. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  2. Pharma industry in India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, V M

    2008-01-01

    Globally ranked fourth by volume and 13th in value, the Indian pharma industry is a leading producer of high-quality, low-cost generic drugs. Its 14% share of the USD 57 billion world generic market is expected to increase to 50% by 2010. With the advantages of cost competitiveness, ability and experience in reverse engineering, availability of skilled scientific and engineering personnel and the capability to produce raw materials for a wide range of drugs from the basic stage, the industry delivers the entire range of therapeutic products. McKinsey & Co. predict that India's pharmaceutical market could reach a size of USD 20 billion by 2015, becoming one of the top 10 drug markets in the world. Generic versions of the cardiovascular drug carvedilol, ANDA-approved allopurinol, verapamil SR and the anticancer drug paclitaxel are some of the recent products introduced by Indian companies, with Caraco, Ranbaxy, Dabur, Dr. Reddy's, Nicholas Piramal India, leading the list. Setting up of integrated drug development companies and aggressive entries into the Japanese drug market have provided further impetus to the country's pharma manufacturing arena. PMID:18301810

  3. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  4. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  6. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  7. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  8. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India.

  9. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products.

  10. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  11. Aging research in India.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Badithe T; Ali, Rashid

    2003-06-01

    Research on aging in India has been well documented since ancient times. As way back as 3000-1500 BC, the Indian medical system of Ayurveda was used as a means for the prevention of the effects of aging and generation of disease in organs or the whole organism, respectively. In recent years, the focus has been demographic studies on different aspects of aging and has been in isolation. Molecular aspects of aging have been addressed only by a few groups of scientists which has focused on regulation of gene expression, DNA damage and repair, development of immunochemical reagents to detect oxidative DNA damage and assessing the levels of circulating antibodies to reactive oxygen species modified DNA (ROS-DNA), etc. This review aims to recapitulate various research studies on aging since 3000 BC to date. PMID:12814794

  12. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  13. Investigating a Community-Wide Outbreak of Hepatitis A in India

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, PS; Sherin, Daniel; Sankar, Hari; Shaji, Marydasan; Subhagan, Saraswathy; Salila, Sreekumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There was an outbreak of acute hepatitis in Mylapore village, Kollam district, Kerala, southern India during February to June 2013. An outbreak investigation was initiated with the objective of describing the epidemiological features of the hepatitis outbreak. Materials and Methods: House-to-house visits were undertaken to identify symptomatic cases. The outbreak was described in terms of person, place and time. Hypothesis was generated based on findings from descriptive study, laboratory investigation of water samples, and environmental observations. A case-control study was designed to test the hypothesis. Chi-square test, univariate analysis, and logistic regression to identify the risk factors associated with hepatitis A infection were done. Results: Line list generated consisted of 45 cases. Attack rate was the highest among the age group 15-24 years (4.6%) followed by 5-14 years (3.1%). The geographical distribution of the cases suggested a clustering around the water supply through the pipeline and epidemic curve showed a sharp rise in cases suggestive of a common source outbreak. Water samples collected form pipeline showed evidence of fecal contamination and absence of residual chlorine. In the case-control study, having consumed water from the pipeline (odds ratio: 9.01 [95% confidence interval: 2.16-37.61]) was associated with the hepatitis A cases. Conclusion: The time frame of disease occurrence, environmental observations, anecdotal evidences, laboratory results and results of the analytical study indicated the possibility of occurrence of hepatitis A outbreak as a result of pipe water contamination supplied from a bore well. The study warrants establishment of an efficient water quality surveillance system. PMID:24926165

  14. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  15. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2015-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  16. Rock magnetic properties of lateritic soil profiles from southern India: Evidence for pedogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabha, A. L.; Shankar, R.; Sandeep, K.

    2014-12-01

    We report here data on the pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and environmental magnetic properties (χlf, χfd, χARM, IRMs at different field strengths) of modern tropical lateritic soils from Aribail, Miyapadavu and Uliyathadka, all in the Kasaragod District of Kerala, southern India. This study aims to characterize the rock magnetic properties of lateritic soils that formed under tropical high-rainfall conditions and determine the effects of pedogenesis on soil magnetic properties in comparison with temperate soils. The profiles may be divided into two or three zones based on differences in magnetic mineral concentration, grain size and mineralogy. There is no magnetic enhancement of topsoil in any of the profiles studied. As the lateritic rocks in the region are ferruginous, the lateritic soils developed over them contain significant amounts of coarse grained lithogenic magnetite as well as hematite. Because of the presence of this 'laterite-derived' magnetite and hematite, the lateritic soils have much higher susceptibility values when compared to temperate soils. The upper zone is characterized by a higher proportion of lithogenic grains and the lower zone by superparamagnetic (SP) grains. This is probably because of iron reduction and dissolution of fine magnetic grains at the profile-top because of the excessively high rainfall (average = ~ 3500 mm/year) in the region. The slight increase in χlf and SIRM values toward the top of the Aribail and Miyapadavu profiles is due to the presence of coarse magnetic grains. This characteristic is common to all the three profiles irrespective of the topography. Compared to pre-monsoon samples, post-monsoon samples exhibit an increase in the proportion of SP grains. However, the magnetic grain size of lateritic soils from the three locations is similar to that of temperate soils.

  17. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  18. Neurosurgery in India: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed.

  19. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

    PubMed Central

    TS, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. Aims This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. Method We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. Conclusions This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. Declaration of

  20. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  1. End-of-life Characteristics of the Elderly: An Assessment of Home-based Palliative Services in Two Panchayats of Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, R; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra; Chatterjee, Debolina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home-based palliative services form the cornerstone of Kerala's palliative program. However, two issues need research: (a) whether family-homes can be considered as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations who experience deprivation and poverty and (b) whether the present delivery structure meets the needs of elderly population. These issues are examined in the context of two rural areas. The study explores end-of-life characteristics of the elderly – their sociodemographic status and living patterns, morbidity profile, and functional status. It also looks into the accessibility and utilization of palliative services and respondents’ satisfaction with different components of the services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey design is used. Data were collected based on the interviews of sixty service users sampled randomly from a roster of palliative care services. Semi-structured interviews were substantiated by personal field observations. Results: The study has found people living under extreme financial distress with inadequate shelter and poor social security provisions. The health profile is characterized by high level of functional dependence. Many dependent widowed women were living alone without appropriate care and shelter. The palliative program as perceived by the respondents is characterized by few doctor visitations and poor frequency. Conclusion: The study concludes that home-based palliation in its present form does not promote good end-of-life care. It lacks an integrated approach with good service-mix. It raises serious questions on family-home as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations, and suggests need for restructuring of the palliative program. PMID:27803573

  2. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  3. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  4. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  5. Prediction of the likely impact of climate change on monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in the Chaliyar river basin, India, using ANN-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, N. R.; Thampi, Santosh G.; Surapaneni, Sujith; Nannapaneni, Revanth; Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar; Kumar, J. Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    In this work, an approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been employed to assess the likely impact of climate change on mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ( T max and T min) in the Chaliyar river basin, Kerala, India. ANN is trained to downscale temperature from the General Circulation Model (GCM) from a coarser resolution to the required resolution of the river basin. The work aims to estimate the GCMs' output to the scales compatible with that employed in a hydrologic model of the river basin. In order to satiate this purpose, predictor variables were obtained from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data; this was utilized for training the ANN using a feed-forward network with a back-propagation algorithm. These models were validated further and used to downscale CGCM3 GCM simulations for the scenarios outlined in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Results showed that both T max and T min are increasing consistently in all the scenarios. T max exhibited an average increase of maximum 3 °C during the dry season (December-May) and 1 °C during the wet season (June-November) by the year 2100, while T min showed an average increase of 2.5 °C in the dry season and 0.5 °C in the wet season.

  6. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  7. Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B; Rahman, P M; Murphy, S T; Sudheendrakumar, V V

    2012-08-01

    Field surveys were conducted monthly between December 2008 and July 2009 in Kerala, south-west India to compare the population dynamics of the red palm mite Raoiella indica (RPM) on two host plants Areca catechu and Cocos nucifera during one non-monsoon season when, in general, RPM populations increase. The aim was to examine the effects of host plant, host plant locality and the impact of climatic factors on RPM and related phytoseiid predators. There were significantly higher RPM densities on areca in peak season (May/June) compared to coconut; although significantly more coconut sites were infested with RPM than areca. Although no one climatic factor was significantly related to RPM numbers, interactions were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and the partitioning of host plant locality showed that where conditions were warmer and drier, RPM densities were significantly higher. Specifically on coconut, there was a significant relation between RPM densities and the combined interaction between site temperature, site humidity and phytoseiid densities. There was a marked difference in the density of phytoseiids collected between areca and coconut palms, with significantly more on the latter, in several months. Amblyseius largoensis was the most commonly collected phytoseiid in association with RPM, although Amblyseius tamatavensis species group and Amblyseius largoensis species group were collected in association with RPM also. There was also evidence of a weak numerical response of the combined phytoseiid complex in relation to RPM density the previous month on coconut but this was not observed on areca. PMID:21915684

  8. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  9. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  10. Depositional behaviour of C-org, N, P and K in the surface sediments of two shallow water bodies in a tropical coast, India.

    PubMed

    Baijulal, B; Sobha, V; Jyothi, S Jissy; Padmalal, D; Emmanuel, Jude

    2013-09-01

    The present paper deals with the distribution of sediment and sediment-bound nutrients in two important coastal lagoons of southern Kerala such as the Ashtamudi Estuarine Lagoon in the Kollam district and the Kadinamkulam Lagoon in the Thiruvananthapuram district. Among the two lagoons, the former is coast perpendicular, and the latter is coast parallel. An analysis of the textural characteristics reveals that, in both lagoons, the estuarine mouth and areas close to it are dominated by sand and sand-rich sediment species, indicating a high-energy depositional regime prevailing the region. On the other hand, the silt and clay dominant arms are almost sheltered and enjoy a low-energy depositional environment. The nutrient and organic carbon contents in the sheltered areas are significantly higher than the most dynamic high-energy estuarine mouth regions. This peculiar behaviour of these coastal water bodies has to be given adequate importance while laying down strategies for the conservation and management of these fragile aquatic systems in the south-western coast of India in particular and tropical coasts of the world in general.

  11. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts. PMID:21305798

  12. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country.

  13. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  14. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  15. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  16. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  17. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  18. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  19. Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis India 2014 conference report.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant; Barot, Deepak; Kotecha, Jignesh; Raina, Vijay; Rao, Mukkavilli; Yadav, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India 23-26 February 2014, Ahmedabad, India The fifth Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India meeting was held in February 2014 at Hyatt Ahmedabad, India. With the theme of 'The Science of Measurement: Current status and Future trends in Bioanalysis, Biotransformation and Drug Discovery Platforms', the conference was attended by over 160 delegates. The agenda comprised advanced and relevant research topics in the key areas of bioanalysis and drug metabolism. APA India 2014 provided a unique platform for networking and professional linking to participants, innovators and policy-makers. As part of the global research community, APA India continues to grow and receive considerable attention from the drug discovery and development community of India.

  20. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Ponniah, Manickam; Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ramachandran, Vidya; Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Raju, Hari Kishan; Perumal, Vanamail; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated chikungunya outbreaks in South India and observed a high attack rate, particularly among adults and women. Transmission was facilitated by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in peridomestic water containers, as indicated by a high Breteau index. We recommended vector control measures and health education to promote safe water storage practices. PMID:18826830

  1. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty. PMID:17489924

  2. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  3. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  4. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  5. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  6. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  7. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  8. Landscaping biostatistics education in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Sharma, Kavya; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ughade, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.

  9. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  10. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  11. Designing Citizens in Transnational India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irani, Lilly Christine

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics of design practice in urban India through an ethnography of a Delhi-based design and innovation studio. The dissertation focuses on the ideological continuities between the profession of design and middle class Indian citizenship post-liberalization, twinning arts of governance through the shaping of the…

  12. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  13. [Women's organizations in India].

    PubMed

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women

  14. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  15. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  16. Air assimilative capacity-based environment friendly siting of new industries--a case study of Kochi region, India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-09-01

    Air pollution has become a matter of grave concern, particularly in mega-cities and urban areas, where the situation is alarming and becoming more and more severe day-by-day and warrants, therefore, careful planning to facilitate future industrial development. Site selection, with the objective of minimizing adverse environmental impacts based on environmental criteria is a vital prerequisite, particularly for air polluting industries. In order to locate any air polluting industry, the assimilative capacity of the region needs to be assessed carefully and planned accordingly, so that the receiving environment is not adversely affected. Assimilative capacity of a region/airshed, widely represented through the ventilation coefficient by many researchers in the past, does not give a clear picture about the amount of emission load that can be assimilated in a given region. The ventilation coefficient, at best, can only present a broad picture about the air pollution dispersion potential (low, medium or high) of the region. A modified approach, which utilizes air quality modelling as a tool to estimate the maximum allowable emission load that a region can assimilate without violating the stipulated standards, has been used for estimating the assimilative capacity of the air environment. Details of this approach have been presented in this paper through a case study carried out for the Kochi region, located in the Kerala State of India. A variety of emission and meteorological scenarios have been considered and critical emission loads have been estimated. This approach shall provide necessary technical guidance to the environmental regulatory authorities as well as to the industries in planning environment friendly industrial development.

  17. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi chuan Li, An-Chi Li);…

  18. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence.

  19. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change.

  20. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change. PMID:23961694

  1. The practice of telepathology in India.

    PubMed

    Baruah, M K

    2005-01-01

    Telepathology in India is still in the evolving stages. Although, much progress has been made around the world specially in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, the practice of telepathology in India still revolves around static telepathology, be it in telelearning or distance learning, or in remote diagnosis. Websites such as telepathology.org.in have been very successful in popularizing telepathology through quizzes of interesting and rare cases. The only study of teleconsultation from India, has shown that a good concordance with glass slide and static telepathology images. The reasons for the relative delay in acceptance of telepathology in India are manifold. PMID:16388176

  2. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  3. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  4. India in the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P H

    1989-12-01

    Since 1980, India has experienced no further declines in the birth rate while mortality continues to drop. The birth rate has remained constant at 32-33/1000 despite dramatic increases in the proportion of couples protected from unwanted pregnancy from 24% in 1980-81 to 41% in 1986-87. Without a national family planning program, India's birth rate certainly would have increased substantially during this period. Among the social factors that appear to have undone the effects of rising contraceptive prevalence are increases in the proportion of women in the 15-29 year age group, improved maternal nutritional and health status so that fecundability is increasing, and the erosion of traditional customs such as prolonged breastfeeding and remarriage by widows. In terms of economic conditions, there have been no improvements in the 1980s in per capita income that would push India into the 3rd stage of the demographic transition. Of concern is the theory that, when societies become trapped too long in this 2nd stage, economic decline and ecological deterioration occur. At present, foodgrain production has been able to keep pace with population increases, but such production cannot increase indefinitely without soil erosion, deforestation, and other environmental degradations. Moreover, when no more grasslands and forests are available for conversion to cropland, the number of landless households will increase. In fact, the number of landless households has already grown from 15 million in 1961 to 26 million in 1981 and is projected to reach 44 million by the year 2000. Among the implications of landlessless are agrarian conflicts, rural political unrest, low life expectancy, malnutrition, and illiteracy. To avoid the consequences of stagnation in the rate of fertility decline, the Government of India is urged to adopt an aggressive population control effort.

  5. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  6. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  7. Fertility level changes in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, B N

    1989-12-01

    Survey data from India consistently show that female education above the primary school-level is the most powerful determinant of lowered fertility. The Government of India's strategies of increasing accessibility to family planning methods and improving the population's quality of life have been impeded by low levels of female education. The finding that rural women experience 0.8 more live births than their urban counterparts is a reflection of the higher education of the latter group. Within Calcutta, females in slum areas had an average of 5.6 live births compared to 3.5 births among those from nonslum parts of the city, again reflecting the influence of education on fertility. In the high-fertility states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Madhyapradesh, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir, the percentage of females with an education above the primary level is under 5%. The intermediate variable of education beyond primary school seems to exert its effect on fertility by both raising the age at marriage and promoting use of modern contraceptive methods. Women with 1-4 years of education comprise the majority of sterilization acceptors; however, this minimal amount of education is not sufficient to motivate women to delay marriage and to use family planning methods to space births. Given the critical importance of female education, authorities in India should design extension programs and door-to-door campaigns to motivate parents to send their daughters to school and keep them enrolled. PMID:12316273

  8. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  9. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  10. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  12. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  13. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research.

  14. Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

    This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

  15. PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.

  16. English in India: Need for a Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayal, P. P.

    The English spoken in India is too close to standard English to be characterized as a separate variety. Although phonological variations give English in India some regional flavors, they do not have any structural or semantic base and do not constitute a new language. Cultural differences have not caused English-language literature written in…

  17. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research. PMID:21489644

  18. Coalbed methane could cut India`s energy deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Kelafant, J.; Stern, M.

    1998-05-25

    Foreign interest in upcoming Indian coalbed methane (CBM) concession rounds will depend on prospect quality, fiscal regime attractiveness, and perceptions interested parties will have concerning the government`s willingness to promote development. The more liberal tax and royalty provisions for foreign producers announced by the ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas indicate that India is interested in attracting international CBM investments. This article examines the potential for developing the country`s large CBM resource base, estimated between 30 tcf (250 billion cu m) and 144 tcf (4 trillion cu m) of gas. It also provides an overview of the current contractual and regulatory framework governing CBM development.

  19. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed.

  20. Present and Future Energy Scenario in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    India's energy sector is one of the most critical components of an infrastructure that affects India's economic growth and therefore is also one of the largest industries in India. India has the 5th largest electricity generating capacity and is the 6th largest energy consumer amounting for around 3.4 % of global energy consumption. India's energy demand has grown at 3.6 % pa over the past 30 years. The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of manpower with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity and industrialization of the developing countries. Very recently smart grid technology can attribute important role in energy scenario. Smart grid refers to electric power system that enhances grid reliability and efficiency by automatically responding to system disturbances. This paper discusses the new communication infrastructure and scheme designed to integrate data.

  1. Worksite health and wellness programs in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Madan, Kushal; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Mehra, Rahul; Maiya, Arun G

    2014-01-01

    Worksite health and wellness (WH&W) are gaining popularity in targeting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among various industries. India is a large country with a larger workforce in the unorganized sector than the organized sector. This imbalance creates numerous challenges and barriers to implementation of WH&W programs in India. Large scale surveys have identified various CV risk factors across various industries. However, there is scarcity of published studies focusing on the effects of WH&W programs in India. This paper will highlight: 1) the current trend of CV risk factors across the industrial community, 2) the existing models of delivery for WH&W in India and their barriers, and 3) a concise evidence based review of various WH&W interventions in India.

  2. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  3. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed. PMID:25366186

  4. The collision of India with Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. T.; Lister, G. S.

    2012-05-01

    We review the relative motion of India and Asia for the last 100 million years and present a revised reconstruction for the India-Antarctica-Africa-North America-Eurasia plate circuit based on published motion histories. Deformation of these continental masses during this time introduces uncertainties, as does error in oceanic isochron age and location. Neglecting these factors, the data ipso facto allow the inference that the motion of India relative to Eurasia was distinctly episodic. Although motion is likely to have varied more smoothly than these results would allow, the geological record also suggests a sequence of distinct episodes, at about the same times. Hence we suggest that no single event should be regarded as the collision of India with Asia. The deceleration of the Indian plate commencing at ˜65 Ma is matched by an equally significant prior acceleration and this aspect must be taken into account in geodynamic scenarios proposed to explain the collision of India with Asia.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  6. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... countervailing duty orders on imports of sulfanilic acid from India (57 FR 12025 ] and 12026). Following five... sulfanilic acid from China and India (65 FR 36404). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the... sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India (71...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  8. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  9. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  10. Intestinal Parasite Profile in the Stool of HIV Positive Patients in relation to Immune Status and Comparison of Various Diagnostic Techniques with Special Reference to Cryptosporidium at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Moorkoth, Anitha Puduvail; Mathew, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related opportunistic infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in susceptible population. This study aims to negate the paucity of data regarding the relation between CD4 levels, prevalence of enteric parasites, and the outcome of treatment with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) and Cotrimoxazole in Kerala, India. Multiple stool samples from 200 patients in a cross-sectional study were subjected to microscopy and Cryptosporidium stool antigen ELISA. Parasites were identified in 18 samples (9%). Cystoisospora and Cryptosporidium spp. were seen in 9 cases (4.5%) and 5 cases (2.5%), respectively. Microsporidium spores and Chilomastix mesnili cysts were identified in 1 case each (0.5% each). Seven cases of Cystoisospora diarrhoea recovered after treatment with Cotrimoxazole. Diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. in all 5 cases subsided after immune reconstitution with HAART. This study concludes that a positive association was seen between low CD4 count (<200 cells/μL) and overall parasite positivity (P value < 0.01). ELISA is a more sensitive modality for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea. Chilomastix mesnili, generally considered a nonpathogen, may be a cause of diarrhoeal disease in AIDS. Immune reconstitution and Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis remain to be the best therapeutic approach in AIDS-related diarrhoea. PMID:27493988

  11. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  12. Tropical sprue in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mathan, V I

    1988-01-01

    Tropical sprue, a primary malabsorption syndrome affecting residents and visitors to several tropical regions, occurs in southern India in endemic and epidemic forms. The stomach, the small intestine and colon are affected and malabsorption results in nutrient deficiency. Enterocyte damage, the primary lesion in southern Indian tropical sprue, is the result of a persistent lesion of the stem cell compartment. This lesion occurs on a background of tropical enteropathy and the available evidence suggests that an immunity conferring agent may be responsible for initiating the damage.

  13. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  14. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  15. Research on antipsychotics in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Aggarwal, Munish; Grover, Sandeep; Khan, Mohd Khalid Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic as a class of medications became available for treatment of various psychiatric disorders in the early 1950’s. Over the last 60 years many antipsychotics have become available. In line with the west, Indian researchers have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in various conditions. Additionally, researchers have also evaluated the important safety and tolerability issues. Here, we review data originating from India in the form of drug trials, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of antipsychotics. Additionally, data with respect to other important treatment related issues is discussed. PMID:21836703

  16. Supporting rabies control in India.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Karen L; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R; Franka, Richard; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Rahman, Abdul

    2016-09-24

    Earlier this year, Tony Fooks and colleagues described how, under a laboratory twinning project run by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the UK's OIE Reference Laboratory for rabies, based at the APHA in Weybridge, had been working with the Changchun Veterinary Research Institute in the People's Republic of China to help the institute develop into an OIE Reference Laboratory itself (VR, March 5, 2016, vol 178, pp 231-232). Now, the APHA is taking part in a further three-year project to build rabies diagnosis capability in Bangalore, India, as he and his colleagues explain below. PMID:27660350

  17. Globalisation and women in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general. PMID:12349429

  18. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  19. Globalisation and women in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general.

  20. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  1. Protein malnutrition in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Someswara; Swaminathan, M. C.; Swarup, S.; Patwardhan, V. N.

    1959-01-01

    A protein malnutrition survey was carried out in ten areas of four States of South India among children under 5 years of age in families with a monthly income of less than Rs 100, estimated to constitute 85% of the population. The agricultural situation and socio-economic conditions are described. The diets investigated consisted largely of cereals, with small quantities of pulses and green vegetables; milk, meat and eggs were little eaten. The survey covered investigation of infant care, feeding and weaning practices, clinical examinations, anthropometric measurements, determinations of haemoglobin and serum protein, and analysis of hospital records. Although infants were usually breast-fed for a long time, the quantity of breast milk was found to be low after 6 months, at which time supplementary foods were introduced, but these were usually inadequate. Extreme growth retardation was seen after weaning. Diarrhoea was complained of in some 20% of children. Such deficiency signs as dyschromotrichia, hepatomegaly, moon face, angular stomatitis and xerophthalmia were frequently seen. Frank cases of kwashiorkor and marasmus were observed in 1% and 1.7% respectively of children at home. These findings and others clearly show protein malnutrition to be a problem of very considerable magnitude in the poorer communities of South India. A comparison is made with the results of surveys conducted in Africa and in Central America. ImagesFIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 2 PMID:14436226

  2. The issue that inflamed India.

    PubMed

    1977-04-01

    The 1 issue, more than anything else, that cost Indira Gandhi the election in India was her mass sterilization campaign. Although no one questions India's need for an effective family planning program, the government's program to vasectomize millions of Indian men who had fathered 2 or more children was ruthlessly and often illegally applied and came to symbolize the dangers of authoritarian rule. The program's target was 4.3 million sterilizations; the campaign produced 7.8 million between April 1976 and January 1977. In an effort to ensure the program's success, the government censors prohibited newspapers from publishing any criticism of family planning. 6 months ago the Family Planning Council claimed that "a most favorable climate" has been created for the voluntary acceptance of sterilization. In a recent tour of the Indian countryside this claim was found to be untrue. None of the villagers this writer spoke to had been offered any guidance by a family planning worker. There had been no explanation, for example, that sterilization is not responsible for impotence. By last week when the votes were counted, the pattern was clear. In states where the sterilization program had been pursued with the most zeal but the least preparation, the defection from the Congress Party was the most severe. PMID:11662377

  3. Health care utilisation in India.

    PubMed

    Duggal, R

    1994-02-01

    India has a plurality of health care systems as well as different systems of medicine. The government and local administrations provide public health care in hospitals and clinics. Public health care in rural areas is concentrated on prevention and promotion services to the detriment of curative services. The rural primary health centers are woefully underutilized because they fail to provide their clients with the desired amount of attention and medication and because they have inconvenient locations and long waiting times. Public hospitals provide 60% of all hospitalizations, while the private sector provides 75% of all routine care. The private sector is composed of an equal number of qualified doctors and unqualified practitioners, with a greater ratio of unqualified to qualified existing in less developed states. In rural areas, qualified doctors are clustered in areas where government services are available. With a population barely able to meet its nutritional needs, India needs universalization of health care provision to assure equity in health care access and availability instead of a large number of doctors who are profiting from the sicknesses of the poor. PMID:12288588

  4. History of rocketry in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Gowarikar; Suresh, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) to the current gigantic satellite launchers, PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Though we had failures in the initial launches of SLV-3, ASLV and PSLV, these failures gave Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) a thorough and in depth understanding of the nuances of launch vehicle technology that later led to successful missions. An entirely new dimension was added to the Indian space programme when a space capsule was recovered very precisely after it had orbited the Earth for 12 days. The future for launch vehicles in ISRO looks bright with the GSLV MKIII, which is currently under development and the pursuit of cutting edge technologies such as reusable launch vehicles and air-breathing propulsion.

  5. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. PMID:22727005

  6. Tethyan subducted slabs under India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Voo, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Bijwaard, Harmen

    1999-08-01

    Tomographic imaging of the mantle under Tibet, India and the adjacent Indian Ocean reveals several zones of relatively high P-wave velocities at various depths. Under the Hindu Kush region in northeastern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan, a regional northward-dipping slab is seen in the entire upper 600 km of the mantle and is apparently still attached to the lithosphere of the Indian plate. Under northern Pakistan this same slab shows a roll-over structure with the deeper portion overturned and dipping southward, as can also be seen in the distribution of earthquake hypocenters. Farther east-southeast (e.g., in the vicinity of Nepal), a well-resolved anomaly below 450 km depth is connected to the slab under the Hindu Kush, but seems to be separated from the lithosphere above 350 km. These upper-mantle anomalies are interpreted as the remnants of delaminated sub-continental lithosphere that went down when Greater India continued to converge northward with Asia after ˜45 Ma. The deeper high-velocity anomalies under the Indian sub-continent appear clearly separated from the shallower ones as well as from each other, and are inferred to represent remnants of oceanic lithospheric slabs that have sunk into the lower mantle and were subsequently overridden by the Indian plate. They occur at depths between 1000 and 2300 km and occasionally descend down to the core-mantle boundary. The anomalies form three parallel WNW-ESE striking zones. We interpret the two southern zones as remnants of oceanic lithosphere that was subducted when the Neo-Tethys Ocean closed between India and Tibet in the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary. The northern deep-mantle zone under northern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Lhasa block in southern Tibet may represent the last-subducted remnant of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, which is thought to have closed before the Hauterivian stage of the Early Cretaceous. The middle zone continues southeastward as a rather straight high-velocity zone towards

  7. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges.

  8. Entering the contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jamila

    2008-05-01

    India is getting to be known as a hot destination for executing clinical trials. It is witnessing the frenzied entry of pharma sponsor companies and contract research organizations and the movement of Indian non-healthcare groups into clinical research. In this mad melee, what are the determinants of success? How real is the promise of clinical research in India and what will make or break a new entrant in this business? This article attempts to describe these challenges and focuses on the resilient success criteria that the contract clinical research industry in India has tested every newcomer against.

  9. Entering the contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jamila

    2008-05-01

    India is getting to be known as a hot destination for executing clinical trials. It is witnessing the frenzied entry of pharma sponsor companies and contract research organizations and the movement of Indian non-healthcare groups into clinical research. In this mad melee, what are the determinants of success? How real is the promise of clinical research in India and what will make or break a new entrant in this business? This article attempts to describe these challenges and focuses on the resilient success criteria that the contract clinical research industry in India has tested every newcomer against. PMID:18053773

  10. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control.

  11. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative.

  12. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  13. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. PMID:25999353

  14. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  15. Groundwater Depletion in India Revealed by GRACE

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists using data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have found that the groundwater beneath Northern India has been receding by as much as one foot per year over the p...

  16. Rotavirus in India: Forty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-07-01

    Rotavirus was first identified as a human pathogen just over 40 years ago, and work on this pathogen in India started shortly thereafter. Subsequent studies have confirmed its pre-eminent role in gastroenteritis in children in India. Standardized surveillance has enabled the documentation of the high burden of disease, and has demonstrated that there is considerable geographic and temporal variation in strain circulation. Internationally licensed vaccines, vaccine candidates based on indigenous strains and out-licensed strains have been tested for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy; three vaccines are now licensed in India and are used in the private sector. Public sector vaccination has begun, and it will be path-breaking for Indian vaccinologists to measure impact of vaccine introduction in terms of safety and effectiveness. So far, India has kept pace with international epidemiologic and vaccine research on rotavirus, and these efforts should continue. PMID:27508532

  17. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed. PMID:12159235

  18. Energy use in rural India.

    PubMed

    Revelle, R

    1976-06-01

    An old saying has it, "slavery will persist until the loom weaves itself." All ancient civilizations, no matter how enlightened or creative, rested on slavery and on grinding human labor, because human and animal muscle power were the principal forms of energy available for mechanical work. The discovery of ways to use less expensive sources of energy than human muscles made it possible for men to be free. The men and women of rural India are tied to poverty and misery because they use too little energy and use it inefficiently, and nearly all they use is secured by their own physical efforts. A transformation of rural Indian society could be brought about by increasing the quantity and improving the technology of energy use. PMID:17730043

  19. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  20. Valley of the Brahmaputra, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this true-color MODIS image from October 23, 2001, the semi-arid Tibetan Plateau (upper left) meets up with the Himalayas to the south. From the heights of the Himalayas, snow-covered on their northern flanks, and lush with vegetation to the south, numerous rivers, brown with churned up sediment, flow into the valley of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra turns southward at the border of Bangladesh and is soon joined by the Ganges River, flowing in from image left. The mighty river splits into numerous channels as it runs out toward the Bay of Bengal, giving the region the name 'Mouths of the Ganges.' Vast amounts of sediment are being emptied into the Bay by the river, and greenish blue swirls could be a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  2. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  3. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariah, Mathew

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the historical background of the 1985 protests in the Indian State Gujerat. Discusses the major issues in promoting the policy of "compensatory discrimination," directed toward the (1) Scheduled Castes, (2) Scheduled Tribes, and (3) Other Backward Classes. Compares casteism to racism and offers suggestions for dismantling compensatory…

  4. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau. This contrast is illustrated in these ... 1600 kilometers. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission ...

  5. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  6. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  7. Lesbian studies and activism in India.

    PubMed

    Vanita, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This essay surveys public debates and writings about lesbianism and the history of activism around lesbian issues in twentieth-century India. Weddings between women and joint suicides by female couples over the last twenty-five years are among the under-researched, but increasingly reported, phenomena that suggest future directions that activism and the study of lesbianism in India may take. PMID:17954460

  8. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C.; Sengupta, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  9. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  10. The epidemiology of HIV in India.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, U; Maniar, J K; Rübsamen-Waigmann, H

    1995-01-01

    India is the first country outside Africa where an HIV-2 epidemic is running in parallel to an HIV-1 epidemic, resulting in a significant proportion of double infections. HIV is spreading rapidly, mainly by heterosexual contact, but also among intravenous drug users. Genetic analyses of the HIV variants circulating in India point towards HIV-1 and HIV-2 having been introduced into the country recently.

  11. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  12. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  13. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  14. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue.

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  16. AIDS in India: emerging from initial chaos.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-01-01

    India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."

  17. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. PMID:27527748

  18. Curriculum Project on India. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curnow, Richard T.

    The two lesson plans presented here are designed to be used as teaching resources in presenting India to high school students. Lesson one focuses on "India and Cartoons" and uses contemporary Indian political and social cartoons for student analyses of social commentary. Lesson two examines "British Architecture during the Raj" with readings,…

  19. Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

    There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

  20. Selections from a Humanities Unit on India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makin, Marion A.

    Intended for high school students, two humanities lessons on India approach India from a "world cultures" perspective. In the first lesson, "Story Scrolls," pairs of students create and present stories from Hindu mythology using traditional methods. The lesson gives content objectives, skills objectives, and evaluation/assessment criteria, as well…

  1. Women's Life Experiences in Contemporary India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Ruthanne

    This unit, intended for high school use, examines the role of women in India as portrayed in selected literature. The books used include: (1) "Women in India: Two Perspectives" (Doranne Jacobson; Susan S. Wadley); (2) "Through Indian Eyes, Volume l. The Wheel of Life" (Donald J. Johnson, Ed.; Jean E. Johnson, Ed.); (3) "Nectar in a Sieve" (Kamala…

  2. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  3. Hinduism and the Culture of India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winikur, Ilene

    This packet contains sixth and seventh grade level interdisciplinary lesson outlines about India. Concepts to be developed include: (1) "Geography and Its Impact upon the Development of India's Different Cultures"; (2) "Religion and Philosophy Focusing on Hinduism and Festivals"; (3) "Literature using the Ramayana and Mahabarata"; (4) "Art and…

  4. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL. PMID:25755607

  5. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  6. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  7. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL.

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Subrat K.

    2014-01-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL. PMID:25755607

  9. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  10. India gears up to host aLIGO lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    India is on track to build an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO), with discussions under way to select a site from a shortlist of two options in western and north-western India.

  11. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India.

    PubMed

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-09-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  12. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  13. Ancient wolf lineages in India.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

  14. Extreme events in Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uttarakhand in NW Himalaya, India is prone to various disasters, which include earthquakes, cloud bursts, landslides, floods etc. These disasters have a cascading effect. The cloud burst results in flooding of rivers and landslides. The earthquakes shake the ground causing landslides, which sometimes block the natural path of river making artificial dams. These artificial dams can cause river flooding. The situation becomes more devastating, if heavy rainfall occurs. Such disasters are increasing in recent times. There could be several reasons for the rise in frequency of these disasters because of global and local environment changes. The global changes such as rise of global temperatures due to increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can be responsible for melting of Himalayan Glaciers and changes in precipitation/ rainfall patterns etc. Anthropogenic causes such as deforestation, establishment of new townships, new hydro-power projects, mining activities etc are also making the condition more vulnerable by changing the course of river channels. A case study of such extreme event is presented. The region is affected by changes of both global and local origin, tectonically as well as climatologically.

  15. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  16. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, DP

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to review the zootherapeutic practices of the different ethnic communities of India. This work is also an attempt to present a list of animals' use for medicinal purposes by different communities of India. Data were gathered from 15 published research papers of various authors on zootherapeutic studies in India from 2000 to 2007. Approximately 109 animals and their 270 uses are reported in traditional medicine in different parts of India. Of these, the highest numbers of animal species (42, 38.5%) with 50 (18.5%) uses have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Rheumatic and other pains are treated with 32 species (29.4%) in 34 (12.9%) uses. Gastric problems are reported to be treated with 22 (20.2%) species in 26 (9.9%) uses. The mammals constitute the highest number of animals used for medicinal purposes. 44 (40%) mammals, 24 (22%) invertebrates, 18 (17%) birds, 12 (11%) reptiles, nine (8%) fishes and two (2%) amphibians have been reported for medicinal purposes. Of the total 109 animal species reported, 76(70%) are included in IUCN red data list and 36 (33%) animal species are listed in CITES appendix I, II, and III. This work will be helpful in biodiversity conservation in India and also give a clue to investigate bio-active compound in these animal raw materials. PMID:18634551

  17. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  18. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  19. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  20. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…