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Sample records for madakkathara kerala india

  1. Haemoprotozoa of cattle in Northern Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, A S; Ravindran, R; Lakshmanan, B; Kumar, S S; Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Senthilvel, K; Rao, J R; Tewari, A K; Ghosh, S

    2011-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted using 150 blood samples collected from apparently normal / healthy crossbred cattle of Northern Kerala, South India, for detection of haemoprotozoan infections using staining techniques (Giemsa and Acridine Orange) and specific PCR. Theileria like piroplasms and Babesia bigemina were the only protozoan organisms detected in blood smears. Polymerase chain reaction using specific primers revealed amplification of products specific for Trypanosoma evansi (34.6%), Theileria sp. other than T. annulata (16%) and B. bigemina (0.6%). The higher prevalence rate of Trypanosoma evansi indicated that the subclinical parasitism can be due to higher prevalence of tabanid flies. The study also revealed the presence of a theilerial piroplasm other than T. annulata in North Kerala, which needs further investigation.

  2. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  3. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  4. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, C; Amma, N S; Chitrathara, K; Dhakad, N; Rani, P; Malathy, L; Nair, M K

    1999-01-01

    A study in Kerala, India, confirmed the importance of genital hygiene in the fight against infections that have a role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Many women cannot afford sanitary pads, while adequate facilities for washing after coitus are often unavailable. Health education, satisfactory living standards, and the empowerment of women are prerequisites for reducing the incidence of cervical dysplasia.

  5. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, C.; Amma, N. S.; Chitrathara, K.; Dhakad, N.; Rani, P.; Malathy, L.; Nair, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study in Kerala, India, confirmed the importance of genital hygiene in the fight against infections that have a role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Many women cannot afford sanitary pads, while adequate facilities for washing after coitus are often unavailable. Health education, satisfactory living standards, and the empowerment of women are prerequisites for reducing the incidence of cervical dysplasia. PMID:10212523

  6. Determinants of safety helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Muttappillymyalil, Jayakumary; Divakaran, Binoo; C Haran, Jeesha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Motorcycles account for a large proportion of road traffic accidents in India and the riders of these vehicles run a high risk of injuries or death. This study aims to explore the determinants of helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Kerala, India, over a period of six months. 309 motorcyclists in Kerala were interviewed for this study using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Among 309 motorcyclists, 80% were less than 40 years of age, and only 24% were females. Among the total, only 31.4% used a helmet. There was a statistically significant association between the use of helmet and gender, marital status, drunken driving, use of alcohol and attitude towards implementing legislative measures. Odds Ratios observed were 5.3 for female gender compared to male, 4.5 for those with a positive attitude towards the implementation of legislative measures on helmet use, 3.7 for those who were not drunk while driving and 2.3 for unmarried compared to married persons. Conclusions: The study concludes that the determinants associated with the practice of helmet use were gender, drunken driving, marital status and positive attitude towards legal measures. PMID:21483198

  7. Understanding Below-replacement Fertility in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kerala is well-known globally for the unprecedented fertility transition in the Indian subcontinent towards the end of the last century. The state has already reached below-replacement fertility level in the 1990s while the rest of India was experiencing high or mid-level fertility. With this backdrop, an attempt was made in this paper (a) to explore the plausible factors associated with sub-replacement fertility and consequent population momentum in Kerala and (b) to trace their socioeconomic and health policy implications. The underlying factors that led to the fertility transition was explored and discussed in some detail. An enhanced level of human development achieved during the last quarter of the 20th century, mainly through developments in social and health sectors, is likely to be the main contributor. Unlike other states in India, there were historical factors as well that functioned as a catalyst for this, such as widespread education and women's empowerment. As an inevitable demographic impact, population growth due to momentum is expected to be very strong in Kerala with an age-structural transition favouring the old. The so-called ‘demographic dividend’ invoked by the increase of labour-force derived from the youth bulge in the age-structure is being lost in the state due to very limited capital investments and political will. Again, as a direct consequence of population growth, population density in Kerala will take a staggering level of 1,101 persons per sq km in 2026. The ill effects of environmental deterioration and consequent changes in morbidity patterns will have to be dealt with seriously. The very foundations of health policy needs revamping in the light of demographic changes associated with sub-replacement fertility. The tempo of population-ageing is very high in Kerala. The proportion of population aged 60+ years is likely to be 20% in 2026 whereas it will be around 12% only in India. The current level of social and health

  8. Rainfall trends in twentieth century over Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, K. N.; Prasada Rao, G. S. L. H. V.; Gopakumar, C. S.

    Attempts were made to study temporal variation in monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall over Kerala, India, during the period from 1871 to 2005. Longterm changes in rainfall determined by Man-Kendall rank statistics and linear trend. The analysis revealed significant decrease in southwest monsoon rainfall while increase in post-monsoon season over the State of Kerala which is popularly known as the "Gateway of summer monsoon". Rainfall during winter and summer seasons showed insignificant increasing trend. Rainfall during June and July showed significant decreasing trend while increasing trend in January, February and April. Hydel power generation and water availability during summer months are the concern in the State due to rainfall decline in June and July, which are the rainiest months. At the same time, majority of plantation crops are likely to benefit due to increase in rainfall during the post-monsoon season if they are stable and prolonged.

  9. Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Thomas, A P; Julka, J M

    2016-11-15

    A checklist of earthworm species hitherto known from Kerala, a constituent of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, is presented. In total, 88 species and subspecies are recorded, of which 55 are Kerala endemics, 9 near endemics, 14 exotics and 10 native peregrines. These belong to 26 genera and 9 families. The checklist includes the literature citation to the original description, type locality, any significant subsequent generic placements, and the district distributional pattern for each species/ subspecies.

  10. Understanding levels of morbidity and hospitalization in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Dilip, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of ailments and hospitalization in Kerala was examined using data from the 52 nd National Sample Survey Data on Health Care in Kerala in 1995-6. The survey included 24401 people from 4928 households. Age and seasonality had considerable effects on the morbidity of individuals. The burden of ill health was higher in rural areas than in urban areas. People who were more likely to have a better lifestyle had a higher level of morbidity and hospitalization. Regional differences were seen, with levels of morbidity and hospitalization higher in the comparatively developed regions of Southern Kerala than in Northern Kerala. Factors like physical accessibility of health care services and capacity to seek health care services could create artificial differences in morbidity and hospitalization among different subgroups of the population in Kerala. PMID:12378294

  11. Trick or treat? Muslim Thangals, psychologisation and pragmatic realism in northern Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Thangals are an endogamous community in Kerala, India, of Yemeni heritage who claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad's family. Due to their sacrosanct status, many thangals work as religious healers and thus are part of the informal mental health care system in Northern Kerala. Using the case of one thangal healer as an illustration of the many ritual healers in Kerala who engage the modern discourse of psychology in their practices, I argue that the psychologisation of ritual healing is part of a wider trend: the increasing rationalisation and scientification of traditional medical practices, whereby an increasing number of traditional healers negotiate science, modernity and religion and position their practice within these contested fields. Based on the analysis of this thangal's healing practice in the local context of Northern Kerala, I further argue that in order to understand "ritual" healing, scholars should emphasise pragmatic realism more than doctrinal purity.

  12. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R

    1992-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala.

  13. Marine mycoflora in backwater ecosystem of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Gayatri R; Raveendran, K

    2009-09-01

    Back water system of Kerala is well known for its fertility. Fungi play a vital role in detritus decomposition, nutrient cycling and energy flow in marine food web including backwater ecosystem. Present investigation on the diversity of marine fungi from two back waters of Kerala resulted in the isolation of 20 marine fungi. These include 11 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycete and 8 Mitosporic fungi. In terms of percent frequency of occurrence the most common species obtained were Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Verruculina enalia, Savoryella lignicola and Clavatospora bulbosa. Ascochyta sp. was represented by only a single isolate.

  14. Presentation, management, and outcomes of 25 748 acute coronary syndrome admissions in Kerala, India: results from the Kerala ACS Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Padinhare Purayil; Mathew, Rony; Harikrishnan, Sadasivan; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan; Zachariah, Geevar; Joseph, Jhony; Eapen, Koshy; Abraham, Mathew; Menon, Jaideep; Thomas, Manoj; Jacob, Sonny; Huffman, Mark D.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-01-01

    Aims There are limited contemporary data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions in India. We aimed to develop a prospective registry to address treatment and health systems gaps in the management of ACSs in Kerala, India. Methods and results We prospectively collected data on 25 748 consecutive ACS admissions from 2007 to 2009 in 125 hospitals in Kerala. We evaluated data on presentation, management, and in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We created random-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate predictors of outcomes while accounting for confounders. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 60 (12) years and did not differ among ACS types [ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) = 37%; non-STEMI = 31%; unstable angina = 32%]. In-hospital anti-platelet use was high (>90%). Thrombolytics were used in 41% of STEMI, 19% of non-STEMI, and 11% of unstable angina admissions. Percutaneous coronary intervention rates were marginally higher in STEMI admissions. Discharge medication rates were variable and generally suboptimal (<80%). In-hospital mortality and MACE rates were highest for STEMI (8.2 and 10.3%, respectively). After adjustment, STEMI diagnosis (vs. unstable angina) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval = 4.06 (2.36, 7.00)], symptom-to-door time >6 h [OR = 2.29 (1.73, 3.02)], and inappropriate use of thrombolysis [OR = 1.33 (0.92, 1.91)] were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and door-to-needle time <30 min [OR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.72)] was associated with lower mortality. Similar trends were seen for risk of MACE. Conclusion These data represent the largest ACS registry in India and demonstrate opportunities for improving ACS care. PMID:22961945

  15. Landslide fatalities in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., EG, 2009) has compiled and presented the history and chorology of landslide prone areas of the region. An attempt to collect and compile a reliable fatal landslide inventory of the region resulted in a database of 63 landslides from 1961 to 2009. The data base was compiled from the news paper reports and research reports of the CESS and GSI. Most landslides were visited in and the locations were mapped using a handheld GPS. Date and fatality information was also collected. For twelve of the landslides accurate location information was not available and hence was plotted at the nearest known village centre. Three landslides did not have any location information but was recorded in the district gazetteer and hence included in the data base. A total of 257 valuable lives were lost in landslides. The landslide that caused the highest number of deaths was the Amboori landslide (Thiruvananthapuram) which occurred on 11 September 2001 that caused 39 fatalities. Idukki district experienced the largest number of fatal landslides during this period, 20 events resulting in 67 fatalities. Thiruvananthapuram district experienced the highest average number of fatalities per landslide (47 deaths from 5 events). The district wise statistics from north to south are, Kannur (6 from 5), Kasargodu (24 from 6), Wayanad (36 from 6), Kozhikode (44 from 10), Malappuram (9 from 3), Palakkad (3 from 3), Thrissur (2 from 1), Kottayam (5 from 3), and Pathanamthitta (14 from 3). It was noted that there exists a spatial trend in the occurrence of fatal landslides which follows the general monsoon rainfall trends and the population density. About 55% of the events occurred during the south west monsoon (June to September) season. It was also observed that there exists a strong upward trend in the number of fatal landslides. This upward trend can be directly

  16. Appropriating depression: biomedicalizing Ayurvedic psychiatry in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia; Jansen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The appropriation of biopsychiatric concepts such as depression, and their reframing in clinical and academic discussions, are important parts of the revitalization of bhūt vidyā as Ayurvedic psychiatry. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Kerala from 2009 to 2011, in this article we explore the process and the controversies of translating and correlating the biopsychiatric notion of depression, as a discrete and biologic pathological entity, with Ayurvedic notions of body, mind, and mental distress. Depression, conceptualized as a neurochemical imbalance, is, we argue, relatively compatible with Ayurvedic notions of a fluent body and mind, and so is easier to correlate with Ayurvedic concepts of do[Formula: see text]ic imbalances and blockages of channels than the former psychoanalytically dominated model of depression. The appropriation of depression within Ayurvedic discourse challenges the dichotomy of universal and culture-specific disorders, and this has a significant impact on mental health programs in Kerala.

  17. Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P.; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2013-01-01

    We compared the screening performance of risk scores for Asians and whites for diabetes, dysglycemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our subjects were 451 people aged 15 to 64 years who participated in a cohort study from May 2003 through September 2010 in a rural area of the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India. All outcome measures showed overlap in the range of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Asian and white diabetes risk scores (DRSs). Asian and white DRSs performed similarly in rural India. PMID:23517580

  18. The Decentralisation Of Education In Kerala State, India: Rhetoric And Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Mullikottu-Veettil; Bray, Mark

    2004-07-01

    The decentralisation of educational administration has been widely advocated as a strategy to promote local participation in education. However, the fact that this advocacy has a long history raises the question why decentralisation has not been achieved in more educational systems. The answers to this question are many and complex. Among them are difficulties with the implementation of reforms. The present study examines some of these difficulties in Kerala State, India. It determines that although Kerala has a strong reputation for political participation, the rhetoric of decentralisation in the educational sector has not matched the reality there. The lessons to be learned in this context have wide implications for the theory and practice of decentralisation in education.

  19. Ethnozoological study of animals used by traditional healers in Silent Valley of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Prabhu, S; Ayyanar, M; Damodaran, R

    2015-03-13

    India has great biodiversity of fauna. The use of fauna with medicinal properties is a common practice since pre-hispanic times. In the last decade, there has been an interest in ethnozoological studies in India. Ethnozoological studies are necessary in order to discover new medications for human health. There is urgency in recording such data. This is the first ethnozoological study in which statistical calculations about animals are done by the ICF method in Kerala, India. The purpose of this study is to analyze and record traditional knowledge of animals utilized by the indigenous people living on Silent Valley, located in Palakkad district of Kerala, India and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these animals. Field study was carried out for a period of September 2011 to August 2012 years in Kerala. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL). This study recorded a total of 57 families, 66 genera, and 69 species of animals that produced 163 methods for usages. Mammalian occupied 29% of the total animals listed, followed by aves (28%), insects (17%), reptiles (10%), actinopterygii (4%), malacostraca, amphibians and clitellata (each 3%), chilopoda (2%) and gastropoda (1%) of the whole, respectively. In regards to usage, 68 species utilized as food products and medicinal uses, totaled 98.55% followed by one species for cosmetics (1.45%). This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Palakkad district, to treat various illnesses. The empirical knowledge reported in this study will provide outstanding possibilities for the discovery of new sources of medicine for the drug industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work.

  1. Prevalence of Anaemia in Kerala State, Southern India - A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, PuruShothama Suseela

    2017-05-01

    Anaemia is the most common nutritional problem affecting children, adolescents and women. A systematic review was undertaken to find out the prevalence of anaemia and to identify the trend in the prevalence of anaemia in Kerala state, Southern India. The aim of the review was to identify the prevalence of anaemia in Kerala and to comment on its trend across last 25 years. PubMed and google scholar searches and scanning of reference lists were used to identify studies. All population based studies on anaemia from Kerala, irrespective of its designs, published between Jan 1(st) 1990 to Dec 31(st) 2015 were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were carried out using structured proformas. Due to the heterogeneity of reviewed studies, meta-analysis was not done. A narrative approach was used. A total of 10 studies in addition to two major survey reports- National Family Health Survey (NFHS) and District Level Household Survey (DLHS) were included in the final analysis. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescents from recent study reports was around 30% and prevalence of severe anaemia was less than 1% in all studies. Anaemia among tribal women and children were in the range of 78.3% to 96.5%. A key finding of this review was the paucity of data and inconsistency in haemoglobin estimation methods and population characteristics which made comparisons impossible. The current prevalence of anaemia in Kerala is unclear. Though, there are many studies and reports regarding prevalence of anaemia in the state, those results could not be combined due to non uniform haemoglobin estimation methods. Standardised prospective study of general population including subgroups will be necessary.

  2. Factors affecting decisions to seek treatment for sick children in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rajamohanan K; Williams, Sankey V; Glick, Henry A; Polsky, Daniel; Berlin, Jesse A; Lowe, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of social and economic variables, disease-related variables, and child gender on the decisions of parents in Kerala, India, to seek care for their children and on their choice of providers in the allopathic vs. the alternative system. A case-control analysis was done using data from the Kerala section of the 1996 Indian National Family Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a probability sample of households conducted by trained interviewers with a close-ended questionnaire. Of the 469 children who were eligible for this study because they had at least one common symptom suggestive of acute respiratory illness or diarrhea during the 2 weeks before the interview, 78 (17%) did not receive medical care, while the remaining 391 (83%) received medical care. Of the 391 children who received medical care, 342 (88%) received allopathic medical care, and 48 (12%) received alternative medical care. In multivariable analyses, parents chose not to seek medical care for their children significantly more often when the illness was mild, the child had a specific diagnosis, the mother had previously made fewer antenatal visits, and the family had a higher economic status. When parents sought medical care for their children, care was sought significantly more often in the alternative provider system when the child was a boy, the family lived in a rural area, and the family had a lower social class. We conclude that, in Kerala, disease severity and economic status predict whether children with acute respiratory infection or diarrhea are taken to medical providers. In contrast, most studies of this issue carried out in other populations have identified economic status as the primary predictor of medical system utilization. Also in Kerala, the gender of the child did not influence whether or not the child was taken for treatment but did influence whether care was sought in the alternative or the allopathic system.

  3. Toward a social justice theory of demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J W

    1983-06-01

    Recent research evidence, which suggests that observed demographic trends and patterns are largely consequences of broad structural changes in society, has raised serious doubts about the validity of traditional demographic theory and the framework for action it has generated. This theoretical essay 1st recasts classical demographic transition theory in general systems terms in order to make it consistent with the evidence and to place the processes of fertility and mortality in a larger social context. The demographic transition experience of Kerala State, India is then recounted to provide a concrete example of the demographic response in society to structural reforms based primarily on equity considerations.

  4. Spiralothelphusa gibberosa, a new freshwater crab (Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Devi, A R Sudha

    2015-05-27

    A new species of freshwater crab, Spiralothelphusa gibberosa n. sp. is described from rice fields near Kizhoor in Thrissur district of Kerala in southern India. The new species is easily differentiated from its congeners by its first male pleopod (G1), which has a long, less strongly twisted terminal segment and distal portion of subterminal segment in addition to a setose hump on the outer margin of the non-twisted portion. Key to the species of the genus Spiralothelphusa Bott, 1968, is provided. We recognized S. wuellerstorfi (Heller, 1862), as a new record to Maharashtra based on specimens wrongly identified as S. hydrodroma (Herbst, 1794), by Pati & Sharma (2014).

  5. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mahat, R. H.; Amin, Y. M.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.

    2011-03-30

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  6. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, R. H.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.; Amin, Y. M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  7. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  9. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  10. The racial and gendered experiences of immigrant nurses from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of a group of immigrant women nurses regarding their life and work in a culture other than their own. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses who were born in Kerala, India, educated in India, and are actively employed as nurses in the United States. The participants told stories that were about (a) the challenges of living between two cultures and countries, (b) the racism they experience, and (c) their marginalization as female nurses of color. This study underscores the continuing inequities of our health care system. Our challenge is to establish a more just and effective environment for those who provide care as well as those who receive it.

  11. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-03-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  12. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-01-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion‐transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality. PMID:17329382

  13. Habitat monitoring and conservation prioritisation of protected areas in Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Athira, K; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Saranya, K R L; Joseph, Shijo; Jaishanker, R

    2017-06-01

    Spatially explicit approach is essential to prioritise the ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. In the present study, the conservation status of 20 protected areas of the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, was analysed based on long-term changes in forests (1975-1985-1995-2005-2013), landscape level changes in fragmentation and forest fires (2005-2015). This study has shown that a significant forest loss occurred in protected areas before declaration. Idukki is one of the major protected areas which showed a drastic reduction (18.83%) in its forest cover. During 1985-1995, Periyar tiger reserve had lost 24.19 km(2) core 3 forest area followed by Peppara (18.54 km(2)), Parambikulam (17.93 km(2)), Chimmony (17.71 km(2)), Peechi-Vazhani (12.31 km(2)) and Neyyar (11.67 km(2)). An area of 71.33 km(2) of the protected area was affected by fires in 2014. Overall protected area-wise decadal analysis indicates Periyar has the highest number of fire incidences followed by Wayanad, Kurinjimala, Silent Valley and Eravikulam. Disturbances in the form of fires and fragmentation still exist and may have significant conservation threat to flora and fauna. Among protected areas, many are having a probability to go under threat or dynamic stage. Chinnar, Thattekkad and Kurinjimala sanctuaries are representing high levels of vulnerability, or they are near to decline stage. Habitat level monitoring of the anthropogenic disturbances can be efficiently useful for the strategic conservation planning. The present study has provided geospatial database on spatial patterns of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in protected areas of Kerala. Conservation prioritization approach based on these parameters will be useful for the strategic planning in the state of Kerala.

  14. Smoking cessation intervention in rural kerala, India: findings of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan; Uutela, Antti; Mathew, Aleyamma; Auvinen, Anssi; Mathew, Preethi Sara; Sebastian, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of tobacco use is higher in the rural than urban areas of India. Unlike tobacco cessation clinics located in urban areas, community-based smoking cessation intervention has the potential to reach a wider section of the community to assist in smoking cessation in the rural setting. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a cessation intervention in rural Kerala state, India. Current daily smoking resident males in the age group 18-60 years from four community development blocks in rural Kerala were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received multiple approaches in which priority was given to face-to-face interviews and telephone counselling. Initially educational materials on tobacco hazards were distributed. Further, four rounds of counselling sessions were conducted which included a group counselling with a medical camp as well as individual counselling by trained medical social workers. The control group received general awareness training on tobacco hazards along with an anti-tobacco leaflet. Self-reported smoking status was assessed after 6 and 12 months. Factors associated with tobacco cessation were estimated using binomial regression method. Overall prevalence of smoking abstinence was 14.7% in the intervention and 6.8% in the control group (Relative risk: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.25). A total of 41.3% subjects in the intervention area and 13.6% in the control area had reduced smoking by 50% or more at the end of 12 months. Lower number of cigarettes/ bidi used, low nicotine dependence and consultation with a doctor for a medical ailment were the statistically significant predictors for smoking cessation. Rigorous approaches for smoking cessation programmes can enhance quit rates in smoking in rural areas of India.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Novel Prehospital Care System in the State of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather A; Douglass, Katherine A; Ejas, Shafi; Poovathumparambil, Venugopalan

    2016-12-01

    Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have struggled to find a system for prehospital care that can provide adequate patient care and geographical coverage while maintaining a feasible price tag. The emergency medical systems of the Western world are not necessarily relevant in developing economic systems, given the lack of strict legislation, the scarcity of resources, and the limited number of trained personnel. Meanwhile, most efforts to provide prehospital care in India have taken the form of adapting Western models to the Indian context with limited success. Described here is a novel approach to prehospital care designed for and implemented in the State of Kerala, India. The Active Network Group of Emergency Life Savers (ANGELS) was launched in 2011 in Calicut City, the third largest city in the Indian State of Kerala. The ANGELS integrated an existing fleet of private and state-owned ambulances into a single network utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and a single statewide call number. A total of 85 volunteer emergency medical certified technicians (EMCTs) were trained in basic first aid and trauma care principles. Public awareness campaigns accompanied all activities to raise awareness amongst community members. Funding was provided via public-private partnership, aimed to minimize costs to patients for service utilization. Over a two-year period from March 2011 to April 2013, 8,336 calls were recorded, of which 54.8% (4,569) were converted into actual ambulance run sheets. The majority of calls were for medical emergencies and most patients were transported to Medical College Hospital in Calicut. This unique public-private partnership has been responsive to the needs of the population while sustaining low operational costs. This system may provide a relevant template for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) development in other resource-limited settings. Brown HA , Douglass KA , Ejas S , Poovathumparambil V . Development and

  16. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  17. Development of a web geoservices platform for School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheendran, S.; John, C. M.; Fasalul, F. K.; Aanisa, K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Web geoservices is the obvious graduation of Geographic Information System in a distributed environment through a simple browser. It enables organizations to share domain-specific rich and dynamic spatial information over the web. The present study attempted to design and develop a web enabled GIS application for the School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India to publish various geographical databases to the public through its website. The development of this project is based upon the open source tools and techniques. The output portal site is platform independent. The premier webgis frame work `Geomoose' is utilized. Apache server is used as the Web Server and the UMN Map Server is used as the map server for this project. It provides various customised tools to query the geographical database in different ways and search for various facilities in the geographical area like banks, attractive places, hospitals, hotels etc. The portal site was tested with the output geographical database of 2 projects of the School such as 1) the Tourism Information System for the Malabar region of Kerala State consisting of 5 northern districts 2) the geoenvironmental appraisal of the Athirappilly Hydroelectric Project covering the entire Chalakkudy river basin.

  18. Cerbera odollam: a 'suicide tree' and cause of death in the state of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Krishnamoorthy, Ananthasankaran; Bevalot, Fabien

    2004-12-01

    Cerbera odollam is a tree belonging to the poisonous Apocynaceae family, which includes the yellow and common oleanders. The seeds are excessively toxic, containing cerberin as the main active cardenolide. Cerbera venenifera, a related species found in Madagascar, has a long history as an ordeal poison, and was responsible for the death of 3000 people per year in previous centuries. The odollam tree is responsible for about 50% of the plant poisoning cases and 10% of the total poisoning cases in Kerala, India. It is used both for suicide and homicide. The aim of this retrospective study is to call attention to a powerful toxic plant that is currently completely ignored by western physicians, chemists, analysts and even coroners and forensic toxicologists.

  19. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part six--Kundapur, Karnataka and Kannur, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2006-12-01

    Mosquitoes of 26 species belonging to 16 subgenera and 11 genera were recorded in the Kundapur mangroves of Karnataka, and 17 species belonging to 11 subgenera and 7 genera were recorded in the mangroves of Kannur, Kerala along the west coast of India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Lutzia, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both mangrove forests were Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, An. jamesi, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus, Cx. infantulus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. sitiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. luguhris. Tree holes and swamp pools were the common larval habitats, with more species occurring in tree holes in Kundapur than in Kannur. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Ar. aureolineatus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. sitiens, Ma. uniformis, and Ve. lugubris bloodfed on humans.

  20. Translation and purification: Ayurvedic psychiatry, allopathic psychiatry, spirits and occult violence in Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia

    2017-05-08

    In this paper, the author traces two parallel movements of institutionalized Ayurvedic psychiatry, an emergent field of specialization in Kerala, India: the 'work of purification' and the 'work of translation' that Latour has described as characteristic of the 'modern constitution.' The author delineates these processes in terms of the relationship of Ayurvedic psychiatry to (1) allopathic psychiatry, (2) bhutavidya, a branch of textual Ayurveda dealing with spirits, and (3) occult violence. The aim is to offer a model of these open and hidden processes and of Ayurvedic psychiatry's positioning within a hierarchical mental health field characterized simultaneously by biopsychiatric hegemony and a persistent vernacular healing tradition. Through these processes, Ayurvedic psychiatry emerges as a relevant actor. It demarcates itself from both allopathic and vernacular epistemologies and ontologies while simultaneously drawing upon aspects of each, and, in this way, shows itself to be both deeply modern and highly pragmatic.

  1. Violence against women, symptom reporting, and treatment for reproductive tract infections in Kerala state, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon; Zhu, Limei

    2007-03-01

    In this article we examine factors associated with women's self-reports of reproductive ill health symptoms and factors associated with seeking and receiving treatment for the symptoms. We focus on indicators of women's societal position, especially empowerment (indicated by experience of and attitudes toward violence against women), autonomy, and education. We used data from the National Family Health Survey-2 from Kerala state in Southern India. Based on our results we suggest that violence against women, whether actually experienced or internalized as acceptance of its justification, is associated with increased ill health symptoms, and the acceptance of violence is associated with decreased chance of treatment. Women's higher formal education appeared to reduce treatment seeking for reproductive ill health, perhaps due to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) in this cultural setting. Women's work participation had no significant impact, nor did indicators of women's economic and personal autonomy.

  2. Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins from Kerala-Konkan Coast, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa; Mathews, Runcie Paul; Mann, Ulrich; Greenwood, Paul F.; Saxena, Rakesh

    2010-10-01

    The terpenoid composition of resins from the Miocene lignite horizons from the Kerala-Konkan Coast, western India was analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Cupy-GC-MS). The major pyrolysates were cadalene-based bicyclic sesquiterpenoids including some C30-C31 bicadinenes and bicadinanes typical of dammar resin from angiosperm plants of Dipterocarpaceae family. These plants are typically supported by tropical climates which the western Indian region was known to have experienced during early Tertiary period. The present study suggests that these palaeoclimatic conditions persisted until at least the Miocene epoch. These sesquiterpenoids which are commonly detected in many SE Asian crude oils may be utilised as useful biomarkers for petroleum exploration in the western Indian region.

  3. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  4. Social factors influencing the acquisition of antibiotics without prescription in Kerala State, south India.

    PubMed

    Saradamma, R D; Higginbotham, N; Nichter, M

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the magnitude of self-medication with antibiotics in a peri-urban area of Southern Kerala State, India and factors influencing this practice. First, a random sample of 400 households was surveyed in one primary health centre area near Trivandrum. We found 69.3% (95% CI = 64.8-73.8) of households had at least one person using a pharmaceutical product during the two-week recall period; antibiotics formed almost 11% of the medicines consumed. Next, pharmacy based interview and observation data were collected from 405 antibiotic purchasers sampled from 11 out of the 12 private pharmacies in the area. Seventy-three of these 405 customers purchased antibiotics without a prescription (18%; 95% CI = 14.3-21.7). By combining the household survey and pharmacy observations, we estimate that almost half of 1% (0.41%; 95% CI = 0.24-1.16) of the population, or four people per 1000, is engaged in self-medication using antibiotics in Kerala in any two-week period. Our data show that people least likely to follow this practice are from higher income families, having more education and higher status occupations and receiving the benefits of medical insurance. Conversely, logistic regression analysis indicated that risk of buying antibiotics without a script was associated with education at secondary level or below, the perception that it is expensive to consult a doctor and low satisfaction with medical practitioners. Keralites' self-medication patterns are interpreted broadly using social, cultural, historical and economic perspectives. Solutions to the problem of antibiotic misuse are suggested, proceeding on several fronts: among practitioners, suppliers and marketeers of medicines, and among the population of pharmaceutical consumers themselves.

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  6. Pesticide residues in two frog species in a paddy agroecosystem in Palakkad district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kittusamy, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Chandrasekar; Kandan, Nambirajan; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides residues were quantified in 109 frogs comprising two species (Fejervarya limnocharis and Hoplobatrachus crassus) from organic and conventional paddy farms in Kerala, India. Seven frogs from conventional but none from the organic farms revealed deformities. Levels of total Organochlorines (OCs) (33.22 ng/g) and Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate-II (26.91/42.15 ng/g) in deformed F. limnocharis and H. crassus were significantly greater than in healthy frogs. Among OCs in healthy frogs, traces of γ (gamma)-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) (2.12 ng/g) were found only in F. limnocharis from organic farm. Among Organophosphates, Phorate (1.02 ng/g) and Quinalphos (2.62 ng/g) were present in traces in deformed F. limnocharis, while Parathion ethyl (1.02 ng/g) was detected in deformed H. crassus. The data indicate that the high level of pesticides may have contributed to the deformity of frogs. Therefore, an elaborative study will be essential to conserve amphibians in India.

  7. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  8. Petrology and tectonic development of supracrustal sequence of Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Chacko, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The granulite terrain of southern India, of which the Kerala Khondalite belt (KKB) is a part, is unique in exposing crustal sections with arrested charnockite growth in different stages of transformation and in varied lithological association. The KKB with rocks of surficial origin and incipient charnockite development, poses several problems relating to the tectonics of burial of vast area and mechanisms involved in expelling initial H2O (causes of dryness) for granulite facies metamorphism. It is possible to infer the following sequence of events based on the field and laboratory studies: (1) derivation of protoliths of KKB from granitic uplands and deposition in fault bounded basin (cratonic rift); (2) subhorizontal deep burial of sediments; (3) intense deformation of infra and supracrustal rocks; (4) early granulite facies metamorphism predating F sub 2 - loss of primary structure in sediments and formation of charnockites from amphibole bearing gneisses and khondalites from pelites; (5) migmatisation and deformation of metasediments and gneisses; (6) second event of charnockite formation probably aided by internal CO2 build-up; and (7) isothermal uplift, entrapment of late CO2 and mixed CO2-H2O fluids, formation of second generation cordierites and cordierite symplectites.

  9. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, T. R.; Sudharma, K. V.; Hameed, A. Shahul

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope composition of precipitation from Pamba River basin, Kerala, India, is evaluated to understand the role of spatial and temporal variations on rainwater isotope characteristics. Physiographically different locations in the basin showed strong spatial and temporal variations. δ 18O varied from -7.63 to -1.75 ‰ in the lowlands; from -9.32 to -1.94 ‰ in the midlands and from -11.6 to -4.00 ‰ in the highlands. Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL) for the three regions were determined separately and an overall LMWL for the whole of the basin was found to be δ 2H = 6.6 (±0.4) δ 18 O+10.4 (±2.0). Altitude effect was evident for the basin (0.1 ‰ for δ 18O and 0.8 ‰ for δ 2H per 100 m elevation), while the amount effect was weak. The precipitation formed from the marine moisture supplied at a steady rate, without much isotopic evolution in this period may have masked the possible depletion of heavier isotopes with increasing rainfall. Consistently high d-excess values showed the influence of recycled vapour, despite the prevailing high relative humidity. The oceanic and continental vapour source origins for the south-west and north-east monsoons were clearly noted in the precipitation in the basin. Rayleigh distillation model showed about 30% rainout of the monsoon vapour mass in the basin.

  10. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice.

  11. Adaptation to coastal hazards: the livelihood struggles of a fishing community in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Santha, Sunil D

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the coastal hazard adaptation strategies of a fishing community in a village in Kerala, India. It shows that formal adaptation strategies are highly techno-centric, costly, and do not take into account the vulnerabilities of the fishing community. Instead, they have contributed to ecological, livelihood, and knowledge uncertainties. The adaptation strategies of the fishing community are a response to these uncertainties. However, they may not lead to the fishing community's recovery from its vulnerability contexts. This case study is primarily qualitative in nature. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Insights reveal that when actors with diverse values, interests, knowledge, and power evolve or design their respective adaptation strategies, the resulting interface often aggravates existing uncertainties associated with hazards. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that local discourses on coastal hazards are livelihood-centric and socially constructed within the struggle of the fishing community to access resources and to acquire the right to development. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  12. Estimation of external dose by car-borne survey in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7-2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y.

  13. Barriers to dental care for children with special needs: General dentists' perception in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Amith; Sreelakshmi, Natta; Ismail, Sajeela; Raheema, Marium

    2017-01-01

    Special children are among the underserved dental patient groups around the globe. Oral health care for disabled children remain an unmet challenge. One out of two persons with a significant disability cannot find a professional resource to provide appropriate dental care. Identification of barriers can be the first step in addressing the deficiencies in dental care for such patients. To investigate the perception of dental practitioners in Kerala, India regarding the hurdles faced by them in providing dental care to Special Needs Children including the challenges faced by them. 149 dental professionals were interviewed through a questionnaire for their perceived barriers to provide oral health care for children with special needs. The data was obtained and Chi-square test, Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression model were assessed using the SPSS version 20.0. All analyses were performed using a level of 0.05 for statistical significance. Greatest barriers as perceived by the practitioners were their level of training and lack of motivation of caretakers. Significant association was found between experience of the dentist with the frequency with which they reported seeing children with special needs (pConclusion: Findings from this study provide a valid picture of barriers to access for children with special needs within general dental private practice system. Recommendations for amendment of undergraduate dental curriculum is made in order to equip future graduates to deal with this group of children better.

  14. Estimation of External Dose by Car-Borne Survey in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7–2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y. PMID:25885680

  15. Scope and extent of participation of female volunteers in tobacco control activities in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, J; Muttapppallymyalil, J; Divakaran, B

    2010-07-01

    In India, NGOs play a key role in creating a supportive environment for the control of tobacco consumption. This study was conducted to assess the scope and the extent to which community-based women organizations are involved in tobacco control activities. To assess the scope and extent of participation in tobacco control activities according to the sociodemographic characteristics and also the extent to which they have participated in tobacco control activities. The participants were Kudumbasree volunteers from the rural areas of Kannur district of Kerala state, India. This population-based study adopted a cross-sectional design. A self-administered, structured, close-ended, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data from 1000 female volunteers who participated in the study. Chi-square test was used to compare nonparametric variables, such as education, marital status, and age with attitude toward tobacco control activities. Age of the participants ranged from 17 to 53 years. The association between education level and positive attitude to participate in tobacco control activities was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). A statistically significant association between participation in tobacco control activities and marital status (P < 0.001) was observed. With regard to education and readiness/willingness to participate in tobacco control activities, in all the education groups more than 90% were willing to participate in tobacco control activities. Among the ever married participants, 98% were willing to participate in antitobacco activities. Old age, husband working in a beedi factory, or not being able to make frequent visits were the reasons reported for their unwillingness of the remaining people. Based on the findings, a set of Kudumbasree volunteers were trained in tobacco and health to work in the community.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    David, Jamil; Åstrøm, Anne N; Wang, Nina J

    2006-01-01

    Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S). The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5), having bad breath (OR = 2.4), food impaction (OR = 1.7) dental visits (OR = 1.6), being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2) and caries experience (OR = 1.7). The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%). Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health. PMID:16817952

  17. Debt, shame, and survival: becoming and living as widows in rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health and well-being of widows in India is an important but neglected issue of public health and women’s rights. We investigate the lives of Indian women as they become widows, focussing on the causes of their husband’s mortality and the ensuing consequences of these causes on their own lives and identify the opportunities and challenges that widows face in living healthy and fulfilling lives. Methods Data were collected in a Gram Panchayat (lowest level territorial decentralised unit) in the south Indian state of Kerala. Interviews were undertaken with key informants in order to gain an understanding of local constructions of ‘widowhood’ and the welfare and social opportunities for widows. Then we conducted semi-structured interviews with widows in the community on issues related to health and vulnerability, enabling us to hear perspectives from widows. Data were analysed for thematic content and emerging patterns. We synthesized our findings with theoretical understandings of vulnerability and Amartya Sen’s entitlements theory to develop a conceptual framework. Results Two salient findings of the study are: first, becoming a widow can be viewed as a type of ‘shock’ that operates similarly to other ‘economic shocks’ or ‘health shocks’ in poor countries except that the burden falls disproportionately on women. Second, widowhood is not a static phenomenon, but rather can be viewed as a multi-phased process with different public health implications at each stage. Conclusion More research on widows in India and other countries will help to both elucidate the challenges faced by widows and encourage potential solutions. The framework developed in this paper could be used to guide future research on widows. PMID:23126457

  18. Anaemia among schoolchildren from southern Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    S, Rakesh P; T, Rajeswaran; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Mathew, Gigil; L, Sheeja A; S, Subhagan; K, Salila

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia remains a major nutritional problem among adolescents in India. The weekly iron and folic acid supplementation programme was launched in Kerala in 2013-14. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among schoolchildren in Kollam district, Kerala and determine the associated factors. The haemoglobin level of 1600 boys and 1600 girls belonging to class V to IX in 32 randomly selected schools in Kollam district was measured using HemoCue 301 photometers by trained nurses. They also recorded details about the intake of food as well as iron tablets by the students. The anaemia status was evaluated as per the WHO guidelines. Univariate analysis for factors associated with anaemia was done and selected variables were entered into a logistic regression model. The prevalence of anaemia among the students was estimated to be 31.4% (95% CI 29.76-33.04). About 1% had severe, 11.9% had moderate and 18.5% had mild anaemia. Among them 35.3%, 22.3% and 45.3% reported that they were not in the habit of consuming meat, green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits, respectively, at least once a week. Anaemia among schoolgoing children was associated with irregular consumption of weekly iron folic acid supplementation tablets (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.82) and regular intake of tea/coffee along with major meals (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21-1.66). Anaemia among schoolgoing adolescents in Kollam district is a public health problem and is more among those who consumed less quantities of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation tablets and those who regularly consumed tea/coffee along with major meals. It may be helpful to introduce a comprehensive school health anaemia prevention package with effective behaviour change communication for dietary modification as well as strategies to improve the coverage of the iron and folic acid supplementation programme along with its monitoring and evaluation. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  19. First record of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) maggots from a sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sreejith; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar Karapparambu; Ravindran, Reghu; Rajagopal, Kavitha; Sooryadas, Surendran; Promod, Kanjirakuzhiyil

    2012-10-01

    Fully grown third stage larvae (LIII) of Chrysomya albiceps were recovered from aberrant sites viz. trachea and rumen during necropsy of a free-range sambar deer that had been observed to bear an inflamed tongue infested with maggots and subsequently died due to starvation. Five dead maggots of C. bezziana were also recovered from rumen. The aberrant locations of the recovery of the maggots indicated that they might have reached these sites accidentally. This is the first report of LIII of C. albiceps from a sambar deer from Kerala, South India.

  20. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and

  1. Assessment of nicotine dependence among smokers in a selected rural population in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, R; Mathew, Aleyamma; Lekshmi, Kamala; Sebastian, Paul; Finne, Patrik; Uutela, Antti

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to understand the nicotine dependence of smokers selected for an ongoing smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala, India. Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18 to 60 years from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention and 2 control groups). Trained accredited social health activist workers were utilised to collect data from all groups through face to face interview. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) translated into the local language. The internal consistency of FTND was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Criterion validity (concurrent) was assessed by correlations of nicotine dependence scores with age at initiation of smoking and cumulative smoking volume in pack-years. Among the 928 smokers identified, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age =44.6 years, SD =9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age= 44.5 years, SD =10.30 years). The overall FTND score among current daily smokers was 5.04 (SD: 5.05). FTND scores in the control and intervention areas were 4.75 (SD: 2.57) and 4.92 (SD: 2.51) respectively. The FTND scores increased with age and decreased with higher literacy and socioeconomic status. The average FTND score was high among smokers using both bidi and cigarettes (mean 6.10, SD 2.17). Internal consistency analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 in a subsample of 150 subjects, a moderate result. The association of the scale was strongest, with the number of pack-years smoked (rho = 0.677, p < 0.001). A moderate level of nicotine dependence was observed among smokers in the current study. Tobacco cessation strategies could be made more cost effective and productive if a baseline assessment of nicotine dependence is completed before any intervention.

  2. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of

  3. A Study of the Effects of a University Education upon the Ministerial Behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God Pastors in the State of Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The main research question of this study was, "What effects does a university education have on the ministerial behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPCG) pastors in Kerala, India?" Three data collection methods were used: interview, questionnaire, and participant observation. There were 10 university-educated (UE) pastors…

  4. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India: An ensialic mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Meen, James K.; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Rogers, John J. W.

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite belt of the Southern Indian Shield is described, a belt dominated by granulite grade (750 C, 5 to 6 kbar) supracrustal rocks whose protoliths included arkoses and shales with cratonic provenances. Rare earth elements and other geochemical signatures suggest a granitic source for these metasediments, possibly the spatially associated charnockite massifs. The presence of intercalated mafic gneisses, interpreted as basalts, implies a cratonic rift basin rather than a foreland basin setting. It was argued that the Kerala, as well as other early Proterozoic mobile belts formed during abortive continental rifting without major additions of new crust.

  5. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  6. Characterization of fluids involved in the Gneiss-Charnockite transformation in Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klatt, E.; Hoernes, S.; Raith, M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterization of fluids involved in the gneiss-charnockite transformation in southern Kerala are discussed. Using a variety of techniques, including microthermometry, Raman laser probe analysis, and mass spectrometry, it was concluded that the CO2-rich, N2-bearing metamorphic fluids in these rocks were internally-derived rather than having been introduced by CO2-streaming.

  7. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  8. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  9. Occurrence of concurrent infections with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses during 2013–2015 in northern Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Manchala Nageswar; Dungdung, Ranjeet; Valliyott, Lathika

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, increasing number of DHF and DSS cases were reported in India indicating potential enhancement of concurrent DENV infections. Therefore, accurate determination of the occurrence of DENV serotype co-infections needs to be conducted in various DENV prone parts of India. In this context, the present study was conducted to analyse the magnitude of concurrent infection in northern Kerala, a southwest state of India, during three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 120 serum samples were collected from the suspected dengue patients. The serum samples were diagnosed for the presence of dengue NS1 antigen followed by the isolation of dengue genome from NS1 positive samples. The isolated dengue genome was further subjected to RTPCR based molecular serotyping. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the sequence of PCR amplified products. Results Out of the total number of samples collected, 100 samples were positive for dengue specific antigen (NS1) and 26 of them contained the dengue genome. The RTPCR based molecular serotyping of the dengue genome revealed the presence of all four serotypes with different combinations. However, serotypes 1 and 3 were predominant combinations of concurrent infection. Interestingly, there were two samples with all four serotypes concurrently infected in 2013. Discussion All samples containing dengue genome showed the presence of more than one

  10. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition.

  11. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-03-20

    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  12. Dinurus ivanosi sp. nov. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from the stomach of dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, caught off the Kerala Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rekha, R Y; John, M V

    2004-03-01

    A new species of stomach fluke, Dinurus ivanosi (sp. nov.), was recovered from the dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus, off the Kerala Coast, India. It is similar to other Dinurus species in the plicated prosoma, trilobed seminal vesicle and seven vitellaria, but differs from them in the length of the pharynx, unequal lobes of the seminal vesicle and unequal size of the testes. The most important diagnostic features of the new species are the general shape and proportions of the body, the position of the oral sucker, elongated pharynx, small distal lobe of the seminal vesicle, and larger anterior testis, smaller egg size, short and slender vitellaria and the limited extent of the vitelline field.

  13. FOLK-LORE MEDICINES FOR JAUNDICE FROM COIMBATORE AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF TAMIL NADU AND KERALA, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    Ethno-botanical explorations with regard to the folk-lore medicine in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and Palghat district of Kerala for jaundice was carried out. Out of twenty remedies thus gathered two are found to be new reports and a few others have got interesting combination. The specimens are identified at Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore and deposited in the Herbarium of Ethnobiology department of International Institute of Ayurveda, Coimbatore. Two newly reported plants for Jaundice namely Alysicarpus vaginalis DC. and Justicia tranquebariensis L. f, have been taken for phytochemical screening and pharmacological studies. The botanical name of the plant, local name, Sanskrit name and the part of the plant employed are given in table I. PMID:22557611

  14. Predatory potential of Platynectes sp. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on Aedes albopictus, the vector of dengue/chikungunya in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N P; Bashir, A; Abidha, S; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Unused and discarded latex collection containers (LCCs) are the major breeding habitats of Aedes albopictus in the rubber plantations of Kerala, India. Platynectes sp. (Family: Dytiscidae) was observed to invade these habitats during the monsoon season and voraciously devour the larval instars of this major vector species of arbo-viral diseases. Field observations showed a reduction of 70.91% (p = 0.0017) and 100% in Aedes larval density, on the first and four days post release of eight beetles per LCC respectively. In laboratory, a beetle was found to devour 17.75 + 5.0 late larval instars of Ae. albopictus per day. Our findings indicate Platynectes sp. could be a potential bio-control agent against Ae. albopictus, the vector of chikungunya/dengue fevers, in rubber plantations.

  15. History of landslide susceptibility and a chorology of landslide-prone areas in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Sekhar L.; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2009-06-01

    Kerala is the third most densely populated state in India. It is a narrow strip of land, of which 47% is occupied by the most prominent orographic feature of peninsular India, The Western Ghats mountain chain. The highlands of Kerala experience several types of landslides, of which debris flows are the most common. They are called “Urul Pottal” in the local vernacular. The west-facing Western Ghats scarps that runs the entire extent of the mountain system is the most prone physiographic unit for landslides. The highlands of the region experience an annual average rainfall as high as 500 cm through the South-West, North-East and Pre-Monsoon showers. A survey of ancient documents and early news papers indicates a reduced rate of slope instability in the past. The processes leading to landslides were accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation since the early 18th century, terracing and obstruction of ephemeral streams and cultivation of crops lacking capability to add root cohesion in steep slopes. The events have become more destructive given the increasing vulnerability of population and property. Majority of mass movements have occurred in hill slopes >20° along the Western Ghats scarps, the only exception being the coastal cliffs. Studies conducted in the state indicates that prolonged and intense rainfall or more particularly a combination of the two and the resultant pore pressure variations are the most important trigger of landslides. The initiation zone of most of the landslides was typical hollows generally having degraded natural vegetation. A survey of post-landslide investigation and news paper reports enabled the identification of 29 major landslide events in the state. All except one of the 14 districts in the state are prone to landslides. Wayanad and Kozhikode districts are prone to deep seated landslides, while Idukki and Kottayam are prone to shallow landslides.

  16. Assessment of Status of Patients Receiving Palliative Home Care and Services Provided in a Rural Area—Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Thayyil, Jayakrishnan; Cherumanalil, Jeeja Mathummal

    2012-01-01

    Context: For the first time in India, a Pain and Palliative Care policy to guide the community-based home care initiatives was declared by the Government of Kerala state. In Kerala, majority of the panchayats (local self-governments) are now conducting home-based palliative care as part of primary health care. National focus domain areas in palliative care research are structure and process, the physical aspects, and also the social aspects of care. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the patient's status and the services provided by palliative home care. Settings and Design: The descriptive study was conducted at Mavoor panchayat—Kozhikode district of Kerala, India by collecting information from the case records, nurses diary notes of all enrolled patients. Materials and Methods: Collecting information from the case records, nurses diary notes of all enrolled patients. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered using Microsoft excel for Windows XP and analyzed using SPSS 16.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Totally, 104 patients were enrolled. Diagnosis wise major category was degenerative diseases. There were 27% persons suffering from cerebrovascular accidents, 15.3% with malignancies, 8.7% with coronary artery disease, 5.8% with complications of diabetes, and 8.7% were with fracture of bones. The major complaints were weakness (41.3%), tiredness (31.7%), and pain (27%). Twenty-five percent persons complained of urinary incontinence, 12.5% complained of ulcer, 10.6% of edema, and 9.6% of mental/emotional agony. The activity of daily living status was as follows. Twenty-five percent subjects were completely bed ridden. 5.8% were feeding through Ryles tube, 16.3% had urinary incontinence, 9.6% were having no bowel control. Conclusions: The service could address most of the medical, psychosocial, and supportive needs of the patients and reduce their pain and symptoms. The interface between institutional

  17. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  18. HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

  19. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  20. Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Fayette, Jean-Marie; Thomas, Gigi; Thara, Somanathan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Even though Kerala State is well-known for its egalitarian policies in terms of healthcare, redistributive actions and social reforms, and its health indicators close to those of high-resource countries despite a poor per-capita income, it is not clear whether socio-economic disparities in terms of life expectancy are observed. This study was therefore carried out to study the impact of socio-economic level on life expectancy in individuals living in Kerala. Methods A cohort of 1,67,331 participants aged 34 years and above in Thiruvananthapuram district, having completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline in 1995, was followed up for mortality and cause of death until 2005. Survival estimates were based on the participants’ vital status and death rates were calculated separately for men and women and for several socio-economic factors, stratified by age. Results At 40 years, men and women were expected to live another 34 and 37 years, respectively. Life expectancy varied across the participants’ different socio-economic categories: those from high income households with good housing conditions, materially privileged households and small households, had a 2-3 years longer life expectancy as compared to the deprived persons. Also, those who went to college lived longer than the illiterates. The gaps between categories were wider in men than in women. Interpretation & conclusions Socio-economic disparity in longevity was observed: wealthy people from Kerala State presented a longer life expectancy. PMID:21623031

  1. Typhlocarcinus kerala, a new species of rhizopine crab from southwestern India, and the identity of T. craterifer Rathbun, 1914 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pilumnidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Devi, Suvarna; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2017-05-26

    A new species of rhizopine crab of the genus Typhlocarcinus Stimpson, 1858 (family Pilumnidae), is described from southwestern India. Typhlocarcinus kerala sp. nov. is characterised by its granular carapace with the dorsal regions well demarcated and the gastro-cardiac grooves deep, the anterolateral margin entire and prominently granulated, the posterolateral margin lacks a low granulated lobe, proportions of the ambulatory legs and shape of the female telson.

  2. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, M; Rajavel, M; Surendran, U

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  3. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, M.; Rajavel, M.; Surendran, U.

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  4. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Lucky; Joshi, Sudhir; Anandan, Shalini; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Johnson, Jaichand; Satapathy, Asish; Haldar, Pradeep; Rayru, Ramesh; Ramamurthy, Srinath; Raghavan, Asha; Bhatnagar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action. Surveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK's test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed. A total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In <18 years age group, 62% were male while in ≥18 years, 69% were females. In <10 years age group, 31% children had received three doses of diphtheria vaccine, whereas in ≥10 years, 3% cases had received all doses. Fifteen toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolates represented 6 novel sequence types (STs) (ST-405, ST-408, ST-466, ST-468, ST-469, and ST-470). Other STs observed are ST-50, ST-295, and ST-377. Diphtheria being an emerging pathogen, establishing quality surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was used for targeted interventions and to formulate

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  6. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala.

  7. Magnetic assessment and pollution status of beach sediments from Kerala coast (southwestern India).

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Marcos A E; Suresh, G; Chaparro, Mauro A E; Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M

    2017-04-15

    Natural and anthropogenic activities along the coastal region of densely populated Kerala may introduce hazardous components into the coastal environment. The present study aimed to investigate the sources and impacts of hazardous components in beach sediments by environmental magnetism methods as additional tools. Magnetic parameters (such as mass-specific magnetic susceptibility χ=-1.2-154.4×10(-8)m(3)kg(-1)) and ratios that describe the magnetic properties of minerals such as Fe-oxides, indicate variable concentration of mixtures of magnetite and hematite (magnetite/hematite). The direct significant relationships between the variables indicate that higher concentration magnetic parameters are associated with higher radionuclides and metal contents. Magnetic properties and multivariate statistical analyses evidence the presence of contrasting groups defined only using a reduced number of magnetic variables. One of these groups, the central area of the Kerala coastline, showed the highest magnetic concentrations of mixtures of magnetite/hematite and higher values (up to 6.7) of pollution load index because of extensive anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P K; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G S; Asokan, D P K

    2006-05-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.

  9. Quantification of Aerosol Derived Particulate Matter and Trace gases in the Coastal Belt of Kochi, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol chemistry is a window to unravel the various environmental health hazard problems. This open forum which deals with the study of formation, interaction, transformation of aerosol species, which could enable in the assessment of biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic and toxic species. It also preserves the temperature balance and reservoir and sink for nutrients, trace metals and organic species. An inventory of air pollutants is a proactive and necessary first step towards the control of air pollution. Surveys and studies on the sources of pollution and their apportionment to different sources are a pre-requisite for alleviating environmental disorder. The Kochi City (The Queen of Arabian Sea), Kerala, India is a fast growing industrial region where mounting urbanization has been affecting the quality of the atmospheric environment. Cochin estuarine environment is progressively affected by marine pollution concomitant by industrial hazardous chemicals and municipal waste. Further, rapid urbanization and industrialization has lead to lofting and large scale advection of these omnipresent species in the atmosphere. Studies were conducted to assess the significance and potential impact occupied to these ubiquitous species. The major gaseous pollutants include gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and particulate matter (PM). An attempt was performed to unravel the inorganic species in the atmosphere and programmed by means of quantification of PM10 and trace gases. Their distribution pattern and outcomes are inferred.

  10. Coir geotextile for slope stabilization and cultivation - A case study in a highland region of Kerala, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, K. R.

    A sloping field is not only vulnerable to soil erosion it may also suffer from soil moisture deficiency. Farmers that cultivate on slopes everywhere face similar problems. Conservation technologies may reduce soil and nutrient losses, and thus enhance water holding capacity and soil fertility. But although these technologies promote sustainable crop production on steep slopes, the construction of physical structure such as bench terraces are often labour intensive and expensive to the farmers, since construction and maintenance require high investments. Here we studied the efficiency of coir geotextile with and without crop cultivation in reducing soil moisture deficiency on marginal slopes in Kerala, India. From the results it is evident that the slopes treated with geotextile and crops have the highest moisture retention capacity followed by geotextiles alone, and that the control plot has the lowest moisture retention capacity. As the poor and marginal farmers occupy the highland region, this method provides an economically viable option for income generation and food security along with slope stabilization.

  11. Isolation and characterization of broad spectrum bacteriophages lytic to Vibrio harveyi from shrimp farms of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Surekhamol, I S; Deepa, G D; Somnath Pai, S; Sreelakshmi, B; Varghese, S; Bright Singh, I S

    2014-03-01

    Of 33 phages isolated from various shrimp farms in Kerala, India, six were segregated to have broad spectrum lytic efficiency towards 87 isolates of Vibrio harveyi with cross-infecting potential to a few other important aquaculture pathogens. They were further tested on beneficial aquaculture micro-organisms such as probiotics and nitrifying bacterial consortia and proved to be noninfective. Morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular characterization by RAPD and SDS-PAGE proved them distinct and positioned under Caudovirales belonging to Myoviridae and Siphoviridae. In sustainable aquaculture, application of antibiotics is prohibited to manage vibriosis, including the one caused by Vibrio harveyi. In lieu of antibiotics, an eco-friendly alternative method, phage therapy, is recommended here. To facilitate the same, a set of six broad spectrum V. harveyi phages, as cocktail, has been constituted and characterized based on morphological traits and by employing molecular tools. These phages were also found to infect other aquaculture pathogens belonging to Vibrio and Aeromonas. Subsequent to in vivo trials, they can find application in shrimp hatcheries as prophylactics and therapeutics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Custodial Homes, Therapeutic Homes, and Parental Acceptance: Parental Experiences of Autism in Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    The home is a critical place to learn about cultural values of childhood disability, including autism and intellectual disabilities. The current article describes how the introduction of autism into a home and the availability of intervention options change the structure and meaning of a home and reflect parental acceptance of a child's autistic traits. Using ethnographic data from Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA, a description of two types of homes are developed: the custodial home, which is primarily focused on caring for basic needs, and the therapeutic home, which is focused on changing a child's autistic traits. The type of home environment is respondent to cultural practices of child rearing in the home and influences daily activities, management, and care in the home. Further, these homes differ in parental acceptance of their autistic children's disabilities, which is critical to understand when engaging in international work related to autism and intellectual disability. It is proposed that parental acceptance can be fostered through the use of neurodiverse notions that encourage autism acceptance.

  13. Genetic characterization of 2006-2008 isolates of Chikungunya virus from Kerala, South India, by whole genome sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, E; Issac, Aneesh; Nair, Sajith; Hariharan, Ramkumar; Janki, M B; Arathy, D S; Regu, R; Mathew, Thomas; Anoop, M; Niyas, K P; Pillai, M R

    2010-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-stranded alphavirus, causes epidemic febrile infections characterized by severe and prolonged arthralgia. In the present study, six CHIKV isolates (2006 RGCB03, RGCB05; 2007 RGCB80, RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355, RGCB356) from three consecutive Chikungunya outbreaks in Kerala, South India, were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 11798 bp whole genome of the virus. A total of 37 novel mutations were identified and they were predominant in the 2007 and 2008 isolates among the six isolates studied. The previously identified E1 A226V critical mutation, which enhances mosquito adaptability, was present in the 2007 and 2008 samples. An important observation was the presence of two coding region substitutions, leading to nsP2 L539S and E2 K252Q change. These were identified in three isolates (2007 RGCB80 and RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355) by full-genome analysis, and also in 13 of the 31 additional samples (42%), obtained from various parts of the state, by sequencing the corresponding genomic regions. These mutations showed 100% co-occurrence in all these samples. In phylogenetic analysis, formation of a new genetic clade by these isolates within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotypes was observed. Homology modeling followed by mapping revealed that at least 20 of the identified mutations fall into functionally significant domains of the viral proteins and are predicted to affect protein structure. Eighteen of the identified mutations in structural proteins, including the E2 K252Q change, are predicted to disrupt T-cell epitope immunogenicity. Our study reveals that CHIK virus with novel genetic changes were present in the severe Chikungunya outbreaks in 2007 and 2008 in South India.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive disorder among college students in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jaisoorya, T S; Janardhan Reddy, Y C; Nair, B Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya G; Revamma, M; Jeevan, C R; Radhakrishnan, K S; Jose, Vineetha; Thennarasu, K

    2017-01-01

    There are scarce data on the prevalence of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in India. The aim was to study the point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD and its psychosocial correlates among college students in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional survey of 5784 students of the age range of 18-25 years from 58 colleges was conducted. Students were self-administered the OCD subsection of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), and other relevant instruments to identify OCD, subthreshold OCD, and related clinical measures. The point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD was determined. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests as necessary. Differences between means were compared using the ANOVA. The point prevalence of OCD was 3.3% (males = 3.5%; females = 3.2%). 8.5% students (males = 9.9%; females = 7.7%) fulfilled criteria of subthreshold OCD. Taboo thoughts (67.1%) and mental rituals (57.4%) were the most common symptoms in OCD subjects. Compared to those without obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), those with OCD and subthreshold OCD were more likely to have lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, psychological distress, suicidality, sexual abuse, and higher attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom scores. Subjects with subthreshold OCD were comparable to those with OCD except that OCD subjects had higher psychological distress scores and academic failures. OCD and subthreshold OCD are not uncommon in the community, both being associated with significant comorbidity. Hence, it is imperative that both are identified and treated in the community because of associated morbidity.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive disorder among college students in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Jaisoorya, T. S.; Janardhan Reddy, Y. C.; Nair, B. Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya G.; Revamma, M.; Jeevan, C. R.; Radhakrishnan, K. S.; Jose, Vineetha; Thennarasu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Context: There are scarce data on the prevalence of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in India. Aims: The aim was to study the point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD and its psychosocial correlates among college students in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of 5784 students of the age range of 18–25 years from 58 colleges was conducted. Materials and Methods: Students were self-administered the OCD subsection of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), and other relevant instruments to identify OCD, subthreshold OCD, and related clinical measures. Statistical Analysis: The point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD was determined. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests as necessary. Differences between means were compared using the ANOVA. Results: The point prevalence of OCD was 3.3% (males = 3.5%; females = 3.2%). 8.5% students (males = 9.9%; females = 7.7%) fulfilled criteria of subthreshold OCD. Taboo thoughts (67.1%) and mental rituals (57.4%) were the most common symptoms in OCD subjects. Compared to those without obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), those with OCD and subthreshold OCD were more likely to have lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, psychological distress, suicidality, sexual abuse, and higher attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom scores. Subjects with subthreshold OCD were comparable to those with OCD except that OCD subjects had higher psychological distress scores and academic failures. Conclusions: OCD and subthreshold OCD are not uncommon in the community, both being associated with significant comorbidity. Hence, it is imperative that both are identified and treated in the community because of associated morbidity. PMID:28529361

  16. Distribution of coastal cliffs in Kerala, India: their mechanisms of failure and related human engineering response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avinash; Seralathan, P.; Jayappa, K. S.

    2009-08-01

    The 560-km-long Kerala coast is characterised by long barriers with narrow beaches and steep cliffs. Distribution of cliffs from nine sections measuring a cumulative length of 63.5 km is evaluated in ArcGIS Software using topomaps and field survey data. The cliff sections in the southern coast comprise both permeable and impermeable rocks, whereas those along northern coast are comprised of either Precambrian crystalline and/or Tertiary formations. Notches, caves and even small arches are developed in Cannanore, Dharmadam and Kadalundi cliffs, where only primary laterites are exposed to wave attack. Stacks composed of laterite and Precambrian crystallines found in nearshore of cliffed coast indicate recession of shoreline. Mass wasting, mudslide and mudflow type of cliff failures are common in permeable to semi-permeable rocks, whereas rotational sliding, rockfall and toppling failure are found in hard rock cliffs. Retreat of cliff sections are induced by natural or anthropogenic activities or both. Rate of recession vary from a few centimetres to one metre/year depending upon the nature of lithology, structures and recession agents acting upon the cliffs. Various methods of cliff protection for e.g. hard structures—revetments, groins, seawalls, breakwater and jetties—and soft measures—artificial reefs/marsh creation, floating breakwaters, beach nourishment, beach scraping and vegetation planting—are suggested.

  17. Surveillance of perchlorate in ground water, surface water and bottled water in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nadaraja, Anupama Vijaya; Puthiyaveettil, Prajeesh Gangadharan; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate is an emerging water contaminant that disrupts normal functioning of human thyroid gland and poses serious threat to health, especially for pregnant women, fetus and children. High level of perchlorate contamination in fresh water sources at places nearby ammonium perchlorate (rocket fuel) handled in bulk is reported in this study. Of 160 ground water samples analyzed from 27 locations in the State Kerala, 58 % had perchlorate above detection limit (2 μg/L) and the highest concentration observed was 7270 μg/L at Ernakulam district, this value is ~480 times higher than USEPA drinking water equivalent level (15 μg/L). Perchlorate was detected in all surface water samples analyzed (n = 10) and the highest value observed was 355 μg/L in Periyar river (a major river in the State). The bottled drinking water (n = 5) tested were free of perchlorate. The present study underlines the need for frequent screening of water sources for perchlorate contamination around places the chemical is handled in bulk. It will help to avoid human exposure to high levels of perchlorate.

  18. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  19. Return of overseas contract workers and their rehabilitation and development in Kerala (India). A critical account of policies, performance and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nair, P R

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of labor migrants from Kerala state, India, who were 40-60% of all contract workers in the Middle East and who returned after the mid-1980s. Descriptions are provided of the characteristics of return migrants, the Kerala economy, return migration policies, and impact studies of returnees. About 500,000 returned to Kerala. Returnees were middle aged, with low levels of education, skills, and experience. About 50% of returnees remained unemployed. The other 50% either retired or sought self-employment or other wage labor. Surveys conducted in 1985, 1987, 1993-93, and 1997 reveal that returnees peaked during the 1990s. By 1997, returnees to the Kadinamkulam panchayat included about one-sixth who were women. Most returnees had worked in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. The reasons for return were poor working and living conditions, lack of opportunity or contract for staying longer, or forced repatriation. Upon return, 50% of the women and about 16% of the men remained unemployed. Return wages were about the same as before the migration. Returnees complained about the lack of support from government and society. Impact studies do not differentiate migration effects from development effects in general. Evaluation should focus on multidimensional impacts and individual attainment of emigration goals.

  20. Variability of the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (India) of the period 1870-2014 and its relation to sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preenu, P. N.; Joseph, P. V.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Monsoon onset over Kerala (India) which occurs every year is a major climatic phenomenon that involves large scale changes in wind, rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST). Over the last 150 years, the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (DMOK) has varied widely, the earliest being 11 May, 1918 and the most delayed being 18 June, 1972. DMOK has a long term (1870-2014) mean of 01 June and standard deviation of 7-8 days. We have studied the inter-annual and decadal time scale variability of DMOK and their relation with SST. We found that SST anomalies of large spatial scale similar to those in El Nino/La Nina are associated with the inter-annual variability in DMOK. Indian Ocean between latitudes 5°S and 20°N has two episodes of active convection associated with monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), one around DMOK and the other about six weeks earlier (called pre-monsoon rain peak or bogus monsoon onset) and in between a two week period of suppressed convection occurs over north Indian Ocean. A prominent decadal time scale variability was found in DMOK having large and statistically significant linear correlation with the SST gradient across the equator over Indian and Pacific oceans, the large correlation persisting for several months prior to the MOK. However, no linear trend was seen in DMOK during the long period from 1870 to 2014.

  1. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, -0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test-retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study.

  2. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  3. Radionuclides and Radiation Indices of High Background Radiation Area in Chavara-Neendakara Placer Deposits (Kerala, India)

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara – Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th) and Potassium (40K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between 238U and 232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h−1) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA. PMID:23185629

  4. Y-short tandem repeat haplotype and paternal lineage of the Ezhava population of Kerala, south India

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Parvathy Seema; Geetha, Aswathy; Jagannath, Chippy

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the haplotype of the Ezhava population of Kerala, south India, using 8 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome and trace the paternal genetic lineage of the population. Methods Whole blood samples (n = 104) were collected from unrelated healthy men of the Ezhava population over a period of one year from October 2009. Genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. All samples were genotyped for the 8 Y-STR loci by the AmpFiSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification Kit. The haplotype and allele frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 software, and molecular variance was calculated with the Y-chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool, www.yhrd.org. Results Among the 104 examined haplotypes, we found 98 unique ones. The average gene diversity was 0.669, with the highest diversity of 0.9462 observed for the biallelic Y-STR marker DYS 385. The allele frequency among DYS loci varied between 0.0096 and 0.75. Out of the 104 haplotypes, 10 were identical to the Jat Sikh population of Punjab, which is the greatest number among the Indian populations, and 4 to the Turkish population, which is the greatest number among the European populations. According to the allele frequency of Y-STR, the Ezhavas were genetically more similar to the Europeans (60%) than to the East Asians (40%). Conclusion The vast majority of haplotypes were observed only once, reflecting the enormous genetic heterogeneity of the Ezhavas. Based on the genotype, the Ezhavas showed more resemblance to Jat Sikh population of Punjab and the Turkish populations than to the East Asians, hence indicating a paternal lineage of European origin. PMID:21674830

  5. Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria Species and Staphylococcus aureus in Cattle Slaughterhouses of Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; C, Latha; B, Sunil; Van Damme, Inge

    2017-10-01

    A total of 765 samples were collected from beef carcasses, knives, cutting table surfaces, beef, hands, air, and water from four cattle slaughterhouses of Kerala, South India, to determine the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria species and Staphylococcus aureus. Listeria spp. were isolated from beef carcasses (2.0%), knives (3.7%), cutting table surfaces (1.9%), beef (0.7%), and water (1.3%). The identified species were Listeria monocytogenes (0.1%), Listeria innocua (0.9%), and Listeria ivanovii (0.4%). Most of the Listeria spp. were susceptible to majority of the antibiotics tested. The virulence genes were not detected in Listeria spp. However, all the L. innocua isolates were found to harbor the iap gene. The overall occurrence of S. aureus in slaughterhouses was 50.8%. The highest occurrence was observed on hands of abattoir workers (79.6%) and beef carcasses (59.9%). The isolates were commonly resistant to penicillin (38.0%), followed by ceftriaxone (31.9%), ampicillin (29.0%), amoxicillin (28.8%), tetracycline (24.4%), and chloramphenicol (23.9%). Overall, 53.0% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Vancomycin and methicillin resistance were observed in 8.5% and 5.4% of S. aureus isolates, respectively. Eight methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found to harbor the mecA gene. In conclusion, Listeria spp. was only rarely found in the slaughterhouse environment and on beef. Nevertheless, the recovery of L. monocytogenes from a water reservoir containing sea water that was used to wash carcasses indicates the potential risk of contamination of the carcasses with L. monocytogenes when using sea water. S. aureus was frequently isolated from abattoir workers and beef carcasses, and the occurrence of S. aureus differed significantly between slaughterhouses. The high occurrence of S. aureus, which were often resistant toward different antibiotics, represents a significant public health concern.

  6. Prevalence of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Higher Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K

    2017-01-01

    The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  7. Radionuclides and radiation indices of high background radiation area in Chavara-Neendakara placer deposits (Kerala, India).

    PubMed

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara - Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium ((238)U), Thorium ((232)Th) and Potassium ((40)K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between (238)U and (232)Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h(-1)) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA.

  8. Development of a Tool to Stage Households' Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Sarma, P S; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach's Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay community

  9. Compliance with infection control practices in sputum microscopy centres: a study from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Ubaid, N P; Nagaraja, S B; Shewade, H D; Padmanabhan, K V; Naik, B R; Satpati, M; Blesson, S; Jayasree, A K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Une des stratégies du Programme national révisé de lutte contre la tuberculose (RNTCP) en Inde consiste à lutter contre la tuberculose en augmentant la détection des cas à travers un réseau national de Centres de Diagnostic par Microscopie (DMC). La mise en oeuvre des précautions standard de lutte contre les infections dans ces DMC est très importante pour prévenir la transmission des infections, non seulement vis-à-vis du personnel de laboratoire, mais également vis-à-vis de la population générale. Cependant, en Inde, ceci n'a pas été évalué par une agence externe.Méthode : Une étude transversale a été réalisée pour évaluer les connaissances, la structure et l'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection (ICP) dans les 38 DMC du district de Kannur, état du Kerala, Inde en 2015. Grâce à des observations et à des entretiens, les investigateurs ont recueilli des données dans un format structuré.Résultats : Les connaissances d'ensemble relatives à la lutte contre l'infection ont été jugées satisfaisantes pour 29% des techniciens de laboratoire. Le niveau d'ensemble des centres en matière de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisant dans 61% des DMC. L'adhésion aux pratiques de lutte contre l'infection a été satisfaisante dans 45% des DMC. Les connaissances relatives aux pratiques d'ICP ont été meilleures dans les DMC du gouvernement tandis que les installations et l'adhésion aux directives de gestion des déchets biomédicaux ont été meilleures dans les DMC privés.Conclusion : Connaissant le risque très élevé d'infection parmi les techniciens de laboratoire, il y a un besoin urgent de corriger les déficiences des pratiques de lutte contre l'infection.

  10. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  11. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subrata; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady

    2011-01-07

    In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality. Households in the most marginalised castes and with high health care

  12. Study of stillbirth and major congenital anomaly among newborns in the high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Koya, P K M; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Seshadri, M

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring newborns for adverse outcomes like stillbirth and major congenital anomalies (MCA) is being carried out in government hospitals since 1995 in and around high-level natural radiation areas, a narrow strip of land on the southwest coast of Kerala, India. Natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium and its daughter products account for elevated levels of natural radiation. Among 141,540 newborns [140,558 deliveries: 139,589 singleton, 957 twins (6.81 ‰), 11 triplets (0.078 ‰), and one quadruplet] screened, 615 (4.35 ‰) were stillbirth and MCA were seen in 1,370 (9.68 ‰) newborns. Clubfoot (404, 2.85 ‰) was the most frequent MCA followed by hypospadias (152, 2.10 ‰ among male newborns), congenital heart disease (168, 1.19 ‰), cleft lip/palate (149, 1.05 ‰), Down syndrome (104, 0.73 ‰), and neural tube defects (72, 0.51 ‰). Newborns with MCA among stillbirths were about 20-fold higher at 190.24 ‰ (117/615) compared to 8.89 ‰ (1,253/140,925) among live births (P < .001). Logistic regression was carried out to compare stillbirth, overall, and specific MCA among newborns from areas with dose levels of ≤1.5, 1.51-3.0, 3.01-6.0 and >6 mGy/year after controlling for maternal age at birth, gravida, consanguinity, ethnicity, and gender of the baby. Clubfoot showed higher prevalence of 3.26 ‰ at dose level of 1.51-3.0 mGy/year compared to 2.33 ‰ at ≤1.5 mGy/year (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.72), without indication of any clear dose-response. Prevalences of stillbirth, overall MCA, and other specific MCA were similar across different dose levels and were relatively lower than that reported elsewhere in India, probably due to better literacy, health awareness, and practices in the study population.

  13. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  14. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India--Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-11-28

    To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking.

  15. Melt inclusions and origin of granite in migmatitic granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Cesare, Bernardo; Salvioli Mariani, Emma; Cavallo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Both glassy and crystallized melt inclusions (MI) occur in garnet in metapelitic granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt. These rocks were metamorphosed and partially melted at UHT conditions during the Pan-African event, and MI represent droplets of the anatectic melt, originated by dehydration melting of biotite and trapped by garnet growth at supersolidus conditions. An extensive ESEM-BSE mapping study, along with EMPA analysis and re-heating experiments, has been carried out to characterize these anatectic MI. The inclusions range from 4 to 35 μm in diameter and occur as clusters in garnets. In spite of the long time it took for these rocks to cool below 350 °C (at least 60 m.y.), different degrees of crystallization were observed in the same cluster, ranging from totally crystallized to totally glassy. The crystallized MI are referred to as "nanogranites" (Cesare et al., 2009) and always contain quartz, Mg-rich biotite (XFe=0.23) and two feldspars in a fine-grained polycrystalline aggregate. Based on microstructural evidence, biotite crystallized as first phase, preferentially on the walls of the MI, while quartz and feldspars crystallized later, often forming graphic intergrowths and/or melt pseudomorph-like structures (≥ 50 nm) similar to coarser structures (≈ tens of microns scale) observed in the host rocks. The glassy inclusions are rare (about 15% of the total) and smaller in size (≤15 μm in diameter) compared to the crystallized nanogranite MI. Both MI types often show negative crystal-shape and contain trapped crystalline phases that are accessories in the host rock, including rutile, titanite, zircon, apatite and Zn-rich spinel. Partially crystallized MI have been also recognized, containing an amorphous phase identified as a residual melt Where Cl and Ca are preferentially partitioned. Re-heating experiments in a HT hearing stage succeeded in re-homogenizing the nanogranite inclusions. EMP data on 40 re-homogenized MI show an average SiO2

  16. A situational analysis of HIV/AIDS-related discrimination in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Elamon, J

    2005-07-01

    Due to its large population, India has a substantial proportion of the world's HIV infections. Recent evidence suggests that the virus is moving into the general population from high-risk groups. Despite this, a mentality of 'us' and 'them' continues to prevail, where PLWHA are marginalised from mainstream society. Focusing on the area of health care, this study, through an analysis of legislative policy, written regulations and interviews with key informants and direct witnesses aims to map the forms of structural discrimination that inform the lives of PLWHA. Study findings indicate that a lack of clearly enunciated and enforced legislation (which is in some instances clearly discriminatory), coupled with an absence of written internal policy, leaves room for selective interpretation, which in turn creates the opportunities for discriminatory behaviours to be perpetuated against PLWHA. The paper concludes with a call for better educational training of medical staff and the improvement of existing legislature.

  17. Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for pressure-temperature-fluid histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, M.; Santosh, M.; Harley, S. L.; Yoshida, M.

    This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety of reaction textures overprinting the polygonal granoblastic peak metamorphic assemblages in these rocks. The Type II calc-silicate rocks preserve reaction textures, including meionite breaking down to anorthite-calcite-quartz, wollastonite breaking down to calcite-quartz and meionite-quartz symplectites after K-feldspar and wollastonite. Type III calc-silicate rocks have porphyroblastic and coronal grossular. Grossular-quartz coronas separating wollastonite and anorthite and the development of grossular within the anorthite-calcite-quartz pseudomorphs of meionite form important retrograde reaction textures in this type. In Type IV dolomitic marble assemblages, meionite forming in grain boundaries of calcite and feldspars, forsterite rimmed by diopside-dolomite and the formation of grossular in feldspar-rich zones are the important textures. Calculated partial petrogenetic grids in the CaOAl 2O 3SiO 2CO 2 system are used to deduce the pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the calc-silicate rocks. The Type II assemblages provide CO 2 activity estimates of > 0.5, with a peak metamorphic temperature of about 790°C. Initial cooling followed by later CO 2 influx can be deduced from reaction modelling in these calc-silicate rocks. Type III assemblages are characterized by internal fluid buffering throughout their tectonic history. The formation of coronal grossular indicates an initial cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures of about 830°C deduced from vapour

  18. Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India.

    PubMed

    Sruthy, S; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-03-01

    We present the first study of microplastics in the sediments of Vembanad Lake, a Ramsar site in India. Microplastics are emerging pollutants of increasing environmental concern with a particle size of <5 mm, which originate from successive degradation of larger plastic debris or are manufactured as small granules and used in many applications. The impact of microplastics pollution on the environment and biota is not well known. Vast data exist in the literature on marine microplastics while reports on freshwater ecosystems are scarce. In this context, to examine the occurrence of microplastic particles (MPs) in the Vembanad Lake, samples were collected from ten sites and processed for microplastic extraction through density separation. Identification of the polymer components of MPs was done using micro Raman spectroscopy. MPs were recovered from all sediment samples, indicating their extensive distribution in the lake. The abundance of MPs recorded from the sediment samples is in the range of 96-496 particles m(-2) with a mean abundance of 252.80 ± 25.76 particles m(-2). Low density polyethylene has been identified as the dominant type of polymer component of the MPs. As clams and fishes are the major source of protein to the local population, the presence of MPs in the lake becomes critically important, posing a severe threat of contaminating the food web of this lake. This study, being the first report from India on MPs in lake sediments, provide impetus for further research on the distribution and impact of this emerging pollutant on the biota of many aquatic systems spread across India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  20. Peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in men from areas of Kerala, India, with high vs normal levels of natural background ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, C V; Ramachandran, E N; Kumar, V Anil; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) in adult male individuals living in areas of the Kerala coast, southwest India, with either high (HLNRA, >1.5mGy/year) or normal levels of natural ionizing radiation (NLNRA, ≤1.5mGy/year). Blood samples were obtained from 141 individuals, 94 from HLNRA and 47 from NLNRA, aged 18-72, and were subjected to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. An average of 1835 binucleated (BN) cells per individual were scored. The overall frequency of MN (mean±SD) was 11.7±6.7 per 1000 BN cells. The frequencies of MN in the HLNRA (11.7±6.6) and NLNRA (11.6±6.7) were not statistically significantly different (P=0.59). However, a statistically significant (P<0.001) age-dependent increase in MN frequency was observed among individuals from both HLNRA and NLNRA. No natural background radiation dose-dependent increase in MN frequency was seen. MN frequency was not influenced by tobacco smoking or chewing but it was increased among individuals consuming alcohol. Chronic low-dose radiation in the Kerala coast did not have a significant effect on MN frequency among adult men.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V P

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group.

  2. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group. PMID:24971195

  4. Isolated in a technologically connected world?: Changes in the core professional ties of female researchers in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Miller, B Paige; Shrum, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data gathered across two waves (2001 and 2005) from researchers in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala, India, we examine three questions: (1) To what extent do gender differences exist in the core professional networks of scientists in low-income areas? (2) How do gender differences shift over time? (3) Does use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) mediate the relationship between gender and core network composition? Our results indicate that over a period marked by dramatic increases in access to and use of various ICTs, the composition and size of female researchers core professional ties have either not changed significantly or have changed in an unexpected direction. Indeed, the size of women's ties are retracting over time rather than expanding.

  5. The development of the nursing profession in a globalised context: A qualitative case study in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Evans, Catrin; Nair, Sreelekha

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, we are looking at the relationship between globalisation and the professional project, using nursing in Kerala as an exemplar. Our focus is on the intersection of the professional project, gender and globalisation processes. Included in our analysis are the ways in which gender affects the professional project in the global south, and the development of a professional project which it is closely tied to global markets and global migration, revealing the political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that influence the shape and consequences of nurse migration. The phenomenon that enabled our analysis, by showing these forces at work in a particular time and place, was an outbreak of strikes by nurses working in private hospitals in Kerala in 2011-2012.

  6. Insular pathways to health care in the city: a multilevel analysis of access to hospital care in urban Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady; Fournier, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    To identify individual and urban unit characteristics associated with access to inpatient care in public and private sectors in urban Kerala, and to discuss policy implications of inequalities in access. We analysed the NSSO survey (1995-1996) for urban Kerala with regard to source and trajectories of hospitalization. Multinomial multilevel regression models were built for 695 cases nested in 24 urban units. Private sector accounts for 62% of hospitalizations. Only 31% of hospitalizations are in free wards and 20% of public hospitalizations involve payment. Hospitalization pathways suggest a segmentation of public and private health markets. Members of poor and casual worker households have lower propensity of hospitalization in paying public wards or private hospitals. There were important variations between cities, with higher odds of private hospitalization in towns with fewer hospital beds overall and in districts with high private-public bed ratios. Cities from districts with better economic indicators and dominance of private services have higher proportion of private hospitalizations. The private sector is the predominant source of inpatient care in urban Kerala. The public sector has an important role in providing access to care for the poor. Investing in the quality of public services is essential to ensure equity in access.

  7. Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, C.; Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India preserves a distinct high-grade terrain that is interpreted to have been situated adjacent to Madagascar and Sri Lanka during Gondwana assembly. As such, it has become a major focus for testing models of supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal. The lithounits of KKB have remarkable petrological similarities to the Highland Complex (HC) of Sri Lanka and south-central Madagascar. However, there is no well-constrained petrogenetic model for the KKB that fits explicitly within a supercontinent reconstruction model. We present here results from our on-going studies on the origin and evolution of K-rich (potassic, where K2O/Na2O > 1) gneisses of KKB in relation to Proterozoic supercontinent events. Our results show, in a major departure from earlier metasedimentary origin, that potassic gneisses are metamorphosed granitoids. The metagranitoid samples display high K2O contents and low Al2O3/(FeO + MgO + TiO2) values. They are moderate to strongly peraluminous (ASI values ranging from 1.05 to 1.47) rocks showing mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. Typical of igneous suites, the high-K metagranites show minor variation in chemical compositions with most oxides showing negative correlation with SiO2. Geochemistry illustrates distinctive features of arc-related magmas with LILE (K, Rb, and Th) and LREE enriched patterns and considerable depletion of HSFE (Nb, Zr, and Ti). The high-K metagranites are further characterized by strong negative anomalies of Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.10-0.44) and Sr, suggesting melting in plagioclase stability field and retention of plagioclase in the residual phase. Petrogenetic discrimination for granitoids, using major and trace elements demonstrates that the high-K metagranites of the KKB formed by partial melting of igneous source in lower- to middle-crust levels. Overall the geochemical features are supportive of origin

  8. Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

    Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

  9. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India.

    PubMed

    Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-11-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤ 1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent.

  10. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: understanding the growing complexity governing immunization services in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Kutty, V Raman; Paina, Ligia; Adam, Taghreed

    2014-08-26

    Governing immunization services in a way that achieves and maintains desired population coverage levels is complex as it involves interactions of multiple actors and contexts. In one of the Indian states, Kerala, after routine immunization had reached high coverage in the late 1990s, it started to decline in some of the districts. This paper describes an application of complex adaptive systems theory and methods to understand and explain the phenomena underlying unexpected changes in vaccination coverage. We used qualitative methods to explore the factors underlying changes in vaccination coverage in two districts in Kerala, one with high and one with low coverage. Content analysis was guided by features inherent to complex adaptive systems such as phase transitions, feedback, path dependence, and self-organization. Causal loop diagrams were developed to depict the interactions among actors and critical events that influenced the changes in vaccination coverage. We identified various complex adaptive system phenomena that influenced the change in vaccination coverage levels in the two districts. Phase transition describes how initial acceptability to vaccination is replaced by a resistance in northern Kerala, which involved new actors; actors attempting to regain acceptability and others who countered it created several feedback loops. We also describe how the authorities have responded to declining immunization coverage and its impact on vaccine acceptability in the context of certain highly connected actors playing disproportionate influence over household vaccination decisions.Theoretical exposition of our findings reveals the important role of trust in health workers and institutions that shape the interactions of actors leading to complex adaptive system phenomena. As illustrated in this study, a complex adaptive system lens helps to uncover the 'real' drivers for change. This approach assists researchers and decision makers to systematically explore the

  12. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    PubMed

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2017-03-30

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive FIS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, FST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  13. Dimensional and morphological analysis of various rugae patterns in Kerala (South India) sample population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Result: The total number of rugae was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in females than males. Regarding the shape, wavy pattern predominated in both males and females, followed by curve, straight, divergent, convergent and circular pattern. Circular pattern was more in males than females. The rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. Conclusion: The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae. PMID:26283818

  14. Correlation between Innercanthal Distance and Mesiodistal Width of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in a Thrissur, Kerala, India, Population.

    PubMed

    Attokaran, George; Shenoy, Kamalakanth

    2016-05-01

    Selecting and replacing missing teeth to natural proportions and esthetic preference of a patient in the absence of pre-extraction records is a very challenging task. Although facial analysis and proportions are well discussed in many populations, none exists for the Thrissur, Kerala, population. A prosthodontic rehabilitation for Kerala patients relying on other racial norms may result in dissonant facial proportions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the validity of innercanthal distance as a guide in determining the mesiodistal dimension of six maxillary anterior teeth in a selected Malayalee population in the Thrissur Municipal Corporation area; (2) to check whether innercanthal distance undergoes dynamic changes over time as a result of aging; and (3) to evaluate whether there is a gender difference in the analyzed mean facial and dental proportions in this population. The study was conducted on 1,200 subjects in the Thrissur Municipal Corporation area. From five wards, 240 subjects were selected, out of which 120 were from the 18 to 25 years age group and 120 from the 40 to 50 years age group. Sixty males and females were selected from each group. The innercanthal distance was measured using a Digital Vernier Caliper, and alginate impressions were made to evaluate the size of maxillary anteriors. The data was analyzed statistically. The study showed that there is a high statistical significance between the innercanthal distance and the mesiodistal width of six maxillary anterior teeth in females (p < 0.01) and no significance in males. There was also dynamic changes in the innercanthal dimension and the mesiodistal width of maxillary anteriors with increase in age (p < 0.001). The difference in the mean of innercanthal distance between the genders was highly statistically significant, but no significance was found between the genders in the mesiodistal width of maxillary anteriors. Within the population evaluated, there was a high

  15. The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2014-06-01

    The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described.

  16. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

  17. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  18. Ethnomedicinal plants used for snake envenomation by folk traditional practitioners from Kallar forest region of South Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Sulochana, Anaswara Krishnan; Raveendran, Dileepkumar; Krishnamma, Anoop Pushkaran; Oommen, Oommen V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional medicinal systems of Indian folklore abundantly use medicinal plants or its derivatives for the treatment of snakebites. However, this traditional knowledge is on the verge of extinction, and there is an immediate necessity to conserve this oral traditional knowledge primarily by proper documentation and scientific authentication. The present ethno botanical study carried out among the folk medicine practitioners in the rural settle mental areas of Kallar forest region of southern Kerala, aims to document the folk herbal knowledge particularly for snake envenomation. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted during the period of June 2012-July 2013 in the rural and forest settlement areas of Kallar in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Direct observation and oral communications with local folk medicine practitioners in this region were adopted to collect valid information regarding the herbal formulations used to treat snake bite patients. Results: The study enumerates a list of 24 plant species belonging to seventeen families with anti-venomous potential. The scientific, vernacular and family names of these plants, along with the part used and their application modes are also enumerated in this communication. Conclusions: Plants are believed to be potent snake bite antidotes from centuries back, and knowledge about the use of plants is strictly conserved among tribes through generations without recorded data. It is the need of the hour to document these old drug formulations and is the cardinal responsibility of the scientific community to validate it and come up with new potent drug molecule for the benefit of snake bite victims. PMID:26401384

  19. An outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Peter, Sam; Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Jadhav, Santhosh M

    2015-04-15

    Influenza is an RNA virus that belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. It causes a highly contagious acute respiratory illness, has been recognized since ancient times, and is a major health threat throughout the world. An outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) was reported from Alappuzha district of Kerala State between late June and July 2011. This investigation was conducted to determine the clinical picture, causative agents, and epidemiological characteristics of the illness. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s case definition for ILI was followed throughout the investigation. Nasal or throat swabs were collected from 204 suspected patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis was performed to detect influenza A and B viruses and their subtypes. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line was used for virus isolation. One-step RT-PCR was performed to amplify the HA1 gene of influenza A(H3N2). The amplicons for the HA1 gene of influenza A(H3N2) were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was done. Analysis of the data revealed that 96 (47.05%) of the 204 respiratory specimens collected were influenza A(H3N2) and only 6 (2.94%) were A(H1N1)pdm09. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated A(H3N2) was closely related to the 2012-2013 northern hemisphere vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011/H3N2). An influenza A(H3N2) outbreak was confirmed in Alappuzha district of Kerala state with a co-circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09. No substantial difference in the sequence was observed in the etiological agent, and the virus was found to be sensitive to oseltamivir.

  20. The 9th annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, “Principles, Practices, and Patients,” a level one international meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23–27, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    INDUS-EM is India’s only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium that was held in Thrissur, Kerala in October 2013. PMID:24884923

  1. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.

  2. Validation of the Malayalam Version of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale in Cancer Patients in the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Anzar, Shoukkathali; Koshy, Cherian; Abraham, Kurian Mathew

    2017-01-01

    The Self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) is a 7-item self-report scale developed to identify pain which is of predominantly neuropathic origin. The aim of this study was to develop a Malayalam version of the LANSS and to test its validity and reliability in chronic pain patients. We enrolled 101 Malayalam-speaking chronic pain patients who visited the Division of Palliative Medicine, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The translated version of S- LANSS was constructed by standard means. Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were identified by an independent pain physician and were subjected to the new pain scale by a palliative care nurse who was blinded to the diagnosis. The "gold standard diagnosis" is what the physician makes after clinical examination. Its validation, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were subjected to the Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale for validity testing. The agreement by Cohen's Kappa 0.743, Chi-square test P < 0.001, sensitivity 89.58, specificity 84.91, positive predictive value 84.31, negative predictive value 90.00, accuracy by 87.13, and likelihood ratio 5.94. The Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale is a validated screening tool for identifying neuropathic pain in chronic pain patients in Malayalam-speaking regions.

  3. Attitude of bachelor of dental surgery students and interns toward teaching-learning process in Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Mathew, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    The educational environment affects the academic performance of students. One of the most widely utilized tools for measuring the educational environment is Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). The objective of the study was to assess the attitude toward study environment, as measured using DREEM questionnaire, and to find out the differences in perception of various batches of dental students. All Bachelor of Dental Surgery students from Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India, were included in the study. They were given the well-established DREEM questionnaire. A total of 234 students took part in the study, belonging to 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 batches. DREEM subcategories were analyzed for significance using analysis of variance. The significance of DREEM score across the different batches was further analyzed using post hoc test. Overall, DREEM score was positive (111.14), but there is need for improvement. Individual questions also were given positive score for most questions. The maximum score was obtained for 3rd year students. Similar results are obtained for three of the five subcategories of DREEM. The total DREEM score was positive (111.14). The total score as well as the scores for the subcategories was highest in 3rd year dental students. The increase might be due to the excitement of clinical exposure for the first time in 3rd year students.

  4. Validation of WHOQOL-BREF in Malayalam and Determinants of Quality of Life Among People With Type 2 Diabetes in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Cherkil, Sandhya; Kuttikattu, Deepak Soman; Kamalamma, Leelamoni; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important health outcome in people with chronic conditions like diabetes and WHOQOL-BREF is a popular instrument used worldwide to assess QOL. However, QOL varies considerably from society to society depending on the culture of the person. Hence, the WHOQOL-BREF was translated to the local language, Malayalam. This article attempts to establish reliability, construct and discriminant validity of the translated WHOQOL-BREF, and determinants of QOL among people with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 patients with diabetes attending a primary care center in a rural area of Kerala, India. The translated version of WHOQOL-BREF was found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's α = .86) and demonstrated discriminant and construct validity. Education was found to be an independent determinant of QOL in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. Thus, the translated version had good psychometric properties and education was an independent determinant of QOL in 3 of 4 domains.

  5. Spatial and vertical distributions of heavy metals and their potential toxicity levels in various beach sediments from high-background-radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Paramasivam, K

    2015-02-15

    The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals and the sediment characteristics of beaches in Kerala, India (the upper surface sediments and the first, second and third one-foot-thick strata) were assessed in this study. The concentrations of most of the studied metals were highest at sampling site S1 (Cochin). The measured concentrations were compared with background and toxicological reference values. The results show that definite adverse biological effects are possible at most of the sampling sites due to the high Pb levels. Three different indexes were calculated to investigate the potential toxicity level. Most of the studied metals and all calculated indexes were highest in the third foot of sediment. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed and suggested that particular heavy metals, e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, may represent contamination from a common source. The Cd and Pb concentrations and all the calculated index values show a relationship with the content of organic matter. The results of the present study suggest the recommendation that a systematic analysis is needed to monitor heavy metal levels in the studied area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  7. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SEDIMENTS AND RIVER BANK SOIL OF KALLADA RIVER OF KERALA, SOUTH INDIA AND ASSOCIATED RADIOLOGICAL RISK.

    PubMed

    Venunathan, N; Kaliprasad, C S; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in the sediments and river bank soil samples collected from the Kallada river environs of coastal Kerala. The radiological risks associated with these radionuclides were calculated. The samples were processed following standard procedure, and activity was counted using a high-efficiency 5″ × 5″ NaI (Tl) detector coupled to GSPEC gamma spectroscopy system. The mean values of measured activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in soil samples were found to be 98.1 ± 0.4, 60.3 ± 1.1 and 343.4 ± 1.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which results in an average absorbed dose rate of 103 nGy h(-1) The corresponding values for sediment samples were found to be 88.0 ± 0.4, 48.6 ± 0.9 and 423.2 ± 2.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with a resulting absorbed dose rate of 95 nGy h(-1) Radium equivalent activity, annual effective dose equivalent, the external and internal hazard indices were determined and compared with recommended limits. The results of the work provide background data on natural radioactive isotopes, which are useful in the assessment of human radiation exposure from natural environment. The accumulation of information on natural radiation is of great value for radiation protection.

  8. Spatial and depth wise characterization of radionuclides and minerals in various beach sediments from high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Paramasivam, K; Suresh, G

    2014-11-04

    The activity concentrations ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and mineralogical characterization of different layer (upper surface, first, second and third feet) Kerala beach sediments have been assessed with an aim of evaluating the radioactivity content profile, its relation to specific minerals and their distributions (spatial and depth wise). The eight different radiological indices are calculated for all samples and compared with either recommended values or the world average values of radioactivity content of the three primordial radionuclides to assess the complete radiological profile of the sediments. The radioactivity study suggests that the average specific activities of radionuclides ((238)U and (232)Th) are higher than the world average values as given in UNSCEAR reports and all radiological parameters in all layer samples are more than the recommended safety levels. These results are on the expected lines since the samples are from a well-known high background radiation area. Using FTIR, mineralogical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed and the extinction coefficient is calculated to find the relative distribution of major minerals. The calculated values show that the amount of major minerals decreases in the order of quartz>calcite>kaolinite>microcline feldspar in all layers. To confirm the results obtained from FTIR, XRD analysis was also carried out. The observations made through the XRD technique are matched with FTIR observations. Statistical analyses (cluster and factor analysis) are carried out to assess the relation between the radionuclides and minerals, and also assess their distribution patterns in different layers. The analyses suggest that the concentration of (40)K may have a strong association with the light mineral calcite and also suggest that spatial distributions of (40)K and calcite are almost similar in every layer. The concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and absorbed dose rate are evenly distributed (spatial) and other

  9. Evaluation of spontaneous DNA damage in lymphocytes of healthy adult individuals from high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P R Vivek; Cheriyan, V D; Seshadri, M

    2012-05-01

    Inhabitants of the high-level natural radiation areas (>1 mSv year(-1)) of Kerala in southwest India were evaluated for basal damage (spontaneous DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) by the alkaline comet assay and oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III- and hOGG1-sensitive sites) by the enzyme-modified comet assay. Of the 67 adult male subjects studied, 45 were from high-level natural radiation areas and 22 subjects were from a nearby normal-level natural radiation area (≤1 mSv year(-1)). Basal damage due to the age and residential area (normal-level natural radiation area/high-level natural radiation areas) of the donors showed significant interaction (P < 0.001) when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the normal-level natural radiation area (P = 0.02), while a significant negative correlation (P = 0.002) was observed in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas. Further, basal damage in elderly subjects from high-level natural radiation areas was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to the subjects from the normal-level natural radiation area. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. However, in a subgroup analysis, hOGG1-sensitive sites showed a significant increase with age in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas (P = 0.005). ENDO III-sensitive sites increased with natural radiation exposure in subjects from high-level natural radiation areas (P = 0.02), but when stratified according to smoking, a significant increase was observed only in smokers (P = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on basal and oxidative DNA damage in healthy adults of this population. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population.

  10. “They Know, They Agree, but They Don’t Do”- The Paradox of Tuberculosis Case Notification by Private Practitioners in Alappuzha District, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Sairu; Sagili, Karuna D.; Meharunnisa, Asanarupillai; Mrithyunjayan, Sunilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a recognized standard of tuberculosis (TB) care internationally, mandatory TB case notification brings forth challenges from the private sector. Only three TB cases were notified in 2013 by private practitioners compared to 2000 TB cases notified yearly from the public sector in Alappuzha district. The study objective was to explore the knowledge, opinion and barriers regarding TB Notification among private practitioners offering TB services in Alappuzha, Kerala state, India. Methods & Findings This was a mixed-methods study with quantitative (survey) and qualitative components conducted between December 2013 and July 2014. The survey, using a structured questionnaire, among 169 private practitioners revealed that 88% were aware of mandatory notification. All patient-related details requested in the notification form (except government-issued identification number) were perceived to be important and easy to provide by more than 80% of practitioners. While more than 95% felt that notification should be mandatory, punitive action in case of failure to notify was considered unnecessary by almost two third. General practitioners (98%) were more likely to be aware of notification than specialists (84 %). (P<0.01). Qualitative purposive personal interviews (n=34) were carried out among private practitioners and public health providers. On thematic framework analysis of the responses, barriers to TB notification were grouped into three themes: ‘private provider misconceptions about notification’, ‘patient confidentiality, and stigma and discrimination ’and ‘lack of cohesion and coordination between public and private sector’. Private practitioners did not consider it necessary to notify TB cases treated with daily regimen. Conclusion Communication strategies like training, timely dissemination of information of policy changes and one-to-one dialogue with private practitioners to dispel misconceptions may enhance TB notification. Trust

  11. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Gangadharan, Paleth; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Nair, Raghu Ram K

    2011-02-01

    The Karunagapally cohort in Kerala, India was established in the 1990s. The present study examined oral cancer risk among 66,277 men aged 30-84 years in the cohort, using Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, stratified on attained age, calendar time, education, and family income. By the end of 2005, 160 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagapally Cancer Registry. Tobacco chewing increased oral cancer risk (P < 0.001). Particularly increased was the risk of cancers of the gum and mouth (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-7.9), which increased with higher daily frequencies (P < 0.001) and longer duration (P < 0.001) of tobacco chewing. Alcohol drinking was not significantly related to oral cancer risk regardless of tobacco chewing. Bidi smoking significantly increased oral cancer risk (RR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.4-4.9) only among men without tobacco chewing habits. The risk increased with higher daily consumption (P < 0.001), longer duration (P = 0.001), and younger age at start of bidi smoking (P = 0.007). In location-specific analysis, bidi smoking was significantly associated with cancer of the gum and mouth (RR = 3.6; 95%CI = 1.1-12.1), and its risk significantly increased with larger daily consumption of bidis (P = 0.013) and younger age at the start of smoking (P = 0.044). Tongue cancer risk was significantly increased among men who smoked bidis for 30 years or longer, and men started bidi smoking at 18 years old or younger. The present study is the first cohort study showing that tobacco chewing increases cancers of the gum and mouth among men keeping chewing tobacco in the cheek, and that bidi smoking strongly increased oral cancer risk among men without a tobacco chewing habit.

  12. Reaction textures in scapolite wollastonite grossular calc-silicate rock from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: evidence for high-temperature metamorphism and initial cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, M.; Harley, Simon L.

    1998-11-01

    Scapolite-wollastonite-grossular bearing calc-silicate rocks from the Vellanad area in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India preserve a number of reaction textures which help to deduce their P- T-fluid history. Textures include calcite+plagioclase±quartz symplectites after scapolite, grossular+quartz coronas between wollastonite and plagioclase, grossular coronas between wollastonite and plagioclase+calcite that replace former scapolite, and grossular blebs replacing anorthite+calcite+quartz pseudomorphs of scapolite. Garnet coronas are also observed between clinopyroxene and wollastonite or scapolite or plagioclase. The reactions, apart from those involving clinopyroxene, can be modelled in the simple CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 system and interpreted using partial reaction grids constructed for the activities of end-members in the analysed phases. The reaction topologies produced are good approximations for the peak as well as retrograde mineral assemblages and reaction textures. For the compositions of the phases present in this study, the medium pressure calc-silicate assemblages are defined by the stable pseudo-invariant points [Qtz], [Mei] and [Grs]. The textural features interpreted using these activity-corrected grids indicate a phase of isobaric cooling from about 835°C to 750°C at 6 kbar in the Vellanad area. This is inconsistent with earlier studies on other lithologies from the KKB, most of which imply a post-peak P- T path involving near-isothermal decompression. However, as the temperatures obtained for the KKB from the calc-silicates are higher than those previously deduced from metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene assemblages, the phase of near-isobaric cooling reported here is inferred to have proceeded prior to the onset of the decompression documented from studies of other rock types.

  13. Outcomes of West Nile encephalitis patients after 1 year of West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Thekkekara, Romy Jose; Tandale, Babasheb V

    2016-11-01

    We reported an acute encephalitis syndrome outbreak in Alappuzha district in Kerala, India during the year 2011. The etiology was confirmed to be West Nile virus lineage 1. Many encephalitis patients from this outbreak exhibited neurological sequelae post recovery. This study was aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of West Nile encephalitis confirmed case-patients after 1 year of acute illness. Forty West Nile virus confirmed encephalitis patients were selected from the 2011 outbreak was included in this study. Out of 40 cases, only 30 survived after 12 months. Among these 30 recovered case-patients, 27 (90%) consented for clinical follow-up and 23 (73.67%) of them consented for assessment of cognitive impairment and deposition of blood sample for antibody testing. The most common symptom observed in these patients was fatigue (25.93%). Other symptoms included dizziness (7.4%), decreased sense of hearing (7.4%) and decreased sense of smell (7.4%). Reduced power in limbs was found in 33.33% of the cases. Most of the patients (23.1%) were dependent on others for normal daily living activities. The patients also had probable risk of poor cognition (29.41%) and dementia (57.14%). None of the patients were positive for WNV specific IgM at 12 months post onset of disease. The study concluded that the long-term sequelae were noticed in WNV positive patients. Prevention effort should be focused on the elderly (≥60 years old) people who have a higher risk of severe sequelae. The state health authorities should create awareness among people in order to prevent the transmission of disease. J. Med. Virol. 88:1856-1861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Descriptive study on selected risk factors and histopathology of breast carcinoma in a tertiary care centre in Kerala, India with special reference to women under 40 years old.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Ashley Ann; Poothiode, Usha; Manjula, V D

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Kerala, South India, with the incidence increasing in the past two decades, also in young women. However, there are limited data regarding the burden of disease, its epidemiology and histopathological characteristics in the state. This desciptive study covered 303 breast cancers evaluated during the period of December 2011 to August 2013 in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Kottayam.The patients were also interviewed regarding selected risk factors. The majority of the cases were 41-60 years of age with a mean at presentation of 53 years. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common subtype, followed by pure mucinous carcinoma and then lobular carcinoma. Of the cases, 6.6% were nullipara and 52.8% had fewer than or equal to 2 children. Median age at first child birth was 23 years (national value-19.8 years). A significant proportion (15%) had family history of breast cancer. Some 13.5%(41 cases) comprised the young breast cancer group (≤40years) with a mean age at first child birth in them was 27.4 years, 5 being nullipara and 6 having a positive family history. Breast cancer awareness, better availability of screening techniques and identification and targeting high risk groups all help to tackle the increasing load of breast carcinoma. A good proportion of cases comprised the young breast cancer group (under 40). Younger women should thus also be educated about breast carcinoma-risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic techniques to help in early detection and effective approach esto treatment.

  15. Test characteristics of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) in cervical cancer screening in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Wesley, Ramani; Thara, Somanathan; Dhakad, Namrata; Chandralekha, Bharathykutty; Sebastian, Paul; Chithrathara, K; Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Nair, Madhavan Krishnan

    2003-09-01

    Simple and inexpensive methods based on visual examination of the cervix are currently being investigated as alternative methods of cervical screening. The test characteristics of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA), and Lugol's iodine (VILI) and conventional cytology were investigated in a cross-sectional study involving 4,444 women aged 25 to 65 years in Kerala, India. While detection of any acetowhite area constituted a low-threshold positive VIA, detection of well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesions close to or touching the squamocolumnar junction constituted a high-threshold positive VIA test. Detection of definite yellow iodine nonuptake areas in the transformation zone close to or touching the squamocolumnar junction constituted a positive VILI test. Cytology was considered positive if reported as atypia or worse lesions. All screened women were evaluated by colposcopy and biopsies were directed in 1,644 women (37.0%), which allowed the direct estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. The reference diagnosis was based on a combination of histology and/or colposcopy. True disease status was defined as CIN 2 and worse lesions. A total of 149 (3.4%) women had CIN 2 or worse lesions. The sensitivities of low-threshold VIA, high-threshold VIA, VILI and cytology to detect CIN 2 or worse disease were 88.6%, 82.6%, 87.2% and 81.9%, respectively; the corresponding specificities were 78.0%, 86.5%, 84.7% and 87.8%. Our results indicate that VIA and VILI are suitable alternate screening tests to cytology for detecting cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings.

  16. Nutritional status of Mid-Day Meal programme beneficiaries: A cross-sectional study among primary schoolchildren in Kottayam district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, Rajeev; Jissa, Vinoda Thulaseedharan

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Programme in India to ensure the optimum nutritional status of its beneficiaries is rarely studied. This study assessed the nutritional status of 6-10-year-old schoolchildren who were the beneficiaries of MDM and the child-related factors affecting their nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was performed among 322 children from 12 randomly selected primary schools in one block panchayat of Kerala state. The background information was collected from children and their parents, and anthropometric measurements of the children were observed. The prevalence of undernutrition was estimated using conventional indices (stunting, underweight, and wasting) and composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of CIAF was 45.7% (95% CI: 40.3%-51.1%) and that of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 13.4% (9.7%-17.1%), 38.8% (33.5%-44.1%), and 30.7% (25.7%-35.7%), respectively. The prevalence of wasting (42.6% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.039) and severe underweight (20.4% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.002) was statistically significantly high among occasional/never users compared to regular users of MDM Programme. Children born with <2.5 kg showed an OR of 1.76 (95% CI: 0.99-3.11) for being undernourished compared to children born with normal weight (≥2.5 kg) when adjusted for age, sex, birth order, and illness in the past 2 weeks. This study showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition among school-age children who were the beneficiaries of MDM Programme, and this indicates the need for continuous nutritional interventions and surveillance among these children.

  17. Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bovines from Kerala, India using a recombinant surface antigen 1 ELISA.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Tewari, Anup Kumar; Singh, Harkirat

    2015-07-01

    Data on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in farm animals from India is scanty. Though a few reports exist on prevalence of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants, information on toxoplasmosis in large ruminants is virtually nonexistent from India. An antibody detection recombinant ELISA specific for Toxoplasma gondii was laboratory standardized using recombinant surface antigen 1 (SAG1) protein. A 958-bp truncated sequence coding for tachyzoite stage specific SAG1 protein was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. A high-level expression of the histidine-tagged thioredoxin fusion protein was obtained after 8 h of incubation. The recombinant protein was affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Subsequently, the diagnostic potential of the recombinant protein was assessed with 258 cattle sera samples from field by a laboratory standardized recSAG1 ELISA. Sera from 71.8% of the cattle showed sero positivity for T. gondii specific IgG. The sensitivity and specificity of the recSAG1 ELISA were 84.38% and 87.88%, respectively in comparison to indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). This is the first report on sensitive serodetection of Toxoplasma infection in bovines from India. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5

  19. Impact of a community based intervention program on awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in a rural Panchayat, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, K R; Sivasankaran, S; Mini, G K; Daivadanam, Meena; Sarma, P S; Abdul Khader, S

    2013-01-01

    Community based intervention to control hypertension is extremely limited in India. We conducted this study to find the effectiveness of a community based intervention program on the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. A baseline survey was conducted among 4627 adults aged ≥30 years (men 44%) selected by cluster sampling. Information was collected using a structured interview schedule by trained local volunteers. They measured weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure using standard protocol. The volunteers monitored blood pressure at least once a month and educated the people in neighborhood groups on the need for regular medication and reducing risk factors of hypertension for a period of six years. A post intervention survey was conducted among 2263 adults aged ≥30 years (men 49%). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to find the odds of change in awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. The odds of awareness (OR 4.18, 95% CI 3.44-5.08), treatment (OR 3.44 CI 2.81-4.22) and control (OR 4.39 CI 3.36-5.73) of hypertension increased significantly in the post intervention survey compared to the baseline survey. Baseline hypertension prevalence of 34.9% (CI 33.8-36.1) was reduced to 31.0% (CI 29.1-32.9) in the post intervention survey based on age adjusted analysis. Our community based intervention using trained community based volunteers could increase awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adult hypertensives. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V. J.; Sajinkumar, K. S.; Sajeev, K.; Kumar, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910 nm, 1470 nm, 1849-1864 nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940 nm and 2270 nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  1. Lack of increased DNA double-strand breaks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinay; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-06-01

    The high level natural radiation area (HLNRA) of Kerala is a 55km long and 0.5km wide strip in south west coast of India. The level of background radiation in this area varies from <1.0mGy/year to 45.0mGy/year. It offers unique opportunity to study the effect of chronic low dose/low dose-rate radiation directly on human population. Spontaneous level of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 91 random individuals from HLNRA (N=61, mean age: 36.1±7.43years) and normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) (N=30, mean age: 35.5±6.35years) using gamma-H2AX as a marker. The mean annual dose received by NLNRA and HLNRA individuals was 1.28±0.086mGy/year and 8.28±4.96mGy/year, respectively. The spontaneous frequency of DSBs in terms of gamma-H2AX foci among NLNRA and HLNRA individuals were 0.095±0.009 and 0.084±0.004 per cell (P=0.22). The individuals from HLNRA were further classified as low dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 2.63±0.76mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG, >5.0mGy/year, mean dose: 11.04±3.57mGy/year). The spontaneous frequency of gamma-H2AX foci per cell in NLNRA, LDG and HDG was observed to be 0.095±0.009, 0.096±0.008 and 0.078±0.004 respectively. Individuals belonging to HDG of HLNRA showed marginally lower frequency of DSBs as compared to NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA. This could be suggestive of either lower induction or better repair of DSBs in individuals from HDG of HLNRA. The present study indicated that 5.0mGy/year could be a possible threshold dose for DSB induction at chronic low-dose radiation exposure in vivo. However, further studies on DNA damage induction and repair kinetics are required to draw firm conclusions.

  2. Efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast, south-west India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinay; Saini, Divyalakshmi; Kumar, P R Vivek; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2017-09-20

    High level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coastal strip (55km long and 0.5km wide) in southwest India exhibit wide variations in the level of background dose (< 1.0-45.0mGy/year) due to thorium deposits in the beach sand. The areas with ≤1.5mGy/year are considered as normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA), whereas areas with >1.5mGy/year are HLNRA. Individuals belonging to HLNRA were stratified into two groups, Low dose group (LDG: 1.51-5.0mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG: >5.0mGy/year). The mean annual dose received by the individuals from NLNRA, LDG and HDG was 1.3±0.1, 2.7±0.9 and 9.4±2.3mGy/year, respectively. Induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in terms of gamma-H2AX positive cells were analysed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using flow cytometry. Induction of DSBs was studied at low (0.25Gy) and high challenge doses (1.0 and 2.0Gy) of gamma radiation in 78 individuals {NLNRA, N=23; HLNRA (LDG, N=21 and HDG, N=34)}. Repair kinetics of DSBs were evaluated in PBMCs of 30 individuals belonging to NLNRA (N=8), LDG (N=7) and HDG (N=15) at low (0.25Gy) and high doses (2.0Gy) of gamma radiation. Transcription profile of DNA damage response (DDR) and DSB repair genes involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways was analysed after a challenge dose of 2.0Gy in PBMCs of NLNRA (N=10) and HDG, HLNRA (N=10) group. Our results revealed significantly lower induction and efficient repair of DSBs in HLNRA groups as compared to NLNRA. Transcription profile of DCLRE1C, XRCC4, NBS1 and CDK2 showed significant up-regulation (p≤0.05) in HDG at a challenge dose of 2.0Gy indicating active involvement of DDR and DSB repair pathways. In conclusion, lower induction and efficient repair of DNA DSBs in HLNRA groups is suggestive of an in vivo radio-adaptive response due to priming effect of chronic low dose radiation prevailing in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  4. Spectral and chemical characterization of jarosite in a palaeolacustrine depositional environment in Warkalli Formation in Kerala, South India and its implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahima; Rajesh, V J; Sajinkumar, K S; Sajeev, K; Kumar, S N

    2016-11-05

    Coastal cliffs fringing the Arabian Sea near Varkala exhibits the Warkalli Formation of the Tertiary sequence of Kerala, South India, with well-marked occurrence of jarosite associated with other hydrous mineral phases of phyllosilicate family in a palaeo-lacustrine depositional environment. Sandy phyllosilicates dominate the mineral assemblage, but jarosite occurs as a prominent secondary phase formed during acid-sulphate alteration of iron sulphide in this area. Here, we discuss about the potentiality of spectroscopic techniques to identify the possible mineral phases in the collected samples. The samples from the coastal cliffs have been characterized by hyperspectral analysis (VIS-NIR-SWIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red Reflectance (FTIR), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The spectral and chemical analyses have confirmed the jarosite as natrojarosite and phyllosilicate as kaolinite. Other accessory phases have also been identified through XRD. FTIR spectroscopy has played a major role in identifying the major hydrous bonds between the minerals. VIS-NIR-SWIR spectra show several optimum spectral features at 910nm, 1470nm, 1849-1864nm (in the form of a doublet), 1940nm and 2270nm, which could be utilised to locate jarosite in the remotely-sensed data. X-ray diffraction peaks helped in the identification of maximum number of minerals (kaolinite, smectite, quartz, feldspar, pyrite, marcasite and hematite) and the variation in jarosite content in the samples. We propose the formation of jarosite in the region by a seasonal, local and temporary development of acidic conditions. Abundance of organic matter in a fluvio-lacustrine environment has developed anaerobic conditions by removing available oxygen through decomposition of organic matter containing sulphur compounds. The sulphur thus liberated combines with hydrogen from water to develop acidic conditions and resulted in the formation of jarosite. The

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Harichandran, Deepa; Dinesh, Kavitha Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Background/purpose Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%), followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64%) and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%). Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%), ampicillin (77.21%), cotrimoxazole (75.94%) and azithromycin (78.48%). For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms was 0.5 μg/mL (intermediate) and MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms was 1 μg/mL (resistant). S. Typhimurium was 100% susceptible to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin

  6. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  7. Home-based Palliative Services under Two Local Self-government Institutions of Kerala, India: An Assessment of Compliance with Policy and Guidelines to Local Self-government Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, Rajeev; Suhita, Chatterjee Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Background: In contrast to India's poor performance in palliative and end-of-life care, the state of Kerala has gained considerable attention for its palliative care (PC) policy. This study tried to understand the structure, organization, and delivery of the program currently offered to the rural population, and its conformity to the state's PC policy and guidelines for Local Self-government Institutions (LSGIs). Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design involving a review of Kerala palliative policy and guidelines for LSGIs was followed by direct field observation and interviews of stakeholders. Two LSGIs in rural Kerala served also by a nongovernmental organization (NGO), were selected. Data were collected from health workers (doctors, nurses, and PC nurses), government stakeholders (LSGI members and representatives of the National Health Mission), and the health workers and officials of NGO. Results: The program in two LSGIs varies considerably in terms of composition of the palliative team, infrastructure and human resource, cost, and type of service provided to the community. A comparative assessment with a nongovernmental service provider shows that the services offered by the LSGIs seemed to be restricted in scope to meet the needs of the resource-stricken community. Compliance with policy guidelines seems to be poor for both the LSGIs. Conclusions: Despite a robust policy, the palliative program lacks a public health approach to end-of-life care. A structural reconfiguration of the delivery system is needed, involving greater state responsibility and political will in integrating PC within a broader social organization of care. PMID:28216866

  8. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  9. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-03-31

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  10. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240

  11. Do Caste and Class Define Inequality? Revisiting Education in a Kerala Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaria, Suma

    2014-01-01

    Is there a strong correlation between caste and class in access to education, especially higher education? This is the broader question addressed by the study in the context of Kerala, the southernmost state in India, with impressive conventional indicators in education. Micro-level insights based on the study of a village in Kerala show that old…

  12. Do Caste and Class Define Inequality? Revisiting Education in a Kerala Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaria, Suma

    2014-01-01

    Is there a strong correlation between caste and class in access to education, especially higher education? This is the broader question addressed by the study in the context of Kerala, the southernmost state in India, with impressive conventional indicators in education. Micro-level insights based on the study of a village in Kerala show that old…

  13. Variations in concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients related to catchment scale human interventions in Pamba River, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. E.; Jennerjahn, T. C.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    River basins are geo-hydrological units. Water flowing out of the basin bears the imprint of natural factors such as geology, soil, vegetation and rainfall along with anthropogenic factors including the type and degree of human intervention within the basin. Pamba, a small mountainous river in the SW coast of India with a population density of ~1,400 persons km-2 was studied for its varying land use and human interventions as the global database are biased towards temperate regions while little is know about the smaller catchments from tropical regions. Land use comprised of dense forest in the highland region together with forest plantation and the human impacted Sabarimala temple- the second largest pilgrim, settlement with mixed tree crop (smt) in the midland and lowland paddy cultivated region. 50-60 million devotees visiting Sabarimala during November to January every year associated with the ritual bathing, discharge of human wastes emanating from the influx of millions of pilgrims due to inadequate number of sanitary latrines and the lack of facilities for sewage collection and treatment caused several ecological variations during pilgrim season. In order to asses the effect of land use and pilgrims in combination with seasonal variations in hydrology we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations in physicochemical and nutrient concentrations. Samples were collected from March 2010 to February 2012 during premonsoon (January-May), SW(June to September) and NE monsoon(October to December), from sites varying in land use. Nutrient budgets (load and yield) were calculated to quantify the inputs from various land use segments. Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and dissolved nutrient concentrations were observed along the course of the river. Upstream forest region had highest dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH together with lowest dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) values indicating almost pristine conditions. DIN in the temple region had the

  14. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-08-13

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  15. Has urbanization become a risk factor for dental caries in Kerala, India: a cross-sectional study of children aged 6 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Christian, Bradley; Evans, R Wendell

    2009-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) test the hypothesis that urbanization is a risk factor for dental caries in children aged 6 and 12 years in Kollam, Kerala; and (ii) identify other possible risk factors for dental caries. A cross-sectional study design was followed. The subjects were stratified by socio-demographic status into urban middle class, urban poor, and rural poor. Caries experience was measured by visual examination of teeth according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on potential risk factors were collected using a close-ended, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data modelling was conducted using logistic regression analyses. Eight hundred seventy-six children were examined; 53% of 6-year-olds and 90% of 12-year-olds examined were caries free. The caries experience rates were 1.40 decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth and 0.15 Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) for the 6- and 12-year-olds, respectively. Urban children did not have a higher caries experience compared with rural children. The only risk factor associated with a significant difference in DMFT scores was the dental visiting pattern. Children who visited the dentist had a significantly higher mean DMFT score (P = 0.009). There was no evidence that urbanization is a risk factor for dental caries in Kerala. Dental caries experience was low, against any standard, in Kollam. Risk factors for caries were not identified.

  16. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  17. THE AYURVEDIC HERITAGE OF KERALA

    PubMed Central

    Variar, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ayurveda has a long history of being enriched by different types of contributions from different stages befitting their geographical, climatic and cultural situations, and based on their thinking and living patterns, especially the practical aspects. Kerala has its own great role in this prcess of enrichment. It is unique and invaluable. The historical aspects the literary contributions by Kerala to the Ayurvedic system, the traditional and special treatments of Kerala etc., are discussed in this paper. PMID:22557501

  18. Radio-adaptive response in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals residing in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala in the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, E N; Karuppasamy, C V; Kumar, V Anil; Soren, D C; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-11-09

    The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was employed to study the radio-adaptive response. Seventeen individuals were from normal-level natural radiation area (NLNRA ≤1.5 mGy/year) and 37 from HLNRA (> 1.5 mGy/year). Based on the annual dose received, individuals from HLNRA were further classified into low-dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0 mGy/year, N = 19) and high-dose group (HDG >5.0 mGy/year, N = 18). Basal frequency of micronucleus (MN) was comparable across the three dose groups (NLNRA, LDG and HDG, P = 0.64). Age of the individuals showed a significant effect on the frequency of MN after challenging dose exposures. The mean frequency of MN was significantly lower in elder (>40 years) individuals from HDG of HLNRA as compared to the young (≤40 years) individuals after 1.0 Gy (P < 0.001) and 2.0 Gy (P = 0.002) of challenging doses. However, young and elder individuals within NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA showed similar frequency of MN after the challenging dose exposures. Thus, increased level of chronic low-dose radiation (>5.0 mGy/year) seems to act as a priming dose resulting in the induction of an in vivo radio-adaptive response in elder individuals of the Kerala coast.

  19. A population based case control study on breast cancer and the associated risk factors in a rural setting in kerala, southern India.

    PubMed

    Parameshwari, P; Muthukumar, K; Jennifer, H Gladius

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing in developing countries over three decades. Despite good health indicators breast cancer is a public health problem in Kerala with an annual incidence of 14.9/100000 population. Identifying the risk factors helps to reduce the incidence in future. A Population based case control study was conducted among all the breast cancer cases in the Arpookara Panchayat of Kottayam district in Kerala. 20 cases of breast cancer were paired with age matched controls from the same geographic area (ratio 1:4) with a total of 100 study participants. Data were collected by interviewing the participants using a pre tested structured questionnaire. Analysis was done by the authors using SPSS version 16.0 RESULTS: Age group of participants ranged from 32-70 years with mean age of 49.7 + 10.39. Early menarche < 13 years [Odds Ratio =3.2, p= 0.03], being unmarried and single, family history of breast cancer [Odds Ratio = 3.5, p = 0.02], previous history of benign breast tumours [Odds Ratio =8.14, p= 0.04], breast feeding less than 2 years [Odds Ratio = 2.28, p = 0.01 ] were found to be the risk factors for the breast cancer and the birth of first child before 30 years [Odds Ratio =0.302, p = 0.03 ] was found to be a protective factor for breast cancer. 60% of cases belonged to lower socioeconomic status [Odds Ratio = 14.47, p = 0.03]. Despite high literacy status, significantly lower awareness about symptoms of breast cancer and self examination of the breast were noted [Odds Ratio =11.6, p= 0.03]. Awareness about symptoms of breast cancer and self examination of the breast were lacking in the study population. Health care personnel should be trained to spread the awareness of breast cancer in the community and to identify the vulnerable groups at the primary care settings itself. The policy makers can consider encouraging community participation by involving the non-governmental organizations, women self help groups and Public Private

  20. Phosphorous fractionation in mangrove sediments of Kerala, south west coast of India: the relative importance of inorganic and organic phosphorous fractions.

    PubMed

    Resmi, P; Manju, M N; Gireeshkumar, T R; Ratheesh Kumar, C S; Movitha, M; Shameem, K; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2016-06-01

    The study of phosphorous dynamics in mangrove ecosystems of the northern Kerala coast aims to delineate its relationships with other biogeochemical parameters. Our intension is to check the validity of the hypothesis that these mangrove ecosystems act as an efficient trap of organic phosphorous by acting as P sink. The dissolved inorganic phosphate displayed higher concentration in monsoon that could be correlated with higher P leaching from mangrove litter as well as terrigenous input during wet season. Fe(OOH)≈P was much higher in monsoon (235.23 to 557.70 μg g(-1)) and lower in pre-monsoon (36.50 to 154.97 μg g(-1)), and displayed significant contribution towards the inorganic sedimentary P fractions. In monsoon, adsorption of P on iron hydroxides is enhanced by fresh water conditions, but pre-monsoon is characterised by the reductive dissolution of iron oxy hydroxides and the subsequent efflux of P to water column. CaCO3≈Pinorg may be present as an inert fraction in the sediment matrix, and did not display any interrelationship with other geochemical parameters. The abundant total organic P (25 to 73 %) fractions, largely derived from P bound with humic/fulvic acid, played a major role in immobilising P and regulating its dynamics in the nearby estuarine and coastal environment.

  1. Government Medical College Trivandrum - Fifty years of Neurosurgery in Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Peethambaran, Anil Kumar; Chandran, Raj S

    2017-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.

  2. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  3. Water use of eucalypts in Kerala

    SciTech Connect

    Kallarackal, J.

    1992-12-31

    The water use of the introduced eucalypt trees has been much debated in southern India. The present study looks at the water loss of eucalyptus by transpiration in an area in Kerala where the evaporative demands are relatively higher than in other zones. The results presented here have been obtained from the initial stages of project with a much wider scope. The microclimatic data above the tree canopy has been measured on three sample days in October to December, 1990. Stomatal resistance was also measured hourly on all of these days. Using these measured parameters, transpiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. The cumulative transpiration loss during the sample days in October and November was approximately 5 mm, whereas it increased to approximately 8 mm in December. The reason for this increase is discussed.

  4. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  5. English in Kerala: Plus ca Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, P. Bhaskaran

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews the status, ecology, use, and the teaching/learning of English in the southern Indian state of Kerala. It does so along two overlapping dimensions. A socio-demographic dimension situates the ecology of English in Kerala in the general Indian context, and relates it to the ethno-linguistic identity of Kerala. A second applied…

  6. Higher Education, Reservation and Scheduled Castes: Exploring Institutional Habitus of Professional Engineering Colleges in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malish, C. M.; Ilavarasan, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel the institutional context of the educational experience of scheduled caste engineering students in Kerala, a federal state in India. Though much has been debated about equity of access in the domain of reservation policies in higher education while studying the caste question and educational equity, process and outcome…

  7. Higher Education, Reservation and Scheduled Castes: Exploring Institutional Habitus of Professional Engineering Colleges in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malish, C. M.; Ilavarasan, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel the institutional context of the educational experience of scheduled caste engineering students in Kerala, a federal state in India. Though much has been debated about equity of access in the domain of reservation policies in higher education while studying the caste question and educational equity, process and outcome…

  8. The "Kerala model" of development: development and sustainability in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Parayil, G

    1996-12-01

    The Indian state of Kerala with a population of 29 million has made the transition to a society with low infant mortality rate, low population growth, and a low crude death rate in less than 30 years. The average life expectancy for women is 74 years (vs. 60 years for India as a whole) and 71 years for men (vs. 59 years for India), the infant mortality rate is 16.5/1000 live births (vs. 91/1000 for India), and literacy is almost universal. The population growth rate fell from 44/1000 in the 1950s to 18/1000 in 1991. By 1985 the population growth rate had stabilized to a demographic replacement level net reproduction rate. Kerala's female/male ratio is 1.04:1 as opposed to the Indian average of 0.93:1 and China's 0.94:1. All this was achieved without coercion by democratically elected state governments. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. This development came about despite a low per capita income. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. In addition, the HDI (Human Development Index) of Kerala was more than twice the national average. The HDI was 0.925 for the US in 1994 vs. 0.775 for Kerala, where the per capita income was one-hundredth of the US per capita income. This progress was accomplished by the elimination of absentee landlords and the return of the land to the tiller; and large amounts of funds spent on education, health care, infrastructure, agricultural credits, and housing. Staples were made available to the poor at subsidized prices. The Kerala model may be taken as an early prototype of sustainable development because of improvements in the quality of life, environmental stability, social and economic equality, and the decline in political strife.

  9. CDC Kerala 1: Organization of clinical child development services (1987-2013).

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; George, Babu; Nair, G S Harikumaran; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC), Kerala for piloting comprehensive child adolescent development program in India, has been to understand the conceptualization, design and scaling up of a pro-active positive child development initiative, easily replicable all over India. The process of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala for research, clinical services, training and community extension services over the last 25 y, has been as follows; Step 1: Conceptualization--The life cycle approach to child development; Step 2: Research basis--CDC model early stimulation is effective; Step 3: Development and validation of seven simple developmental screening tools; Step 4: CDC Diagnostic services--Ultrasonology and genetic, and metabolic laboratory; Step 5: Developing seven intervention packages; Step 6: Training--Post graduate diploma in clinical child development; Step 7: CDC Clinic Services--seven major ones; Step 8: CDC Community Services--Child development referral units; Step 9: Community service delivery models--Childhood disability and for adolescent care counselling projects; Step 10: National capacity building--Four child development related courses. CDC Kerala follow-up and clinic services are offered till 18 y of age and premarital counselling till 24 y of age as shown in "CDC Kerala Clinic Services Flow Chart" and 74,291 children have availed CDC clinic services in the last 10 y. CDC Kerala is the first model for comprehensive child adolescent development services using a lifecycle approach in the Government sector and hence declared as the collaborative centre for Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), in Kerala.

  10. [India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragdon, Ann E.

    This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South…

  11. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  12. CDC Kerala--The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Leela, Leena Mundapalliyil; George, Babu; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Pillai, Asokan Nataraja; Sarasamma, Harikumaran Nair Gopinathan Nair

    2016-05-01

    This article is our life time experience in conceptualizing and systematically developing Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala in the last 25 years, from a research project to a national training centre in child and adolescent development and premarital counseling. CDC Kerala's major contribution was in creating a 'conceptual framework' of a valid link between childhood disability, low birth weight, adolescent girls' nutrition and fetal onset adult lifestyle diseases. It all started with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) proving beyond doubt that early stimulation is effective in improving the neurodevelopmental status of high risk babies at one and two years and the same cohort was followed-up in detail at 5, 13, 16, 19 and 24 completed years. The process of establishing CDC Kerala is being presented under (i) clinical child development, (ii) adolescent care counseling, (iii) young adults and premarital counseling and (iv) institution building.

  13. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  14. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  15. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  16. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  17. Mixed signals from Kerala's improving health status.

    PubMed

    Michael, E J; Singh, B

    2003-03-01

    It can be said that health policy is about creating the conditions to free a population from disease and impairment, and so prolong the quality of life for all. If this is its purpose, then the practice of public health policy in the Indian state of Kerala presents a conundrum for health promotion analysts. On the one hand, Kerala has had remarkable success in reducing its infant mortality rates to around one-third of the Indian average, but on the other, its morbidity rates have risen to impose an economic cost more than three times the national level. This paper sets out to explain this apparent contradiction in outcomes, serving both to provide a review of Kerala's health status and as an illustrative guide for the interpretation of the effects of health policy in some other developing areas. While the essential health data for Kerala might imply an unsatisfactory future, the authors argue that the rapid improvements that have occurred simultaneously in public education are more likely to explain an increase in the effective reporting of disease conditions, thus suggesting a more optimistic scenario for future practice that can lead to a sustained improvement in health care.

  18. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  19. Contrasting geochemistry of arc-related metagranitoids in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: evidence for flat to steep transition in subduction style at the end of the Archaean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gr, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) occupying southernmost part of the south Indian granulite terrain (SGT) is characterized by the presence of high-grade metagranitoids equilibrated at granulite-facies (ca. 7 to 9.5 kbar and 840-1070 °C) conditions. The mechanisms of granulite genesis within the SGT are poorly understood as these metagranitoids have not been unequivocally correlated to the important evolutionary models applicable to granulite genesis like crustal thickening during continental collision or magmatic underplating. Recent studies suggesting subduction-accretion-collision geodynamic model for the genesis of KKB metagranitoids implores the role of classical mechanisms for the petrogenesis of granulites in this region. In this contribution, we present and synthesize the contrasting major, trace, and REE geochemical patterns of tonalitic and high-K granitic rocks of the KKB as a consequence of the change in geodynamic setting. The contrasting granitoid groups of the KKB comprise (i) tonalites with characteristic Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) affinity and (ii) high-K granites showing geochemical patterns archetypal of the post-Archaean granites. The tonalite groups show low-K, magnesian character with moderate to high SiO2 (57-76 wt.%) contents, moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6), characteristic high Sr/Y (27-934; average 331) and high [La/Yb]N (average 39) ratios, and strongly positive and/or no europium (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67) anomalies. The geochemical features suggests that protolith for the tonalites are derived from partial melting of a subducting slab/thickened lower continental crust composed of mafic composite source rocks (eclogitic or basaltic crust) in the Neoarchaean (ca. 2.73-2.89 Ga). The absence of volcanism associated with the tonalite genesis possibly indicates that the subducting lithosphere was an old and cold plate. On contrary, the high-K granite group show ferroan nature, low to moderate

  20. Biosignatures of Kerala red rain cells: Implications in understanding their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, R.; Thomas, M.; Hogg, S.

    2013-09-01

    The red rain that fell over Kerala, southern India (2001-2012) was characterised by the red pigmented particles. Earlier proposal claiming that these are known algal bloom blown from trees (Sampath et al, 2001; DiGregorio, 2007) has been studied by us and disproved. Also, further investigation reporting their extraordinary properties including a suggestion that they lack DNA (Louis and Kumar 2003; 2006; 2008) has been invalidated (Gangappa and Hogg, 2013). However, their claim regarding the growth and replication of these cells at 300ºC needs more investigation if it is to gain acceptance. Current study provide evidences regarding the biological properties of Kerala red rain cells to gain insights into environmental conditions from which they may have originated. Combined with various research strategies and high resolution instruments, we have demonstrated the following interesting properties of Kerala red rain cells: (1) unusually thick external envelope enclosing the central core; (2)stability of red pigment at temperatures about 100ºC and pH variations; (3) absence of eukaryotic ultrastructures; (4) possible replication at 121ºC with nanostructures (possible daughter cells) having similar morphological features inside the large mother cells at such high temperature. They contain high percentage of carbon, iron, silicon and aluminum and often enclosed in a silicon rich biofilms. Further investigation shows that the positive detection of DNA in these cells was possible only after the complete removal of red pigment, thereby providing an explanation for the negative outcome of earlier studies in this regard. Moreover, evidences are shown to support that these cells contain high amounts of UV absorbing compounds, porphyrin complexes and possible scytonemin. Kerala red rain cells may prove to be polyextermophiles belonging to prokaryotes and may have possibly originated from the environment containing above mentioned chemical elements, high energy UV exposure and

  1. Surveillance of noncommunicable diseases by community health workers in Kerala: the epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases in rural areas (ENDIRA) study.

    PubMed

    Menon, Jaideep; Joseph, Jacob; Thachil, Ajit; Attacheril, Thankachan V; Banerjee, Amitava

    2014-12-01

    India carries the greatest burden of noncommunicable disease (NCD) globally. However, there are few contemporary, community-based studies of prevalence in India. Given the physician shortages in rural areas, large-scale, region-specific studies of NCD using community health workers (CHW) may offer a feasible means of NCD surveillance. This study sought to conduct a large-scale, population-based, CHW-led study of NCDs in Kerala, India. In rural Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was defined geographically by 5 panchayats (village councils). The ENDIRA (Epidemiology of Noncommunicable Diseases in Rural Areas) study was conducted via accredited social health activists (ASHA), who are CHW employed by Kerala state government. After training of ASHA, standardized questionnaires were used during 2012 in household interviews of individuals ≥18 years of age to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical data. ASHA recruited 84,456 adults who were included in the analyses (25.4% were below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCD was comparable to contemporary studies in India: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%; stroke 0.3%; respiratory diseases 5.0%; and cancer 1.1%. The dietary habits were as follows: 84.1% of the population was vegetarian; 15.9% ate meat/fish ≥1 day per week; 4.2% had ≥1 alcoholic drink per week; and 8.1% smoked regularly. Compared with men, women were older, had lower body mass index, more likely to be hypertensive, less likely to smoke or drink alcohol, and have diabetes or dyslipidemia (p < 0.0001). NCD were more common in men than women: MI (1.9% vs. 0.9%); stroke (0.5% vs. 0.3%); cancer (1.2% vs. 0.9%); and respiratory diseases (5.9% vs. 4.0%) (p < 0.0001). Age ≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and male sex were strongly associated with MI and stroke. There were high levels of agreement between ASHA and physicians for diagnoses of MI, stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. CHW effectively

  2. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.

  3. Professional Development of Academic Library Professionals in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, K. Susan; Baby, M. D.; Pillai, S. Sreerekha

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to bring out the problems and prospects of the professional development opportunities of academic library professionals in the Universities in Kerala. The study is a part of research undertaken to survey the professional development activities and educational needs of library professionals in the major Universities of Kerala in the…

  4. Psychological Approaches to Learner Centered Curriculum in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.; Sajitha, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    The major curricular innovations that have taken place in Kerala secondary education system in recent years is so revolutionary. This paper examines the basic psychological theories of the learner centered curriculum of school education in the state of Kerala. Initially the curriculum was based on the principles of behaviorism. The curriculum then…

  5. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  6. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  7. How Ernakulam Became the First Fully Literate District of India = Comment l'Ernakulam devint le premier District entierement alphabete de l'Inde. Notes, Comments...No. 195.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivadas, S.

    "Lead Kindly Light" was an extensive campaign for the total eradication of illiteracy within 1 year in the Ernakulam District of India. A major sponsor was Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), the Science and Education Center of Kerala; responsibility for the project was later handed over to the National Literacy Mission (NLM). The…

  8. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  9. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  10. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Paniya Tribes in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Valsan, Iris; Joseph, Joe; Mohamed, Shamaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tribal communities of Kerala have been largely left out of the gains of the Kerala model of development. Aim The study was aimed to obtain baseline data of oral health status and treatment needs of Paniyas, in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive population based survey of adult Paniya belonging to index age groups of 35-44 years and 65-74 years was conducted. The study population comprised of 420 subjects drawn from three talukas by stratified cluster sampling. Modified version of WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used to assess the oral health status. Results Caries prevalence was 40%. The mean DMFT in the 35-44 years age group was 1.52±1.95 and in 65-74 age group it was 18.47 ± 13.10. Oral mucosal lesions were seen in 4.52% and 76.9% had periodontal disease. Tooth brushing was reported by 55.5% of the subjects. Paan chewing, with tobacco or without tobacco, habit was reported by 89.3%. Bi-variate analyses between the CPI scores and age groups showed high statistical significance. The maximum mean treatment requirement was for extraction (1.37 ± 4.01) and was observed in 65-74 age groups. Conclusion The lack of basic oral health care access is important for high oral disease burden in these populations. Efforts are to be done for basic oral health care facility to these marginal populations. PMID:27891449

  11. Gneiss-charnockite transformation at Kottavattam, Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raith, M.; Klatt, E.; Spiering, B.; Srikantappa, C.; Staehle, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    At Kottavattam, leucocratic granitic garnet-biotite gneisses (age less than 2 Ga) were partially transformed to coarse-grained charnockite along a system of conjugate fractures (N70E and N20W) and the foliation planes (N60 to 80W; dip 80 to 90 SW) about 550 m.y. ago. To examine and quantify changes in fabric, mineralogy, pore fluids and chemical composition associated with this process, large rock specimens showing gneiss-charnockite transition were studied in detail. The results of the present study corroborate the concept that charnockite formation at Kottavattam is an internally-generated phenomenon and was not triggered by the influx of carbonic fluids from a deep-seated source. It is suggested that charnockitization was caused by the following mechanism: (1) near-isothermal decompression during uplift of the gneiss complex led to an increase of the pore fluid pressure (P sub fluid greater than P sub lith) which - in a regime of anisotropic stress - triggered or at least promoted the development of conjugate fractures; (2) the simultaneous release of pore fluids from bursting fluid inclusions and their escape into the developing fracture system resulted in a drop of fluid pressure; and (3) the internal generation and buffering of the fluids and their, probably, limited migration in an entirely granitic rock system explains the absence of any significant metasomatic mass transfer.

  12. Low level deltamethrin resistance in ticks from cattle of Kerala, a south Indian state.

    PubMed

    Jyothimol, G; Ravindran, R; Juliet, S; Ajithkumar, K G; Suresh, N N; Vimalkumar, M B; Lenka, D R; Varghese, S; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-08-29

    The deltamethrin resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from cattle of five organized farms of Kerala, south India was evaluated. Resistance was characterized using biological (larval packet test), biochemical (esterase enzyme activity assay) and molecular tools (PCR amplification and sequencing of deltamethrin resistance-associated genes). Characterization of field isolates revealed level I resistance in ticks collected from four out of five farms. Elevated level of α/β esterase activity was not recorded in isolates showing level I resistance. Previously reported point mutations in the carboxyl esterase (G1120A) and sodium channel (T2134A and C190A) genes were not observed in any of the field isolates. The present study showed a low level (level I) resistance is developed in the most economically important ticks infesting cattle of this state and it cautions the development of large scale resistance in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Status of Women in Highly Literate Societies: The Case of Kerala and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Both Kerala and Finland have made notable achievements in the realm of literacy: Kerala has one of the highest rates in the developing world and Finland ranks first in literacy among developed countries. Both also share a cultural history of granting women a high status in their respective societies. Using Kerala and Finland as examples, this…

  14. Potential for mobile health (mHealth) prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Kerala: A population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Leo; Menon, Jaideep; Smith, Rebecca; Rajeev, Jaya G; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    India's southern state of Kerala stands at the forefront of India's epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD), among other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mobile phone use in healthcare (mHealth) has shown promise in India, including NCDs. However, suitability and acceptability of m-Health interventions is poorly researched, particularly in rural settings. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding mobile phone usage and possible use in healthcare was verbally administered in five primary health centres and by home visits in five village councils ("panchayats") of Ernakulam, Kerala. Adults who spoke Malayalam or English, with access to a mobile phone were recruited by convenience sampling in partnership with accredited social health activists (ASHAs). Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSS software. 262 participants were recruited. 87% routinely used and 88% owned a mobile phone. 92% were willing to receive mHealth advice, and 94% favoured mobile medication reminders. 70.3% and 73% preferred voice calls over short messaging service (SMS) for delivering health information and medication reminders, respectively. 85.9% would send home recorded information on their blood pressure, weight, medication use and lifestyle to a doctor or ASHA. 75.2% trusted the confidentiality of mHealth data, while 77.1% had no concerns about the privacy of their information. The majority of this population approve mHealth interventions. While further investigation of mHealth as a health education tool is warranted, SMS interventions may fail to maximise equity and penetration across all patient groups. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marital status differentials in rural to city migration in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, J P

    1986-01-01

    Following the comparative method of analysis, this paper examines the marital status characteristics of rural to urban migrants in 3 Indian states-Biharm West Bengal, and Kerala. The discussion is based on the Census of India, 1971. The main thrust of this paper is that as these 3 states tend to differ markedly in terms of the social and cultural value system, the marital status characteristics of migrants also differ between states. Important findings emerging from this study are as follows. 1) Singles are more migratory than marrieds where singles are more likely to be males than females. 2) Similarly married females are greater migrants than married males. 3) However, these differences by sex are much less marked in Kerala than in Bihar and West Bengal. Married migrants tend to migrate alone rather than with their family in Bihar and West Bengal, while in Kerala family migration is more common than individual migration.

  16. Automation of University Libraries in Kerala: Status, Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suku, J.; Pillai, Mini G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the present scenario of automation activities of university libraries in Kerala. The survey findings mainly cover various aspects of library automation such as information technology infrastructure, in-house activities, information services and their usage, manpower development, and budget. The paper briefly describes the role…

  17. Automation of University Libraries in Kerala: Status, Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suku, J.; Pillai, Mini G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the present scenario of automation activities of university libraries in Kerala. The survey findings mainly cover various aspects of library automation such as information technology infrastructure, in-house activities, information services and their usage, manpower development, and budget. The paper briefly describes the role…

  18. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    PubMed

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  19. Keeping the doctor in the loop: Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Kudlu, Chithprabha

    2016-12-01

    Ethnographic inquiry into Ayurvedic commodification in Kerala revealed the prevalence of a distinct regional pharmaceutical market dominated by physician-manufacturers, oriented towards supplying classical medicines to Ayurvedic doctors. This stands in sharp contrast to mainstream Ayurveda that is observed to have undergone biomedicalization and pharmaceuticalization. This paper argues that Kerala's classical-medicine-centric pharmaceutical market constitutes an alternative modernity because it provided Kerala Ayurveda with a different route to modernization impervious to the biomedical regime, as well as endowing it with the institutional power to safeguard its regional identity. Although physician-entrepreneurs are its key architects, it is sustained by value regimes shaped by a unique regional medico-cultural milieu. Even when industrially produced, classical medicines remain embedded within Ayurveda's socio-technical network; unlike proprietary drugs sold as individual product-identities through non-Ayurvedic channels, they travel together as a pharmacopeia, distributed through exclusive doctor-mediated agencies. This clinic-centric distribution format is best conceptualized as an open-source business model as it made low-margin generics viable by packaging them with therapies and services. Besides ensuring better access and affordability, it provided resistance to pharmaceuticalization and intellectual property concentration. By keeping the doctor in the loop, it prevented medicines from degenerating into de-contextualized commodities; the service component of Ayurveda therein preserved went on become the unique selling point in the health-tourism market. The tourism-inspired proliferation of Brand Kerala eventually triggered a paradigm shift in mainstream Ayurveda - shifting focus from 'pharmaceuticals' to 'services' and from 'illness' to 'wellness'. Furthermore, interacting with hybrid Ayurvedas in transnational markets, Kerala Ayurveda co-produces new

  20. Below the poverty line and non-communicable diseases in Kerala: The Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas (ENDIRA) study.

    PubMed

    Menon, Jaideep; Vijayakumar, N; Joseph, Joseph K; David, P C; Menon, M N; Mukundan, Shyam; Dorphy, P D; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings. In Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was identified. The "Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas" (ENDIRA) study was conducted via ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists). Standardised questionnaires were used in household interviews of individuals ≥18years during 2012 to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle and medical data for this population. The Government of Kerala definition of "the poverty line" was used. The association between below poverty line (BPL) status, NCDs and risk factors was analysed in multivariable regression models. 84,456 adults were included in the analyses (25.4% below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCDs was relatively common: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%, stroke 0.3%, respiratory diseases 5.0%, and cancer 1.1%. BPL status was not associated with age (p=0.96) or gender (p=0.26). Compared with those above the poverty line (APL), the BPL group was less likely to have diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia (p<0.0001), and more likely to smoke (p<0.0001). Compared with APL, BPL was associated with stroke (OR 1.33, 1.04-1.69; p=0.02) and respiratory disease (OR 1.23, 1.15-1.32; p<0.0001) in multivariable analyses, but not MI or cancer. In rural Kerala, BPL status was associated with stroke and respiratory diseases, but not with MI and cancer although it was associated with smoking status, compared with above poverty line status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  2. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  3. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) – a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  4. Powering the Women in Agriculture: Lessons on Women Led Farm Mechanisation in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jiju P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how an initiative on farm mechanisation by a local government in Kerala in South India evolved into a formal organisation that provides sustainable livelihood options to women and small and marginal farmers and revived the rice production system. Design/methodology/approach: The study followed the case analysis…

  5. Powering the Women in Agriculture: Lessons on Women Led Farm Mechanisation in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jiju P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how an initiative on farm mechanisation by a local government in Kerala in South India evolved into a formal organisation that provides sustainable livelihood options to women and small and marginal farmers and revived the rice production system. Design/methodology/approach: The study followed the case analysis…

  6. Kyasanur Forest Disease - First Reported Case in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Shiji, P V; Viswanath, Veena; Sreekumar, Sreena; Sreejith, R; Majeed, Abdul; Udayabhaskaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.

  7. Pathways to catastrophic health expenditure for acute coronary syndrome in Kerala: ‘Good health at low cost’?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage through the removal of financial and other barriers to access, particularly for people who are poor, is a global priority. This viewpoint describes the many pathways to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) based on two case studies and the thematic analysis of field notes regarding 210 patients and their households from a study based in Kerala, India. Discussion There is evidence of the severe financial impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which is in contradiction to the widely acclaimed Kerala model: Good health at low cost. However, it is important to look beyond the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and CHE to the possible pathways and identify the triggers that make families vulnerable to CHE. The identified pathways include a primary and secondary loop. The primary pathway describes the direct path by which families experience CHE. These include: 1) factors related to the pre-event period that increase the likelihood of experiencing CHE, such as being from the lower socio-economic strata (SES), past financial losses or loans that leave families with no financial shock absorber at the time of illness; 2) factors related to the acute event, diagnosis, treatment and hospitalization and expenditures incurred for the same and; 3) factors related to the post-event period such as loss of gainful employment and means of financing both the acute period and the long-term management particularly through distress financing. The secondary pathway arises from the primary and includes: 1) the impact of distress financing and; 2) the long- and short- term consequences of CHE. These factors ultimately result in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty through non-compliance and repeat acute events. Summary This paper outlines the direct and indirect pathways by which patients with ACS and their families are trapped in a vicious cycle of debt and poverty. It also contradicts the prevailing

  8. Trends in consanguinity in South India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Audinarayana, N

    2001-04-01

    This study uses data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey to assess trends in consanguinity in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In Kerala, the frequency of consanguineous marriages is very low and one type of preferred marriage of the Dravidian marriage system uncle niece marriage--is conspicuously absent. In the other states of South India, consanguinity and the coefficient of inbreeding are high. While no change in consanguinity is observed during the past three to four decades in Karnataka, a definite decline is observed in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Due to recent changes in the demographic and social situation in these states, this decline in consanguinity is likely to continue.

  9. Need to establish tobacco smoke zones in public places in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Muttapppallymyalil, J; Sreedharan, J; Divakaran, B

    2010-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is a grave hazard to both smokers and nonsmokers. To assess the attitude of general public toward establishing smoke zones in public places. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among people residing in one randomly selected municipality of Kannur district in Kerala state, India. A total of 1000 individuals participated in the study. An open-ended, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, which was pilot tested was used to collect information from people willing to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics was used. Statistical analysis was performed by using PASW 17. 73.1% of the total participants indicated a positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones in public places. All female participants and 69.7% of male participants had positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones in public places. Most nonsmokers (83.2%) showed a positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) association was observed between smoking habit and attitude toward establishing smoke zones in public places. Among males, a statistically significant (P < 0.001) association was observed between age and attitude toward the need for smoke zones. As age increased, the attitude toward establishing tobacco smoke zone in public places was found to become more positive. Most of the participants had positive attitude to prohibition of smoking in public places in order to safe guard the public from the harmful effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke.

  10. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education

  11. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls of Central Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Sobha, A.; Manjula, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent age group is the window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. If we intervene correctly during this period we can prevent future consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Very few studies have been conducted in kerala regarding adolescent anaemia. Aim To estimate prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent girls of central Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 adolescent girls of ettumanoor panchayat, the field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with anaemia. Relevant clinical examination of participants were done. Blood samples were analysed using an auto-analyser and stool examination for ova or cyst was done under microscopy. Diagnosis of anaemia was established when haemoglobin was less than 12gm/dl. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Association between Categorical variables were tested with Chi-square test and continuous variables independent t-test was used. Logistic regression was used to find out independent risk factors. The level of significance was fixed at p-value of < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anaemia was 21%. Risk factors associated with anaemia in the univariate analysis were presence of ova or cyst in stool (p = 0.003, OR = 2.94) and number of pads per day during menstruation (p = 0.004). Protective factors were hand washing after toileting (p = 0.021, OR = 0.311), hand washing before food intake (p = 0.026, OR = 0.5), foot wear usage (p = 0.022, OR = 0.25) and jaggery consumption (0.042). The factors which were significant in logistic regression were worm infestation, number of pads per day, washing hands before food intake and foot wear usage. Conclusion Worm infestation and number of pads per day during menstruation were found to be risk factors for anaemia. Personal hygiene practices

  12. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  13. The Ashtavaidya physicians of Kerala: A tradition in transition.

    PubMed

    Menon, Indudharan; Spudich, Annamma

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents what we have learned from the Ashtavaidya Ayurveda physicians of Kerala regarding the status of their unique medical tradition of Ayurveda in the contemporary context. We extensively interviewed several practicing Ashtavaidyas for the "Living History of Indian Scientific Traditions" archive, a new initiative at the NCBS, Bangalore to study the history of Indian sciences. As heirs of a tradition that has adapted and evolved over centuries without compromising its fundamental principles, their views on Ayurveda presented here represent an important contribution to the current debate on the role of traditional medicine in the Indian public health system.

  14. DNA unmasked in the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Hogg, Stuart I

    2013-01-01

    Extraordinary claims have been made for the biological properties of the red rain cells of Kerala, including a suggestion that they lack DNA. We have investigated the fluorescence properties of red rain cells, and the solubility of the red pigment in a variety of solvents. Extraction of the pigment with DMSO allowed successful demonstration of DNA using DAPI staining. Cellular impermeability to staining reagents due to the red pigment is the likely explanation for the failure of previous efforts to demonstrate DNA in red rain cells.

  15. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  16. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-11-17

    To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD and/or its risk factors, 5 physicians treating CVD and 5 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). Patients were sampled for maximum variation on the basis of age, sex, CVD diagnoses and risk factors. All participants had access to a mobile phone. The main themes identified relating to the current challenges of CVD were poor patient disease knowledge, difficulties in implementing primary prevention and poor patient lifestyles. Participants noted phone calls as the main function of current mobile phone use. The expectations of mHealth use are to: improve accessibility to healthcare knowledge; provide reminders of appointments, medication and lifestyle changes; save time, money and travel; and improve ASHA job efficacy. All perceived barriers to mHealth were noted within physician interviews. These included fears of mobile phones negatively affecting physicians' roles, the usability of mobile phones, radiation and the need for physical consultations. There are three main potential uses of mHealth in this population: (1) as an educational tool, to improve health education and lifestyle behaviours; (2) to optimise the use of limited resources, by overcoming geographical barriers and financial constraints; (3) to improve use of healthcare, by providing appointment and treatment reminders in order to improve disease prevention and management. Successful mHealth design, which takes barriers into account, may complement current practice and optimise use of limited resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  17. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Design Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. Setting 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Participants 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD and/or its risk factors, 5 physicians treating CVD and 5 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). Patients were sampled for maximum variation on the basis of age, sex, CVD diagnoses and risk factors. All participants had access to a mobile phone. Results The main themes identified relating to the current challenges of CVD were poor patient disease knowledge, difficulties in implementing primary prevention and poor patient lifestyles. Participants noted phone calls as the main function of current mobile phone use. The expectations of mHealth use are to: improve accessibility to healthcare knowledge; provide reminders of appointments, medication and lifestyle changes; save time, money and travel; and improve ASHA job efficacy. All perceived barriers to mHealth were noted within physician interviews. These included fears of mobile phones negatively affecting physicians’ roles, the usability of mobile phones, radiation and the need for physical consultations. Conclusions There are three main potential uses of mHealth in this population: (1) as an educational tool, to improve health education and lifestyle behaviours; (2) to optimise the use of limited resources, by overcoming geographical barriers and financial constraints; (3) to improve use of healthcare, by providing appointment and treatment reminders in order to improve disease prevention and management. Successful mHealth design, which takes barriers into account, may complement current practice and optimise use of limited

  18. Gulf money in Kerala: coping with the problems of plenty.

    PubMed

    Kurian, R; Thakore, D

    The recent phenomenon of emigration from Kerala to the Gulf countries and the increasing inflow of remittances is having a tremendous impact on Kerala's economy. The state planning board reports that the remittances from the Gulf to this tiny state are Rs. 400 crones/year. An annual inflow of this amount cannot help influence the fortunes of the population. Although emigration from Kerala is not new, the current outflow reached massive proportions only in the wake of the intensive construction boom in the West Asian countries, after a huge volume of petro dollars flowed into those countries in the aftermath of the 1973 hike in oil price. In December 1977 a total of 135,000 Keralities were employed in foreign countries, mainly in West Asia. These adventurous migrants, in their quest for a wage, emigrated mainly from 4 areas in the state: Varkala in Trivandrum district; Thiruvalla in Alleppey district; Chavakkad in Trichur district; and almost all parts of Malappuram district. The bulk of the remittances are sent to households and next of kin concentrated in these areas. This unprecedented inflow of remittances has kindled the hopes of politicians and administrators of tapping these resources to solve the problems of economic development of the state. 1 category of emigrants come from poor households, are poorly educated, and are masons, carpenters, or even unskilled laborers. Because of their ignorance and gullibility they are exploited by middlemen who charge them Rs. 12,000 for a no objection certificate (NOC). Moneylenders are also doing a thriving business. Another type of emigrant is from relatively well off households, better educated, and able to obtain better jobs. There are also rich businessmen and contractors among them. It is this category of better educated emigrant who is able to save a substantial part of his income. State administrative circles note that remittances at best can provide only the financial capital. According to T.C. Razajm a

  19. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Results from the Kerala-Einstein Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Allali, Gilles; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Noone, Mohan L; Pradeep, Vayyattu G; Blumen, Helena M; Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of cerebral small vessel disease to cognitive decline, especially in non-Caucasian populations, is not well established. We examined the relationship between cerebral small vessel disease and motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a recently described pre-dementia syndrome, in Indian seniors. 139 participants (mean age 66.6 ± 5.4 y, 33.1% female) participating in the Kerala-Einstein study in Southern India were examined in a cross-sectional study. The presence of cerebral small vessel disease (lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMB)) and white matter hyperintensities on MRI was ascertained by raters blinded to clinical information. MCR was defined by the presence of cognitive complaints and slow gait in older adults without dementia or mobility disability. Thirty-eight (27.3%) participants met MCR criteria. The overall prevalence of lacunar infarcts and CMB was 49.6% and 9.4% , respectively. Lacunar infarcts in the frontal lobe, but no other brain regions, were associated with MCR even after adjusting for vascular risk factors and presence of white matter hyperintensities (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 4.67, 95% CI: 1.69-12.94). Frontal lacunar infarcts were associated with slow gait (aOR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.46-10.79) and poor performance on memory test (β: -1.24, 95% CI: -2.42 to -0.05), but not with cognitive complaints or non-memory tests. No association of CMB was found with MCR, individual MCR criterion or cognitive tests. Frontal lacunar infarcts are associated with MCR in Indian seniors, perhaps, by contributing to slow gait and poor memory function.

  20. Taxonomic studies on potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) of south India.

    PubMed

    Pannure, Arati; Belavadi, Vasuki V; Carpenter, James M

    2016-09-26

    The family Vespidae is represented in India by four subfamilies: Vespinae, Polistinae, Stenogastrinae, and Eumeninae. The subfamily Eumeninae is the most species rich among the Vespidae. The potter wasps of south India are reviewed for the first time to comprise 31 valid genera. The genera Discoelius Latreille, 1809, Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963, Euodynerus Dalla torre, 1904, and Pseudonortonia Giordani Soika, 1936 are newly reported from south India. Diagnoses and a key to south Indian eumenine genera are given. A total of 72 species and subspecies are listed, 15 of them are newly reported from Karnataka and two species from Kerala.

  1. Summer monsoon onset over Kerala: New definition and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Nair, Rajeevan M.

    2009-04-01

    The summer monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK) marks the beginning of the rainy season for the country. Associated with the MOK, significant transitions of large scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns are observed over the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a new method for the objective identification of MOK, based on large scale circulation features and rainfall over Kerala, is discussed. Further, a set of empirical models based on the principal component regression (PCR) technique was developed for the prediction of the date of MOK by keeping in mind the IMD’s operational forecasting service requirements. Predictors for the models were derived using correlation analysis from the thermal, convective and circulation patterns. Only five predictors pertaining to the second half of April were used in the first model (Model-1) so that the prediction of MOK can be prepared by the end of April itself. The second model (Model-2) used four additional predictors pertaining up to the first half of May along with two predictors used in the Model-1 for update prediction at the end of the first half of May. To develop each of the PCR models, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the respective predictor data was carried out followed by regression analysis of first two principal components (PCs) with the date of MOK. Both these models showed good skill in predicting the date of MOK during the independent test period of 1997-2007. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the predictions from both the models during the independent test period was about four days which was nearly half the RMSE of the predictions based on climatology.

  2. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  3. Genetic polymorphism of six DNA loci in six population groups of India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

    2007-08-01

    The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow.

  4. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala.

    PubMed

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Sundari Ravindran, T K; Sarma, P S; Sivasankaran, S; Thankappan, K R

    2013-07-17

    Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary procurement, preparation, and consumption patterns

  5. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala.

    PubMed

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Sarma, P S; Sivasankaran, S; Thankappan, K R

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. Methods This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Discussion Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary procurement

  6. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Ravindran, T.K. Sundari; Sarma, P.S.; Sivasankaran, S.; Thankappan, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. Methods This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Discussion Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary procurement

  7. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  8. Balancing expectations amidst limitations: the dynamics of food decision-making in rural Kerala.

    PubMed

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlström, Rolf; Thankappan, K R; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2015-07-12

    Food decision-making is a complex process and varies according to the setting, based on cultural and contextual factors. The study aimed to understand the process of food decision-making in households in rural Kerala, India, to inform the design of a dietary behaviour change intervention. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and 17 individual interviews were conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 among 13 men and 40 women, between 23 and 75 years of age. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) food choices and decision-making in households, with particular reference to access; and 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil. The interviews and FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed one main theme: 'Balancing expectations amidst limitations' with two sub-themes: 'Counting and meeting the costs'; and 'Finding the balance'. Food decisions were made at the household level, with money, time and effort costs weighed against the benefits, estimated in terms of household needs, satisfaction and expectations. The most crucial decisional point was affordability in terms of money costs, followed by food preferences of husband and children. Health and the risk of acquiring chronic diseases was not a major consideration in the decision-making process. Foods perceived as essential for children were purchased irrespective of cost, reportedly owing to the influence of food advertisements. The role of the woman as the homemaker has gendered implications, as the women disproportionately bore the burden of balancing the needs and expectations of all the household members within the available means. The food decision-making process occurred at household level, and within the household, by the preferences of spouse and children, and cost considerations. The socio-economic status of households was identified as limiting their ability to manoeuvre this fine balance

  9. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  10. Lineage shift in Indian strains of Dengue virus serotype-3 (Genotype III), evidenced by detection of lineage IV strains in clinical cases from Kerala

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Local epidemiology of Dengue is defined by the genetic diversity of the circulating Dengue virus (DENV) strains. This important information is not available for the virus strains from most parts of the Indian subcontinent. The present study focused on the genetic diversity of the serotype 3 DENV strains (DENV-3) from India. Results A total of 22 DENV-3 strains identified by reverse-transcription PCR analysis of serum samples from 709 patients were studied. These samples were collected over a period of 4 years (2008–2011) from dengue fever suspected patients from Kerala, a dengue endemic state in South India. Comparison of a 1740bp nucleotide sequence of the viral Capsid-Pre-membrane-Envelope coding region of our strains and previously reported DENV-3 strains from India, South Asia and South America revealed non-synonymous substitutions that were genotype III-specific as well as sporadic. Evidence of positive selection was detected in the I81 amino acid residue of the envelope protein. Out of the 22 samples, three had I81A and 18 had I81V substitutions. In the phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method the strains from Kerala clustered in two different lineages (lineage III and IV) within genotype III clade of DENV-3 strains. The ten strains that belonged to lineage IV had a signature amino acid substitution T219A in the envelope protein. Interestingly, all these strains were found to be closely related to a Singapore strain GU370053 isolated in 2007. Conclusions Our study identifies for the first time the presence of lineage IV strains in the Indian subcontinent. Results indicate the possibility of a recent exotic introduction and also a shift from the existing lineage III strains to lineage IV. Lineage shifts in DENV-3 strains have been attributed to dramatic increase in disease severity in many parts of the world. Hence the present observation could be significant in terms of the clinical severity of future dengue cases in the region. PMID

  11. Awareness of Dental Trauma Management among School Teachers of Kannur, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Premkumar, Chandru T; Narasimhan, Dhanesh; Jose, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental trauma can overtake dental caries and periodontal disease as the most significant threat to dental health among young people. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment. The role of school teachers in the prevention of traumatic dental injuries is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, studies conducted in different regions of the world have demonstrated that teachers and other lay people’s knowledge about traumatic dental injuries is inadequate and their behavior does not contribute to reduce the sequelae. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Kannur district. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted under the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry; Kannur Dental College among 303 school teachers randomly selected from 16 schools. Four schools were selected from 16 schools using stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross sectional study design was used. A stratified cluster sampling method was done to select the study subjects. The nature and purpose of the study was first explained to the teachers in local language. Following this the printed questionnaire was distributed to school teachers. The questionnaire was prepared based on the needs of the study after referring similar questionnaires used in studies conducted in different parts of the world. Results A statistically significant association was found between the teacher’s knowledge regarding trauma and their teaching experience. Out of the total school teachers who participated in the study, 90.1% responded correctly that the teeth most frequently affected by traumatic accidents are the upper front teeth. Nearly 23.4% responded correctly regarding management of traumatic tooth fracture. Almost 46.5% had correct knowledge regarding the reimplantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Only 14.2% responded correctly to the proper storage medium for avulsed teeth. Conclusion It was concluded from the study that among the school teachers surveyed there was significantly very low knowledge of emergency management of dental trauma. PMID:28384971

  12. Methanogenesis: Seasonal changes in human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary (Kerala, South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshmi, R. R.; Deepa Nair, K.; Zachariah, E. J.; Vincent, Salom Gnana Thanga

    2015-04-01

    Environmental variables as well as methanogenic abundance and activity were analysed in selected human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary. Sediment samples were collected during summer and monsoon of 2013. Each was analysed for environmental variables such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate, total kjeldahl nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter and redox potential. Abundance and methanogenic potential of two distinct groups of methanogenic archaea (i.e. aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens) were quantified by incubating the sediment samples in basal media, added with acetate or methanol as substrate. Most of the environmental variables showed significant differences spatially and temporally. Among the environmental variables, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and salinity were higher during summer, while total kjeldahl nitrogen, sulphate and organic carbon were higher during monsoon. Abundance of both aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens showed significant variations both spatially and temporally. Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant during monsoon, with a maximum value of 810 ± 13 CFU g-1, and methylotrophic methanogens were abundant during summer, with a maximum value of 1770 ± 30 CFU g-1. Results of methanogenic potential of sediment samples showed a range of 0.01 ± 0.00 to 12.03 ± 0.35 mol m-3. Among the two substrates, methanol favoured the abundance of methylotrophic methanogens, while acetate induced the methanogenic activity. Methanogenic activity was higher during monsoon than summer that can be attributed to the favourable sedimentary conditions (like reduced redox potential and increased substrate availability). Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant at bottom layers and methylotrophic methanogens in top layers of the sediments. The results of canonical correspondence analysis revealed the existence of linear relationship between methanogenic archaea and environmental variables among the sampling stations. Higher values of salinity, electrical conductivity and total kjeldahl nitrogen favoured the distribution and abundance of aceticlastic methanogens. However, the abundance of methylotrophic methanogens was favoured by highly reduced conditions and high pH values.

  13. Prominence of seasonal water quality assessment in a tropical river using multivariate analysis: Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Prince; Joseph, Sabu; Chidambaram, S.

    2017-07-01

    An account of seasonal water quality variability has been taken as a proxy for the changes of environmental setting occurring in the catchment areas and helps to illustrate the ecological system processes associated with it. The present study in Meenachil River (L = 78 km, A = 1272 km2) comprising of stations from upstream to downstream for pre monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post monsoon (POM). Ca2+ and SO4 2- show an erratic trend while extreme deviations were observed at S6 and S7 stations. Na+, K+, Cl-, DIC and DOC showed a similar trend in most stations, i.e. (PRM > POM > MON). Significant rise of DIC and DOC at S7 during POM and PRM could explicate changes ensued in adjacent Vembanad lake system. Strong correlations of DIC and DOC for Na+, K+ and Cl- ions were noted in the study. HCA dendrogram reveals that ion chemistry in S6 and S7 was strictly controlled by neighbouring lake water dynamics. The results demonstrate high F1 variance of 73, 68 and 72% followed by F2 comprising of 17, 19 and 21% for PRM, MON and POM, respectively. General understanding into the autochthonous process associated within the river lake interface region was evident from the nutrient variability scenario.

  14. Aerobic reduction of perchlorate by bacteria isolated in Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Shete, Anita; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N; Acharya, Arpan; Aich, Bikash A; Joshi, Suresh; Ghole, Vikram S

    2008-01-01

    Possibility of perchlorate reduction by microbes raises hope for an eco-friendly mode of degradation of this toxic rocket fuel. This study reports 3 isolates (A1, A2 and A3) capable of molybdenum-independent degradation of perchlorate under aerobic conditions. The rate of degradation was the highest when perchlorate concentration was 17 mM, and then 3.2 mM, 4.7 mM and 4.1 mM of perchlorate was reduced by isolates A1, A2 and A3 (respectively) after 72 h at 28 degrees C under aerobic conditions. Presence of perchlorate at a concentration higher than 17 mM resulted in some inhibition of perchlorate reduction. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis revealed isolate A1 to be Pseudomonas stutzeri (Proteobacteria) while isolates A2 ad A3 where found to belong to the genus Arthrobacter (Actinobacteria). The study, apart from demonstrating ribotyping as a rapid method of identification of economically important soil microbes, also raised prospects for using artificial consortia for environmental degradation of perchlorate, without apparent domination of Dechloromonas spp. (a group of microbes known for perchlorate remediation in the environment).

  15. Elementary school enrolment and its determinants among children with cerebral palsy in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Anish, Thekkumkara Surendran Nair; Ramachandran, Reshmi; Sivaram, P; Mohandas, Seetha; Sasidharan, Archana; Sreelakshmi, Pallipurathu Reghunathan Nair

    2013-08-01

    There is enough documented evidence to prove the benefits of early and appropriate initiation of education among children with cerebral palsy (CP). To find out the proportion of children with CP who are enrolled for some kind of formal education and to study the determinants of the same. This cross sectional study was done among children, attending the special clinics at government medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Children between 3 and 12 years of age diagnosed with CP were subjects for the study. Enrollment for any form of formal education was the major outcome variable. The factors associated with initiation of formal education were tested using Chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. Independent association of each factor was evaluated through binary logistic Regression analysis. The mean (SD) age of the children (n = 86) was 5.7 (2.3) years with forty-six (53.5%) of them being girls. Diplegia was the commonest limb abnormality found. Fifty-two (60.5%) children were undergoing some kind of schooling. Those children who were less dependent physically and those who had achieved better language development were regular school goers. After binary logistic regression the ability of a child to speak in sentences (P = 0.008) and ambulatory level of the child (P = 0.019) were factors which favored, whereas delay in attaining the adaptive developmental milestone of transferring objects from one hand to another (P = 0.014) was found to be detrimental for school enrollment.

  16. Elementary school enrolment and its determinants among children with cerebral palsy in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Anish, Thekkumkara Surendran Nair; Ramachandran, Reshmi; Sivaram, P; Mohandas, Seetha; Sasidharan, Archana; Sreelakshmi, Pallipurathu Reghunathan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is enough documented evidence to prove the benefits of early and appropriate initiation of education among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Aim: To find out the proportion of children with CP who are enrolled for some kind of formal education and to study the determinants of the same. Setting and Design: This cross sectional study was done among children, attending the special clinics at government medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Children between 3 and 12 years of age diagnosed with CP were subjects for the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Enrollment for any form of formal education was the major outcome variable. The factors associated with initiation of formal education were tested using Chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. Independent association of each factor was evaluated through binary logistic Regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: The mean (SD) age of the children (n = 86) was 5.7 (2.3) years with forty-six (53.5%) of them being girls. Diplegia was the commonest limb abnormality found. Fifty-two (60.5%) children were undergoing some kind of schooling. Those children who were less dependent physically and those who had achieved better language development were regular school goers. After binary logistic regression the ability of a child to speak in sentences (P = 0.008) and ambulatory level of the child (P = 0.019) were factors which favored, whereas delay in attaining the adaptive developmental milestone of transferring objects from one hand to another (P = 0.014) was found to be detrimental for school enrollment. PMID:24174798

  17. Participatory GIS in action, a public health initiative from Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    Community ownership is essential for sustainable public health initiatives. The advantages of getting active involvement of homebound village women in a public health campaign to establish community health surveillance are being reported in this paper. With the support of the local self government authorities, we had selected 120 village women, and they were given extensive training on various healthcare schemes, home based management of local ailments, leadership skills and survey techniques. Afterwards, they had been asked to share their knowledge with at least 10-15 women in their neighbourhood. This had improved their status in the neighbourhood, as more and more people started getting their advice on healthcare and social services related matters. Subsequently, they had collected the socio-demographic and morbidity details of the entire households, including the geometric coordinates (longitude and latitude) of the households and public offices. In this process, they began to use the geographic position system (GPS) machines, dismissing the myth that women are not that techno savvy, further improving their acceptability in the community. Many among them were seen proudly describing the implications of the thematic maps to the village people and line department staff in the monthly subcentre meetings. Many were offered seats in the local body elections by leading political parties, a few of them did stand in the elections and three of them had won the elections. This experience reinforces our belief that the empowerment of villagers with newer technology could be a public health tool with much wider positive implications.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of an Environmental trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus K23 Strain Isolated from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Divya Meparambu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a trh+ strain, V. parahaemolyticus K23, isolated from seafood. The sequence will be useful for comparative analysis between environmental and clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:27081143

  19. Awareness of Dental Trauma Management among School Teachers of Kannur, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Chandukutty, Divya; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Premkumar, Chandru T; Narasimhan, Dhanesh; Jose, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    Dental trauma can overtake dental caries and periodontal disease as the most significant threat to dental health among young people. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment. The role of school teachers in the prevention of traumatic dental injuries is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, studies conducted in different regions of the world have demonstrated that teachers and other lay people's knowledge about traumatic dental injuries is inadequate and their behavior does not contribute to reduce the sequelae. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Kannur district. The survey was conducted under the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry; Kannur Dental College among 303 school teachers randomly selected from 16 schools. Four schools were selected from 16 schools using stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross sectional study design was used. A stratified cluster sampling method was done to select the study subjects. The nature and purpose of the study was first explained to the teachers in local language. Following this the printed questionnaire was distributed to school teachers. The questionnaire was prepared based on the needs of the study after referring similar questionnaires used in studies conducted in different parts of the world. A statistically significant association was found between the teacher's knowledge regarding trauma and their teaching experience. Out of the total school teachers who participated in the study, 90.1% responded correctly that the teeth most frequently affected by traumatic accidents are the upper front teeth. Nearly 23.4% responded correctly regarding management of traumatic tooth fracture. Almost 46.5% had correct knowledge regarding the reimplantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Only 14.2% responded correctly to the proper storage medium for avulsed teeth. It was concluded from the study that among the school teachers surveyed there was significantly very low knowledge of emergency management of dental trauma.

  20. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to quantify the upper limit of the root cohesion at the stand level in combination with land use maps. This is an indispensable component in the evaluation of slope stability in the region.

  1. Determination of groundwater quality index of a highland village of Kerala (India) using Geographical Information System.

    PubMed

    Rejith, P G; Jeeva, S P; Vijith, H; Sowmya, M; Hatha, A A Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the authors' goal was to understand the groundwater quality of Nedumkandam panchayat by an integrated approach of traditional water quality analysis and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Fourteen wells were identified from the study area and samples were collected and analyzed using standard protocols (American Public Health Association, 1998). Parameters analyzed include pH, hardness, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, trace metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead), and fecal coliforms. All parameters except pH, cadmium, and fecal coliforms were within the limit of drinking water quality standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (BIS, 1983). The spatial distribution of physico-chemical and biological parameters was analyzed using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach and the maps thus obtained were integrated using the raster calculator option of spatial analyst in ArcGIS 8.3 software, and a water quality index (WQI) was calculated. Based on the WQI values, the study area was divided into poor, moderate, and good water quality zones.

  2. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  3. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  4. Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in India.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L

    2007-07-01

    Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.

  5. Hemodialysis outcomes and practice patterns in end-stage renal disease: Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, G. R.; Sheetal, L. G.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to analyze the hemodialysis practice patterns from a tertiary care referral centre as there is very limited data from India. All patients of ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in dialysis unit at AIMS, Kochi, Kerala for a minimum period of 3 months were included. A total of 134 patients (M: F 2:1) with age of 20 to 84 years (Mean: 59.83; SD: 11.98) were studied. The most common causes of ESRD in study population were diabetic nephropathy (DN) (59.7%) followed by unclassified group (19.4%), chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) (11.9%). Majority (81%) were initiated on MHD through temporary vascular access on emergency basis. Majority (79%) of the patients were on twice weekly MHD. The range of eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) at the time of initiation of MHD was 1.26-11.78 by CG formula and 2.18-16.4 by MDRD equation. The mean duration on hemodialysis was 37.16 months and 50.7% patients had died during the follow-up period (3-108 months). The mean survival time on hemodialysis was 40.31 months (SD = 26.69). The mean survival time was lower in diabetic nephropathy (35.93 months) than in non-diabetic renal disease (47.46 months). The most common causes of deaths were cardiovascular events (51.5%), and infections (26.5%). In conclusion, males outnumbered females, among those on hemodialysis. There was no significant difference in eGFR at initiation of MHD based on etiologies. Initiation of MHD via temporary access, presence of LVH, acute coronary syndrome, use of acetate dialysate, need for parenteral iron therapy had impact on mortality. Survival rates while on hemodialysis at end 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th years were 87.31, 45.52, 21.64 and 7.46 percentages respectively. PMID:28182039

  6. Recent fertility declines in China and India: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P M; Rani, S

    1995-12-01

    This paper compares fertility transitions in China and parts of India. It is argued that China experienced a more rapid and more "impressive" decline than that of India. Socioeconomic conditions in China were more conducive to fertility decline. Kerala State in India experienced a similar decline as China but at a slower pace. The birth control campaign in China is credited with an important role in speeding the transition. It is posited that the political and administrative system and economic conditions in India are not compatible with the Chinese style program strategies. Both countries had similar fertility levels in the immediate post-revolutionary period. The most rapid decline occurred during the 1970s in China. The fertility transition was almost completed by 1981. In India, the total fertility rate (TFR) declined by only 1 point between the 1950s and 1981. In China TFR declined over 3 points during 1970-81. 76.7% of the decline in China during 1970-81 is attributed to a marked decline in marital fertility in all age groups, with the exception of ages 15-19 years. The decline in India is attributed to the decline in marital fertility. Female age at marriage rose in India, but less "impressively." In 1981 the mean age at marriage in India was 18.4 years, but it was 22.8 years in China. Marital fertility among women aged older than 30 years was considerably lower in China. Both countries experienced an increase in literacy, but in China the level of literacy was much greater. Both countries faced food shortages, but China improved food availability and calorie consumption per capita. Health services also improved in both countries, but the Chinese system of "barefoot" doctors brought services with easier reach of rural populations. Political structures differed in their dominance and organization. Family planning programs were introduced earlier in India, but prevalence was 64.4% in China in 1981 and about 22% in India.

  7. Do High School Students in India Gamble? A Study of Problem Gambling and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju

    2016-11-02

    Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.

  8. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  9. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  10. Coastal resource complexes of South India: options for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, A

    2006-04-01

    India's coastal resource complexes were traditionally characterized by a continuum of 'common property resources' or 'commons' that stretched from the shores to the seas. The continuum aided the existence of sustainable livelihood systems for local communities. Today, fragmented policy approaches and economic welfare schemes have caused the disintegration of community control over the continuum. As a consequence, livelihood systems of local communities have declined. The introduction of coastal management guidelines in the 1990s has exacerbated the situation. With reference to a coastal village located in the State of Kerala in South West India, the paper describes the trajectory of unsustainable change that has taken place in the coastal area resource complexes of the country. The paper argues for restoring the continuum of commons in the study area through community driven systems of natural resource management that are based on networks of nested institutions.

  11. Spatial changes of estuary in Ernakulam district, Southern India for last seven decades, using multi-temporal satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dipson, P T; Chithra, S V; Amarnath, A; Smitha, S V; Harindranathan Nair, M V; Shahin, Adhem

    2015-01-15

    The study area, located in the western side of Kerala State, South India, is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetlands - the largest estuary in India's western coastal wetland system and one of the Ramsar Sites of Kerala. Major portion of this estuary comes under the Ernakulam district which includes the Cochin City - the business and Industrial hub of Kerala, which has seen fast urbanization since independence (1947). Recently, this region is subjected to a characteristic fast urban sprawl, whereas, the estuarine zone is subjected to tremendous land use/land cover changes (LULC). Periodic monitoring of the estuary is essential for the formulation of viable management options for the sustainable utilization of this vital environmental resource. Remote sensing coupled with GIS applications has proved to be a useful tool in monitoring wetland changes. In the present study, the changes this estuarine region have undergone from 1944 to 2009 have been monitored with the help of multi-temporal satellite data. Estuarine areas were mapped with the help of Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat ETM (1990) and IRS LISS-III (1998 and 2009) using visual interpretation and digitization techniques in ArcGIS 9.3 Environment. The study shows a progressive decrease in the estuarine area, the reasons of which are identified chronologically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Delhi, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-17

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million and is located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 22, 2003.

  13. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  14. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A new iridescent tarantula of the genus Thrigmopoeus Pocock, 1899 from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sanap, Rajesh V; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-08-19

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures.

  17. A new species of the hermit crab genus Diogenes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) from southern India.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Reshmi, Rema; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2013-02-12

    A new species of the hermit crab genus Diogenes Dana, 1851 (Diogenidae), D. canaliculatus, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from off the Kerala State, southern India. It is referred to the D. edwardsii (De Haan, 1849) species group, and compared with D. bicristimanus Alcock, 1905, D. fasciatus Rahayu & Forest, 1995, D. laevicarpus Rahayu, 1996 and D. moosai Rahayu & Forest, 1995. The characteristically sculptured left chela and the unarmed dorsal margins of the propodi of the second and third pereopods distinguish the new species from these congeners.

  18. ‘AMRITHAPALA’ (Janakia arayalpatra, Joseph & Chandrasekharan), A NEW DRUG FROM THE KANI TRIBE OF KERALA

    PubMed Central

    Pushpagadan, P.; Rajasekharan, A.; Ratheeshkumar, P.K.; Jawahar, C.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Nair, C.P.R.; Amma, L. Sarada; Bhatt Aicrpe, A. V.

    1990-01-01

    Amrithapala (Janakia arayalpatra), a rare and endemic plant species found in the Southern forests of Western Ghat region of kerala, is used by the local ‘Kani’ tribe as an effective remedy for peptic ulcer, cancer-like afflictions and as a rejuvenating tonic. Search made in Ayurvedic literature indicates that the plant may be the divine drug named variously as MRITHA SANJEEVINI (the drug that can revive unconscious or dead) or SANJEEVINI, THAMPRA RASAYANI in the Oushadha Nighantu (Dictionary of Medicinal Drugs) of Tayyil Kumaran Krishnan (1906) PMID:22557701

  19. Changes in mortality and human longevity in Kerala: are they leading to the advanced stage?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Muttikkal B.; James, Kuriath S.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last century, Kerala witnessed drastic mortality reduction and high improvement in longevity. This achievement is often compared with that of developed countries. However, how far the early advantages in mortality reduction have further enhanced in Kerala remains unknown. In most developed countries, advanced stage of mortality reduction and further increase in longevity was achieved mainly due to the mortality shift from adult and older ages to oldest ages (Olshansky and Ault 1986). Objectives Considering the lack of comprehensive study on the change in longevity in Kerala, this study focuses on discovering (i) the historical time-periods that provided the biggest gain to life expectancy and also the beneficiaries (by age group and sex) and (ii) the contributions of major groups of causes of death in mortality reduction and consequent improvement in longevity. Methodology and data The study uses the methodology proposed by Olshansky and Ault in 1986. It used methods such as Temporary Life Expectancy (TLE), Annual Relative Change in TLE, Decomposition of changes in longevity among different age groups (gender and spatial) and causes of deaths, for the analysis. It used data from various sources such as Census, Civil Registration System (CRS) and Directorate of Health Services (DHS), as well as survey data from Sample Registration System (SRS) and Medically Certified Causes of Deaths (MCCD) for this study. Finding and conclusion The study found that overall mortality dramatically declined in the state in the recent decades. Younger ages have contributed the most for this reduction. Therefore, further mortality reduction is possible in adult and early old ages. However, the contribution of these ages to life expectancy was lower than that of youngsters until 1991–2000 especially among males. This may indicate a slow progress towards the advanced stage of epidemiological transition characterized by high prevalence of non-communicable diseases

  20. Health in India -- a futuristic scenario.

    PubMed

    Ali, A

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in the health situation in India over the last five decades following its independence. Mortality decreased dramatically, the death rate declined from 27.4 to 8.9, and the infant mortality rate decreased by almost half in 1997. Life expectancy, on the other hand, almost doubled from 32 years at the time of independence to 62 years in 1997. However, there are wide variations in the values of these health indicators among different regions. Progress has been uneven and confined to more advanced states. Improvements in the health status of the people have been most notable in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, and Punjab, whereas states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan had the least progress. These neglected areas are considered as the result of various factors in India's political economy, which hinders health policy development and its implementation. In the last part of this article, major health problems, as well as recommendations for remedial actions are outlined.

  1. Blood arsenic: Pan-India prevalence.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sandhya; Sengupta, Caesar; Velumani, A

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic, a well-known toxic element, has become one of the biggest causes for clinical concerns among elemental toxicities. Arsenicosis has been reported from many regions of the country, especially on exposure induced by ground water contamination. The clinical effects of chronic arsenic toxicity are generally varied and its timely diagnosis and management pose a big challenge. Our study reports analysis of blood arsenic levels in a pan-India cohort of 205,530 including 111,737 males and 93,793 females respectively. The cohort included all age groups from infants to old adults. Arsenic levels were analyzed using the analytical platform of ICP-MS touted to be the gold standard for elemental analysis. Blood arsenic levels of ≥5 μg/L were considered high in our study. The total frequency of high arsenic cases detected in the study is 1.37%. The frequency in males was 1.47% and in females it was detected to be 1.25%. Also, maximum cases of high arsenic levels were detected to be from the state of Kerala and in cities from Mumbai. Very few studies have recorded the frequency of high arsenic levels in Indians as well as its average blood levels in a pan-India cohort. Our study has made a pilot attempt to highlight the same to generate awareness about this elemental menace in the Indian context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  3. Experiences of Junior Public Health Nurses in Delivery of Maternal Healthcare Services to Tribal Women in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Jinu A.; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu S.; Kumar, S. Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The maternal health care indicators are better in Kerala even in the tribal districts than the national averages. The tribal population scattered in hilly areas or other difficult terrains heavily constraints the MPHW female (Junior Public Health Nurse in Kerala) from providing services. The study was intended to describe the experiences of the Junior Public Health Nurses (JPHN) in delivery of maternal health care services to tribal women in Kerala. Materials and Methods: JPHNs posted in Thariode panchayat under the sub centers of CHC Thariode in Wayanad district of Kerala. This is a Qualitative study with in-depth interview of the JPHNs using an interview guide. Results and Inferences: The various difficulties experienced by JPHNs in delivering the services in tribal areas were lack of sufficient time for field work, travel difficulties faced due to the hilly terrain and lack of public transport facilities, more time spent on travel than actual time spent for field work, cultural and language barriers and extra inputs put up in service delivery to tribal women. Conclusion and Recommendations: The JPHNs serving in tribal areas overcame various constraints in service delivery like hilly terrain, limited public transport facilities, long hours spent in travelling, cultural and language barriers by putting in extra effort, time and personal money to fulfill their responsibilities. It is suggested that the JPHNs be given compensatory off to complete records and extra remuneration to cover their out of pocket expenditure on travelling to difficult areas. PMID:24479046

  4. Demographic profile and future strategies for development of the girl child in India.

    PubMed

    Bhavan, S

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a demographic profile of female children in India: sex ratios, age structure, death rate, infant mortality, child mortality, and early marriage. The analysis is based on data from the 1981 and 1991 Censuses of India and the 1992 Sample Registration System. The sex ratio in 1991 was 927 females per 1000 males, which represents a declining sex ratio since 1901. Sex ratios by state during 1971-91 indicate a declining sex ratio in Bihar, followed by Manipur and 10 other states. Kerala was the only state with a favorable sex ratio of 1036 females per 1000 males in 1991. 4 states showed some improvement in the sex ratio. The percentage distribution of male and female population in various age groups under 14 years did not differ significantly in 1991. The highest proportion of children 0-4 years old was in Bihar, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana, in 1991. The lowest proportion of female children 0-4 years old was in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The highest proportion of female children 5-9 years old was in Assam. The highest proportion of female children 10-14 years old was in Bihar. The highest proportion of male children 10-14 years old was in Haryana. Except for male children 0-4 years old, Kerala had the lowest proportion of children in all 3 age groups. Crude death rates in 1991 were 10.6 in rural areas to 7.1 in urban areas. Kerala had the lowest death rate, and Madhya Pradesh had the highest death rate. Female infants had higher mortality in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan had the highest female death rates and Madhya Pradesh had the highest male death rates in the ages 0-4 years. 9 states had a mean age at marriage lower than the national average. India's National Plan of Action for the 1990s for girl children stresses survival and protection, development, and special protection of vulnerable girls.

  5. Making time for the children: self-temporalization and the cultivation of the antisuicidal subject in south India.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jocelyn Lim

    2011-01-01

    This article examines suicide prevention among children in India's “suicide capital” of Kerala to interrogate the ways temporalization practices inform the cultivation of ethical, life-avowing subjects in late capitalism. As economic liberalization and migration expand consumer aspiration in Kerala, mental health experts link the quickening of material gratification in middle-class parenting to the production of insatiable, maladjusted, and impulsively suicidal children. Experiences of accelerated time through consumption in “modern” Kerala parenting practice reflect ideas about the threats of globalization that are informed both by national economic shifts and by nostalgia for the state's communist and developmentalist histories, suggesting that late capitalism's time–space compression is not a universalist phenomenon so much as one that is unevenly experienced through regionally specific renderings of the past. I demonstrate how experts position the Malayali child as uniquely vulnerable to the fatal dangers of immediate gratification, and thus exhort parents to retemporalize children through didactic games built around the deferral of desires for everyday consumer items. Teaching children how to wait as a pleasurable and explicitly antisuicidal way of being reveals anxieties, contestations, and contradictions concerning what ought to constitute “quality” investment in children as temporal subjects of late capitalism. The article concludes by bringing efforts to save elite lives into conversation with suicide prevention among migrants to draw out the ways distinct vulnerabilities and conditions of precarity situate waiting subjects in radically different ways against the prospect of self-destruction.

  6. Achutha Menon Centre Diabetes Risk Score: A Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool for Primary Health Care Providers in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P. Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to develop a diabetes risk score for primary care providers in rural India. They used the baseline data of 451 participants (15-64 years) of a cohort study in a rural area of Kerala, India. The new risk score with age, family history of diabetes, and waist circumference identified 40.8% for confirmatory testing, had a sensitivity of 81.0%, specificity of 68.4%, positive predictive value of 37.0%, and negative predictive value of 94.0% for an optimal cutoff ≥4 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.812 (95% confidence interval = 0.765-0.860). The new risk score with 3 simple, easy-to-measure, less time-consuming, and less expensive variables could be suitable for use in primary care settings of rural India. PMID:22865719

  7. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  8. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E S Challaraj; Ananthi, T; Anandkumar, B; Maruthamuthu, S

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  9. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  10. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami moved rapidly across the deep ocean, with speeds estimated around 640 ...

  11. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  12. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  13. American College of Cardiology (ACC)'s PINNACLE India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP)-Inception, progress and future direction: A report from the PIQIP Investigators.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ankur; Glusenkamp, Nathan; Anderson, Karen; Kalra, Ram N; Kerkar, Prafulla G; Kumar, Ganesh; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Virani, Salim S

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have surpassed infectious disorders to become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India.(1) A national-level registry comprehensively documenting the current-day prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease burden among patients seeking care in the outpatient setting in India is currently non-existent. With a burgeoning urban population, the cardiovascular disease burden in India is set to skyrocket, with an estimated 18 million productive years of life lost by 2030.(2) While there are limited quality improvement registries in India, for example, the Kerala acute coronary syndrome and Trivandrum heart failure registries, their focus is on in-patient care quality improvement, while the vast majority of patients with cardiovascular diseases worldwide, including India, interact with the health care system in the outpatient setting.(3,4) Recognizing this unmet need, the American College of Cardiology partnered with local stakeholders in India to establish India's first outpatient cardiovascular disease performance measurement initiative in 2011, the PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP).(5) This manuscript discusses the inception of the PIQIP registry, the progress it has made and challenges thus far, and its future direction and the promise it holds for cardiovascular care quality improvement in India. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. How a New Health Intervention Affects the Health Systems? Learnings from Pentavalent Vaccine Introduction in India.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Paruthi, Renu; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha

    2016-04-01

    To summarize the findings from a Post Introduction Evaluation (PIE) of pentavalent vaccine in Tamil Nadu and Kerala state of India and to understand how the health systems could be prepared for (prior to) introducing a new intervention and how such introduction could affect the health systems (afterwards). A post introduction evaluation (PIE) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as pentavalent (DPT + HepB + Hib) vaccine was conducted in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India in July-Aug 2012. The PIE was conducted as per World Health Organization PIE methods and tools specifically adapted for India. This PIE adopted a 'mixed method approach' with qualitative data focus. The planning for the introduction of pentavalent vaccine provided opportunities to strengthen various functions of the health system i.e., piloting of Open Vial Policy, strengthening surveillance system, improving Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) reporting system and formation of the technical expert groups. It provided opportunity for bringing attention on the immunization programme in general as well. After the vaccine introduction, the beneficial effects were noted on stewardship (increased oversight by top level policy makers and programme managers), creating resources (investment and trainings of staff in immunization), service delivery (increased coverage with the vaccines and improved quality of services) and financing (increased financial allocation and reduced out of pocket expenditures as more people started attending public health facilities). The vaccine introduction was found to be associated with improvement in the health equity, efficiency and service utilization (effective coverage). New vaccine introduction provides opportunities (both before and after) for strengthening the health systems in setting such as India. Preparing the health system for new challenges has potential to strengthen the health systems, if done in well-coordinated and planned manner. Considering

  15. Mafic Dykes from the Southwest Coast of India: Palaeomagnetism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, M.; Perrin, M.; Radhakrishna, T.; Camps, P.; Balasubramonium, G.; Punoose, J.

    2009-04-01

    Late Cretaceous magmatism, south of the Deccan Traps, is widely distributed in the south west coast of India, mainly in the form of dyke intrusions. Most prominent dykes were emplaced around 70-65 Ma and are distributed in central Kerala, north Kerala and Goa. The strike trend of these dykes is NW-SE in central Kerala, whereas two orthogonal directions with NW-SE and NE-SW trends are found in north Kerala. In Goa region, they are mostly perpendicular to the coast. A subordinate magmatism, 90-85 Ma in age, is also traced in Agali and in the St. Mary Group of Islands off the Malpe coast. This magmatism is coeval with the leucogabbro dykes in central and north Kerala. Samples were collected from fifteen dykes with NW-SE trend. Samples belonging to the older episode of magmatism include one dyke from Agali and two sites from Coconut Island of the St. Mary volcanics. Most of the doleritic dykes are fine to medium grained with typical mineral assemblages of plagioclase, augite, olivine, and Fe-Ti oxides. Olivine is often transformed to iddingsite. Fe-Ti oxides are found either as early inclusions within pyroxene or as interstitial and may constitute the late crystallization phases. Selected specimens from each site were subjected to low and high temperature susceptibility measurements to define the magnetic carriers and the thermal stability of the samples. They have indicated titanomagnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Palaeomagnetic measurements were carried out by detailed step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetizations. After removal of sometime significant secondary components of magnetization, characteristic remanent magnetizations could be defined for most samples and mean directions of magnetization were obtained for twelve sites. Six of these sites come from the 70-65 Ma dykes, three being of reverse polarity with a mean direction of (D/I = 139/62) and a mean pole (Lat/Long = -26/101) and three yielding normal polarity (D/I = 340/-68 and Lat

  16. Factors influencing the sinuosity of Pannagon River, Kottayam, Kerala, India: an assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, M V; Vijith, H; Satheesh, R

    2008-03-01

    The present study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the sinuosity of the Pannagon river, using the IRS P6 LISS III data and Geographical Information System (GIS) on 1:50,000 scale. The river follows meandering course and exhibits a narrow, highly sinuous and incised channel. Several lines of evidence including satellite and topographic data, geological maps and field investigations and the generated themes on lithology, structure, geomorphology, slope, riparian vegetation and hydrology have analyzed to understand the controls on the channel morphology of the Pannagon river. The average of sinuosity index of the selected reaches in the river on 1967 was 1.6 and of 2004 was 1.8. The sinuous patches are more in the lower reaches of the river and most of the area comes under floodplain with thick column of alluvial deposits. The analysis shown that the style and degree of sinuosity of the Pannagon river depends on a number of geological factors, including tectonics and the riparian vegetation also plays a major role.

  17. Risk assessment of rooftop-collected rainwater for individual household and community use in central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jesmi, Y; Rahiman, K M Mujeeb; Hatha, A A M; Deepu, Lal; Jyothi, S

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of rooftop-collected rainwater is an issue of increased interest particularly in developing countries where the collected water is used as a source of drinking water. Bacteriological and chemical parameters of 25 samples of rooftop-harvested rainwater stored in ferrocement tanks were analyzed in the study described in this article. Except for the pH and lower dissolved oxygen levels, all other physicochemical parameters were within World Health Organization guidelines. Bacteriological results revealed that the rooftop-harvested rainwater stored in tanks does not often meet the bacteriological quality standards prescribed for drinking water. Fifty percent of samples of harvested rainwater for rural and urban community use and 20% of the samples for individual household use showed the presence of E. coli. Fecal coliform/fecal streptococci ratios revealed nonhuman animal sources of fecal pollution. Risk assessment of bacterial isolates from the harvested rainwater showed high resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, and vancomycin. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of the isolates and elucidation of the resistance patterns revealed that 73% of the isolates exhibited MAR.

  18. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least three months after completion of treatment were included. The decision on whether primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced ovarian cancer was based on age, performance status, clinical and imaging findings. Results A total of 178 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were operated on during this four year period. Among them 28 patients were recurrent cases, 22 had early stages of ovarian cancer, and the rest 128 had stage III and IV ovarian cancer. In these 128 patients, 50(39.1%) underwent primary surgery and 78(60.9%) had NACT followed by surgery. In the primary surgery group 36(72.0%) patients had optimal debulking while in the NACT group 59(75.6%) patient had optimal debulking. With a median follow-up of 34 months, the median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was 53 and 49 months respectively. Patients who underwent primary surgery had better median PFS than patients who had NACT (56 months versus 39 months, p = 0.002). In stage III C the difference median PFS was significant for those treated with primary surgery when compared with NACT (55 months versus 39 months, p = 0.012). In patients who had optimal debulking to no residual disease (n = 90), primary surgery gave a significant improved PFS (59 months versus 38 months, p = 0.001) when compared with NACT. In univariate analysis, NACT was associated with increased risk of death (HR: 0.350; CI: 0.177–0.693). Conclusion In advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, primary surgery seems to have a definite survival advantage over NACT in patients who can be optimally debulked to no residual disease. PMID:26913070

  19. A Comparative Study to Assess the Awareness of Palliative Care Between Urban and Rural Areas of Ernakulum District, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; S, Jayarama; Kotian, Shashidhar

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward palliative care among people residing in urban and rural areas. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 urban and 165 rural households. Senior-most member of the household present was interviewed using a questionnaire. Only those people who have heard about palliative care were included in the study. Results: Out of 350 people, 47 (13.4%) have heard about palliative care. Of these 38 (20.5%) belonged to urban and 9 (5.4%) belonged to rural areas (P < 0.0001).Twenty-nine (15.7%) participants in urban and 7 (4.2%) in rural areas had some knowledge about palliative care (P = 0.0002). Source of information for 25 (53.2%) participants was newspapers followed by television 17 (36.2%). Thirty-three (86.8%) participants in urban and 7 (77.8%) in rural areas felt that palliative care helps in improving quality of life. Twenty (52.6%) participants in urban and 4 (44.4%) participants in rural areas felt that palliative care can be better provided at homes than hospitals. Thirty (78.9%) urban participants felt that bad news about the patient's condition needs to be told to the patient first and then to their family members. In case of rural participants majority 7 (77.8%) said vice versa (P = 0.0039). Conclusion: Overall awareness of palliative care was poor. This calls for large-scale awareness campaigns. As home-based palliative care was preferred by many, home visits by care providers and training of family members of patient's needing palliative care needs to be practiced widely. PMID:20668590

  20. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with key to species and discussion of tuberculate setae.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhir; Martin, Jon H

    2014-11-03

    The genus Acanthaleyrodes Takahashi is reported for the first time from India. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. is described from Bridelia retusa in Kerala, India, with a key to puparia of Acanthaleydes species. The new species differs in its exceptionally elevated eighth abdominal tergite, circular vasiform orifice and eight pairs of subdorsal setae. The generic characteristics of Acanthaleyrodes are redefined and distinguished from those of Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi. A. styraci Takahashi is re-described in detail with illustrations of puparia and immatures from Hong Kong. A lectotype puparium is designated for A. callicarpae Takahashi. The development of tuberculate setae is discussed, in whitefly puparia and earlier nymphal instars, and considered to be subject to environmental modification.

  1. “Why not psychiatry??” Interns of a medical college in Northern Kerala responds

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K. Niranjan; Sajeev Kumar, P. B.; Narayanankutty, O. K.; Abraham, Amal; Raj, Zoheb; Madanagopal, Vinayak; Balu, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study is to assess the attitude of the medical interns toward psychiatry, psychiatrists and patients with mental health problems. Materials and Methods: A personal data sheet and the Balon et al. questionnaire was used to assess the attitude among medical interns (n = 44) of a medical college in Northern Kerala. Results: There was modestly good attitude toward psychiatry throughout the study. Data were compared between interns who have completed their posting in psychiatry and those who have not. There was no significant difference except for their awareness about consultation liaison services and the authoritative power of psychiatrists in mental health field. The stigma toward psychiatry is on the decline at least among medical professionals, and more interns are interested in taking up psychiatry as a future specialty. Conclusion: Although the study has evidenced a positive attitude to psychiatry, there is still room to improve. A clearer picture could be attained by conducting similar studies in a bigger sample size. A structured curriculum and compulsory internship during the undergraduate course have greatly contributed toward building a more positive opinion of the subject. PMID:27385855

  2. Unintentional injuries among children admitted in a tertiary care hospital in North Kerala.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Akbar; Rahim, Asma; Lailabi, M P; Gopi, Jibin

    2011-01-01

    World Health Organization global disease update (2004) points out injuries as the sixth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. A descriptive hospital based study was conducted to find out the common types of unintentional injuries among children admitted for management of unintentional injuries in Pediatric Surgery department and Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital of North Kerala and to find out the contributing risk factors. A total of 400 children admitted during the study period of 6 months of 2009 constituted the study population. Mechanical injuries comprising of Road traffic accidents and accidental fall were the major cause of unintentional injuries (36%), followed by Poisoning (22.3%). A higher proportion of unintentional injuries were noted to occur among children of younger mothers, overactive child, children belonging to extended or joint families, child left alone or with friends, pre-school children, male child and from urban dwellings. The study highlights the need to identify the different types of unintentional injuries and the risk factors of childhood injuries which require hospitalisation. Identification of risk factors will help to formulate strategies aimed at risk reduction and prevention of childhood injuries.

  3. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated. PMID:27601809

  4. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxy, M. S.; Sumithranand, V. B.; Renuka, G.

    2014-06-01

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0-0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux G ∗ is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen's ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

  5. Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs--a case study from SW India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-), SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use.

  6. Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.

  7. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  10. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    PubMed

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability.

  11. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Metallic Pb nanospheres in ultra-high temperature metamorphosed zircon from southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Kusiak, M. A.; Wirth, R.; Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

    2017-09-01

    A transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of Paleoproterozoic zircon that has experienced ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphism at ca. 570 Ma in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, documents the occurrence of metallic Pb nanospheres. These results permit comparison with a previous report from UHT zircon in Enderby Land, Antarctica, and allow further constraints to be placed on possible mechanisms for nanosphere formation. As in Enderby Land, the nanospheres in the KKB occur in non-metamict zircon, emphasising that radiogenic Pb redistribution can occur with only partial interconnectivity of radiation damaged zircon. In contrast, the nanospheres reported here are not closely associated with Si-rich glass inclusions, which is inconsistent with a silicate liquid-metal immiscibility model proposed in the earlier study. Formation of these Pb nanospheres effectively halts Pb-loss from zircon, even under extreme conditions, and can adversely affect geochronological interpretations due to decoupling of Pb from U.

  14. Characterization and FTIR spectral studies of human urinary stones from Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. V.; Bushiri, M. Junaid; Vaidyan, V. K.

    2010-10-01

    Urinary stones resected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Kollam district of Kerala State, India were analyzed by SEM, XRD and by thermal analysis techniques. The analytical results indicate that, stones have different composition, i.e., calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide and sodium calcium carbonate. Infrared spectral studies also reveal the presence of phosphates or carbonates in these samples. Further, IR spectral investigations have revealed that amorphous carbonated species are occupied in PO 4 sites in calcium phosphate type stone and OH sites in calcium phosphate hydroxide sample. Thermal studies of these samples also reveal that, carbon dioxide is released from carbonated samples upon heating which is related to amount of carbon content and bond strength. Crystals with defects and irregular morphology are grown inside the urinary bladder due to variation in crystal growth conditions.

  15. "Just some spirits": the erosion of spirit possession and the rise of "tension" in South India.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Murphy

    2005-01-01

    Based on research among possessed and mentally ill patients and an examination of depictions of mental health issues in the popular media in the state of Kerala, India, this article examines apparent changes in the incidence and form of spirit possession and the proliferation of psychological idioms such as "tension" and "depression." These changes involve a decline in the incidence of possession as well as the homogenization of the identities of spirits: spirits that were described as having names and personalities a few decades earlier are now presented as more anonymous. The homogenization of spirits and the use of psychological idioms are interpreted as signaling an erosion of context and the ascendance of universal categories, which, according to some theorists, is a characteristic of "modernity." It will also be shown that at the same time the "modern" can appear as simply another context, as when the idiom of possession permeates a psychological advice column in the print media.

  16. Asian strain of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is widespread in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Molur, Sanjay; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-15

    We investigated the distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) fungal infections in amphibians of the Western Ghats mountain range in India, based on data from 497 samples. Eight individuals were positive, with genomic equivalents ranging from 2 to 785 zoospores. A single widespread Bd strain identical to the haplotype endemic to Asia was isolated. Our findings suggest that chytridiomycosis is widespread among the endemic and threatened amphibians of the entire stretch of the Western Ghats. An ecological niche-based prediction model based on all Bd-positive reports from the Western Ghats to date suggested a higher probability of infection in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka and northern Kerala states, which host a rich diversity of endemic and threatened amphibians.

  17. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India.

  18. First verified record of the ant genus Calyptomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India, along with a revised key to known Indomalayan species

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The members of genus Calyptomyrmex are mostly encountered under rotten logs, in the soil, under stones and in leaf litter samples. These ants are seldom in collections making estimation of their true distributional patterns problematic (Shattuck 2011). The deep antennal scrobes and the unique configuration of the clypeus are distinct to the genus (Bolton 1981). New information Herein Calyptomyrmex wittmeri Baroni Urbani, 1975 is redescribed and reported for the first time from India. This also confirms the first valid published record of the genus from the country. The image hosted by AntWeb as C. vedda (CASENT0280817; AntWeb 2015b) collected by Besuchet, Löbl, Mussard from Kerala, India and identified by Brown is actually C. wittmeri (Brown was uncertain of his determination of C. vedda and cautiously inserted an interrogation point in front of his determination). Two workers recently collected at Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Kerala present similarities to the specimen identified by Brown. However, characters as the lack of well-developed promesonotal suture, absence of clavate setae, and narrow petiolar node, concur with the diagnosis of C. wittmeri. A revised key to known Indomalayan species of the genus is provided herewith. PMID:26696759

  19. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-06-24

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  20. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan

    2016-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  1. Dialeurolonga re-defined (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): with a new genus and species from India, two new genera from Australia, and discussion of host-correlated puparial variation.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Ramamurthy, V V

    2013-02-25

    Aleuropositus Dubey gen. n., Australeurodes Dubey gen. n. and Septemaleurodes Dubey gen. n. are proposed with their respective type species as A. sinus Dubey sp. n. from India, D. operculobata Martin & Carver from Australia, and D. swainei Martin from Australia. A. sinus sp. n. is described from Kerala, India, illustrated with line drawings, microphotographs and SEM images. The puparia are asymmetric in taxonomic characters and shape, and variation in puparia associated with a single host is discussed. A generic diagnosis of Dialeurolonga is provided based on SEM study of the type species, D. elongata. Australian species placed in this genus have puparial characteristics that distinguish them from Afrotropical assemblages, and are here referred to two new genera.

  2. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  3. A revisit to prevailing care and challenges of managing diabetes in India: Focus on regional disparities

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Manash P.; Pathak, Ankit; Kalra, Sanjay; Das, Ashok K.; Zargar, Abdul H.; Bajaj, Sarita; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Sahay, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    An unprecedented rise in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence in India is the outcome of lifestyle changes in the background of genetic predisposition. Moreover, there are substantial regional variations in diabetes prevalence and management. The highest prevalence of DM was observed in southern region (Ernakulum, Kerala) and lowest prevalence was observed in North Eastern region (Manipur). Similarly large variations have been evident in overall awareness and diabetes care across the geographies within India. The regional challenges are largely affected by poor disease awareness, socioeconomic disparity and underutilization of the public health-care services. Though government has taken initiatives to address this issue, overall situation demands a collaborative effort from patients, health care professionals and the state. An exhaustive literature search was performed for articles and studies published on electronic databases. Present article assesses the regional disparity of diabetes epidemiology, current management practices and government policies for T2DM in India, identifies policy and research gaps, and suggests corrective measures to address the lacunae in diabetes care. PMID:24944916

  4. Four TDR diseases can be "eliminated". 1. India's bold new plans for filariasis control.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    India has 38% of the world's cases of bancroftian lymphatic filariasis and 20% of all cases of brugian lymphatic filariasis. One of India's major public health problems, filariasis is endemic in 18 states of the country, but absent in the northeast and northwest regions. The National Filaria Control Program (NFCP) was launched in 1955, but now covers only 46 million people, using a 12-day DEC treatment. In its 1995 draft, India's revised strategy for controlling filariasis in the country calls for the supply of 200 million 50 mg DEC tablets by May 1996, to be distributed in target villages on a newly designated National Filariasis Day (NFD), August 5, 1996, at the beginning of the school year. The day should be widely publicized by the mass media, nongovernmental organizations, and health authorities. The 1996 effort in two selected districts of Andrha Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Bihar will be followed on the same date in successive years, each year covering more affected areas, and aiming to cover all affected areas by the third year.

  5. Nonurban Development in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on how India's economic planning and development efforts since 1950 have affected rural areas and small towns, which comprise nearly 80% of India's population. Presents several case studies of rural development and concludes that the major keys to the stability of India as a democracy are population control, a unifying language, and…

  6. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  7. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  8. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. © 2015 UICC.

  9. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  10. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI) tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation. PMID:26286613

  11. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI) tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation.

  12. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

    PubMed

    Filmer, D; Pritchett, L H

    2001-02-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.

  13. A new species of the hermit crab genus Paguristes Dana, 1851 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) from southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Reshmi, Rema; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-03-26

    A new species of the hermit crab genus Paguristes Dana, 1851 (Diogenidae), P. luculentus, is described and illustrated on the basis of three male specimens collected from off the Kerala State, southwestern India. It belongs to the species group characterized by the posterior lobes of the telson unarmed on the terminal margins, but the characteristic armature of the chelae and carpi of the chelipeds, consisting of a covering of numerous small corneous-tipped spines, and the presence of numerous small corneous-tipped or corneous spines on the mesial faces of the dactyli of the second pereopods immediately distinguish the new species from other congeneric species. The new species represents the ninth of the genus known from Indian waters.

  14. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  15. Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for

  16. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Mathew, Anil

    2016-11-01

    Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva.

  17. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Mathew, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. PMID:28050494

  18. Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

    2014-05-01

    An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to

  19. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However

  20. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised.

  1. Case series of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus from Kerala: comparison with other Indian series.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sharath; Nair, Sathyajith; Rajam, Lalitha

    2010-10-01

    To determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients diagnosed with pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) in the general pediatrics department of a tertiary level hospital in southern India and compare them to data of case series from other parts of the country. Retrospective chart review by two independent reviewers. All patients diagnosed with SLE in the pediatrics department of the Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences hospital between 1 January 2004 and 31 September 2008, were included in the study. Twenty children were diagnosed with pSLE in the above-mentioned period (female : male ratio 2.3 : 1.0). Fever (75% of patients) and arthralgia (65%) were the most common clinical presenting features. Many patients who were referred as 'Fever of unknown origin' (37.5%) or 'idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura' (15%) fulfilled the diagnosis of SLE on detailed evaluation. Renal manifestations were present in 11 patients, seven of whom underwent a biopsy. Class IV lupus nephritis was the most common finding (4/7). A very high percentage of our patients had hypocomplementemia (85%). The statistical significance of the differences between our cohort and previously reported cohorts could not be determined. pSLE patients in our series, compared to previous literature from India had a much higher incidence of fever, thrombocytopenia and hypocomplementemia at presentation and much lower incidence of arthritis. It is unclear whether these differences represent unique characteristics of ethnically dissimilar subsets of the Indian population. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in order to make an early diagnosis of pSLE, since the most common presenting features in our cohort were arthralgia and fever.

  2. Impact of socio-economic factors in delayed reporting and late-stage presentation among patients with cervix cancer in a major cancer hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Michelle; Mathew, Aleyamma; Rajan, B

    2008-01-01

    The impact of socio- economic and demographic status (SEDS) factors on the stage of cervical cancer rat diagnosis, symptom duration and delay-time from diagnosis to registration was determined by analysing data for the year 2006 from the Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Patients (n=349) were included if they were from the states of Kerala or Tamil Nadu. SEDS factors included age, residing district, religion, marital status, income, education and occupation. Associations between SEDS factors by stage at diagnosis and symptom duration were tested using chi-square statistics with odds ratios (OR) estimated through logistic regression modeling. Elevated risks for late stage reporting among cervical cancer patients were observed for women who were widowed/divorced (OR=2.08; 95%CI: 1.24-3.50) and had a lower education (OR=2.62; 95%CI:1.29-5.31 for women with primary school education only). Patients who had symptoms of bleeding/bleeding with other symptoms (77%) were more likely to seek treatment within one month, compared to patients with other symptoms only (23%) (p=0.016). This analysis helped to identify populations at increased risk of diagnosis at later stages of cancer with the ultimate intent of providing health education and detecting cancer at earlier stages.

  3. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  4. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.

  5. Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Bhartendu; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, Karen C.

    2013-08-01

    India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales. DMSP/OLS dataset however lacks continuity and comparability; hence the dataset was first intercalibrated using second order polynomial regression equation. The intercalibrated dataset along with SPOT-VGT dataset for the year 1998 and 2008 were subjected to a support vector machine (SVM) method to extract urban areas. SVM is semi-automated technique that overcomes the problems associated with the thresholding methods for NTLs data and hence enables for regional and national scale assessment of urbanization. The extracted urban areas were validated with Google Earth images and global urban extent maps. Spatial metrics were calculated and analyzed state-wise to understand the dynamism of urban areas in India. Significant changes in urban proportion were observed in Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Kerala while other states also showed a high degree of changes in area wise urban proportion.

  6. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2005-09-01

    The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

  7. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India: views from a marginalised tribal population.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S; Narayana, D; Anushreedha, S S; Haddad, Slim

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption in India is disproportionately higher among poorer and socially marginalised groups, notably Scheduled Tribes (STs). We lack an understanding of STs own views with regard to alcohol, which is important for implementing appropriate interventions. This study was undertaken with the Paniyas (a previously enslaved ST) in a rural community in Kerala, South India. The study, nested in a participatory poverty and health assessment (PPHA). PPHA aims to enable marginalized groups to define, describe, analyze, and express their own perceptions through a combination of qualitative methods and participatory approaches (e.g. participatory mapping and ranking exercises). We worked with 5 Paniya colonies between January and June 2008. Alcohol is viewed as a problem among the Paniyas who reported that consumption is increasing, notably among younger men. Alcohol is easily available in licensed shops and is produced illicitly in some colonies. There is evidence that local employers are using alcohol to attract Paniyas for work. Male alcohol consumption is associated with a range of social and economic consequences that are rooted in historical oppression and social discrimination. Future research should examine the views of alcohol use among a variety of marginalised groups in developing countries and the different policy options available for these populations. In addition, there is a need for studies that untangle the potential linkages between both historical and current exploitation of marginalized populations and alcohol use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  9. Importance and feasibility of creating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy centers in developing countries: the experience in India.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J

    2015-07-15

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is a relatively common genetic heart disease responsible for mortality and morbidity at all ages. Using contemporary treatment advances, such as implantable defibrillators, surgical myectomy, heart transplant, and modern defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, it is now possible to reduce HC-related mortality considerably to 0.5% per year, less than expected in the general US adult population. However, in much of the developing world, HC has not yet become a priority given the many other cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery disease and systemic hypertension, so prevalent in the most populous countries such as China and India. Management of HC is best achieved in dedicated centers within institutions, such as previously demonstrated in the United States, Canada, some European countries, and Australia. This model has recently been introduced for the first time in India at the Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research in Kochi, Kerala, in which a robust program focused on HC has emerged. This novel initiative, created despite the many obstacles in the Indian health care system, is an important step forward and is reported here detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  11. Transforming the self and healing the body through the use of testimonies in a divine retreat center, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eva; Lang, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we analyze the collective healing process that takes place on a weekly basis in the Divine Retreat Center (DRC) in Muringoor, Kerala. We argue that disease in the DRC is understood either as a psycho-somatic or as a spirito-somatic phenomenon. In contrast to other Charismatic communities, however, the body is the locus on which the medical effects of the healing become visible. The whole process is divided into several phases: First, there is a cleansing and disengagement procedure that aims to purify and liberate the participants through confession and counseling. Thereafter comes a climatic phase of personal emptying, transition and re-orientation during which the healing itself takes place. The procedure is finally completed with the person being spiritually "refilled" by the Holy Spirit. The dominant recurring element in the whole process is the continuous statement of healing "testimonies." As an integral part of the healing procedure, these statements are used to share personal experiences among the participants in the center. They are produced in a strict format in order to be spread far beyond through various media (TV, newspaper, Internet, etc.). They thereby constitute a speech genre that follows specific rules and patterns. Through shaping one's own biography in the frame of the testimonies, so we argue, the actual transformation of the self and therefore the miracle healing takes place.

  12. Utilization of Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala: A Comparative Study of Insured and Uninsured Below-Poverty-Line Households.

    PubMed

    Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the sociodemographics, health care utilization pattern, and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses of 149 insured and 147 uninsured below-poverty-line households insured under the Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, Kerala, through a comparative cross-sectional study. Family size more than 4 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-4.82), family member with chronic disease (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.18-3.57), high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.74-5.03), and an employed household head (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.44-5.02) were significantly associated with insured households. Insured households had higher inpatient service utilization (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34). Only 40% of inpatient service utilization among the insured was covered by insurance. The mean OOP expenses for inpatient services among insured (INR 448.95) was higher than among uninsured households (INR 159.93); P = .003. These findings show that urgent attention of the government is required to redesign and closely monitor the scheme. © 2015 APJPH.

  13. CDC Kerala 2: Developmental intervention package for babies <1,800 g--outcome at 6 mo using DASII.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Sunitha, R M; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To describe the experience of using developmental intervention package among low birth weight babies less than 1,800 g and developmental outcome at the end of 6 mo monthly intervention. Babies below 1,800 g, discharged from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Sree Avittom Thirunal (SAT) hospital, over the last 3 y, were followed at Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala and offered monthly evaluation by different tools and developmental intervention using a package by trained developmental therapists and mothers were encouraged to continue the same at home. At the end of 6 mo the developmental outcome was assessed using Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). Out of a total of 821 babies enrolled for early stimulation program, 740 babies successfully completed 6 mo follow up and stimulation program. Comparing the outcome at 4 and 6 mo, both grading for head holding and gross motor part of DDST showed a statistically significant reduction in abnormal findings. At 6 mo assessment on DASII, motor DQ abnormalities were a high 80% for 600-900 g, as against 17.1% abnormalities for 1,500-1,800 g birth weight group. The results of this intensive early stimulation program for babies below 1,800 g have shown the importance of monthly early intervention using a mother oriented systematic developmental stimulation package.

  14. Reactive hyperplasic lesions of the oral cavity: A survey of 295 cases at a Tertiary Health Institution in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Vidyanath, S; Shameena, PM; Johns, Dexton Antony; Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Sudha, S; Varma, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathologic features of reactive hyperplastic lesions (RHLs) of the oral cavity at a Tertiary Health Institution in Kerala and compare these data with those of previously reported studies. Materials and Methods: The patient case files from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology during the period between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed for cases of RHLs of the oral cavity. Both clinical and histopathological diagnoses of reactive lesions were selected for the study. Data including the type of the lesion, age, gender and the site involved were collected. Results: From a total of 2753 cases reviewed, 295 histologically diagnosed cases of RHLs were obtained with a prevalence of 10.7%. The data consist of 85 (28.8%) males and 210 (71.2%) females. The most common lesion clinically was traumatic fibroma (69.3%) and histologically fibrous hyperplasia (51.9%). The reactive lesions clinically presented as either sessile (54.9%) or pedunculated (45.1%) lesions. Conclusion: The clinical features of reactive hyperplasia among our patients were similar to those reported previously with divergence in some analyzed data. The novelty in our study was the correlation between histopathology and clinical features which were not reported in literature until date. PMID:26980961

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  16. Child care in India: emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    1993-06-15

    The promotion of child development in India is gradually being viewed as a meaningful objective of national development policy. The government has invested in an impressive 2000 Primary Health Centers, 130,000 subcenters, 2000 community health centers, over 500,000 trained birth attendants, and 400,000 community health guides. However, there are also a great number of overlapping uncoordinated programs and an inadequate development policy. A meaningful policy on child development must address removal of all environmental constraints on child growth and development in the intrauterine phase, late infancy and early childhood, primary school ages, and adolescence. Child survival and safe motherhood are not enough; what is needed is optimal child health and nutrition and good motherhood. Each generation is becoming taller and healthier, but no significant secular trend was evident until almost 1990, with the exception of Kerala State. In the intrauterine phase of child development, critical factors are the physical state of the mother, her diet and nutritional status, her motivation and competence for effective use of health care resources, and the quality and outreach of prenatal care services. Even with an efficient prenatal care health system, women suffer under tremendous disadvantages and disabilities, undernourished and anemic, which needs to be addressed before pregnancy occurs. Imaginative programs are needed for adolescents in order to teach good motherhood and productive citizenship; the neglect of this critical stage has been responsible for the poor performance of maternal/child health and family planning. Extensive epidemiological evidence suggests that body weights under 38 kg at the beginning of pregnancy and heights under 145 cm place a woman at risk for complications during pregnancy or at delivery. Babies are likely to be low birth weight, die early in infancy, or have poor growth and development. Data from the National Nutritional Monitoring Bureau

  17. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" – an executive course to support genomics policy

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tara; Kumar, Nandini K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    Background The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. Methods The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and ensure broad-based input into

  18. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" - an executive course to support genomics policy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Kumar, Nandini K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-05-19

    BACKGROUND: The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. METHODS: The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and ensure broad-based input

  19. Photonics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bishnu

    2011-08-01

    India has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, India is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.

  20. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  1. Children's Books in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mohini

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

  2. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  3. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  4. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B.; S., Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic—rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub—coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon—lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0–3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of

  5. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  6. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  7. Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of selected plant species along roadsides in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, S Jissy; Jaya, D S

    2010-05-01

    To develop the usefulness of plants as bioindicators requires an appropriate selection of plant species which entail an utmost importance for a particular situation. In the present study a periodic evaluation of air pollution tolerance index [APTI] of selected tree species such as Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw., Alstonia scholaris, R. Br., Mangifera indica, L., and shrubs Clerodendron infortunatum, L., Eupatorium odoratum, L., and Hyptis suaveolens, (L.) Poit., growing adjacent to the National Highway-47 passing through Thiruvananthapuram District which lies on the south-west coast of India, was carried out with a view to find out the air pollution tolerance as well as sensitivity of the plant species during different seasons. Among the trees in the roadside areas studied, Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw., expressed highest APTI values and proved to be a tolerant variety and the others as sensitive species to air pollutants. In the case of shrubs, Clerodendron infortunatum, L., exhibited highest APTI values (7.34) and found to be more tolerant compared to the other two shrub species studied.

  8. Current status of AIDS and HIV infection in India.

    PubMed

    Lal, S

    1994-01-01

    A total 494 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India by October 31, 1993. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have the highest number of cases at 152 and 117 respectively, Kerala has 76, Punjab/Chandigarh 47, and Delhi 42, while the other states reported 1-17. More than 90% of cases were in the 15-45 year-old age group. Multipartner sex probably accounts for 80% of infections, blood and blood product transfusions for 12%, and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment for 5%. This number of reported cases, however, represents only a small fraction of actual AIDS morbidity in India due to general underreporting; the actual number of AIDS cases is probably in the range of 10,000-20,000 thousand. As for HIV infection, 13,448 of the 1,933,834 individuals tested for HIV through the nationwide surveillance network over the period October 1985-October 1993, were found to be infected. The seropositivity rate increased from 2.5/1000 in 1986 to 11.2/1000 by 1992. The author notes, however, that up to 90% of the population groups screened thus far came from high-risk groups. HIV-infected individuals were found in almost all states and Union Territories, although the major concentration of HIV remains in Bombay which may contain 5-10% of the country's infected individuals. Surveillance reports from the commercial sex workers show a marked rise in HIV prevalence from 10% in 1986 to 32% in 1991. Other hot spots are Pune, Madras, Madurai, and Vellore. The latest studies have shown HIV infection among IV drug users to be 74% in Manipur, 50% in Nagaland, and 6-10% in Mizoram. More than 1.5 million people were estimated to have been infected by the end of 1993. Lack of information from rural and semi-urban areas, however, does not allow estimates and projections beyond the major municipal centers. The author warns that current conditions of HIV infection and AIDS in India strongly resemble those in certain regions of Africa in the 1980s after

  9. Parasitoids of Hesperiidae from peninsular India with description of a new species of Dolichogenidea (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on caterpillar of Borbo cinnara (Wallace) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Lokhande, Swapnil A; Soman, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Five species of parasitic wasps associated with hesperiids from peninsular India are documented along with the description of a new species of gregarious endoparasitoid, Dolichogenidea cinnarae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on caterpillar of Borbo cinnara (Wallace) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Also, the gregarious larval parasitoid, Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Braconidae) and solitary pupal parasitoid Charops plautus Gupta & Maheshwary (Ichneumonidae) were bred from the host Udaspes folus (Cramer) on the host plant Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig. Udaspesfolus is the new host record for the parasitic wasp genus Charops. Cotesia erionotae was bred from U. folus caterpillars from three states: Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. An encyrtid wasp Ooencyrtus papilionis Ashmead was bred from eggs of Bibasisjaina (Moore) on the host pant Hiptage benghalensis (L.). This is the first documentation of a parasitic wasp from the genus Bibasis. Leptobatopsis indica (Cameron) (Ichneumonidae), often associated with Parnara guttatus (Bremer & Grey), was recorded from the Andaman islands.

  10. A study on histological features of lepra reactions in patients attending the Dermatology Department of the Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sarita, Sasidharanpillai; Muhammed, Kunnummal; Najeeba, Riyaz; Rajan, Gopalan Nair; Anza, Khader; Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Aparna, Govindan

    2013-03-01

    1. To study and compare the clinical and histological features of Type 1 and Type 2 lepra reactions. 2. To document the histological patterns of Type 1 and Type 2 lepra reactions observed in the study population. Two year cross sectional study. Patients attending the outpatient department of our tertiary care hospital, during the 2 year study period with clinical evidence of Type 1 (T1R) or Type 2 (T2R) lepra reactions were included in this study after obtaining written informed consent. During this period 34 T1R patients and 14 T2R patients attended our hospital. Biopsies were taken from reacting skin lesions of all patients and histological features were studied. Dermal or intragranuloma oedema was evident in 50% of T1R patients and all of them had clinically severe reactions. The T1R patients showed three different histological patterns--pgrading reactions, downgrading reactions and reactions without upgrading or downgrading. Among T2R patients 8/14 showed neutrophil infiltration histologically, 5/14 showed no histological evidence of neutrophil infiltration and only one patient had features of neutrphilic vasculitis. Dermal oedema was seen in 11/14 cases. Histology revealing dermal or intragranuloma oedema on a background of leprosy granuloma favours the diagnosis of lepra reaction. A careful analysis of subtle variations in the cells constituting the granuloma may aid in differentiating between upgrading T1R, downgrading T1R or T1R without upgrading or downgrading. Histology can also be useful in distinguishing T2R from T1R, in the absence of typical erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) lesions. Neutrophils are the major inflammatory cells in the former where as lymphocytes or macrophages predominate in the latter. We recommend that histopathological analysis should form an integral part of the evaluation of all lepra reactions.

  11. Pan-African alkali granites and syenites of Kerala as imprints of taphrogenic magmatism in the South Indian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Drury, S. A.; Iyer, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    Granite and syenite plutons with alkaline affinities ranging in age from 550 to 750 Ma sporadically puncture the Precambrian granulites of the Kerala region. All the bodies are small (20 to 60 sq km), E-W to NW-SE elongated elliptical intrusives with sharp contacts and lie on or close to major late Proterozoic lineaments. Geochemical plots of A-F-M and An-Ab-Or relations show an apparent alkali enrichment trend on the former, but the plutons define relatively distinct fields on the latter. Most of the plutons are adamellitic to granitic by chemistry. The variations of SiO2 with log sub 10 K2O/MgO (1) brings out the distinct alkaline nature of the plutons. Some of the granites are extremely potassic, like the Peralimala pluton, which shows up to 11.8 percent K2O. On a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O+K2O (mol percent) plot, the plutons vary from peraluminous to peralkaline, but none are nepheline normative. Low MgO, low to moderate CaO and high Fe2O3/FeO values are other common characteristics. Among trace elements, depletion of Ba, Sr and Rb with high K/Ba and K/Rb values are typical. Overall, the plutons show a trend of decreasing K/Rb ratio with increasing K content. Individual plutons show more clearly defined trends similar to those from granitic masses characterized by plagioclase fractionation.

  12. Developing a fully integrated tobacco curriculum in medical colleges in India.

    PubMed

    Yamini, T R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Sairu, P; Aswathy, S; Leelamoni, K; Unnikrishnan, B; P, Prasanna Mithra; Thapar, Rekha; Basha, S R; Jayasree, A K; Mayamol, T R; Muramoto, Myra; Mini, G K; Thankappan, K R

    2015-05-20

    This paper describes a pioneering effort to introduce tobacco cessation into India's undergraduate medical college curriculum. This is the first ever attempt to fully integrate tobacco control across all years of medical college in any low and middle income country. The development, pretesting, and piloting of an innovative modular tobacco curriculum are discussed as well as challenges that face implementation and steps taken to address them and to advocate for adoption by the Medical Council of India. In-depth interviews were conducted with administrators and faculty in five medical colleges to determine interest in and willingness to fully integrate smoking cessation into the college curriculum. Current curriculum was reviewed for present exposure to information about tobacco and cessation skill training. A modular tobacco curriculum was developed, pretested, modified, piloted, and evaluated by faculty and students. Qualitative research was conducted to identify challenges to future curriculum implementation. Fifteen modules were successfully developed focusing on the public health importance of tobacco control, the relationship between tobacco and specific organ systems, diseases related to smoking and chewing tobacco, and the impact of tobacco on medication effectiveness. Culturally sensitive illness specific cessation training videos were developed. Faculty and students positively evaluated the curriculum as increasing their competency to support cessation during illness as a teachable moment. Students conducted illness centered cessation interviews with patients as a mandated part of their coursework. Systemic challenges to implementing the curriculum were identified and addressed. A fully integrated tobacco curriculum for medical colleges was piloted in 5 colleges and is now freely available online. The curriculum has been adopted by the state of Kerala as a first step to gaining Medical Council of India review and possible recognition.

  13. Hospice and palliative care development in India: a multimethod review of services and experiences.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Selman, Lucy; Wright, Michael; Clark, David

    2008-06-01

    Palliative care has been developing in India since the mid-1980s, but there is a dearth of evidence about service provision on which to base national policy and practice. The aim of this study was to assess the current state of palliative care in India, mapping the existence of services state by state, and documenting the perspectives and experiences of those involved. A multimethod review was used, which included synthesis of evidence from published and grey literature, ethnographic field visits, qualitative interviews with 87 individuals from 12 states, and collation of existing public health data. The review identified 138 hospice and palliative care services in 16 states and union territories. These are mostly concentrated in large cities, with the exception of Kerala, where they are much more widespread. Nongovernmental organizations, public and private hospitals, and hospices are the predominant sources of provision. We were unable to identify palliative care services in 19 states/union territories. Development of services is uneven, with greater provision evident in the south than the north, but for the majority of states, coverage is poor. Barriers to the development of palliative care include: poverty, population density, geography, opioid availability, workforce development, and limited national palliative care policy. Successful models exist for the development of affordable, sustainable community-based palliative care services. These have arisen from adapting Western models of hospice and palliative care for implementation in the Indian cultural context. Further work is required to ensure that the growing interest in hospice and palliative care in India is used to increase the momentum of progress.

  14. Palaeomagnetism of the Ezhimala Granite-Granophyre-Gabbro Complex, Southwest Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Mathew; Perrin, Mireille; Radhakrishna, Tallavjhala; Dautria, Jean Marie; Camps, Pierre; Balasubramonium, G.

    2010-05-01

    The igneous complex at Ezhimala, southwestern coast of India, consists mainly of granite, granophyre and gabbro and is cut by dolerites. It occurs as a linear ridge with a NNW-SSE trend. This complex is considered to be Precambrian in age, following Rb-Sr determinations at 678 Ma. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from one site in the doleritic dyke and six sites in the complex, out of which three are from gabbro, two from granophyre and one from granite. The high-temperature susceptibility measurements on selected specimens from each site have indicated magnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. Samples were subjected to detailed step-wise alternating field demagnetisation. After removal of a secondary viscous component, a characteristic mean remanent magnetization could be estimated for all samples. The mean directions per sites are very well defined with 95 confidence circles between 2.5° and 5.0° (kappa between 243 and 580). The mean paleomagnetic direction associated with the complex corresponds to D/I = 308.6/-58.9 (k = 473 and α95 = 3.1°) with a paleopole position at 66.0°W/19.4°N. This direction is almost identical to the direction obtained from the cross-cutting doleritic dyke with D/I = 301.8/-62.9 (kappa = 755 and α95 = 1.9°), and similar to 90 Ma poles derived from other areas in south western India (St. Mary Group of Islands, leucogabbro dykes of central and north Kerala and dykes of the Coimbatore-Agali area). Therefore palaeomagnetic analysis of the complex strongly suggests a Cretaceous age for the Ezhimala complex and would indicate a much more widespread magmatic activity around 90 Ma along the south western coast of India. Geochemical studies and Ar-Ar dating of the complex are in progress to confirm the paleomagnetic observation.

  15. Five new species of Inocybe (Agaricales) from tropical India.

    PubMed

    Latha, K P Deepna; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Inocybe, I. iringolkavensis, I. keralensis, I. kuruvensis, I. muthangensis and I. wayanadensis, are described from Kerala state, India, based on morphological and molecular data. All are associated with trees belonging to Dipterocarpaceae. Inocybe iringolkavensis is characterized by nodulose to somewhat stellate basidiospores, 1-4-spored basidia, and caulocystidia restricted to the stipe apex. Inocybe keralensis has a yellowish brown pileus, lamellae with whitish, serrate edges, smooth, ellipsoidal basidiospores and a duplex pileipellis with the superficial hyphae devoid of encrustations and encrusted hyphae beneath. The diagnostic features of I. kuruvensis include a dark brown pileus, stipe with a whitish base and grayish brown, floccose-fibrillose surface, nodulose basidiospores with saddle-shaped projections and faintly encrusted paracystidia with refractive contents. Violet basidiomata with a rimose, hygrophanous pileus, densely pruinose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, and nodulose basidiospores are the major features of I. muthangensis. Inocybe wayanadensis is characterized by small, whitish basidiomata, a viscid pileus with a rimulose surface, a densely pruinose and fibrillose stipe with a marginate-bulbous base, nodulose basidiospores, thick-walled pleuro- cheilo- and caulocystidia and an ixotrichoderm-type pileipellis. The phylogenetic relationships of these new species are inferred from an analysis of nuc rDNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and the 28S gene. Except I. keralensis, which belongs to the Pseudosperma clade, all other species belong to the Inocybe clade. This study represents the second report of an Inocybe species (I. muthangensis) that combines violet basidiomata with nodulose basidiospores.

  16. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  17. India Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    India was the third-largest energy consumer in the world after China and the United States in 2013, and its need for energy supply continues to climb as a result of the country's dynamic economic growth and modernization over the past several years.1 India's economy has grown at an average annual rate of approximately 11% between 2004 and 2014, and it proved relatively resilient following the 2008 global financial crisis.

  18. Looking ahead in India.

    PubMed

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  19. Diabetes Care in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%-at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various developments in the management of diabetes, are required to combat the current diabetes epidemic in India. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  1. Characteristics and carbon stable isotopes of fluids in the Southern Kerala granulites and their bearing on the source of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Jackson, D. H.; Mattey, D. P.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich inclusions commonly occur in the banded charnockites and khondalites of southern Kerala as well as in the incipient charnockites formed by desiccation of gneisses along oriented zones. The combined high density fluid inclusion isochores and the range of thermometric estimates from mineral assemblages indicate entrapment pressures in the range of 5.4 to 6.1 Kbar. The CO2 equation of state barometry closely compares with the 5 plus or minus 1 Kbar estimate from mineral phases for the region. The isochores for the high density fluid inclusions in all the three rock types pass through the P-T domain recorded by phase equilibria, implying that carbon dioxide was the dominating ambient fluid species during peak metamorphic conditions. In order to constrain the source of fluids and to evaluate the mechanism of desiccation, researchers undertook detailed investigations of the carbon stable isotope composition of entrapped fluids. Researchers report here the results of preliminary studies in some of the classic localities in southern Kerala namely, Ponmudi, Kottavattom, Manali and Kadakamon.

  2. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  3. First records of ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius species (Agaricales, Basidiomycetes) from tropical India and their phylogenetic position based on rDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Peintner, Ursula; Moser, Meinhard M; Thomas, K Agretious; Manimohan, P

    2003-04-01

    Three new Cortinarius species, Cortinarius conopileus, C. keralensis, and C. phlegmophorus spp. nov., are described from Kerala State in southern India. This is the first record of ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius spp. in the tropical part of India. In addition to distinct morphological characters, the comparative analysis of rDNA ITS sequences of the collections from India and morphologically similar species support the recognition of these taxa as new species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the three Indian Cortinarius spp. belong to both larger subclades of the genus Cortinarius, clade/cortinarius and clade/telamonia. As supported by morphological and molecular data, C. phlegmophorus belongs to Cortinarius subgen. Myxacium sect. Defibulati. Based on classical morphological characters, both C. keralensis and C. conopileus are representatives of subgen. Telamonia. However, C. conopileus belongs to clade/obtusi, which is a well-supported subclade of clade/cortinarius. Thus, in contrast to classical taxonomy, the clade/obtusi represents an independent evolutionary origin of telamonioid taxa. This result is also reflected by the distinct morphological characters of taxa of clade/obtusi, namely the lamellar trama with ellipsoid inflated hyphae and the presence of cystidia. In contrast, C. keralensis is a typical member of clade/telamonia. Within/telamonia, only relationships of closely related taxa are resolved due to the low genetic divergence found in ITS sequences. Based on morphological and molecular criteria, C. keralensis is a distinct taxon of sect. Saturnini.

  4. Need for Equipping Teachers for Quality Higher Education: Exploring How Teachers in Kerala Perceive Quality Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnthodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, India's higher education sector has witnessed remarkable progress. Though the country has the largest and the second largest higher education system in the world in terms of the number of institutions and enrolment respectively, it still faces challenges on several fronts. Quality of higher education (HE) is a function of…

  5. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and…

  6. Suicide in India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shilpa

    2015-06-01

    The current report reviews the data from the series Accidental Death and Suicide in India published by India's National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reporting official suicide rates based on police reports over the period of 10 years from 2004 to 2013. A reference to wider literature is made to present a comprehensive picture. Suicide in India is more prevalent in young, is likely to involve hanging and ingestion of pesticides and is related to social and economic causes. Reducing alcohol consumption, unemployment, poverty, social inequities, domestic violence and improving social justice are essential to reduce suicide in India. NCRB data might underreport suicide. Discrepancy in farmers' suicide rate between reports suggests that this might be overrepresented in NCRB data. An integrated suicide prevention programme with a multidimensional approach is needed. Mental health care bill and the recent launch of first national mental health policy are welcome measures. Decriminalization of suicide is likely to positively influence mental health practice and policy in India. Nationally representative studies investigating fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours, evaluation of models of service delivery for the vulnerable population, investigating suicide following different treatment services and effects of decriminalization of suicide on suicide rates should be the focus of future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Molecular characterization of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses infecting tomato in india

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl viruses, which are the members of the genus Begomovirus, have emerged as devastating pathogens worldwide causing huge economic losses and threatening production of crops like cassava, cotton, grain legumes and vegetables. Even though the ToLCV isolates from Northern India have been shown to possess bipartite genome (designated as DNA A and DNA B), those from Australia, Taiwan and Southern India have a single genomic component (DNA A). We describe here the genetic diversity of two isolates of monopartite Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato in two extreme regions (North and South) of Indian subcontinent. Results The rolling circle amplification (RCA) products obtained from symptomatic samples were digested, cloned and sequenced. The complete DNA sequence of two Tomato leaf curl virus isolates identified as ToLCV-CTM (India, New Delhi, 2005) and ToLCVK3/K5 (India, Kerala, 2008) are reported here. These isolates had the characteristic features of Begomovirus genome organization with six conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The ToLCV-K3 and ToLCV-K5 isolates may be the strains of the same virus since they show sequence homology of 97% over their entire genome. This, according to the guidelines established by the ICTV Geminiviridae Study-Group is higher than threshold (92%) for delineation of different viral variants and hence single, average value has been assigned for all their analyses presented here. The ToLCV-CTM and ToLCV-K3/K5 viruses were found to be monopartite, as neither DNA-B component nor betasatellite associated with begomovirus species, were detected. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A genome of CTM exhibited highest sequence homology (88%) to Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (AJ507777), and of isolates K3/K5 (88.5%) to Tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus (DQ116884). This is less than the threshold value for demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. Conclusion K3/K5 and CTM are considered to be novel isolates of

  8. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  9. Woman's lot in India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  10. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  11. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators in physical activity participation among women in Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Elezebeth; Lakshmi, J. K.; Sundari Ravindran, T. K.; Pratt, Michael; Thankappan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the known benefits of physical activity, very few people, especially women, are found to engage in regular physical activity. This study explored the perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to physical activity among women in Thiruvananthapuram City, India. Methods Four focus group discussions were conducted among individuals between 25 and 60 years of age, in a few areas of Thiruvananthapuram City Corporation limits in Kerala, preparatory to the design of a physical activity intervention trial. An open-ended approach was used and emergent findings were analyzed and interpreted. Results Women associated physical activity mostly with household activities. The majority of the women considered their activity level adequate, although they engaged in what the researchers concluded were quite low levels of activity. Commonly reported barriers were lack of time, motivation, and interest; stray dogs; narrow roads; and not being used to the culture of walking. Facilitators of activity were seeing others walking, walking in pairs, and pleasant walking routes. Walking was reported as the most feasible physical activity by women. Conclusion Physical activity promotion strategies among women should address the prevailing cultural norms in the community, and involve social norming and overcoming cultural barriers. They should also target the modifiable determinants of physical activity, such as improving self-efficacy, improving knowledge on the adequacy of physical activity and its recommendations, facilitating goal-setting, and enhancing social support through peer support and group-based activities. PMID:25829405

  12. Emerging Vector-Borne Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology and Public Health Implications in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  13. Post-tsunami changes in the littoral environment along the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumar, S; Naik, K A; Ramanamurthy, M V; Ilangovan, D; Gowthaman, R; Jena, B K

    2008-10-01

    The 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated coastal regions of the Indian subcontinent. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, coastal stretches of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were the most affected regions of India. Changes in the beach profiles, long shore currents, breaking wave characteristics in the surf zone at selected locations along the Tamil Nadu coast were studied during January, April, October 2005 and January 2006. Long shore sediment transport rates were estimated from the observed parameters. Studies were carried out earlier (1995-1996 and 1998) to understand the coastal environment over a one-year cycle in the study region. The post-tsunami observations were compared with the earlier studies to establish the variations in the littoral environment and to ascertain the normalcy of the littoral environment in the post-tsunami scenario. From the changes in the beach profiles, the shoreline was observed to recede by about 20 m and built-up of backshore by about 0.5 m at most locations. Observations from the field investigations and comparisons with earlier studies along this stretch of the coastline indicate that the coastline is yet to return completely to normalcy.

  14. Tales of decline: reading social pathology into individual suicide in South India.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jocelyn Lim

    2012-06-01

    In the south Indian state of Kerala, the nation's so-called suicide capital, suicide can often appear self-evident in meaning and motivation to casual onlookers and experts alike. Drawing on explanatory accounts, rumors, and speculative tales of suicide collected between 2004 and 2007, this article explores the ontological power of certain deaths to assert themselves as always-already known on the basis of perceived and reported demographic patterns of suicide. I demonstrate the ways suicides are commonly read, less through the distinct details of their individual case presentations than "up" to broader scales of social pathology. Shaped by the intertwined histories of public health intervention and state taxonomic knowledge in India, these "epidemic readings" of suicide enact a metonymy between individual suffering and ideas of collective decline that pushes the suicide case to fit-and thus to stand for-aggregate trends at the level of populations. Focusing on how family navigated the generic meanings and motivations ascribed to the deaths of their loved ones, I argue that the ability of kin to resist, collude with, or strategically deploy epidemic readings in their search for truth and closure hinged significantly on their classed fluency in the social, legal, and bureaucratic discourses of suicide.

  15. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers. PMID:23388196

  16. The importance of a pleasant process of treatment: lessons on healing from South India.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Murphy

    2003-06-01

    This paper considers the significance of the positive and negative aesthetic qualities of different therapies--in other words, how "pleasant" (a term that is elaborated in the paper) it is to undergo various treatments. Interviews were conducted with patients undergoing three forms of healing for mental illness and related problems in the state of Kerala in southern India--ayurvedic (indigenous) psychiatry, allopathic (biomedical) psychiatry, and religious healing. Informants revealed concerns about the aesthetic process of therapy, reporting adverse reactions to allopathic treatments and in some cases asserting that they enjoyed ayurvedic procedures. Some informants with long-term illnesses had chosen to live in the process of therapy and reside indefinitely in the aesthetically engaging environment of a mosque, temple, or church after pursuing medical therapies for years. Thus considerations of the quality of the process of therapy also call for an examination of the limitations of the concept of "cure" for describing what is accomplished in healing in some therapeutic settings.

  17. Wave energy dissipation due to mudbanks formed off southwest coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Rogers, W. Erick; Pednekar, P. S.; Babu, M. T.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    Mudbanks (MBs) are a unique natural phenomenon, and form along the southwest coast of India during the southwest monsoon. They are characterized by a calm-water region, bordered by a rough sea. In order to quantify the wave energy dissipation, wave data were collected at two water depths (15 m and 7 m) before and during the period of formation of MBs off Alappuzha, Kerala. The observations indicate that MBs exist even in deeper water beyond 15 m water depth, contrary to earlier findings that they only form in depths of 0-5 m. The analysis showed 65-70% wave height attenuation. As spectral density evolves with shoaling, energy dissipation was examined using the concept of wave energy flux. The combination of high frequency dissipation and nonlinear energy transfer from higher-frequency to low-frequency waves resulted in a reduction of energy across a wide frequency range. The WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model with wave-mud interaction physics was used to capture the signature of wave energy dissipation due to MBs. The accuracy of prediction of significant wave heights (Hs) of the WW3 model was verified using Hs of measured waves and ERA- Interim (ECMWF Reanalysis Interim data). The model accurately reproduced both the wave heights in the MB region and their general characteristics. The measurements and model results complement each other in explaining changes associated with an apparent shift of the MBs.

  18. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of gestational diabetes: A retrospective cohort study from Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sreelakshmi, P. R.; Nair, Sanjeev; Soman, Biju; Alex, Rani; Vijayakumar, K.; Kutty, V. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes is on the rise. Understanding the various outcomes of it is necessary to face this challenge. Objectives: To study the frequency of occurrence of various maternal and fetal outcomes among gestational diabetes patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in rural Kerala, a southern state of India. The study participants were followed up for a period of 4 years, from 2007 to 2011. The participants included 60 women with gestational diabetes and 120 women without gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was the major exposure variable. The frequencies of various outcomes were computed. Multivariable logistic regression was done to compute the risk for various outcomes in gestational diabetes. Results: The major outcomes included termination of pregnancy by caesarean section, long-term progression to type 2 diabetes, in-born nursery (IBN) admissions and increased neonatal birth weight. The maximum adjusted RR [13.2 (1.5-116.03)] was for the development of type 2 DM later. Conclusion: Gestational diabetes can result in significant feto-maternal outcomes; so better facilities are needed to manage gestational diabetes. PMID:26288780

  19. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  20. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  1. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  2. Health Care in India.

    PubMed

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Although a stated right for all Indians, equal access to health care in India is impeded by socioeconomic barriers. With its 3-tier system of public health care centers in villages, district hospitals, and tertiary care hospitals, government expenditure in India is inordinately low, with a disproportionate emphasis on private health spending. Accordingly, the poorest receive a minority of the available subsidies, whereas the richest obtain more than a third, fostering a divide in health care infrastructure across the rich and poor in urban and rural settings. This paradigm has implications for domestic Indian public health and global public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  4. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  5. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  6. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  7. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  8. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  9. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  10. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  11. India's population impact "global".

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes statistics from the 1998 ESCAP Population Data Sheet. India's present population is slightly under 975 million persons. India is the second most populous country in the world, after China. India began a new era in policy and program content for enhancing fertility decline after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The 1997-2002 Five Year Plan calls for reduction in the population growth rate. The population growth rate, in 1996, was 1.8% annually. By 1991, the population aged 0-14 years was 37%, while the urban population was 26%; female literacy was 39.3% and male literacy was 64.1%. In 1994, the median age at first marriage among women had increased to 19.4 years. Life expectancy for women rose from 36.1 years to 62.9 years during 1951-86. In India, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a role in implementing family planning programs. Recent changes reflect a greater role of larger NGOs in interacting with and overseeing smaller NGOs. Larger NGOs approve projects, release funds, train, and monitor and evaluate activities. Government policy has shifted to a system of community needs assessment. Disparate contraceptive and maternal and child health programs have been integrated into a reproductive and child health program. Program emphasis is on meeting clients' needs and improving quality of care.

  12. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  13. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  14. Aerosols over India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-24

    Large abundances of aerosols, or airborne particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau in this image from NASA Terra satellite acquired on

  15. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  16. Fellowships in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

  17. Biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires in the Deccan Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Eaturu, Anuradha

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious environmental problems in several forested regions of India. In the Indian sub-continent, relatively few studies have focused on the assessment of biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires at a landscape scale and the spatial aspects of these relationships. In this study, we used fire count data sets from satellite remote sensing data covering 78 districts over four different states of the Deccan Plateau, India, for assessing the underlying causes of fires. Spatial data for explanatory variables of fires pertaining to topography, vegetation, climate, anthropogenic and accessibility factors have been gathered corresponding with fire presence/absence. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of fires as a function of the explanatory variables. Results for fire area estimates suggested that, of the total fires covering 47,043km(2) that occurred during the year 2000 for the entire Indian region, 29.0% occurred in the Deccan Plateau, with Andhra Pradesh having 13.5%, Karnataka 14.7%, Kerala 0.1%, and Tamilnadu 1.15%. Results from the logistic regression suggest that the strongest influences on the fire occurrences were the amount of forest area, biomass densities, rural population density (PD), average precipitation of the warmest quarter, elevation (ELE) and mean annual temperature (MAT). Among these variables, biomass density (BD) and average precipitation of the warmest quarter had the highest significance, followed by others. These results on the best predictors of forest fires can be used both as a strategic planning tool to address broad scale fire risk concerns, and also as a tactical guide to help forest managers to design fire mitigation measures at the district level.

  18. Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Piriyatharisini; Muthuraman, Krishna Raj; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the “most neglected” tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods. Only a few studies from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry are available regarding the seropositive levels of NCC in South India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on NCC suspected patients attending outpatient or inpatient department of different clinics majorly from neurology, medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and skin at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 391 patient samples (either serum or cerebrospinal fluid or urine) for 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015 were taken into the study. Serological investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot were performed for assessing the seropositivity levels of NCC. Results: The overall seropositive cases of NCC in the study population were found to be 32.5% of which positive male cases (59.1%) exceeding females (40.9%). The frequency of adult positive cases (77.2%) was more than that of pediatrics cases (22.8%) with an average of 30.9 years of age. Conclusions: NCC seropositive levels show an increasing trend with the study period. This necessitates a proper attention to the unnoticed spread of the parasitic disease, which affects the quality of life in the community. Quality screening and diagnostic strategy should be implied along with proper awareness for preventive measure practices

  19. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for

  20. Control of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the vectors of dengue and chikungunya, by using pheromone C21 with an insect growth regulator: Results of multicentric trials from 2007-12 in India.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, B N; Ghosh, S K; Eapen, Alex; Srivastava, Aruna; Sharma, M C; Singh, V P; Parashar, B D; Prakash, Shri; Mendki, M J; Tikar, S N; Saxena, Rekha; Gupta, Sanjeev; Tiwari, S N; Ojha, V P; Ravindran, K John; Ganesan, K; Rao, A N; Sharma, R S; Tuli, N R; Yadav, N K; Vijayaraghavan, R; Dua, V K; Dash, A P; Kaushik, M P; Joshi, P L; Valecha, Neena

    2015-09-01

    Aedes mosquito control has gained much importance nowadays in view of rise in number of reported cases of dengue and chikungunya in India and other countries. In the present study, C21 attracticide (containing a pheromone and an insect growth regulator—IGR, developed by Defence Research and Development Establishment (DRDE), Gwalior, India was tested for its feasibility for surveillance and control of Aedes mosquito in a multicentric mode from October 2007 to June 2012 in urban (Delhi, and Bengaluru district, Karnataka) and suburban (Alappuzha district, Kerala) settings of the country in three phases. Across the randomly selected households in each study area, two to four containers treated with attracticide (experimental) and untreated (control) were placed and monitored by trained surveillance workers on weekly/ fortnightly basis for determining the presence of eggs, larvae and pupae. Container positivity, percent larvae, egg and pupae collected were determined during different phases and analyzed statistically using SPSS 18.0. Container positivity was found statistically significant at Bengaluru and Alappuzha, Kerala while in Delhi, it was found non-significant. Eggs collected from experimental containers were significantly higher in comparison to control at all the locations except Delhi. Also larvae collected from control containers were significantly higher at all the locations except Bengaluru. Pupae collected from control containers remained significantly higher at all the locations as no pupal formation was recorded from experimental containers. The use of C21 attracticide hampered pupal formation, thus inhibiting adult population in the study areas. The study established that C21 attracticide was efficacious in the field conditions and has potential for use in surveillance and management of dengue and chikungunya mosquitoes.

  1. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853

  2. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  3. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2017-01-31

    India is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In India, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural India, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride

  4. Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, B.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture

  5. Improving Security Ties with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  6. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  7. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  8. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  9. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  10. Disaster Response in India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Hyderabad 275,068 66,508,008 Telugu and Urdu Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 83,743 864,558 Monpa, Miji, Aka, Nishing, etc. Assam Dispur 78,438 2,414,322...Hindi, Nicobarese, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu Chandigarh Chandigarh 114 642,015 Punjabi, Hindi Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa 491 138,477 Gujarati...Pondicherry 492 807,785 Tamil, Telugu , English, French v Figure ii. India-States and Union Territories. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  11. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  12. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  13. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  14. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  15. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  16. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  17. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  18. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  19. Bioinformatics education in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Sawant, Sangeeta; Chavan, Vishwas

    2010-11-01

    An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India in the 1980s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community. Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology. As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. Educational programmes gradually evolved from the organisation of short-term workshops to the institution of formal diploma/degree programmes. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification (BINC) examination initiated in 2005 by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions. The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments.

  20. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  1. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  2. Detection of natural infection of Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a forest ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2016-04-01

    A new focus of transmission of Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous manifestations (CL) was reported by us earlier, in the Western Ghats region of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. 12,253 sand fly specimens, comprising of three species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (24.7%) and 16 species belonging to the genus Sergentomyia (57.3%) were collected from the region during 2012-2014. Among Phlebotomus species, Phlebotomus argentipes was found predominant (77.3%), followed by Phlebotomus colabaensis (21.7%) and Phlebotomus stantoni (1.6%). From these collections, 793 P. argentipes (88 pools), 123 P. colabaensis (31 pools) and three P. stantoni (three pools) female specimens were processed for detection of natural infection with L. donovani parasites using a multiple genetic marker (kinetoplast DNA; 3'UTR of HSP70 gene & HSP70 gene) approach. Five pools of P. argentipes specimens (Unfed (one), Fulfed (one) and Gravid (two)) among these, were found positive for L. donovani infection. HSP70 gene sequences of the parasites in the vector species was found genetically identical with the human isolates reported earlier, evincing the role of P. argentipes in the transmission of CL in this region. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. argentipes with L. donovani (causing CL) from India.

  3. Miocene climate seasonality in southern India - first direct evidence for a weak Indian monsoon during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, W. E.; Reuter, M.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian monsoon is an integral component of the global climate system. This large-scale atmospheric circulation comprises the East Asian summer and winter monsoon and the Indian monsoon subsystems, all characterized by seasonal reversing winds and precipitation changes associated with asymmetric heating of land and sea. The Neogene monsoon history is mainly reconstructed from chemical and physical weathering rates recorded in widely continuous marine sequences of the Indus Fan, Bengal Fan and South China Sea, which, depending on the source, physiography and sediment, indicate drier or wetter climates. These indirect climate proxies display an unusually dry period during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, 16.5-15 Ma). As part of the FWF-projects P18189, P21414 and P23492, we present an Early/Middle Miocene coastal palynoflora record from the siliciclastic Ambalapuzha Formation at the coastal cliff of Varkala (Kerala Basin, SW India). Pollen assemblages and facies document a coastal wetland with mangrove vegetation. The Coexistence Approach was applied for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. This method uses climatic tolerances of all nearest living relatives known for a fossil flora by assuming that the tolerances of a fossil taxon are not significantly different from its modern counterpart. The maximum overlap of the environmental tolerances of all nearest living relatives (coexistence interval) is then regarded as being indicative of the most likely palaeoenvironment. By enquiring the Palaeoflora Database (http://www.palaeoflora.de/), the palaeoclimatic parameters of the pollen flora were calculated. The reconstructed climatic parameters for the MMCO show a seasonal precipitation pattern with a dry and a wet period and moderate rainfalls during the warmest period, which is comparable to the present day annual precipitation cycle in coastal Kerala, and affirms the presence of a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation over South India during the MMCO. However, the

  4. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  5. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  6. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  7. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  8. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  9. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  10. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  11. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  12. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  13. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  14. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  15. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your…

  16. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  17. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the…

  18. Status of women in India.

    PubMed

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  19. India bans female feticide.

    PubMed

    Imam, Z

    1994-08-13

    About 70% of all abortions performed in Delhi, India, are terminations due to the fetus being female. Private clinics make a profit out of offering sex determination tests. The new bill (the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill) introduced in Lok Sabha by Deputy Health Minister Pawan Singh Ghatowatr would stop "sex determination shops" from helping parents and medical practitioners terminate female pregnancies. Prenatal diagnostic tests would be administered only to detect genetic and congenital abnormalities. Physicians would not be allowed to reveal the sex of the fetus unless it was linked to a sex disorder. Women's rights groups have campaigned for such a bill that forbids prenatal sex determination. Abortions based on the sex of the fetus are currently banned under Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution as a violation of women's rights. The new bill would punish doctors who offer to identify the sex of the fetus by taking their names off the official medical register and imprisoning them for 3 years and fining them 10,000 rupees or 200 pounds. Pregnant women who undergo tests would also be punished with the same fine and prison term. Dr. Geeta Dwivedi, a medical physician with the Lucknow branch of the India Family Planning Association, reported that few tests are conducted for the sake of the health and well-being of the fetus. Female feticide is practiced because girls are viewed as an economic burden due to dowry practices and male children are valued for old age support and carrying on the family trade. The sex ratio in India is 927 women to 1000 men. The problem with the new legislation is enforcement, which would require oversight of as many as 2000 clinics in Delhi alone. It is anticipated that clinics would be uncooperative in complying with such a law because their self-interest is at stake.

  20. Periodontal diseases and risk of oral cancer in Southern India: Results from the HeNCe Life study.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Shahul, Hameed Puthiyannal; Madathil, Sreenath Arekunnath; Thekkepurakkal, Akhil Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Varghese, Ipe; Shiraz, Shameena; Allison, Paul; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    Some studies suggest that periodontal diseases increase the risk of oral cancer, but contradictory results also exist. Inadequate control of confounders, including life course exposures, may have influenced prior findings. We estimate the extent to which high levels of periodontal diseases, measured by gingival inflammation and recession, are associated with oral cancer risk using a comprehensive subset of potential confounders and applying a stringent adjustment approach. In a hospital-based case-control study, incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) were recruited from two major referral hospitals in Kerala, South India, from 2008 to 2012. Controls (N = 371), frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited from clinics at the same hospitals. Structured interviews collected information on several domains of exposure via a detailed life course questionnaire. Periodontal diseases, as measured by gingival inflammation and gingival recession, were evaluated visually by qualified dentists following a detailed protocol. The relationship between periodontal diseases and oral cancer risk was assessed by unconditional logistic regression using a stringent empirical selection of potential confounders corresponding to a 1% change-in-estimates. Generalized gingival recession was significantly associated with oral cancer risk (Odds Ratio = 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-3.04). No significant association was observed between gingival inflammation and oral cancer. Our findings support the hypothesis that high levels of periodontal diseases increase the risk of oral cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  1. A subterranean generalist predator: diet of the soil-dwelling caecilian Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Amphibia; Gymnophiona; Caeciliidae) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Measey, John G; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Biologists have paid relatively little attention to subterranean predators, especially their ecology. Although diets of some subterranean lower vertebrates suggest specialisation, there remains a lack of quantitative data. The diet of the caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii was investigated through analyses of gut contents of 67 specimens collected in randomised surveys at three localities in Kerala, southern India, in early and mid-monsoon. Although termites were the most frequently ingested items in the mid-monsoon, the specialist predator hypothesis was rejected because of differences in diet found in early monsoon samples, when earthworms contributed the greatest mass. That guts of some G. ramaswamii contained many individuals of only a single dietary taxon was interpreted as feeding on patchily distributed prey rather than specialisation. No ontogenetic differences in diet were apparent, but more sampling is required to investigate this further. Subadults largely feed on fewer items of the same prey as adults, though there is an indication that subadult diet is less diverse. The data do not support differences between male and female diet. High densities of G. ramaswamii, and perhaps of other terrestrial caecilians and subterranean lower vertebrates feeding on soil-ecosystem engineers (termites, earthworms and ants), might substantially impact soil ecology.

  2. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  3. Socio-economic & demographic determinants of hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in India.

    PubMed

    Laxmaiah, A; Meshram, I I; Arlappa, N; Balakrishna, N; Rao, K Mallikharjuna; Reddy, Ch Gal; Ravindranath, M; Kumar, Sharad; Kumar, Hari; Brahmam, G N V

    2015-05-01

    An increase in prevalence of hypertension has been observed in all ethnic groups in India. The objective of the present study was to estimate prevalence and determinants of hypertension among tribals and their awareness, treatment practices and risk behaviours in nine States of India. A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage random sampling procedure was carried out. About 120 Integrated Tribal Development Authority villages were selected randomly from each State. From each village, 40 households were covered randomly. All men and women ≥ 20 yr of age in the selected households were included for various investigations. A total of 21141 men and 26260 women participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension after age adjustment was 27.1 and 26.4 per cent among men and women, respectively. It was higher in the s0 tates of Odisha (50-54.4%) and Kerala (36.7-45%) and lowest in Gujarat (7-11.5%). The risk of hypertension was 6-8 times higher in elderly people and 2-3 times in 35-59 yr compared with 20-34 yr. Only <10 per cent of men and women were known hypertensives and more than half on treatment (55-68%). Men with general and abdominal obesity were at 1.69 (CI: 1.43-2.01) and 2.42 (CI: 2.01-2.91) times higher risk of hypertension, respectively, while it was 2.03 (CI=1.77-2.33) and 2.35 (CI 2.12-2.60) times higher in women. Those using tobacco and consuming alcohol were at a higher risk of hypertension compared with the non users. The study revealed high prevalence of hypertension among tribals in India. Age, literacy, physical activity, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and health seeking behaviour were low. Appropriate intervention strategies need to be adopted to increase awareness and treatment practices of hypertension among tribals.

  4. Socio-economic & demographic determinants of hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Laxmaiah, A.; Meshram, I.I.; Arlappa, N.; Balakrishna, N.; Rao, K. Mallikharjuna; Reddy, Ch Gal; Ravindranath, M.; Kumar, Sharad; Kumar, Hari; Brahmam, G.N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: An increase in prevalence of hypertension has been observed in all ethnic groups in India. The objective of the present study was to estimate prevalence and determinants of hypertension among tribals and their awareness, treatment practices and risk behaviours in nine States of India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage random sampling procedure was carried out. About 120 Integrated Tribal Development Authority villages were selected randomly from each State. From each village, 40 households were covered randomly. All men and women ≥ 20 yr of age in the selected households were included for various investigations. Results: A total of 21141 men and 26260 women participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension after age adjustment was 27.1 and 26.4 per cent among men and women, respectively. It was higher in the States of Odisha (50-54.4%) and Kerala (36.7-45%) and lowest in Gujarat (7-11.5%). The risk of hypertension was 6-8 times higher in elderly people and 2-3 times in 35-59 yr compared with 20-34 yr. Only <10 per cent of men and women were known hypertensives and more than half on treatment (55-68%). Men with general and abdominal obesity were at 1.69 (CI: 1.43-2.01) and 2.42 (CI: 2.01-2.91) times higher risk of hypertension, respectively, while it was 2.03 (CI=1.77-2.33) and 2.35 (CI 2.12-2.60) times higher in women. Those using tobacco and consuming alcohol were at a higher risk of hypertension compared with the non users. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed high prevalence of hypertension among tribals in India. Age, literacy, physical activity, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and health seeking behaviour were low. Appropriate intervention strategies need to be adopted to increase awareness and treatment practices of hypertension among tribals. PMID:26139790

  5. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  6. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  7. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Neuropsychology in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  9. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  10. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  11. Pharma industry in India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, V M

    2008-01-01

    Globally ranked fourth by volume and 13th in value, the Indian pharma industry is a leading producer of high-quality, low-cost generic drugs. Its 14% share of the USD 57 billion world generic market is expected to increase to 50% by 2010. With the advantages of cost competitiveness, ability and experience in reverse engineering, availability of skilled scientific and engineering personnel and the capability to produce raw materials for a wide range of drugs from the basic stage, the industry delivers the entire range of therapeutic products. McKinsey & Co. predict that India's pharmaceutical market could reach a size of USD 20 billion by 2015, becoming one of the top 10 drug markets in the world. Generic versions of the cardiovascular drug carvedilol, ANDA-approved allopurinol, verapamil SR and the anticancer drug paclitaxel are some of the recent products introduced by Indian companies, with Caraco, Ranbaxy, Dabur, Dr. Reddy's, Nicholas Piramal India, leading the list. Setting up of integrated drug development companies and aggressive entries into the Japanese drug market have provided further impetus to the country's pharma manufacturing arena.

  12. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  13. Research on antidepressants in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

  14. Energy conservation in India`s commercial air conditioned buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C.

    1997-06-01

    The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. In the 1980s, India`s GDP grew at a rate of 5.3 percent annually. As the economy grows and incomes rise, the demands for more air conditioned buildings is expected to place greater stress on already precarious energy supplies. The average annual rate of growth of electricity consumption in the commercial sector in the 1989 to 1992 period was close to nine percent as compared to 5.5 percent in the industrial sector - a fact that makes today`s energy use planning decisions even more important. India is already experiencing an energy shortage, and these commercial and industrial growth rates are accelerating the demand for energy. With these facts in mind, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began it`s Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities both for the supply of energy and for its efficient end-use. A specific task under the end-use component was to look a high energy-use sectors, such as the air conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that can improve energy utilization. This paper presents results from pre-investment surveys in this sector which were conducted at four facilities in 1995.

  15. India`s energy future may see rise of nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, B.

    1996-07-01

    Plagued by technical and safety problems, India`s nuclear power industry has an uncertain future. {open_quotes}Nuclear power`s litany of problems makes it difficult to envision a vital future for India`s nuclear-power program.{close_quotes} says Basudeb Chaudhuri, an assistant professor of economics at the Technology Institute of the University of Caen in France. Though India possesses the natural resources, labor force, and industrial base to develop a viable nuclear power program, its nuclear industry produces only 2 percent of the nations`s electricity, Chanudhuri notes. Chaudhuri advocates that alternative sources of energy be added to the current mix of coal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power. He contends that nonconventional energy sources, including biomass, tidal, and wind energy, could become important ingredients in the energy mix. Because of increasing population and rapid economic development, demand for electricity in India will continue to rise, and there will be a need for nuclear in addition to other energy sources. {open_quotes}There are glimmers of hope that nuclear power can become an important part of the nation`s energy mix,{close_quotes} Chaudhuri says.

  16. Surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Gupta, T

    1997-06-01

    Surgical practice in India is mostly managed by the central and state governments and is totally government financed, offering free medical aid. However, with the economic growth and affluence of the middle-class population in urban areas, more and more hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics managed by the private sector are arising in cities and towns. Privately owned hospitals are built and managed by large industrial houses and trusts. It is essential, according to government directives, for these hospitals to have certain numbers of general beds that will provide for the economically weaker sections of the population. Medical insurance is popular amongst the urban population; in addition to well-established insurance companies, many new medical service reimbursement organizations are forming. Surgical care standards are uniformly high in the larger teaching institutions and hospitals run by the private sector in major cities in India, in which superspecialty surgical care that meets worldwide standards is available in addition to general surgical care. These hospitals are manned by surgeons holding master's degrees in general surgery, superspecialties, and subspecialties. In the hospitals and dispensaries in rural areas, only basic surgical facilities are available; for major surgical procedures, the patients are referred to the closest urban hospitals. Therefore, the government of India is placing more and more emphasis on building hospitals that offer better surgical facilities away from the cities and towns. A diploma course in surgery is run by the National Board of Surgery, and these diplomates are encouraged to practice more in rural areas and small hospitals. Economic constraints and the population explosion are the biggest hurdles to progress in surgical care, teaching, and research activities. With the advancement in education and growth of the economy, more and more multinationals are walking into the field of medical care, which is proving to be a

  17. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  18. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.

  19. School Physics Teaching in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes current difficulties in teaching physics in Indian secondary schools, including the existence in all states of India of different syllabi of varying standards and content without the syllabi being related to the conditions and hardware available. (PR)

  20. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  1. (Coal utilization in India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  2. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  3. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2015-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  4. Use of Lung Ultrasound For Diagnosing Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Department of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrigakshi; Vijan, Vikrant; Vupputuri, Anjith; Chintamani, Sanjeev; Rajendran, Bishnukiran; Thachathodiyal, Rajesh; Chandrasekaran, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosing heart failure is often a challenge for the healthcare providers due to it’s non-specific and usually subtle physical presentations. The outcomes for treatment are strongly related to the stage of the disease. Considering the importance of early and accurate diagnosis, it is important to have an easy, inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method for diagnosis of heart failure. Recent advancement in radiology and cardiology are supporting the emerging technique of lung ultrasound through B-line evaluation for identifying extravascular lung water. Aim To establish lung ultrasound as an easy, inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method for diagnosing Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) in emergency department. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional, prospective, observational, diagnostic validation study of lung ultrasound for diagnosis of acute heart failure in an emergency department and was performed at Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 42 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated by plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Echocardiography (ECHO) and X-ray. Lung ultrasound was done to look for the presence of B-lines. Statistical Analysis Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of diagnostic modalities were calculated using Mc Nemar’s Chi-square test for the presence and absence of heart failure. Results Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosing acute heart failure comparable to plasma BNP which had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 60%. It was also superior to other methods of diagnosing ADHF namely X-ray and ECHO and showed a good association. Conclusion Lung ultrasound and its use to detect ultrasonographic B-lines is an early, sensitive and an equally accurate predictor of ADHF in the emergency setting as compared to BNP. PMID:28050472

  5. Rock magnetic properties of lateritic soil profiles from southern India: Evidence for pedogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabha, A. L.; Shankar, R.; Sandeep, K.

    2014-12-01

    We report here data on the pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and environmental magnetic properties (χlf, χfd, χARM, IRMs at different field strengths) of modern tropical lateritic soils from Aribail, Miyapadavu and Uliyathadka, all in the Kasaragod District of Kerala, southern India. This study aims to characterize the rock magnetic properties of lateritic soils that formed under tropical high-rainfall conditions and determine the effects of pedogenesis on soil magnetic properties in comparison with temperate soils. The profiles may be divided into two or three zones based on differences in magnetic mineral concentration, grain size and mineralogy. There is no magnetic enhancement of topsoil in any of the profiles studied. As the lateritic rocks in the region are ferruginous, the lateritic soils developed over them contain significant amounts of coarse grained lithogenic magnetite as well as hematite. Because of the presence of this 'laterite-derived' magnetite and hematite, the lateritic soils have much higher susceptibility values when compared to temperate soils. The upper zone is characterized by a higher proportion of lithogenic grains and the lower zone by superparamagnetic (SP) grains. This is probably because of iron reduction and dissolution of fine magnetic grains at the profile-top because of the excessively high rainfall (average = ~ 3500 mm/year) in the region. The slight increase in χlf and SIRM values toward the top of the Aribail and Miyapadavu profiles is due to the presence of coarse magnetic grains. This characteristic is common to all the three profiles irrespective of the topography. Compared to pre-monsoon samples, post-monsoon samples exhibit an increase in the proportion of SP grains. However, the magnetic grain size of lateritic soils from the three locations is similar to that of temperate soils.

  6. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  7. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

    PubMed Central

    TS, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. Aims This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. Method We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. Conclusions This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. Declaration of

  8. India in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Pipeline, the reopening of the Indian and Burmese consulates in Mandalay and Kolkata, and a recent India-Burma naval exercise—all reflect a significant...Bangkok. India also is building roads to connect Mizoram with Mandalay and has extended a fifty-six-million-dollar line of credit to Burma to modernize...the Mandalay -Rangoon railroad.65 New Delhi is likely also to carry out port and transportation improvements at the mouth of the Kaladan River (the

  9. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  10. Reproductive health in India.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In India, prenatal tests are used to determine the sex of the fetus and, if it is female, it is often aborted. In response to sex discrimination in utero, the Forum against Sex Determination and Sex Preselection was formed in 1985. It began a campaign against using prenatal tests to determine sex for the subsequent abortion of female fetuses. The 1989 Maharashtra Regulation of Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques was a direct result of this campaign. The forum expanded to examine other reproductive technologies, particularly long-lasting contraceptives that cause systemic changes in women's bodies, and it has become more concerned about women's rights in general. It has renamed itself the Forum for Women's Health. The state translates the need for contraceptives into population control. It provides health care through primary health centers and subcenters. The maternal and child health program provides health care only to 15-45 year old women. The government knows that abortion and childbirth are major contributors to maternal mortality, so it provides safe abortion through its centers. Yet, prevailing conditions and social values keep women from using these services, so they resort to unhygienic abortions. The government considers repeated childbearing as the only cause of maternal mortality and ignores that poverty, malnutrition, and social position can also be responsible for maternal deaths. This attitude justifies its coercion of women to use contraception. India's government is presently pushing provider-controlled, long-acting methods. It supports high tech research of antifertility vaccines. Female barrier methods are not marketed. The family planning program is based on targets and incentives/ disincentives. The government has recently set up sterilization camps in Bombay. The forum is concerned that providers will not fully inform women about side effects of the injectables and about other possible contraceptive methods. Women are being trained in self-help and

  11. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  12. End-of-life Characteristics of the Elderly: An Assessment of Home-based Palliative Services in Two Panchayats of Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, R; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra; Chatterjee, Debolina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Home-based palliative services form the cornerstone of Kerala's palliative program. However, two issues need research: (a) whether family-homes can be considered as the locus of ageing and dying for marginal populations who experience deprivation and poverty and (b) whether the present delivery structure meets the needs of elderly population. These issues are examined in the context of two rural areas. The study explores end-of-life characteristics of the elderly – the