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Sample records for madis pdra lauren

  1. Madi Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoga, Frederick K.

    This Madi textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers, and contains 32 lessons. Lessons consist of sample phrases that the students are intended to master and dialogues and conversations built around the sample phrases and key vocabulary. Topics covered include learning names, meals and the ordering and buying of food, the weather, health,…

  2. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAURENE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the vessel LAURENE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter, motor/sailing/ snorkeling/scuba/diving and instruction, sport fishing site seeing, ferry, travel, etc.'' Geographic Region: ``U.S....

  3. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic analysis of Lauren classification in gastric adenocarcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Lauren classification, gastric adenocarcinomas are divided into diffuse and intestinal types. The causative attribution explaining the dismal prognosis of diffuse-type remains unknown. Methods We examined the archive of 1000 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas who received radical gastrectomy in our center and assessed the effect of the Lauren classification on survival in a multivariate approach. Moreover we compared the variation of clinical features between the diffuse-type and intestinal-type and explored the contributing factors for the prognostic difference. Results There were 805 resectable patients for the final analysis. Diffuse-type comprised of 48.7% in the gastric carcinoma in our group and showed poorer prognosis than intestinal-type (P=0.013). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent prognostic factors for gastric carcinoma patients were T stage (P<0.001), N stage (P<0.001) tumor size (P<0.001) and Lauren classification (P=0.003). For the clinical features, diffuse-type was significantly associated with younger age (p<0.001), female preponderance (p <0.001), distal location (P<0.001), advanced pT (p < 0.001), advanced pN (p < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (p = 0.027). Conclusions Diffuse type adenocarcinoma carries a worse prognosis that may be partially explained by the tendency of this subtype to present at more advanced T and N stage. However, Lauren classification has prognostic significance that is independent of T and N stage as well as other prognostic variables based on the multivariate cox analysis. PMID:23497313

  4. Lauren Bamford

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the Director of EPA-RTP's STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math) Outreach Program, Kelly collaborates with schools and the community to develop and implement educational outreach programs, particularly in minority and low-income K-12 schools.

  5. Laurens 55 County School District Awarded $100,000 in EPA Rebates to Fund Cleaner School Buses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (12/11/15 - ATLANTA) --- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Laurens 55 County School District in South Carolina is one of 85 school bus fleets in 35 states to receive rebates through EPA's Diesel Emissions Reduction

  6. Interview: stabilization of biological assays: conventional versus new technology. Interview by Lauren Constable.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Miles

    2013-12-01

    Miles Burrows speaks to Lauren Constable, Head of Commissioning Following completion of his PhD in Chemistry at Cardiff University (UK), Miles Burrows started his career at Amersham Biosciences (UK), predominately researching fluorescent reagents and the labeling of biological compounds. Following the acquisition of Amersham by GE Healthcare (UK), Burrows took on the role of R&D Technology Manager, leading a multifunctional team of chemists, biologists and industrial design engineers through new product introduction, research and product care projects. During this period, Burrows oversaw the launch of a custom assay stabilization service based on the well-established technology as used in GE Healthcare's Ready-To-Go™ product range. Since 2012 Burrows has been the Global Product Manager for custom molecular biology and fluorescent reagents for GE Healthcare Life Sciences.

  7. Lauren Slater and the Experts: Malingering, Masquerade, and the Disciplinary Control of Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    The work of psychologist and author Lauren Slater has elicited strong reactions from both medical professionals and disability studies theorists, ranging from criticism to high praise. Attending to these responses, I argue that her work, in perhaps perverse fashion, can provide a narrative touch point for attempts from both fields to complicate the outdated binary division of the medical and social models. I illustrate the need for this collaboration through the example of malingering, suggesting that reading Slater's work through the lens of Tobin Siebers's theory of "masquerade" can open progressive conversations about "illness deception," which is an issue of central importance in disability rights, psychiatry, and political conversations. By using Slater's work and research on malingering as a test case, I point to potentially productive convergences among academic, medical, and social fields.

  8. Appraisal of recent theories to understand cyclogenesis pathways of tropical cyclone Madi (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Umakanth, U.; Singh, Vikas; Harish Varma, T.

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims to examine the new understanding of cyclogenesis by analyzing the genesis sequence of formation of a very severe cyclonic storm Madi (6-13 December 2013) that occurred over the Bay of Bengal. We have generated a high-resolution (18 km, 6 km, and 2 km) analysis using three-dimensional variational data assimilation technique and Weather Research and Forecasting model. The genesis sequence of Madi cyclone is analyzed using the concepts in the marsupial theory and other theories of tropical cyclone formation. Major results are as follows: the developed analysis is found useful for tracking the movement of westward moving parent disturbance from 15 days prior to the genesis; identifying developed pouch region in the Lagrangian frame of reference; understanding the evolution of the pouch and convection within the pouch region and for the study of intensification inside the pouch region. Also, large-scale priming of environment concurs with the hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. The analysis of dynamical and thermodynamical processes within the pouch region showed gradual moistening, uplifting of moisture, diabatic heating causing buoyant convection in the vorticity-rich environment followed by vortex tube stretching, development of convection, heavy precipitation, strengthening of lower level convergence, and hence spin-up during a day or two preceding the genesis of Madi cyclone. In general, it is concluded that intensification within pouch region during the cyclogenesis phase followed the marsupial paradigm and bottom-up mechanism.

  9. Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek–English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals’ discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group. PMID:23556605

  10. Sequence stratigraphic controls on reservoir characterization and architecture: case study of the Messinian Abu Madi incised-valley fill, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Understanding sequence stratigraphy architecture in the incised-valley is a crucial step to understanding the effect of relative sea level changes on reservoir characterization and architecture. This paper presents a sequence stratigraphic framework of the incised-valley strata within the late Messinian Abu Madi Formation based on seismic and borehole data. Analysis of sand-body distribution reveals that fluvial channel sandstones in the Abu Madi Formation in the Baltim Fields, offshore Nile Delta, Egypt, are not randomly distributed but are predictable in their spatial and stratigraphic position. Elucidation of the distribution of sandstones in the Abu Madi incised-valley fill within a sequence stratigraphic framework allows a better understanding of their characterization and architecture during burial. Strata of the Abu Madi Formation are interpreted to comprise two sequences, which are the most complex stratigraphically; their deposits comprise a complex incised valley fill. The lower sequence (SQ1) consists of a thick incised valley-fill of a Lowstand Systems Tract (LST1)) overlain by a Transgressive Systems Tract (TST1) and Highstand Systems Tract (HST1). The upper sequence (SQ2) contains channel-fill and is interpreted as a LST2 which has a thin sandstone channel deposits. Above this, channel-fill sandstone and related strata with tidal influence delineates the base of TST2, which is overlain by a HST2. Gas reservoirs of the Abu Madi Formation (present-day depth ˜3552 m), the Baltim Fields, Egypt, consist of fluvial lowstand systems tract (LST) sandstones deposited in an incised valley. LST sandstones have a wide range of porosity (15 to 28%) and permeability (1 to 5080mD), which reflect both depositional facies and diagenetic controls. This work demonstrates the value of constraining and evaluating the impact of sequence stratigraphic distribution on reservoir characterization and architecture in incised-valley deposits, and thus has an important impact on

  11. Why Millions Survive Cancer - The Successes of Science Pecorino Lauren Why Millions Survive Cancer - The Successes of Science 256pp Oxford University Press 9780199580552 0199580553 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-01-25

    The title says it all. This is an uplifting illustrated text on the successes of science. Lauren Pecorino, principal lecturer in cancer biology at the University of Greenwich in London, has written extensively on the molecular biology of cancer and cancer therapeutics.

  12. Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Al Temamy, A. M.; Salah, Mohamed K.; Kassab, M.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity investigations were carried out to assess the origin and characteristics of a brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area. Twenty six surface water, shallow and deep groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various ionic concentrations as well as oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic contents. In addition, a total of 20 vertical electrical sounding sites were conducted to investigate layers' thicknesses, resistivities, and to detect the water-bearing layers. Then, 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) along two profiles in the study area was conducted to get information about the surface water effect on recharge. The stable isotopic composition and the chloride concentrations strongly suggest that the deep groundwater in Abu Madi area is dominated by inland freshwater with a minor seawater component. This groundwater was recharged during the first and the third Holocene humid climatic cycles where the sea surface was about 125 and 25 m below the current sea level, respectively. The brackish nature and higher piezometric surface of the groundwater, as well as the occurrence of vertical low-salinity seawater zone in front of the study area, support the possibility of submarine groundwater discharge. The geoelectrical resistivity surveying, on the other hand, revealed a number of geoelectrical groundwater-bearing layers. The main water-bearing layer in the study area is represented by the sixth geoelectrical layer, which has relatively high resistivity and a considerable thickness being consistent with the hydrogeochemical observations. ERT results point to the presence of shallow water-bearing layers recharged from the surface water drains with low resistivity and surface rain water of moderate resistivity. Results from the hydrogeochemical analyses and the different hydrogeological data are consistent with the high resistivity values of this geoelectrical layer. However, the overall high specific

  13. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  14. DATE: 3-27-15.LOCATION: Building 30 - ISS FCR-1.SUBJECT: Flight controllers during the launch of Scott Kelly and Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko for their historic one-year mission aboard the ISS. .PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-27

    DATE: 3-27-15 LOCATION: Building 30 - ISS FCR-1 SUBJECT: Flight controllers during the launch of Scott Kelly and Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko for their historic one-year mission aboard the ISS. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  15. A Comparative Study on the Genesis of North Indian Ocean Cyclone Madi (2013) and Atlantic Ocean Cyclone Florence (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V P M, R.; Kesarkar, A. P.; Bhate, J.; U, U.; Singh, V.; Varma, H.

    2016-12-01

    A study has been carried out to understand the tropical cyclone formation over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and the Atlantic Ocean (AO). The genesis sequence of two cyclones viz. Madi (NIO) and Florence (AO) are compared by generating high resolution (6km) reanalysis using three dimensional variational data assimilation technique (3DVAR) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For the 3DVAR experiment, observations from NCEP Automated Data Processing (ADP) global upper air and surface data which include radiosondes, pilot balloons, aircraft, and satellite radiances from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU A), AMSU B, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) with default quality control settings have been used. Before analysing the genesis sequence of these cyclones the model outputs are verified against observations. It has been found that the simulated variables are well matching with the observations. The created analysis is used to trace the tropical depression backward in time using a moisture variable and it has been found that the parent disturbance associated with both the cyclones are westward moving in nature. Pouch regions associated with the parent disturbance is identified in the analysis as a region of enhanced moisture. It is found that in the case of NIO cyclone Madi, dry air intrusion is not a dominant detrimental factor for the genesis whereas the dry air intrusion delays the intensification of the AO cyclone Florence. The pouch region associated with the parent disturbance of Madi cyclone plays a more important role in the vorticity upscale cascade than in preventing dry air intrusion. The intensification of Madi cyclone from depression to tropical cyclone strength is found to be very quick compared to the Florence cyclone. The intensification of Florence cyclone is delayed due to the presence of a relative dry layer of air in the genesis environment. This is basically attributed to the dust

  16. 76 FR 69318 - In the Matter of the Designation of Mali Khan also known as Madi Khan as a Specially Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Mali Khan also known as Madi Khan as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the authority of and in accordance with section 1(b) of...

  17. Reservoir characteristics and 3D static modelling of the Late Miocene Abu Madi Formation, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khadragy, A. A.; Eysa, E. A.; Hashim, A.; Abd El Kader, A.

    2017-08-01

    West Al Khilala Field is considered as gas producing from Abu Madi Miocene sandstone Formation. It lies at the central onshore Nile Delta and covers about 47.6 km2. The petrophysical parameters (porosity, permeability, water saturation and net-to-gross ratio) as well as static modelling of the Abu Madi reservoir from well logs are carried out. The porosity model reflected good porosity in the study area especially in the massive sandstone unit with values range from 18% to 27%, while low porosity value are recorded in the layered and basal sandstone units with values range from 1% to 24%. The permeability model displayed values range from 50 md to 2000 md in the massive sandstone unit that increases towards the southeast direction reflected a high promising for hydrocarbon prospecting. The permeability values of the layered and basal sandstone units range from 0.5 md to 700 md with mean value of 40 md reflected a tight permeability due to the presence of shale streaks. The water saturation (Sw) model of the layered and massive sandstone units indicated hydrocarbon-bearing intervals with values from 10% to 64.7%, while the basal sandstone unit is highly saturated with water from 65% up to 100%. The volumetric calculation of the reservoir showed that the reservoir contained about 246 BSCF as a recoverable gas.

  18. A comparative study on the genesis of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone Madi (2013) and Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Singh, Vikas; Umakanth, U.; Varma, T. Harish

    2016-12-01

    A modeling study has been carried out to understand the similarities and differences in the genesis sequence of a Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone Madi (6-13 December 2013) and the Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (3-12 September 2006) on the applicability of hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. We examined the role of the protective pouch and warm core formation during their genesis and intensification phases. We have chosen tropical cyclone Madi and tropical cyclone Florence for our study specifically due to both of these tropical cyclones originated from westward moving parent disturbance embedded in the intertropical convergence zone. Also, the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclone Florence were accompanied by a series of Saharan dust outbreaks. Our results indicated that the dry air intrusion was not a dominant detrimental factor for the genesis of tropical cyclone Madi and showed rapid intensification within the pouch region. However, in the case of the tropical cyclone Florence, the delay in the intensification as a category 1 tropical cyclone from its tropical depression stage was due to entrainment of the dry air into the core of cyclonic vortex up to 700 hPa from above. The results from this study showed that the wave pouch played a most significant role in the vorticity upscale cascade (First hypothesis) and moisture aggregation (Second hypothesis) in pregenesis period of both the tropical cyclones. It also prevented the lateral dry air intrusion (Second hypothesis) from the Saharan Air Layer during the genesis phase of tropical cyclone Florence.

  19. "3D Depositional Model in a Complex Incised Valley Fill: An example from the late Messinian Abu Madi Formation, Nile Delta Basin, Egypt"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M. E. S.; Abu El-Ata, A. S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The study area lies in the Central Marine Delta, which is located in the Baltim offshore concession, about 25 kms from the shoreline and 40 kms North Abu Madi-El Qara fields. The current study is aiming to give a comprehensive combined and conjugated study between well data and seismic survey interpretations. The former includes well logging data, acquired results of actual drilling and biostratigraphic study, to give an integrated picture for the considered area in a true attempt to visualize the geological and geophysical data given from both wells and seismic reflection surveys, and hence introduce an updated sequence stratigraphic framework for the Messinian sequence at the offshore Nile Delta area. The 3D geological model, based on all the available well data (faunal contents, litho-facies, log signatures…...etc.) and the seismic expressions (facies and geometry), has been constructed for the study area. This model shows that, the study area was changed from shelf (considered as erosional), to delta channels and then directed to the north. It changed to delta front mouth bars on the shoreface and affected by the main Rosetta fault to collect deposits as sand bars in the southern part on the downthrown side of the fault. Most deposits on this face were highstand system tracts. This deduced from the sequence stratigraphy study. The area was then sloped to the north, as shelf slope with the deposition of slumps, which was formed during erosions and mass flows. Some mud diapers also formed upon this slope. After dropping the sea level with the activity of some syn-sedimentary faults, some channels with sediment supply started their activities to dig their ways to the north.

  20. 3D Depositional Model in a Complex Incised Valley Fill: An Example from the Late Messinian Abu Madi Formation, Nile Delta Basin, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M. E. S.

    2015-12-01

    The study area lies in the Central Marine Delta, which is located in the Baltim offshore concession, about 25 kms from the shoreline and 40 kms North Abu Madi-El Qara fields. The current study is aiming to give a comprehensive combined and conjugated study between well data and seismic survey interpretations. The former includes well logging data, acquired results of actual drilling and biostratigraphic study, to give an integrated picture for the considered area in a true attempt to visualize the geological and geophysical data given from both wells and seismic reflection surveys, and hence introduce an updated sequence stratigraphic framework for the Messinian sequence at the offshore Nile Delta area. The 3D geological model, based on all the available well data (faunal contents, litho-facies, log signatures…...etc.) and the seismic expressions (facies and geometry), has been constructed for the study area. This model shows that, the study area was changed from shelf (considered as erosional), to delta channels and then directed to the north. It changed to delta front mouth bars on the shoreface and affected by the main Rosetta fault to collect deposits as sand bars in the southern part on the downthrown side of the fault. Most deposits on this face were highstand system tracts. This deduced from the sequence stratigraphy study. The area was then sloped to the north, as shelf slope with the deposition of slumps, which was formed during erosions and mass flows. Some mud diapers also formed upon this slope. After dropping the sea level with the activity of some syn-sedimentary faults, some channels with sediment supply started their activities to dig their ways to the north.

  1. On Learning Research: A Conversation with Lauren Resnick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Highlights new directions in cognitive research. Instead of searching for universally valid principles, new style reseachers are studying how people learn particular things in particular environments. Findings need to be corroborated by numerous researchers using a variety of observational and experimental methodologies. Includes two references.…

  2. On Learning Research: A Conversation with Lauren Resnick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Highlights new directions in cognitive research. Instead of searching for universally valid principles, new style reseachers are studying how people learn particular things in particular environments. Findings need to be corroborated by numerous researchers using a variety of observational and experimental methodologies. Includes two references.…

  3. On the New Standards Project: A Conversation with Lauren Resnick and Warren Simmons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, John

    1993-01-01

    New Standards Project directors believe that U.S. educational system must educate all students to high standards. Type of test administered heavily influences classroom practice. New system, consisting of portfolios; performance-based matrix exam tasks, projects, and exhibitions; and work selected by districts, teachers, and students will extend…

  4. The evolution of the danger theory. Interview by Lauren Constable, Commissioning Editor.

    PubMed

    Matzinger, Polly

    2012-05-01

    Polly Matzinger, now Chief of the Ghost Laboratory and the section on T-cell Tolerance and Memory at the NIH, has previously worked as a bartender, carpenter, jazz musician, Playboy bunny and dog trainer. She completed her PhD at the University of California, San Diego (USA) and was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Cambridge (UK). She has worried for years that the dominant model of immunity does not explain a wealth of accumulated data and has recently suggested an alternative, the danger model, which suggests that the immune system is far less concerned with things that are foreign than with those that do damage. This model, whose two major tenets Matzinger admits were thought up in a bath and on a field while herding sheep, has very few assumptions and yet "explains most of what the immune system seems to do right, as well as most of what it appears to do wrong", covering such areas as transplantation, autoimmunity and the immunobiology of tumors. The model has been the subject of a BBC Horizon film and has featured in two other films about immunity and countless articles in both the scientific and the lay press. In her spare time, Matzinger trains border collies for competitive shepherding trials and, in her own words, "composes songs that are not really worth listening to, and worries about the next major question in the immune system", namely "once it decides to respond, how does the immune system know what kind of response to make?"

  5. An Interview with Elizabeth Gordon and Lauren Wohl of the Walt Disney Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Presents an interview with the vice president and publisher, and the marketing director, of the Walt Disney Company concerning plans for the company to enter the competitive field of children's book publishing. (RS)

  6. An Interview with Elizabeth Gordon and Lauren Wohl of the Walt Disney Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Presents an interview with the vice president and publisher, and the marketing director, of the Walt Disney Company concerning plans for the company to enter the competitive field of children's book publishing. (RS)

  7. [Map of resources and healthcare needs for patients with dyslipidaemia in Spain: The MADI study].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Climent, Elisenda; Giralt Martínez, Eva; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    Dyslipidaemia is a major modifiable determining factor of vascular risk and, despite this, a significant number of patients do not achieve lipid goals. The aim of this study is to describe the resources and current needs in clinical practice in Spain, through an analysis of management, organisation and the patient care circuit of dyslipidaemia patient. A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study, using a questionnaire, was conducted on physicians, 266 in primary care (PC) and 258 in specialised care (SC), who attended patients with dyslipidaemia in hospitals and centres within the National Health System. Probabilistic analyses were performed, stratifying by care-level, existence of a lipid unit (LU), and geographic area. Observed differences were mostly due to geographic location, rather than the existence of LU in the referral hospitals. Most system deficiencies were found in the southern provinces of the country. Nearly all primary care physicians declared that they diagnose, manage and control dyslipidaemia patients, but a general agreement was lacking for diagnostic and referral criteria. The scarce use of a shared protocol between PC and SC showed evidence of poor coordination between health care providers. Furthermore, there was a remarkably low proportion of patients receiving health care education for their disease. This study emphasises the need to identify weaknesses in the dyslipidaemia patient care circuit, and to perform the appropriate remedial actions, in particular, to promote coordination between levels of care and to foster patient education about their disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 77202 - Request for Comments of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lauren Brand, Director, Office of Marine Highways and Passenger Services, MAR... 20590. Telephone: 202-366-7057; or email lauren.brand@dot.gov . Copies of this collection also can be...

  9. Isolation and characterization of plaque-purified strains of Malacosoma disstria Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Martin A; Baldwin, Doug; Haveroen, Melissa; Keddie, B Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Seven plaque-purified genotypic variants or strains, derived from a previously described field isolate of the Malacosoma disstria Nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiNPV) from Alberta populations of forest tent caterpillar, were characterized based on distinctive restriction endonuclease fragment patterns. Two strains, MadiNPV-pp3 and MadiNPV-pp11, were selected for further characterization, as they represented strains producing high and low budded virus (BV) titres, respectively, in the M. disstria cell line UA-Md203. Analysis of restriction endonuclease fragment profiles indicated the genomes differed significantly in size, 133.8 +/- 2.4 kb for MadiNPV-pp3 and 118.1 +/- 3.5 kb for MadiNPV-pp11. These strains were characterized based on their BV production in three different cell lines derived from M. disstria haemocytes. Compared with MadiNPV-pp11, MadiNPV-pp3 produced two- to three-fold more BVs in UA-Md203 and 210 other cell lines; however, BV production was only marginally higher for MadiNPV-pp3 in the UA-Md221 cell line. Similarly, the yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies was significantly higher for MadiNPV-pp3 in UA-Md203 and 210 cell lines than for MadiNPV-pp11 but not in the UA-Md221 cell line. This data, although derived from a limited number of cell lines, suggested MadiNPV-pp3 may have a broader tissue tropism than MadiNPV-pp11.

  10. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    December 2011 Thesis Advisor: Sam Clovis , Jr. Second Reader: Lauren Fernandez THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved by: Sam Clovis , Jr. Thesis Advisor Lauren Fernandez Second Reader Daniel Moran Chair, Department of National Security Affairs...continued education, and former Fire Commissioner Horace “Bud” Felton; a Navy man who encouraged me to apply to the program. Sam Clovis and Lauren

  11. Determining the Impact of Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) Observations on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Forecasts Utilizing National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR’s) Forecast Sensitivity to Observations Software Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    southwestern United States with the time period analyzed being early February 2012. FSO uses a background error (BE) covariance matrix, and for this study, a...including rawindondes, profiler, satellite, etc. FSO requires a WRF background error (BE) covariance; one can either employ the “global” BE covariance...BE background error EnKF ensemble Kalman filter FSO Forecast Sensitivity to Observations FTP File Transfer Protocol GFS Global Forecast

  12. POSTER FOR NRMRL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN (QMP) TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    NRMRL QMP Training Course
    Contact: Lauren Drees, NRMRL/STD (drees.lauren@epa.gov)

    NRMRL has developed a computer-based course to train personnel in the requirements of the NRMRL Quality Management Plan (QMP). This training course was developed using Trainersoft s...

  13. POSTER FOR NRMRL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN (QMP) TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    NRMRL QMP Training Course
    Contact: Lauren Drees, NRMRL/STD (drees.lauren@epa.gov)

    NRMRL has developed a computer-based course to train personnel in the requirements of the NRMRL Quality Management Plan (QMP). This training course was developed using Trainersoft s...

  14. Autism and an Empty Nest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman-Api, Diona

    2006-01-01

    The author, a mother of Lauren, a three-year-old girl diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, describes her anxieties and worries in sending her daughter to preschool. She worried that Lauren's GFCF diet might not be followed and that she might regress with the overwhelming options and stimulation that school offered. The author describes her…

  15. Study of a ternary blend system for bulk heterojunction thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-08-01

    In this research, we report a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell consisting of a ternary blend system. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT is used as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) plays the role of acceptor whereas vanadyl 2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) is selected as an ambipolar transport material. The materials are selected and assembled in such a fashion that the generated charge carriers could efficiently be transported rightwards within the blend. The organic BHJ solar cells consist of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ternary BHJ blend/Al structure. The power conversion efficiencies of the ITO/ PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT:PCBM:VOPcPhO/Al solar cells are found to be 2.3% and 3.4%, respectively. This publication was made possible by PDRA (Grant No. PDRA1-0117-14109) from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The findings achieved herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

  16. Synthesis of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in E. coli using stress-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Keum-Young; Lee, Boram; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Song, Jong-Am; Lee, Doo Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-09-01

    We found Escherichia coli proteins, elongation factor Ts (Tsf), and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) that can exist in the form of native and soluble proteins even under stress situation such as heat shock and protein denaturing condition. To examine their property as solubility enhancers, aggregation-prone Mycoplasma arginine deiminase (mADI), which has been suggested as anti-cancer agent, was fused to the C-terminal of each of them and cloned into pET28a to be expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm. When mADI was fused to fusion partners (Mdh, Tsf), a significant portion of the recombinant mADI was expressed in a soluble fraction (>90%) whereas the directly expressed mADI was aggregated to the inclusion body. In addition, recombinant mADI released from the fusion tag retained its soluble form and presented its specific enzymatic activity of converting l-arginine into citrulline (>10 U/mg). These results show that Tsf and Mdh could serve as effective solubility enhancers for aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mADI in this case) when used as fusion expression partners in bacterial expression systems.

  17. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  18. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  19. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  20. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  1. Three photons are better than two.

    PubMed

    Ware, Lauren Arcuri

    2014-11-01

    Three-photon microscopy was suggested in the 1990s, but laser technology at the time was just not up to the challenge. Lauren Ware explores how recent technology advances are bringing three-photon microscopy back into focus.

  2. Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-12

    PHOTO DATE: 5-12-11 LOCATION: Building 261 - Room 138 SUBJECT: Expedition 29 Preflight Training with Dan Burbank during Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection. WORK ORDER: 2011-1214 PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  3. jsc2013e030874

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-10

    PHOTO DATE: 10 MAY 2013 LOCATION: Neutral Buoyancy Lab - Underwater SUBJECT: NBL EVA dive with Terry Virts and Samantha Cristoforetti in support of ISS ammonia leak trouble-shooting. PHOTOGRAPHER: NBL/Bill Brassard/Kelly Rives/Lauren Hansen

  4. jsc2013e030876

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-10

    PHOTO DATE: 10 MAY 2013 LOCATION: Neutral Buoyancy Lab - Underwater SUBJECT: NBL EVA dive with Terry Virts and Samantha Cristoforetti in support of ISS ammonia leak trouble-shooting. PHOTOGRAPHER: NBL/Bill Brassard/Kelly Rives/Lauren Hansen

  5. jsc2013e030873

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-10

    PHOTO DATE: 10 MAY 2013 LOCATION: Neutral Buoyancy Lab - Underwater SUBJECT: NBL EVA dive with Terry Virts and Samantha Cristoforetti in support of ISS ammonia leak trouble-shooting. PHOTOGRAPHER: NBL/Bill Brassard/Kelly Rives/Lauren Hansen

  6. jsc2012e237297

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  7. jsc2012e237346

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  8. jsc2012e237304

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  9. jsc2012e237307

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  10. jsc2012e237317

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  11. jsc2012e237324

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  12. jsc2012e237298

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  13. jsc2012e237357

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  14. jsc2012e237295

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  15. jsc2012e237309

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  16. jsc2012e237314

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  17. jsc2012e237340

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  18. jsc2012e237350

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  19. jsc2012e237323

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  20. jsc2012e237333

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  1. jsc2012e237330

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  2. jsc2012e237343

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  3. jsc2012e237319

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  4. jsc2012e237296

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  5. jsc2012e237355

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  6. jsc2012e237305

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-05

    DATE: 11-5-12 LOCATION: Bldg. 9 - VR Lab SUBJECT: Expedition 38 crew members Mike Hopkins, Rick Mastracchio and Koichi Wakata during ROBO/EVA VR LAB training with instructors Jason A. Campbell and Alex Kanelakos. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  7. Expedition 21 astronauts Jeff Williams and Nicole Stott

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    Date: 6-24-09 Location: Bldg 9NW - Node 1 Training Area Subject: Expedition 21 astronauts Jeff Williams and Nicole Scott during new Vestibule Procedures training with instructor Michael Steele. Photographer: Lauren Harnett

  8. Expedition 30 crew member and ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers training in SSTF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-01

    DATE: 9-1-11 LOCATION: Bldg. 5south, SSTF SUBJECT: Expedition 30 crew member and ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers training in SSTF near Columbia module on laptops with trainer Michaela Benda. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  9. jsc2014e045017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-13

    PHOTO DATE: 5-13-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30 - FCR-1 SUBJECT: Flight Director Dina Contella and flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during undocking of Expedition 39 crew (Tyurin, Mastracchio, Wakata). PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  10. jsc2014e045008

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-13

    PHOTO DATE: 5-13-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30 - FCR-1 SUBJECT: Flight Director Dina Contella and flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during undocking of Expedition 39 crew (Tyurin, Mastracchio, Wakata). PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  11. jsc2014e045013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-13

    PHOTO DATE: 5-13-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30 - FCR-1 SUBJECT: Flight Director Dina Contella and flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during undocking of Expedition 39 crew (Tyurin, Mastracchio, Wakata). PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  12. jsc2014e045018

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-13

    PHOTO DATE: 5-13-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30 - FCR-1 SUBJECT: Flight Director Dina Contella and flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during undocking of Expedition 39 crew (Tyurin, Mastracchio, Wakata). PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  13. Simulating a Submarine Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    A team of scientists at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory is testing whether organic molecules can be brewed in a simulated ocean vent. Pictured here is Lauren White, a member of the NASA Astrobiology Icy Worlds team.

  14. Expedition 25 press conference with NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and his crewmates

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    PHOTO DATE: 7-13-10 LOCATION:Bldg. 2N, Press Conf. Room SUBJECT: Expedition 25 press conference with NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and his crewmates, Russian cosmonauts Alexander Kaleri and Oleg Skripochka PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  15. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dereon (center right), and Nelly Furtado for Betsey Johnson (far right). Photo courtesy NIH/NHLBI For the ... Donna Karan, Ralph Lauren, Luca Luca, and Betsey Johnson. "In my own family, there is a history ...

  16. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kimberly Guilfoyle Villency, Kim Cattrall, Katharine McPhee, Sheila Johnson, Danica Patrick, Angela Bassett, Mae Jemison, Lauren Hutton, ... Matlin, Zuleyka Rivera, Natalie Morales, Helena Christensen, Betsey Johnson, Kelly Ripa, Kristin Chenoweth, Billie Jean King, Jane ...

  17. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , Gisele Bousquet Download PDF https:// ... if you already have heart disease. How Can Exercise Help? There are many modifiable risk factors for ...

  18. U.S. Army Research Institute Unrestricted Publications, Fiscal Year 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Alice Hirzel, Jennifer Stern, Steven Aude, Lauren Tindall, & Jeffrey E. Fite. July 2011. (ADA 546285) The Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns have...Hirzel, Jennifer Stern, Steven Aude, Lauren Tindall, & Jeffrey E. Fite. July 2011. (ADM002361 / CD-ROM) The Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns have...James P. Bliss, Steven A. Minnis, Jeffery Wilkinson, Thomas Mastaglio, & John S. Barnett. April 2011. (ADA543054) The purpose of this report is

  19. Enhancing Preparedness Adoption and Compliance in the Federal Law Enforcement Community Through Financial Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    2010 Thesis Advisor: Lauren Fernandez Second Reader: Samuel Clovis THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Robert Charles Hutchinson Approved by: Lauren Fernandez Thesis Advisor Samuel Clovis Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD... Clovis for his guidance and support as my second reader. Most of all, I would like to thank my wife and children for their support and patience

  20. Asteriod lightcurve analysis at Hunters Hill Observatory and collaborating stations - autumn 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, David; Pravec, Petr; Kusnirak, Peter; Galad, Adrian; Kornos, Leos; Pray, Donald; Koff, Robert A.

    2006-12-01

    Lightcurves for the following asteroids were obtained at Hunters Hill Observatory and one or more collaborating stations: 2195 Tengstrom, 2501 Lohja, 4580 Child, 9423 Abt, (9992) 1997 TG19, (10909) 1997 XB10, (12271) 1998 RC2, (12290) 1991 LZ, 12317 MadiCampbell, (31383) 1998 XJ94, (33116) 1998 BO12, (34442) 2000 SS64.

  1. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  2. US Army Morale, Welfare and Recreation (MWR) Programmes : Links to Readiness and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    retention intentions. See Griffith, 2005. 15 See Bourg & Segal, 1999 ; Burnham, Meredith, Donald-Sherbourne, Burciaga-Valdez & Vernez, 1992 ; Vernez...Associates, 2007. BOURG , Mary C. & Mady W. SEGAL, “The Impact of Family Supportive Policies and Practices on Organizational Commitment to the Army

  3. Expression and Purification of Clostridium botulinum Type B Light Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-26

    Dublin, CA). Construction of the synthetic gene BoNT/B LC Oligonucleotides were designed using the published sequence for Okra C. botulinum structural... Okra (Metabiologics, Madi- son, WI) in gel-phosphate buVer (0.4% dibasic phosphate with 0.2% gelatin). Naïve mice were challenged with the same levels of

  4. Exploring the Dynamic Relationship between the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM) and the Core French Teachers Who Use It: Why Agency and Experience Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, almost 4,000 Canadian schools have moved to using the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM) for core French (CF) instruction. Following researchers' recommendations (Brumfit, 1984; Lapkin, Mady, & Arnott, 2009; Larsen-Freeman, 1996, 2000; Prahbu, 1990), I am shifting the focus in this case study from product to process. In…

  5. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  6. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Cooper, Dawn; Short, Steven M; Myers, Judith H; Suttle, Curtis A

    2002-11-01

    Baculoviruses infect larval lepidopterans, and thus have potential value as microbial controls of agricultural and forest pests. Understanding their genetic relatedness and host specificity is relevant to the risk assessment of viral insecticides if non-target impacts are to be avoided. DNA polymerase gene sequences have been demonstrated to be useful for inferring genetic relatedness among dsDNA viruses. We have adopted this approach to examine the relatedness among natural isolates of two uncharacterized caterpillar-infecting baculoviruses, Malacosoma californicum pluviale nucleopolyhedrovirus (McplMNPV) and Malacosoma disstria nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiMNPV), which infect two closely related host species with little to no cross-infectivity. We designed two degenerate primers (BVP1 and BVP2) based on protein motifs conserved among baculoviruses. McplMNPV and MadiMNPV viral DNA was obtained from naturally infected caterpillars collected from geographically distinct sites in the Southern Gulf Islands and Prince George regions of British Columbia, Canada. Sequencing of 0.9 kb PCR amplicons from six McplMNPV and six MadiMNPV isolates obtained from a total of eight sites, revealed very low nucleotide variation among McplMNPV isolates (99.2-100% nucleotide identity) and among MadiMNPV isolates (98.9-100% nucleotide identity). Greater nucleotide variation was observed between viral isolates from the two different caterpillar species (only 84.7-86.1% nucleotide identity). Both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support placement of McplMNPV and MadiMNPV in a clade that is distinct from other groups of baculoviruses.

  7. Why I Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the author was struck by the "self-centered" readers she encountered in her classroom and at professional conferences--readers who respond to reading by thinking of their own life and experiences. Argues that reading is so much more than a trip into the self. Presents two brief responses, by Lauren L. Wohl and Daniel Hade. (RS)

  8. Childhood Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schweibert, Chuck DeKlyen, and Taylor Bills; and Dinosaurs Divorce by Marc Brown and Laurene Krasny Brown. Most parents have the skills to deal with their child's stress. The time to seek professional attention is when any change in behavior persists, when stress is causing serious anxiety , or ...

  9. "Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    "Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…

  10. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington County... Florence County Georgetown County Greenville County Greenwood County Hampton County Horry County...

  11. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington County... Florence County Georgetown County Greenville County Greenwood County Hampton County Horry County...

  12. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington County... Florence County Georgetown County Greenville County Greenwood County Hampton County Horry County...

  13. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington County... Florence County Georgetown County Greenville County Greenwood County Hampton County Horry County...

  14. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X... Hampton County Horry County Jasper County Kershaw County Lancaster County Laurens County Lee...

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "The Designers' Toolbox: Newsroom Experience and Ideal Characteristics of Newspaper Designers" (Wayne Wanta and Lauren Danner); "Patterned Image of the Homeless: Discourse Analysis of Television News…

  16. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    development for ration and commercial items that deteriorate from Maillard browning effects while in storage. Figure 15: Avocado 96 h after being...MAILLARD BROWNING by Nicole Favreau Farhadi Lauren Pecukonis and Jacqueline LeBlanc December 2013 Final Report...2009- September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATURAL INHIBITORS OF MAILLARD BROWNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  17. Modern Czech Studies. Brown Slavic Contributions, Volume XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Alexander, Ed.; Fidler, Masako U., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The following papers are included: "Responses to the Literature Papers" (Malynne M. Sternstein); "Kitsch and Irony in Kundera: 'The Joke' and 'The Unbearable Lightness of Being'" (Aaron Beaver); "Daniela Fischerova's 'The Message Table': (Lauren McConnell); "Rethinking the Grotesque in Hrabal's Fiction" Carnival…

  18. 76 FR 61666 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program... Broadway, Salt Lake City, UT 84101. Written comments should be sent to Lauren Marshall, USDA Forest Service...

  19. 12th International Congress of Neuroethology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    attendees Amphibian Brains Behavior and Evolution March 29, 2016 Presidencia de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Kim Hoke, USA; Lauren...attendees Neuroethology of Disease Vector Insects March 29, 2016 Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Claudio...29, 2016 Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Walter Farina, Argentina; Jean Marc Devaud, France LOC

  20. Free Speech and GWOT: Back to the Future?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    also Justice O’Conner’s recent reiteration of the same concept in Virginia v. Black, 538 U.S. 343 at 358 (2003): “The hallmark of the protection of...11 (Fall 2003): 75, 94, note 122; Lauren Gilbert, “Mocking George: Political Satire as "True Threat" in the Age of Global Terrorism”, U. Miami L. Rev

  1. Diagnosing and Treating Millennial Student Disillusionment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lauren S. Cardon states that what faculty see as student apathy or disengagement in the millennial generation is due to a number of factors, most of which are associated with the technological revolution. Millennial students are generally resistant to highly abstract material if not given the opportunity to reflect on its…

  2. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric...: (202) 690-0649, or e-mail: lauren.mcgee @wdc.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's...

  3. Library of Congress Gives Teachers Digital Access to All Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchowski, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    "Learning to think is the real goal of educators," said Lauren Resnick, internationally known University of Pittsburgh professor of cognitive science, in mid-March at the Library of Congress (LOC). "The real pedagogical conflict is over what comes first: content or thinking skills?" According to Resnick, new brain research leads to the answer:…

  4. JAXA flight control team gave the Folding Paper Cranes to NASA ISS mission control team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-25

    PHOTO DATE: 3-25-11 LOCATION: Bldg. 30M, FCR-1 SUBJECT: JAXA flight control team gave the Folding Paper Cranes to NASA ISS mission control team and now they are decorated on their consoles. The Folding Paper Cranes are for the people who suffer terrible pain from the earthquake in Japan. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  5. jsc2017e009755

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009755 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL player Sammy Davis (Chargers, 49ers, Buccaneers) checks out a NASA Spacesuit while on tour at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of JSC's Super Bowl Tailgate event the week before the Super Bowl game. NASA PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett.

  6. jsc2017e009669

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009669 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL players sign autographs for Johnson Space Center (JSC) staff members as part of the JSC Super Bowl Tailgate event. The former NFL Prayers were invited to tour JSC as guests of the Center Director the week before the Super Bowl game. NASA Photographer: Lauren Harnett

  7. The Attack of the Pod People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the "Northern Star," a university student newspaper, reporter Lauren Stott began a lyrical note: "It's every student's dream: Wake up for school, stumble over to the computer, and download the day's class lectures ... then crawl back into bed--iPod in one hand, notebook in the other." The object of the student journalist's…

  8. The Power of Expectations: Two Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Laurene E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the power of the word "CAN". The author, Laurene E. Simms reports that as a poor, black, deaf youngster her teacher's facial expressions conveyed their feelings that she was of low IQ and mentally retarded, however two persons had a positive impact on her, her father and 7th grade math teacher. They challenged…

  9. DEVELOP Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    DEVELOP team members at Stennis Space Center for the summer 2007 term are (from left): front row, students Deirdra Boley, Jason Jones, Lauren Childs, Craig Matthews and Denise Spindel; back row, advisers Cheri Miller of NASA, Kenton Ross of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Andra Johnson of Southern University and Roxzana Moore, SSAI.

  10. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  11. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  12. Picturing Economic Childhoods: Agency, Inevitability and Social Class in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…

  13. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  14. Diagnosing and Treating Millennial Student Disillusionment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lauren S. Cardon states that what faculty see as student apathy or disengagement in the millennial generation is due to a number of factors, most of which are associated with the technological revolution. Millennial students are generally resistant to highly abstract material if not given the opportunity to reflect on its…

  15. Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research. 1989 ASCD Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B., Ed.; Klopfer, Leopold E., Ed.

    A project of the Center for the Study of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh, this yearbook combines the two major trends/concerns impacting the future of educational development for the next decade: knowledge and thinking. The yearbook comprises the following chapters: (1) "Toward the Thinking Curriculum: An Overview" (Lauren B.…

  16. New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

  17. DEVELOP students give presentation at Headquarters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-07

    DEVELOP students from Stennis Space Center traveled to NASA's Headquarters in Washington, D.C., to make a presentation on Gulf Coast disaster management. The team included Madeline Brozen (left) and Lauren Childs. They were joined by team member Matthew Batina (not pictured).

  18. DEVELOP Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-07-03

    DEVELOP team members at Stennis Space Center for the summer 2007 term are (from left): front row, students Deirdra Boley, Jason Jones, Lauren Childs, Craig Matthews and Denise Spindel; back row, advisers Cheri Miller of NASA, Kenton Ross of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Andra Johnson of Southern University and Roxzana Moore, SSAI.

  19. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Society for Marine Mammalogy 2013 Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals in New Zealand . Dr. Fahlman’s graduate student Lauren Gonzalez...3. Ward, C., et al., Complement activation involvement in decompression sickness of rabbits . Undersea Biomed Res., 1990. 17: p. 51-66. 4. Thom, S

  20. Hijacking Education Policy Decisions: Ballot Initiatives and the Case of Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Michele Moses and Lauren Saenz explore a growing trend in education policymaking--the ballot initiative. Specifically, the authors question whether information presented to voters is sufficiently substantive to permit educated decisionmaking about influential policies. Their study, a content analysis of print news media related to…

  1. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  2. Reading "Jack."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Draws from the text of "Jack" (a story about a teenager dealing with his father's homosexuality) several narratives from class discussions. Analyzes the teaching and learning in the middle school class and the teacher's role. Presents responses from Patricia Enciso and Lauren Myracle which comment on this article. (PA)

  3. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  4. 76 FR 16732 - Updates to List of National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... governments that collectively enhance conservation of the nation's natural and cultural marine heritage and... conservation gaps in important ocean areas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lauren Wenzel, NOAA, at 301-713... the priority conservation objectives of the Framework. MPAs include sites with a wide range...

  5. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  6. The Cruel Optimism of Education and Education's Implication with "Passing-on"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Paolantonio, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this article I draw on Lauren Berlant's notion of "cruel optimism" to identify and untangle how the prevailing sense of "optimism" in education works against our common hope or collective striving for what is educational in education. In particular, I discuss how the "cruel optimism" that invites individuals to…

  7. One Point Short: Let's Not Define Students by Their Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Lauren Seymour recounts her experience as a first year teacher dealing with a senior who could not pass the math California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through no fault of her own. Math so overwhelmed the student that she shuddered every time her math teacher approached her. Team interventions for this student in both basic operations and…

  8. Reading "Jack."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Draws from the text of "Jack" (a story about a teenager dealing with his father's homosexuality) several narratives from class discussions. Analyzes the teaching and learning in the middle school class and the teacher's role. Presents responses from Patricia Enciso and Lauren Myracle which comment on this article. (PA)

  9. Perspectives for a Diverse America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    Lauren Gallant is committed to making social justice issues part of her U.S. history teaching. An avid user of Teaching Tolerance materials, she's always in search of tools "that help illuminate the subject matter and the human condition." But the Simi Valley High School, Calif., teacher has a typical challenge: There is little time for…

  10. Picturing Economic Childhoods: Agency, Inevitability and Social Class in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…

  11. The Cruel Optimism of Education and Education's Implication with "Passing-on"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Paolantonio, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this article I draw on Lauren Berlant's notion of "cruel optimism" to identify and untangle how the prevailing sense of "optimism" in education works against our common hope or collective striving for what is educational in education. In particular, I discuss how the "cruel optimism" that invites individuals to…

  12. 78 FR 59660 - Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...: Written comments may be sent to Christine Platt Patrick, EE- 2K, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20585, Email: Christine.Platt@ee.doe.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... instructions should be directed to: Lauren Hall, EE-2K, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW...

  13. STS-133/ULF5 Flight Controllers on Console - EVA 1 with Orbit 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-28

    PHOTO DATE: 2-28-11 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 south - FCR-1 & Backrooms SUBJECT: STS-133/ULF5 flight controllers on console during EVA 1 with Orbit 1 Shuttle Flight Director Bryan Lunney and Orbit 2 ISS Flight Director Royce Renfrew PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  14. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  15. Hope in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    When President Barack Obama announced that he would direct the Department of Homeland Security to grant deferred deportation and a work permit for two years to undocumented immigrant youth who meet certain criteria, he renewed hope for a better future for a million young people. Lauren Burke, an adjunct law professor at Brooklyn College of Law and…

  16. Handbook of Diversity in Parent Education: The Changing Faces of Parenting and Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marvin J., Ed.; Lee, Steven W., Ed.

    This collection of papers identifies programs designed to educate and meet the needs of diverse parents. The 16 papers are: (1) "American Families in the 1990s and Beyond" (Dennis H. Karpowitz); (2) "Gender Issues in Parenting: Parenting Teenage Girls" (Lauren Ayers); (3) "Teaching about Sexual Diversity: A New Frontier…

  17. Science and Math Assessment in K-6 Rural and Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 14, Spring 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of journal articles and other resources concerning the assessment of science and math in small, rural elementary schools. Articles include: (1) "Standards, Assessment, and Educational Quality" (Lauren B. Resnick); (2) "A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment" (Grant Wiggins); (3) "How World-Class…

  18. Library of Congress Gives Teachers Digital Access to All Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchowski, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    "Learning to think is the real goal of educators," said Lauren Resnick, internationally known University of Pittsburgh professor of cognitive science, in mid-March at the Library of Congress (LOC). "The real pedagogical conflict is over what comes first: content or thinking skills?" According to Resnick, new brain research leads to the answer:…

  19. Mental Health Issues in Rural Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Karen S., Comp.

    Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health…

  20. jsc2013e100852

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  1. jsc2013e100831

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  2. jsc2013e100873

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  3. jsc2013e100869

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  4. jsc2013e100870

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  5. jsc2013e100844

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  6. jsc2013e100867

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  7. jsc2013e100855

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  8. jsc2013e100827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  9. jsc2013e100843

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-24

    DATE: 12-24-13 LOCATION: Bldg. 30 - FCR-1 (30M/231) SUBJECT: ISS Flight Controllers during Expedition 38's 2nd Spacewalk to repair a faulty ISS Coolant pump with Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins. Flight Director: Dina Contella, Capcom's Doug Wheelock, Aki Hoshide, and Lead U.S. Spacewalk Officer Allison Bolinger. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  10. New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

  11. One Point Short: Let's Not Define Students by Their Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Lauren Seymour recounts her experience as a first year teacher dealing with a senior who could not pass the math California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through no fault of her own. Math so overwhelmed the student that she shuddered every time her math teacher approached her. Team interventions for this student in both basic operations and…

  12. Linking School and Work: Roles for Standards and Assessment. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B., Ed.; Wirt, John G., Ed.

    This book contains 12 papers commissioned by the Secretary's Commission for Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to develop the SCANS recommendations concerning the role of standards and assessment in the transition from school to work. "The Changing Workplace" (Lauren B. Resnick, John G. Wirt) offers a summary of the 12 papers.…

  13. Modern Czech Studies. Brown Slavic Contributions, Volume XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Alexander, Ed.; Fidler, Masako U., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The following papers are included: "Responses to the Literature Papers" (Malynne M. Sternstein); "Kitsch and Irony in Kundera: 'The Joke' and 'The Unbearable Lightness of Being'" (Aaron Beaver); "Daniela Fischerova's 'The Message Table': (Lauren McConnell); "Rethinking the Grotesque in Hrabal's Fiction" Carnival…

  14. The Attack of the Pod People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the "Northern Star," a university student newspaper, reporter Lauren Stott began a lyrical note: "It's every student's dream: Wake up for school, stumble over to the computer, and download the day's class lectures ... then crawl back into bed--iPod in one hand, notebook in the other." The object of the student journalist's…

  15. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  16. Handbook of Diversity in Parent Education: The Changing Faces of Parenting and Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marvin J., Ed.; Lee, Steven W., Ed.

    This collection of papers identifies programs designed to educate and meet the needs of diverse parents. The 16 papers are: (1) "American Families in the 1990s and Beyond" (Dennis H. Karpowitz); (2) "Gender Issues in Parenting: Parenting Teenage Girls" (Lauren Ayers); (3) "Teaching about Sexual Diversity: A New Frontier…

  17. Linking School and Work: Roles for Standards and Assessment. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B., Ed.; Wirt, John G., Ed.

    This book contains 12 papers commissioned by the Secretary's Commission for Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to develop the SCANS recommendations concerning the role of standards and assessment in the transition from school to work. "The Changing Workplace" (Lauren B. Resnick, John G. Wirt) offers a summary of the 12 papers.…

  18. 78 FR 19460 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice...-7265, Fax: 301-713-3110); email: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site...

  19. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open...-3110); e-mail: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at...

  20. Hope in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    When President Barack Obama announced that he would direct the Department of Homeland Security to grant deferred deportation and a work permit for two years to undocumented immigrant youth who meet certain criteria, he renewed hope for a better future for a million young people. Lauren Burke, an adjunct law professor at Brooklyn College of Law and…

  1. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    Lauren Lombard from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans enjoys lettuce she helped to harvest at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility May 7, 2012. The Louisiana students assisted in the first harvest of lettuce from the Controlled Environment Agriculture unit, which uses an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques

  2. CRS Issue Statement on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-11

    JAN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRS Issue Statement on Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Affairs cmigdalovitz@crs.loc.gov, 7-2667 Lauren Ploch Analyst in African Affairs lploch@crs.loc.gov, 7-7640 Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative

  3. Institutional Capacity for Natural Disasters: Methodology for Case Studies in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    power.”22 Here, politicians in democratic environments may be more affected by “electoral myopia ,” in that they invest only in expectation of the...32 Raschky and Schwindt 2009. 33 Cohen and Werker 2008. 34 MacLean, Lauren M.,“State Retrenchment and the Exercise of Citizenship in Africa

  4. Perspectives for a Diverse America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    Lauren Gallant is committed to making social justice issues part of her U.S. history teaching. An avid user of Teaching Tolerance materials, she's always in search of tools "that help illuminate the subject matter and the human condition." But the Simi Valley High School, Calif., teacher has a typical challenge: There is little time for…

  5. Hijacking Education Policy Decisions: Ballot Initiatives and the Case of Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Michele Moses and Lauren Saenz explore a growing trend in education policymaking--the ballot initiative. Specifically, the authors question whether information presented to voters is sufficiently substantive to permit educated decisionmaking about influential policies. Their study, a content analysis of print news media related to…

  6. "Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    "Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…

  7. Using Tests To Evaluate the Impact of Curricular Reform on Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan

    The dominant issues in considering the use of tests developed outside the classroom to measure the impact of curriculum reform on higher order thinking are reviewed by a panel interviewed for this discussion. Panel members are: (1) Stuart Kahl, (2) Robert Linn, (3) Senta A. Raizen, (4) Lauren Resnick, and (5) Thomas A. Romberg. It is conceded…

  8. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  9. Upper Ocean Response to Tropical Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, E.; Waterhouse, A. F.; St Laurent, L.; Moum, J. N.; Sharma, R.; Mahadevan, A.; Wijesekera, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean response to tropical cyclones is detailed using moored and shipboard observations collected in the Bay of Bengal during November - December 2013. Shipboard measurements were coincident with the passage of Cyclone Madi, a very severe cyclone with greater than 60 knot winds and rainfall rate in excess of 80 mm/hr. Cyclone Madi developed over the west central Bay before dissipating offshore of Sri Lanka in mid-December. Enhanced mixing and generation of near-inertial waves were observed as the cyclone intensified. The mixing signature, which included a reduction in upper ocean stratification, was notable 100s of kilometers from the cyclone center. Apart from the cyclone, the observed mixing in the Bay of Bengal was weak, suggesting a typically quiescent environment that may primarily experience significant turbulent mixing during isolated but intense events.

  10. Monthly errors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Ran, L., J. Pleim, R. Gilliam, F. Binkowski, C. Hogrefe, and L. Band. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 121(5): 2393-2415, (2016).

  11. jsc2017e009678

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009678 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL player Mickey Washington (New England Patriots, Washington Redskins, Buffalo Bills, Jacksonville Jaguars, and New Orleans Saints) provides a picture opportunity for a Johnson Space Center staff member during the JSC Super Bowl Tailgate event. Many former NFL players attended the event that included a tour of Mission Control and other JSC areas. NASA Photographer Lauren Harnett.

  12. jsc2017e009671

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009671 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL player Emanuel McNeil (New England Patriots and New York Jets) provides a photo opportunity for a Johnson Space Center(JSC) Staff Member in front of the NASA Mars Rover image. Emanuel is touring JSC as part of the Super Bowl tailgate event. The JSC Center Director invited former NFL players during the week leading up to the Super Bowl. NASA Photographer Lauren Harnett.

  13. STS-130 Nationals Park Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-20

    The crew of STS-130 present the principal owner of the Washington Nationals, Debra Lerner Cohen (holding montage) with a montage of their mission, Tuesday, April 20, 2010 at Nationals Park in Washington. From left are seen Commander George Zamka, Mission Specialist Nicholas Patrick, Pilot Terry Virts, Debra Lerner Cohen, Edward Cohen, Mission Specialist Kathryn Hire, Mission Specialist Robert Behnken, Lauren Lerner, Jacob Lerner and Alan Gottlieb. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Information Acquisition and Representation Methods for Real-Time Asset Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Frazier, W. B. Powell, S. Dayanik and P. Kantor , “Approximate Dynamic Programming in Knowledge Discovery for Rapid Response,” HICSS Conference...Meeting, Washington D.C., 2008 (with Lauren Hannah and Jeffrey Stewart) 11. “A Dynamic Energy Resource Modeling System,” Informs Annual Meeting...Washington D.C., 2008 (with Abraham George, Alan Lamont and Jeffrey Stewart). 12. “One-Stage R&D Portfolio Optimization with an Application to Solid

  15. Opportunities for DOD Use of Alternative and Renewable Fuels: FY10 NDAA Section 334 Congressional Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Microalgae ,” Biotechnology Advances, February 2007. a Converted from liters/hectare. As Figure 6-4 shows, algal oils can be used to produce a variety of...Biofuels Technology Roadmap, 2010; Chisti, Yusuf, Biodiesel from Microalgae , Biotechnology Advances, February 2007. a Converted from liters/hectare...37 Peter J. le B. Williams and Lieve M. L. Laurens, “ Microalgae as biodiesel & biomass feedstocks: Review & analysis of the biochemistry

  16. Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data (with Supplementary Materials)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses , Lassa virus , Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus , Rift Valley fever virus , dengue virus , and yellow fever virus ...Page 1 of 32 Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre-Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data Lauren Milechin1, Shakti Davis1...sub-clinical physiological markers. Using high-resolution physiological data from non-human primate studies of Ebola and Marburg viruses , we pre

  17. Fifty years of Chemical Physics Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2017-09-01

    Chemical Physics Letters was born in 1967. In the first Number, published in February that year, the Founding Editors, Jan Hoytink and Laurens Jansen, stipulated that the journal would be truly international and that all submitted papers will be refereed. The aim was to provide a convenient means for the rapid dissemination of research results in the field of chemical physics. There would be an emphasis on theoretical interpretation. This article reviews the progress of the journal over its first fifty years.

  18. Not Out of Control: Analysis of the Federal Disaster Spending Trend

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    explosion” in this fire type category. Of note, the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building in Oklahoma is recorded in the “human cause...ANALYSIS OF THE FEDERAL DISASTER SPENDING TREND by Suzanne Boccia March 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Lauren F. Wollman Glen Woodbury...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NOT OUT OF CONTROL: ANALYSIS OF THE FEDERAL DISASTER SPENDING TREND 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,* Laurens E. Howle† and Mark M. Murray§ Department of Biology, West Chester University...the flow of water around the body dictates the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals ...and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic design of engineered structures

  20. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    cheering me on as the program has unfolded. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND Natural disasters continue to...Lauren Fernandez THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public...ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii

  1. jsc2014e054627

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  2. jsc2014e054614

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  3. jsc2014e054610

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  4. jsc2014e054616

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  5. jsc2014e054589

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  6. jsc2014e054613

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    DATE: 5-28-14 LOCATION: Bldg 30, FCR-1 SUBJECT: ISS flight directors David Korth and Tomas Gonzales-Torres and controllers on console in FCR-1 during the docking of Expedition 40/41 Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, Soyuz Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency to the space station in a Soyuz spacecraft PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  7. Syllabus Design and Manner of Delivery Impacts on Content Memory and Impressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    for submission of article at Tab I to the Journal of Effective Teaching 2. BACKGROUND. Tab I : Authors: C IC Jasmine Leyro (soon to be 2L T) and Dr...So TL research project conducted by Jasmine Leyro and Dr. Scharff during Spring 2013 that investigated how targeted content location (beginning vs...and Impressions Jasmine G. Leyro Lauren V. Scharff U. S. Air Force Academy Author Note We recognize and thank David J. Heaphy for his

  8. Developing a Methodology for Risk-Informed Trade-Space Analysis in Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Craig A. Bond, Lauren A. Mayer, Michael E. McMahon, James G. Kallimani, Ricardo Sanchez Developing a Methodology for Risk- Informed Trade -Space...Methodology for Risk-Informed Trade -Space Analysis in Acquisition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...project “Developing a Method- ology Framework for Conducting Risk-Informed Trade Space Analy- ses.” The primary objective of this study was to

  9. Improbable Success: Risk Communication and the Terrorism Hazard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    to communicate warnings. Various competing media outlets would broadcast varied messages based upon the facts they received from DHS or other...RISK COMMUNICATION AND THE TERRORISM HAZARD by Anthony A. Cox March 2010 Thesis Advisor: Lauren F. Wollman Second Reader: Ellen M...SUBTITLE Improbable Success: Risk Communication and the Terrorism Hazard 6. AUTHOR(S) Anthony A. Cox 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING

  10. Creating Common Space in Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief: Best Practices for the Operational Commander to Ensure Unity of Effort between Military and Non-Military Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    and Rawle O. King, Piracy off the Horn of Africa (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 28 September 2009), 20-21, and NATO Shipping...Special report. Miami, FL: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, 2010. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/VVOS- 8CZN2L?OpenDocument&RSS20...United States Institute of Peace Press, 2007. Ploch, Lauren, Christopher M. Blanchard, Ronald O’Rourke, R. Chuck Mason, and Rawle O. King. Piracy

  11. Health Security Intelligence: Assessing the Nascent Public Health Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    construction and other environmental changes; write technical proposals ; and give presentations to managers and regulators (U.S. Department of...environments, contacts within the first response community at the SLTT level, experience writing reports , making educated assessments and deciding on...Lauren Wolllman THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this

  12. Rewriting History: Historical Research With the Digital Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    at virtually no cost to the user. The digital pen looks and writes like a regular ballpoint pen but operates using an integrated digital camera...Rewriting History: Historical Research with the Digital Pen Molly Marshall, Major, ANG Lauren Scharff, Ph.D. Institute for...a digital pen for note taking in the classroom. The Department of History offers a Historiography and Methods class (History 330), where cadets

  13. Electrostatic Control of Protein-Surface Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-21

    2012 4.00 Annette F. Raigoza, Lauren J. Webb. Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy ...Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy .” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 19354-19357. b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed...ambient scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We were motivated to perform these experiments in order to look for large-scale heterogeneities in our

  14. Labor Market Impediments to Stability in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    International Labor Organization, 1972). 39. Alejandro Portes, Manuel Castells and Lauren Benton eds., The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and...conducted over the period October 17 to December 3, 2004 ) of 454 Iraqi owners or managers of small-to-medium sized registered businesses (less than one...Crisis Group, September 2, 2004 . 2. Robert Looney, “Iraq as a Transition Country,” The Milken Institute Review 6, no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 2004 ), 14-23

  15. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    SUBTITLE Zimbabwe 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...critics. The United States has enforced targeted sanctions against top Zimbabwe officials and associates since 2002. This report provides background...government, and other current events, please see CRS Report RL34509, Zimbabwe : The Power Sharing Agreement and Implications for U.S. Policy, by Lauren

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Norovirus GII.4_2006b, a Variant of Minerva 2006.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihui; Mammel, Mark K; Kulka, Michael

    2016-01-28

    In 2006, the National Calicivirus Laboratory at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed multistate outbreaks of norovirus infection and identified two new GII.4 norovirus strains (Minerva and Laurens) through partial sequencing of the major capsid (VP1) gene. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of the GII.4 Minerva isolate. Copyright © 2016 Yang et al.

  17. Identification of Alternatives to Reduce Shoaling in the Lower Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    ERDC/TN RSM-17-1 June 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Regional Sediment Management: Integrated Solutions for...Campbell, Matt Duke, Leslie Olson, Lauren Dunkin, and Lihwa Lin PURPOSE: The purpose of this U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regional Sediment...Management Technical Note (RSM-TN) is to document the development of a regional sediment budget and to investigate design alternatives to reduce

  18. The Role of Elaborations in Learning a Skill from an Instructional Text: Further Findings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-28

    Steven Pinker Physics Department Department of Psychology University of California E10-018 Berkeley, CA 94720 M.I.T. Cambridge, MA 02139 Dr. Lauren...Colorado Alexandria, VA 22311 Department of Psychology Boulder, CO 80309 Lt. Col. (Dr.) David Payne AFHRL Dr. Steven E. Poltrock Brooks AFB, TX 78235 MCC...02238 Box 11A, Yale Station New Haven, CT 06520 Dr. Robert A. Wisher U.S. Army Institute for the Dr. Albert Stevens Behavioral and Social Sciences Bolt

  19. Access to Behavioral Health Care for Geographically Remote Service Members and Dependents in the U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    as MTF Remote. Forty miles in euclidean distance is, of course, quite different from a 30-minute drive time. Using Arc-GIS, we identified ZIP codes...general rule, such an area includes any ZIP codes that touch a 40-mile euclidean dis- tance perimeter—with the addition of geographic exceptions not...Press Workshop Summary,” 2012. Iversen, Amy C., Lauren van Staden, Jamie H. Hughes, Neil Greenberg , Matthew Hotopf, Roberto J. Rona, Graham

  20. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-29

    Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...ll.mit.edu Abstract—The 3Vs - Volume, Velocity and Variety - of Big Data continues to be a large challenge for systems and algorithms designed to store... big data in Section II, followed by a description of the analytic environment D4M in Section III. We then describe the types of sampling methods and

  1. NASA Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-21

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lauren Worley kicks off the second day of the NASA Future Forum at The Ohio State University on Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2012 in Columbus, Ohio. The NASA Future Forum features panel discussions on the importance of education to our nation's future in space, the benefit of commercialized space technology to our economy and lives here on Earth, and the shifting roles for the public, commercial and international communities in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Also Known as Indonesia: Notes on the Javanese Empire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    or those who wish to appear so. Indonesia’s yuppies, known locally as Indoyups, have made a new religion out of worshipping designer logos . It has...by brand and logo (the bigger and brighter the logo , the better). So, while American old-money eschews labels and dresses down, young Japanese...tourists shuffle about in Ferragamo shoes, dreadful Burberry-plaid skirts, scarves or hats, Ralph Lauren shirts and brass- logo Gucci handbags—all worn at

  3. Structural basis for the specific recognition of the major antigenic peptide from the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 by HLA-DP5.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Seisuke; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Satta, Yoko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Ikeda, Mariko; Terada, Takaho; Yamamoto, Ken; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-08-26

    The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.

  4. A new method for quality control of Chinese rawinsonde wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie; Wang, Bin; Li, Qingxiang

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) developed its real-time quality control (QC) system of rawinsonde observations coming from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and established the Global Upper-air Report Dataset, which, with the NMIC B01 format, is generally referred to as the B01 dataset and updated on a daily basis. However, when the B01 dataset is applied in climate analysis, some wind errors as well as some accurate values with incorrect error marks are found. To improve the quality and usefulness of Chinese rawinsonde wind observations, a new QC method (NewQC) is proposed in this paper. Different from the QC approach used for B01 datasets, the NewQC includes two vertical-wind-shear checks to analyze the vertical consistency of winds, in which the constant height level winds are used as reference data for the QC of mandatory pressure level winds. Different threshold values are adopted in the wind shear checks for different stations and different vertical levels. Several typical examples of QC of different error types by the new algorithm are shown and its performance with respect to 1980-2008 observational data is statistically evaluated. Compared with the radiosonde QC algorithms used in both the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS, http://madis.noaa.gov/madis_raob_qc.html) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the B01 dataset, the NewQC shows higher accuracy and better reliability, particularly when used to judge successive observation errors.

  5. Research of Lakhtin's school on advanced processes of surface hardening of machine parts and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Ya. D.

    2010-11-01

    This paper is written by Yakov Davidovich Kogan, a known metal scientist, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, disciple and co-worker of Yu. M. Lakhtin. Ya. D. Kogan has worked for over 30 years at the department of physical metallurgy and heat treatment of the MADI and was in fact Lakhtin's deputy for science. Analysis of research works of the school of Y. M. Lakhtin in the field of surface hardening at the dawn of the 20th and 21st centuries is presented. The processes of thermochemical treatment and modern equipment created on the basis of Lakhtin's researches are described.

  6. Geothermics of Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean: Investigation and geothermal energy potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zein El-Din, M.Y.; Zaghloul, Z.M.; Khidr, I.H. )

    1988-08-01

    The authors collected 289 temperature readings from 66 exploratory wells randomly distributed in an area about 57,000 km{sup 2} from different rock units of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) readings were corrected using an empirical equation based on actual static formation temperatures collected from the study area. The authors modified the Fertl and Wichmann method to apply to the study area. If the Fertl and Wichmann curve is applied, readings can be corrected using a deduced relation. The geothermal gradient for each well calculated used the best-fit method utilizing all recorded BHTs in that well. A new geothermal gradient map was constructed using the corrected BHT values. A genetic relationship between the geothermal gradient and lithology, tectonic setup, gas saturation, and water saturation of the subsurface formations in the Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean area was sought. Isothermal maps at different depths in the study area were constructed. Areas of relatively high subsurface temperature were delineated. The Abu Madi gas field as a case study for geothermal behavior was emphasized. The geothermal reservoirs in the study area as possible new and renewable energy resources were defined and classified as low-temperature reservoirs. Two geothermal reservoirs have been recorded: a shallow one associated with Mit Ghamr-El Wastani rock units and a deep one associated with abu Madi-Qawassim Formations.

  7. Spectral computed tomography in advanced gastric cancer: Can iodine concentration non-invasively assess angiogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Ke; Liang, Pan; Chai, Ya-Ru; Chen, Kui-Sheng; Gao, Jian-Bo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the correlation of iodine concentration (IC) generated by spectral computed tomography (CT) with micro-vessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). METHODS Thirty-four advanced GC patients underwent abdominal enhanced CT in the gemstone spectral imaging mode. The IC of the primary lesion in the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) were measured, and were then normalized against that in the aorta to provide the normalized IC (nIC). MVD and VEGF were detected by immunohistochemical assays, using CD34 and VEGF-A antibodies, respectively. Correlations of nIC with MVD, VEGF, and clinical-pathological features were analyzed. RESULTS Both nICs correlated linearly with MVD and were higher in the primary lesion site than in the normal control site, but were not correlated with VEGF expression. After stratification by clinical-pathological subtypes, nIC-AP showed a statistically significant correlation with MVD, particularly in the group with tumors at stage T4, without nodular involvement, of a mixed Lauren type, where the tumor was located at the antrum site, and occurred in female individuals. nIC-VP showed a positive correlation with MVD in the group with the tumor at stage T4 and above, had nodular involvement, was poorly differentiated, was located at the pylorus site, of a mixed and diffused Lauren subtype, and occurred in male individuals. nIC-AP and nIC-VP showed significant differences in terms of histological differentiation and Lauren subtype. CONCLUSION The IC detected by spectral CT correlated with the MVD. nIC-AP and nIC-VP can reflect angiogenesis in different pathological subgroups of advanced GC. PMID:28321168

  8. Spectral computed tomography in advanced gastric cancer: Can iodine concentration non-invasively assess angiogenesis?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Ke; Liang, Pan; Chai, Ya-Ru; Chen, Kui-Sheng; Gao, Jian-Bo

    2017-03-07

    To investigate the correlation of iodine concentration (IC) generated by spectral computed tomography (CT) with micro-vessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). Thirty-four advanced GC patients underwent abdominal enhanced CT in the gemstone spectral imaging mode. The IC of the primary lesion in the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) were measured, and were then normalized against that in the aorta to provide the normalized IC (nIC). MVD and VEGF were detected by immunohistochemical assays, using CD34 and VEGF-A antibodies, respectively. Correlations of nIC with MVD, VEGF, and clinical-pathological features were analyzed. Both nICs correlated linearly with MVD and were higher in the primary lesion site than in the normal control site, but were not correlated with VEGF expression. After stratification by clinical-pathological subtypes, nIC-AP showed a statistically significant correlation with MVD, particularly in the group with tumors at stage T4, without nodular involvement, of a mixed Lauren type, where the tumor was located at the antrum site, and occurred in female individuals. nIC-VP showed a positive correlation with MVD in the group with the tumor at stage T4 and above, had nodular involvement, was poorly differentiated, was located at the pylorus site, of a mixed and diffused Lauren subtype, and occurred in male individuals. nIC-AP and nIC-VP showed significant differences in terms of histological differentiation and Lauren subtype. The IC detected by spectral CT correlated with the MVD. nIC-AP and nIC-VP can reflect angiogenesis in different pathological subgroups of advanced GC.

  9. Order of Battle of the United States Army World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-01

    Lt Col Forrest- C-araway Lt Col Lauren W Merriam Lt Col- Harry ;S Messec • Maj David Y Hurwitz Lt Col Thomas E Briggs . Lt ’Col Benjamin J Tarpani...1945 ,ND AND ST,.FF Ifej Gen Stanley E Reinhart Brig Gen John E .Copeland Brig Gen Ronald C Brock Col William J Epes Lt Col David H ^rp • Lt Col...3 Pearl Snyder, Tec 5 Jvtrett D. Clodfeltcr, Tec 3 Lewis W. Furda, Sgt Frank J. Beyer, Pfc Thomas R. Jurrss-, Pfo David A, Sherv/ood, Pfc Leonard L

  10. Soul whisperers.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kathryn

    2011-09-01

    Personal recollections are offered in reflection upon the tragedy of 9/11. The outreach efforts of the Blanton-Peale Institute in conjunction with the Health Care Chaplaincy of New York and the Red Cross are recalled by CEO Emeritus, Kathryn Madden. A brief clinical study describes the responses of a young man who was one of only a few persons to make it out of the North Tower from above the 85th floor. Blanton-Peale's Benefit Honorees Brian Clark, Lauren and Greg Manning are named as survivors of the tragedy. Their courage enables the rest of us to still dream of hope.

  11. Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2009 Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-09

    veterans population and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. As a result of the increase in the number of claims, the average processing...Military in Africa, by Lauren Ploch. 27 If the same percentage were projected on the entire U.S. population of approximately 350 million, the U.S. military...These moves onto the island are expected to be complete by 2014 and will increase the military-associated population from 14,000 to approximately 39,000

  12. SWARMS: Scalable sWarms of Autonomous Robots and Mobile Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-18

    Dorfler 1.00 Seungkook Yun 1.00 Lauren White 1.00 Michael Conrad Zargham 0.72 12.91FTE Equivalent : 24Total Number: Names of Post Doctorates...0.18 Ethan Stump 0.21 Edward Steager 0.83 Haldun Komsuoglu 0.20 5.64FTE Equivalent : 10Total Number: Names of Faculty Supported National Academy...1.05FTE Equivalent : 13Total Number: Names of Under Graduate students supported DisciplinePERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME Michael Shomin 0.22 Mechanical

  13. KSC-2012-1809

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-16

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – In celebration of Women’s History Month, iconic women from NASA Kennedy Space Center’s past and present participate in a panel discussion, “50 Years of Progress--Celebrating the Women of Kennedy Space Center,” in the IMAX 2 Theater at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. From left are Judy Kersey, Carol Craig, astronaut Nicole Stott, Patty Stratton, Wanda Harding, Dr. Merri Sanchez, Kathleen Harer, and moderator Lauren Rowe of News Channel 6. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/kennedy. Photo credit: NASA/Gianni Woods

  14. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    Ceremony participants prepare to cut the ribbon on the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility April 11, 2012. Participating in the ceremony were (l to r): Gulfport Mayor and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Chairman George Schloegel; U.S. Rep. Steven Palazzo, R-Miss.; U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker, R-Miss.; Roy S. Estess granddaughter Lauren McKay; Mississippi Gov. Phil Bryant; Leo Seal Jr. grandson Leo Seal IV; Stennis Director Patrick Scheuermann; U.S. Sen. Thad Cochran, R-Miss.; NASA Chief of Staff David Radzanowski; and Apollo 13 astronaut and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Vice Chairman Fred Haise.

  15. Field induced aggregation in electrorheological suspension: kernel form and self similar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimouni, Zineb; Limage, René

    2009-05-01

    Within the framework of the study of the fibrillation mechanism in an electrorheological (ER) suspension, this work presents a comparison between the self similar solutions when the kernel is K i, j ~ ( i -1 + j -1) and the behaviour of the chains growth. Till now, the field induced chains formation has only been studied by numerical or experimental methods. The work of Fournier and Laurençot (Communications in Mathematical Physics 256 2005) on the Smoluchowski’s equation allows us to present an analytical solution for the field induced pearl chains in a colloidal ER suspension.

  16. [Expression of Versican and its clinical significance in gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yang, Miling; Wang, Lifeng; Yang, Jinhua; Yang, Guangying

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the expression of Versican in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with tumor angiogenesis. Protein expression of Versican, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (EliVision method) in 80 cases of gastric carcinoma and 30 samples of normal gastric tissue. There were statistically significant differences in the expression of Versican, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 between gastric carcinoma and normal gastric tissue (P < 0.05). The expression of Versican was seen mainly in fibroblasts of the tumor and was correlated with tumor differentiation, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was primarily seen in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and correlated with tumor differentiation, clinical stage, Lauren classification and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). MVD was correlated with tumor differentiation, clinical stage, Lauren classification, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). In addition, positive correlation of Versican and VEGF protein expression was found in tumor cells (r = 0.467, P < 0.01). The expression of both Versican and vascular endothelial growth factor is closely associated with tumor angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma.

  17. Time trend analysis of gastric cancer incidence in Japan by histological types, 1975-1989

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, S; Yoshimura, T

    2001-01-01

    Since different histological types (HT) of gastric cancer (GC) may differ in their aetiology, time trend analysis by HT may afford an insight into aetiology. From the Gastric Cancer Registry of Japan, 161 067 cases diagnosed were retrieved between 1975 and 1989 to calculate the annual relative frequencies, stratified by age group and sex, of HT according to the Lauren and the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC) classifications. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates by HT were estimated by multiplying the corresponding national cancer incidence rates of GC by the relative frequencies. Logistic regression models stratified by sex and age group were fitted to determine the time trends of HT. Using the Lauren classification, a decreasing trend of the intestinal type and a stable trend of the diffuse type were found. By the JRSGC classification, significant decreasing trends for most age groups were found for papillary and mucinous adenocarcinomas. Tubular adenocarcinomas (well differentiated type) showed a decreasing trend only in younger age groups. Tubular (moderately differentiated type), poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, and signet ring cell carcinoma were statistically stable during the period. Considering changes in lifestyles of the Japanese, the result suggests that there are three aetiological types of GC. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161407

  18. Justice at the margins: witches, poisoners, and social accountability in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be 'witches' or 'poisoners' among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting 'traditional' approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer.

  19. Justice at the Margins: Witches, Poisoners, and Social Accountability in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be ‘witches’ or ‘poisoners’ among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting ‘traditional’ approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer. PMID:25358097

  20. First Findings in the Route of the Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Within Its Vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    González, J García; Ossamu Tanaka, F A; Spotti Lopes, J R

    2016-04-01

    In the pathosystem of Dalbulus madis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP), the interactions occurring during the passage, invasion, and multiplication of the phytoplasma inside the vector body have been generalized from other pathosystems, with a poor understanding of the specific interactions. With the aim to understand MBSP movement and potential specific interactions with its vector, D. maidis adults were dissected to obtain the intestine and salivary gland of both infected (acquisition access period=4 d; latent period=23 d) and noninfected individuals. The organs were processed for visualization with transmission electronic microscopy. Images of phytoplasma cells were observed in the alimentary canal, epithelium of the mesenteron, hemocele, and salivary gland of the vector, and were confirmed through observation of similar cells in maize roots with advanced disease symptoms. The study of the MBSP movement within its vector shows novel findings between the synergy of the MBSP phytoplasma and D. maidis.

  1. Spectral implementation of some quantum algorithms by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil

    2004-10-01

    Quantum information processing has been effectively demonstrated on a small number of qubits by nuclear magnetic resonance. An important subroutine in any computing is the readout of the output. "Spectral implementation" originally suggested by Z. L. Madi, R. Bruschweiler, and R. R. Ernst [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10603 (1999)], provides an elegant method of readout with the use of an extra "observer" qubit. At the end of computation, detection of the observer qubit provides the output via the multiplet structure of its spectrum. In spectral implementation by two-dimensional experiment the observer qubit retains the memory of input state during computation, thereby providing correlated information on input and output, in the same spectrum. Spectral implementation of Grover's search algorithm, approximate quantum counting, a modified version of Berstein-Vazirani problem, and Hogg's algorithm are demonstrated here in three- and four-qubit systems.

  2. Activation of Reactive MALDI Adduct Ions Enables Differentiation of Dihydroxylated Vitamin D Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam J.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin D compounds are secosteroids, which are best known for their role in bone health. More recent studies have shown that vitamin D metabolites and catabolites such as dihydroxylated species (e.g., 1,25- and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) play key roles in the pathologies of various diseases. Identification of these isomers by mass spectrometry is challenging and currently relies on liquid chromatography, as the isomers exhibit virtually identical product ion spectra under collision induced dissociation conditions. Here, we developed a simple MALDI-CID method that utilizes ion activation of reactive analyte/matrix adducts to distinguish isomeric dihydroxyvitamin D3 species, without the need for chromatography separation or chemical derivatization techniques. Specifically, reactive 1,5-diaminonaphthalene adducts of dihydroxyvitamin D3 compounds formed during MADI were activated and specific cleavages in the secosteroid's backbone structure were achieved that produced isomer-diagnostic fragment ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Implementation of a quality control system for the Automatic Weather Stations Network from CPTEC/INPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A.; Almeida, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    The observations from INPE's Automatic Weather Stations Network are available for free distribution in the CPTEC webpage just after its processing. Because the automated meteorological stations can report in a high temporal frequency and its quantity is growing, they will be more important over the time. To keep the quality of the distributed data and to help the network management it is needed a complex automated quality control system. To meet these objectives we installed in the CPTEC/INPE the quality control system from MADIS (Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System). A software developed by the Forecast Systems Laboratory, from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). In this paper we describe this QC system and the results.

  4. Functional Description of Inventory Replenishment Model for the Regional Hazardous Material Management System (RHMMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-29

    204581 66401,LI,20- 1582 I 664)LLL204583 66-10LL1 .204584- 6640L1.1,20-1585 66401..120-1586 1 664011204587 (640LIL2o4581 I 6640LLL204589 66401I.LU2045󈨞 1...k 71501101’ 724 iRI I I FN( " N UN ’ F ISI 1[: 17 . AOl’ • Forecasted Dem/anld l ,Date Actual--,Omand a0 a=0.3 a=0.6 0a= .U 7194 4 n /a i•a n/a n /a...Absoh’jte, Deviationl (MADI) D abe Actual Dum amid A-0.1 a --0. 3 a=0 ,6 il=0.9/ 7194 1182 n3a n/a 30a rl9;i8 8/94 0 1182 6 1020 138 1182 9/94 118/ 1178 1179

  5. Simultaneous effects of photo- and radio- darkening in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Duchez, Jean-Bernard Mady, Franck Mebrouk, Yasmine Benabdesselam, Mourad

    2014-10-21

    We present original characterizations of photo-radio-darkening in ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers submitted to the simultaneous action of the pump and of an ionizing radiation. We present the interplay between both radiations, showing e.g. that the pump is able to darken or bleach the fiber depending on the ionizing dose. The photo-resistance of the fiber is shown to play a crucial role on its radio-resistance, and that photo-resistant fibers should be also radio-resistant in low dose rate conditions. All the results are thoroughly explained by a physical model presented in a separate article by Mady et al. (this conference proceeding)

  6. The role of pre-existing Precambrian structures and thermal anomaly in rift initiation and evolution-the Albertine and Rhino Grabens in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katumwehe, Andrew Bushekwire

    We integrated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Models, airborne magnetic, radiometric, three-dimensional Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry and Satellite gravity data to investigate the role of Precambrian structures in the evolution of the amagmatic Albertine-Rhino Grabens. The northern part of the Albertine-Rhino Graben extends within Mesoproterozoic Madi-Igisi fold belt wedged between two cratonic blocks. The southwestern part of the Albertine-Rhino Graben and the Edward-George Rift (EGR) extends within the Rwenzori and Kibara-Karagwe-Ankole orogenic belts. These extensional structures are separated by the ˜5 km high Rwenzori Mountains and represent the northern segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. No expression of surface volcanic activities is observed within the Albertine-Rhino Graben except the Toro-Ankole (TAVF) volcanic fields that are found within the EGR. Our results suggest that: (1) Strain localization, strain transfer, rift segmentation as well as rift termination against the Aswa Shear Zone (ASZ) as due to the presence of different Precambrian structures. (2) The ASZ extent is ˜550 km in Uganda and South Sudan with a wider (˜50 km) deformation belt and its evolution was due to E-W to NE-SW oblique collision between East and West Gondwana with strain localized at the boundary between the Saharan Metacraton and the Northern Uganda Terrane. (3) Rift initiation in the Albertine-Rhino Graben is associated with a thermal structure that shows shallow CPD and high heat flow beneath the EGR and TAVF. We observed a localized thin crust beneath the Rwenzori Mountains, the western Albertine border fault, EGR and TAVF due to the removal of sub-continental lithospheric mantle as a result of delamination. The northward migration of the mantle fluids within lithospheric scale Madi-Igisi Fold and Thrust Belt facilitated strain localization during Albertine-Rhino rift initiation.

  7. Sensitivity of WRF precipitation field to assimilation sources in northeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzana, Jesús; Merino, Andrés; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) of precipitation is a challenge. Models predict precipitation after solving many physical processes. In particular, mesoscale NWP models have different parameterizations, such as microphysics, cumulus or radiation schemes. These facilitate, according to required spatial and temporal resolutions, precipitation fields with increasing reliability. Nevertheless, large uncertainties are inherent to precipitation forecasting. Consequently, assimilation methods are very important. The Atmospheric Physics Group at the University of León in Spain and the Castile and León Supercomputing Center carry out daily weather prediction based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. Forecasts of severe precipitation affecting the Ebro Valley, in the southern Pyrenees range of northeastern Spain, are crucial in the decision-making process for managing reservoirs or initializing runoff models. These actions can avert floods and ensure uninterrupted economic activity in the area. We investigated a set of cases corresponding to intense or severe precipitation patterns, using a rain gauge network. Simulations were performed with a dual objective, i.e., to analyze forecast improvement using a specific assimilation method, and to study the sensitivity of model outputs to different types of assimilation data. A WRF forecast model initialized by an NCEP SST analysis was used as the control run. The assimilation was based on the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) developed by NOAA. The MADIS data used were METAR, maritime, ACARS, radiosonde, and satellite products. The results show forecast improvement using the suggested assimilation method, and differences in the accuracy of forecast precipitation patterns varied with the assimilation data source.

  8. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  9. Angular fluctuations of a multi-component order describe the pseudogap regime of the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir

    2014-03-01

    The hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors enter the pseudogap regime as their superconducting critical temperature, Tc, falls with decreasing hole density. Experiments have probed this regime for over two decades, but we argue that decisive new information has emerged from recent X-ray scattering experiments. The experiments observe incommensurate charge density wave fluctuations whose strength rises gradually over a wide temperature range above Tc, but then decreases as the temperature is lowered below Tc. We propose a theory in which the superconducting and charge-density wave orders exhibit angular fluctuations in a 6-dimensional space. The theory provides a natural quantitative fit to the X-ray data, and is consistent with other observed characteristics of the pseudogap. Results will also be presented on the microscopic origins of these order parameters. Work in collaboration with Lauren Hayward, Roger Melko, David Hawthorn, and Jay Sau.

  10. NASA DEVELOP students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-08

    NASA DEVELOP students at Stennis Space Center recently held a midterm review with George Crozier, who serves as a science adviser to the team. The team also was joined by Jamie Favors of the Mobile (Ala.) County Health Department DEVELOP Team; Cheri Miller, the team's NASA adviser; and Kenton Ross, a team science adviser. Students participating in the meeting included: Lauren Childs, Jason Jones, Maddie Brozen, Matt Batina, Jenn Frey, Angie Maki and Aaron Brooks. The primary purpose of the meeting was to update Crozier on the status of the team's work for the summer 2008 term and discuss plans for the fiscal year 2009 project proposal. This included discussion of a possible project to study the effects of hurricanes on the Florida panhandle. DEVELOP is a NASA-sponsored, student-led, student-run program focused on developing projects to help communities.

  11. NASA DEVELOP students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA DEVELOP students at Stennis Space Center recently held a midterm review with George Crozier, who serves as a science adviser to the team. The team also was joined by Jamie Favors of the Mobile (Ala.) County Health Department DEVELOP Team; Cheri Miller, the team's NASA adviser; and Kenton Ross, a team science adviser. Students participating in the meeting included: Lauren Childs, Jason Jones, Maddie Brozen, Matt Batina, Jenn Frey, Angie Maki and Aaron Brooks. The primary purpose of the meeting was to update Crozier on the status of the team's work for the summer 2008 term and discuss plans for the fiscal year 2009 project proposal. This included discussion of a possible project to study the effects of hurricanes on the Florida panhandle. DEVELOP is a NASA-sponsored, student-led, student-run program focused on developing projects to help communities.

  12. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-27

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  13. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  14. jsc2017e009735

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009735 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL players on tour of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Centers Super Bowl tailgate event gathered together in front of JSC's Mission Control. The former players toured JSC in the week before the Super Bowl game. Kneeling front left: Kerry Henderson (NY Jets), Joe Wesley (49ers, Jaguars), First standing row, left: Ronald Humphrey (IN Colts), James Williams (Saints, Jag, 49ers, Browns), Emanuel McNeil (NY Jets), Sammy Davis (Chargers, 49ers, Buccaneers), Daryl Gaines (KC Chiefs, Cris Calloway (Giants, Steelers, Falcons, Patriots), Lemanual Stinson (Bears & Falcons). Back row left: Ginger Kerrrick (JSC Staff), Jermaine Fazonde (Chargers), Michael Holmes (49ers), Kevin Williams (Vikings, Seahawks, Saints). NASA PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  15. jsc2017e009634

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    jsc2017e009635 (01/26/2017) --- Former NFL player Daryl Gaines (K.C. Chiefs) briefs a large group of former NFL players on the Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) many missions during the JSC Super Bowl Tailgate event. Daryl is currently assistant to the Center Director of JSC and is a member of the JSC Super Bowl Committee collaborating between JSC and the Houston NFL Super Bowl Committee to plan joint activities for JSC participation in Super Bowl LI. Center Director Ellen Ochoa invited the former NFL players to JSC as part of our Super Bowl Live events. During the week before the Super Bowl the former players visited Mission Control, and other JSC areas taking time to stop and give autographs and photo opportunities to JSC Staff members. NASA POTOGRAPHER Lauren Harnett.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of thymidylate synthase expression in gastric carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological parameters and survival.

    PubMed

    Rogoza-Mateja, Wiesława; Domagala, Pawel; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Mieżyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Sulżyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Bielicki, Dariusz; Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Domagala, Wenancjusz

    2017-02-01

    The correlation of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression in gastric cancers with tumor histology and prognostic or predictive information remains unclear. Most studies have involved Asian populations, with few conducted in European cohorts. Moreover, all published studies analyze TS expression using semi-quantitative methods. This retrospective study evaluated the association of TS expression in tumor cells with gastric carcinoma histological type, with selected clinicopathological parameters, and with the prognosis of patients who underwent surgical treatment. TS expression was detected using immunochemistry and objectively assessed by computerized image analysis of tumor cells in 100 gastric cancers. We found that high TS expression was significantly more common in intestinal than in diffuse type of gastric cancer according to Lauren classification (P=0.0003); in type I carcinomas compared to type IV according to Goseki classification (P=0.002); and in gastric cancers in men than women (P=0.04). Low TS expression was found more often in carcinomas in the middle and lower third of the stomach than in cancers in the upper third of the stomach (P=0.009 and P=0.001, respectively). In the subgroup of 25 patients without lymph node metastases (stage I+II), high TS expression was associated with better DFS (83% for high TS expression versus 38,5% for low TS expression, P=0.03). The results (1) indicate significant correlation between the Lauren and Goseki histopathological classifications of gastric cancer and TS expression in tumor cells, (2) suggest that high TS expression may be a positive prognostic marker with regard to DFS in patients with gastric cancer without involvement of regional lymph nodes who underwent radical surgical treatment and were not treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Prognostic results need confirmation in larger cohorts.

  17. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: a distinct type of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin; Choi, Min-Gew; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare type of gastric carcinoma and has histologic features of intense lymphocytic infiltration. In this study, we attempted to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcome of patients with LELC compared with those with non-lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (NLELC). We studied 4282 patients who underwent gastrectomies to treat gastric cancer at the Department of Surgery of the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, between January 2008 and December 2010. The clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with LELC (n = 46) were compared with those with NLELC (n = 4236). In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity was performed on the tissue of patients with LELC (n = 46) and NLELC (n = 1247). The patients with LELC are male predominant and had more upper locations, more indeterminate Lauren classifications, lower T stages, less lymphatic invasion, and more positive EBV in situ hybridization compared with those of the NLELC group (80.4% versus 6.5%). Age, histologic type, Lauren type, the location of the tumor, the depth of the invasion, lymph node metastasis, and venous invasion were independent prognostic factors; however, the LELC type itself was not predictive of outcome. The 5-y survival rate of the LELC group (97.7%) was better than that of the NLELC group (89.4%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.127). The results of our study suggest that LELC is a less advanced disease than NLELC in terms of depth of invasion and lymphatic invasion at diagnosis. However, our study does not examine LELC as an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to explore its associations with EBV and a distinct pathway of carcinogenesis from NLELC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on outcomes in resected gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Ozbek, Umut; Harpaz, Noam; Holcombe, Randall F; Ang, Celina

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a known risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) and has been linked with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Studies examining the relationship between H. pylori infection, GC characteristics and prognosis are limited and have yielded conflicting results. We report on the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of gastric and GEJ cancer patients with and without a history of H. pylori treated at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients over the age of 18 years who underwent curative resection for GEJ and GC at Mount Sinai Hospital between 2007 and 2012 who had histopathologic documentation of the presence or absence of H pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, treatment characteristics and outcomes including recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. Ninety-five patients were identified. The majority of patients were male (61%), white (36%) or Asian (34%), with median age at diagnosis 64. Tumors were stage I (51%), stage II (23%), stage III (25%), and stage IV (1%). H pylori infection status was documented at the time of cancer diagnosis in 89 (94%) patients, and following cancer diagnosis and treatment in 6 (6%) patients. Younger age at diagnosis, Asian race and Lauren histologic classification were associated with H Pylori infection. H pylori positive patients exhibited higher 5-year OS and 5-year RFS compared to H pylori negative patients, though the difference was not statistically significant in either univariate or multivariate analyses. In this retrospective series of predominantly early stage GC and GEJ cancers, H. pylori positive patients were significantly younger at cancer diagnosis and were more frequently Asian compared to H. pylori negative patients. Other demographic and histologic classifications except for Lauren histologic classification were similar between the two groups. H pylori positive patients appeared

  19. An approach to real-time magnetic resonance imaging for speech production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Nayak, Krishna; Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has served as a valuable tool for studying primarily static postures in speech production. Now, recent improvements in imaging techniques, particularly in temporal resolution, are making it possible to examine the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Mady et al. (2001, 2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo) and Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra fast turbo spin echo sequence). The present study uses a non 2D-FFT acquisition strategy (spiral k-space trajectory) on a GE Signa 1.5T CV/i scanner with a low-flip angle spiral gradient echo originally developed for cardiac imaging [Kerr et al. (1997), Nayak et al. (2001)] with reconstruction rates of 8-10 images/second. The experimental stimuli included English sentences varying the syllable position of /n, r, l/ (spoken by 2 subjects) and Tamil sentences varying among five liquids (spoken by one subject). The imaging parameters were the following: 15 deg flip angle, 20-interleaves, 6.7 ms TR, 1.88 mm resolution over a 20 cm FOV, 5 mm slice thickness, and 2.4 ms spiral readouts. Data show clear real-time movements of the lips, tongue and velum. Sample movies and data analysis strategies will be presented. Segmental durations, positions, and inter-articulator timing can all be quantitatively evaluated. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  1. Extending remote sensing estimates of Greenland ice sheet melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavner, M.; Loveland, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Melt Area Detection Index (MADI), a remote sensing algorithm to discriminate between dry and wet snow, has been previously developed and applied to the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet for the years 2000-2006, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiospectrometer (MODIS) data (Chylek et al, 2007). We extend that work both spatially and temporally by taking advantage of newly available data, and developing algorithms that facilitate the sensing of cloud cover and the automated inference of wet snow regions. The automated methods allow the development of a composite melt area data product with 0.25 km^2 spatial resolution and approximately two week temporal resolution. We discuss melt area dynamics that are inferred from this high resolution composite melt area. Chylek, P., M. McCabe, M. K. Dubey, and J. Dozier (2007), Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S20, doi:10.1029/2007JD008742.

  2. A Simple Lightning Assimilation Technique For Improving ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: Force KF deep convection where lightning is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where lightning is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without lightning assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of lightning assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly-averaged bias of 6-h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 mm to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when lightning assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this lightning assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF appli

  3. Effect of Tulathromycin on Colonization Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence of Human Gut Microbiota in Chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Zhou, Shengxi; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate microbiological safety of tulathromycin on human intestinal bacteria, tulathromycin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) was added into Chemostats. Before and after drug exposure, we monitored (1) population, SCFA products, antimicrobial resistance, and colonization resistance of gut microbiota, and (2) the antimicrobial resistance genes, transferability, virulent genes, pathogenicity of Enterococus faecalis. Results showed that low level of tulathromycin did not exhibit microbiological hazard on resistance selection and colonization resistance. However, high level of tulathromycin (10 and 100 μg/mL) may disturb colonization resistance of human gut microbiota and select antimicrobial resistant E. faecalis. Most of the selected resistant E. faecalis carried resistant gene of ermB, transferable element of Tn1545 and three virulence genes (esp, cylA, and ace). One of them (E. faecalis 143) was confirmed to have higher horizontal transfer risk and higher pathogenicity. The calculated no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) and microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) in our study was 1 μg/mL and 14.66 μg/kg.bw/day, respectively. PMID:27092131

  4. DETERMINANTS OF FIRST ANTENATAL CARE VISIT BY PREGNANT WOMEN AT COMMUNITY BASED EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND SERVICE SITES IN NORTHERN UGANDA.

    PubMed

    Turyasiima, M; Tugume, R; Openy, A; Ahairwomugisha, E; Opio, R; Ntunguka, M; Mahulo, N; Akera, P; Odongo-Aginya, E

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) aims mainly at prevention, early detection and management of general medical and pregnancy associated disorders. Early booking is recommended for maximum utilisation. To investigate the determinants of first ANC visit and trimesters at which pregnant mothers enrol for ANC at the COBERS sites of Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Five community based Education, Research and Service sites (COBERS) of Atiak, Madi Opei, Mungula, Namukora and Pajule health centre, fours (HC IV) in the five respective districts of Amuru, Lamwo, Adjumani, Kitgum and Pader, Northern Uganda, from April to July 2013. Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in five health centres and ten purposively selected midwives were interviewed using questionnaires. Of the 417 respondents, only 11.5% (n = 48) had their first ANC at the recommended period of 0-16 weeks. Prevalence of late entry to ANC was 88.5% (n = 369). Mean gestational age at booking was 22.6 ± 5.7 weeks. Paternal level of education, outcome of previous pregnancy, previous ANC attendance, weeks of amenorrhea, convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to health facility, knowing the right time for ANC enrollment and pregnancy planning remained significant predictors governing early booking. Late ANC booking is still a major public health concern that demands public enlightenment and paternal education coupled with women empowerment will reduce the magnitude of the problem.

  5. A simple lightning assimilation technique for improving ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: force KF deep convection where lightning is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where lightning is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without lightning assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of lightning assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly averaged bias of 6 h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when lightning assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this lightning assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF applications. The

  6. Application of MALDI-TOF MS Systems in the Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. of Public Health Importance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Yun F; Moura, Hercules; Miranda, Nancy; Simpson, Steven; Gowrishankar, Ramnath; Barr, John; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-09-12

    Campylobacteriosis is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Campylobacter spp.In most cases, it is either underdiagnosed or underreported due to poor diagnostics and limited databases. Several DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence typing, have been widely used in the species identification of Campylobacter. Nevertheless, these assays are time-consuming and require a high quality of bacterial DNA. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) MS is an emerging diagnostic technology that can provide the rapid identification of microorganisms by using their intact cells without extraction or purification. In this study, we analyzed 24 American Type Culture Collection reference isolates of 16 Campylobacter spp. and five unknown clinical bacterial isolates for rapid identification utilizing two commercially available MADI-TOF MS platforms, namely the bioMérieux VITEK(®) MS and Bruker Biotyper systems. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to confirm the species-level identification of the unknown clinical isolates. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems identified the isolates of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus. The results of this study suggest that the MALDI-TOF MS technique can be used in the identification of Campylobacter spp. of public health importance.

  7. The clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance of HER2 expression in gastric cancer patients: a meta-analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu-Ying; Huang, Jin-Yu; Zhao, Qiong-Rui; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Li, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Shi-Bo; Sun, Zhe

    2017-03-21

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is regarded as an important and promising target in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers. However, the correlation of clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic significance of HER2 overexpression in gastric cancer patients remains unclear. Our aim was to clarify this issue. Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016. Outcomes of interest contained sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, Lauren's classification, differentiation grade, lymphovascular invasion, neural invasion, and multivariate analysis data for overall survival. A total of 41 studies of 17,494 gastric cancer patients were identified with HER2 test. HER2 positive rate was 19.07% (95% CI = 9.16, 28.98). There existed statistical significance between HER2 overexpression and patients' prognosis (RR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.98). Male patients (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.65), proximal tumors (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.47), intestinal-type tumors (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.54, 4.47), advanced stage cancers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.66), lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.41), well-differentiated cancers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.76), and distant metastasis (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.08, 3.38) were correlated with higher HER2 expression rates. However, no statistical differences existed in age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, or neural invasion. Subgroup analysis revealed that HER2 expression rates reported in articles from Asian (19.52%) countries were quantitatively higher than those from European (16.91%) areas. Results were consistent with those reports that define HER2 status according to trastuzumab for gastric cancer (ToGA) criteria. This study showed that HER2 overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in

  8. Immunohistochemical evaluation of Ki-67, PCNA and MCM2 proteins proliferation index (PI) in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Jolanta; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna; Kemona, Andrzej; Bandurski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The current study objective was to assess the proliferation indices (PI) of Ki-67, PCNA and MCM2 proteins in advanced gastric cancer and in metastatic lymph node in correlation with certain clinicopathological features and with postoperative survival of patients. The study was conducted in a group of 100 patients with advanced gastric cancers. Involvement of local lymph nodes was present in 36 cases. Immunohistochemical investigations were carried out using monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67 (DAKO), PCNA (DAKO) and polyclonal antibody to MCM2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Visualization of the antigen/antibody complex was performed using LSAB technique (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase) followed by application of chromogene DAB (DAKO). Statistical analysis revealed no correlations of Ki-67, PCNA and MCM2 PI in tumour tissue or metastatic lymph node with patients' age and gender, tumour location, histological grade, macroscopic type according to Bormann's classification and histological grading by Lauren's and Goseki's classifications. Moreover, no correlation was observed of Ki-67 and MCM2 PI in tumour tissue with histological grading. No correlation was also noted between the proliferation indices of all the three proteins in the affected lymph node and grade of histological differentiation. Such clinicopathological parameters as patients' age and gender, histological grading by Lauren's and Goseki's classifications and lymph node involvement did not correlate with survival time of patients. Furthermore, no statistically significant correlation was shown of postoperative survival time with Ki-67 and MCM2 PI in tumour tissue and metastatic lymph nodes and with PCNA PI in the affected lymph nodes. However, a statistically significant correlation was found of Ki-67, PCNA and MCM2 PI in tumour tissue and metastatic lymph nodes with depth of wall invasion and local lymph node involvement. A statistically significant correlation was also noted between PCNA PI in the main

  9. Factors associated with early recurrence after curative surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei-Ming; Meng, Qing-Bin; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Tian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize patterns of gastric cancer recurrence and patient survival and to identify predictors of early recurrence after surgery. METHODS: Clinicopathological data for 417 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor and node status was reclassified according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification for carcinoma of the stomach. Survival data came from both the patients’ follow-up records and telephone follow-ups. Recurrent gastric cancer was diagnosed based on clinical imaging, gastroscopy with biopsy, and/or cytological examination of ascites, or intraoperative findings in patients who underwent reoperation. Predictors of early recurrence were compared in patients with pT1 and pT2-4a stage tumors. Pearson’s χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare differences between categorical variables. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared via the log-rank test. Variables identified as potentially important for early recurrence using univariate analysis were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 gastric cancer patients, 80 (19.2%) were diagnosed with early gastric cancer and the remaining 337 (80.8%) were diagnosed with locally advanced gastric cancer. After a median follow-up period of 56 mo, 194 patients (46.5%) experienced recurrence. The mean time from curative surgery to recurrence in these 194 patients was 24 ± 18 mo (range, 1-84 mo). Additionally, of these 194 patients, 129 (66.5%) experienced recurrence within 2 years after surgery. There was no significant difference in recurrence patterns between early and late recurrence (P < 0.05 each). For pT1 stage gastric cancer, tumor size (P = 0.011) and pN stage (P = 0.048) were associated with early recurrence of gastric tumors. Patient age, pT stage, pN stage, Lauren histotype, lymphovascular

  10. Establishment and characterisation of patient-derived xenografts as paraclinical models for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Young; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Hyunki; Sim, Moon Hee; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Lee, Gunho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; An, Ji Yeong; Hyung, Woo Jin; Kim, Choong-Bai; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sangwoo; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is emerging as a promising translational platform to duplicate the characteristics of tumours. However, few studies have reported detailed histological and genomic analyses for model fidelity and for factors affecting successful model establishment of gastric cancer. Here, we generated PDX tumours surgically-derived from 62 gastric cancer patients. Fifteen PDX models were successfully established (24.2%, 15/62) and passaged to maintain tumours in immune-compromised mice. Diffuse type and low tumour cell percentage were negatively correlated with success rates (p = 0.005 and p = 0.025, respectively), while reducing ex vivo and overall procedure times were positively correlated with success rates (p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). The histology and genetic characteristics of PDX tumour models were stable over subsequent passages. Lymphoma transformation occurred in five cases (33.3%, 5/15), and all were in the NOG mouse, with none in the nude mouse. Together, the present study identified Lauren classification, tumour cell percentages, and ex vivo times along with overall procedure times, as key determinants for successful PDX engraftment. Furthermore, genetic and histological characteristics were highly consistent between primary and PDX tumours, which provide realistic paraclinical models, enabling personalised development of treatment options for gastric cancer. PMID:26926953

  11. Dynamic expression of CEACAM7 in precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma and its prognostic value in combination with CEA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinfeng; Zhang, Liyun; Gu, Yong; Li, Kai; Nie, Yongzhan; Fan, Daiming; Feng, Yichao

    2011-12-23

    The significance of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 (CEACAM7) expression in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions and its correlation with CEA expression has rarely been previously investigated. CEACAM7 and CEA expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in consecutive sections of 345 subjects with gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions. Laser confocal analysis was performed to determine CEACAM7 and CEA localization. Correlation between CEACAM7 and CEA expression with clinicopathological parameters was statistically analyzed. CEACAM7 expression correlated with pathologic grading (P = 0.006), Lauren's classification (P = 0.023), and CEA expression (Spearman R = 0.605, P < 0.001) in gastric carcinoma. CEACAM7 co-localized with CEA predominantly in the cytoplasmic membrane of cancerous cells. CEA expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.031). CEACAM7 and CEA expression increased progressively from precursor lesions to gastric carcinomas. A combination of CEACAM7 and CEA expression was determined to be an independent predictor for patients with gastric carcinoma by multivariate analysis (P = 0.001). CEACAM7 expression correlates with tumor differentiation and CEA expression in gastric carcinoma. CEACAM7 and CEA expression may synergistically promote gastric carcinogenesis. Combined CEACAM7 and CEA expression analysis can be a useful postoperative predictor for patients with gastric carcinoma.

  12. Gastric stump carcinoma after distal subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: experience of 541 patients with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morgagni, Paolo; Gardini, Andrea; Marrelli, Daniele; Vittimberga, Giovanni; Marchet, Alberto; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Di Cosmo, Maria Antonietta; Rossi, Gian Maria; Garcea, Domenico; Roviello, Franco

    2015-06-01

    Gastric stump carcinoma (GSC) has been studied after primary gastrectomy for benign disease but few studies have evaluated its correlation with gastric cancer. We assessed 541 patients submitted to subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer at least 15 years ago. GSC was diagnosed in 16 (2.9%) patients, giving a 4% cumulative risk of GSC 20 years after surgery. Diagnosis was made within 5 years of surgery in 10 patients and after 8 years in 6 cases. GSC occurred in 13/470 (2.8%) patients submitted to Billroth 2 reconstruction, 2/30 (6.7%) patients who underwent Billroth 1, and 1/41 (2.4%) patients after Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Significant risk factors observed for GSC were histologic type and sex. Other synchronous or metachronous extragastric tumors were registered in 56 (11.2%) patients. The risk of GSC was low, even 20 years after subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Lauren intestinal histotype and male sex were frequently associated with GSC. No correlation was observed between GSC and reconstruction technique or multifocality. Clinically speaking, GSC could be considered a subset of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Atrophy in the mucosa neighboring an intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma by comparing the Sydney vs. OLGA systems].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Pablo; Hernández-Briseño, Liliana; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Ángeles-Garay, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma causes about 700 000 deaths worldwide per year. Is feasible detect it in earlier stages. The aim of this article is to assess the atrophy in the mucosa neighboring an intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma by comparing the Sydney vs. OLGA systems. Twenty-eight individuals with intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma (Lauren) were compared with 32 non-neoplastic cases. Both groups had undergone total gastrectomy. Two pathologists made a consensus-based assessment of the atrophy in non-neoplastic corpus and antral epithelium using the Sydney and OLGA Systems. The mean, median, and distribution of the frequencies were obtained using the measuring and distribution scales of the study variables. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values, both positive and negative, for gastric cancer were calculated through the dichotomy of advanced atrophy-positive and advanced atrophy-negative scales. Twenty-four of the 28 cases with intestinal-type gastric carcinoma showed an advanced atrophy with the OLGA system, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 85 %, respectively. Conversely, 4 of the 28 individuals showed an advanced atrophy with the Sydney system, with a sensitivity and specificity of 14 and 100 %, respectively. The OLGA system has a high sensitivity and specificity (77 y 85 % respectively) for the recognition of preneoplastic changes in the mucosa neighboring a gastric carcinoma.

  14. [Prognostic factors for gastric cancer without lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Tapia, Oscar; Villaseca, Miguel; Bellolio, Enrique; Araya, Juan Carlos; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    The absence of lymph node involvement (N0) in gastric cancer is associated with a better survival. However some N0 gastric tumors still have a bad prognosis. To study demographic and morphological variables associated with prognosis in N0 gastric carcinoma. Review of pathological records of a regional general hospital, identifying patients with a N0 gastric cancer surgically excised between 1986 and 2003. In the study period, 459 gastrectomies were performed for gastric cancer and in 32%, the tumor was devoid of lymph node involvement. These later patients were followed for a median of 64 months with a 71% five years actuarial survival. Bivariate analysis identified age, tumor size, gastric wall infiltration, pathological type according to Lauren and Ming, lymphovascular involvement, number of lymph nodes excised and TNM stage as prognostic values Multivariate analysis disclosed the level of gastric wall infiltration, the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor, lymphatic vascular involvement, number of excise lymph nodes and tumor size as independent prognostic factors. N0 gastric tumors are found in 32% of gastrectomies for gastric cancer and have a 71% five years actuarial survival. Gastric wall infiltration, pathological degree of differentiation tumor size and lymphovascular involvement are independent prognostic factors.

  15. The ethics of contacting family members of a subject in a genetic research study to return results for an autosomal dominant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    This case explores the ethical landscape around recontacting a subject's relatives to return genetic research results when the informed consent form signed by the original cohort of subjects is silent on whether investigators may share new information with the research subject's family. As a result of rapid advances in genetic technology, methods to identify genetic markers can mature during the life course of a study. In this case, the investigators identified the genetic mutation responsible for the disorder after a number of their original subjects had died. The researchers now have the ability to inform relatives of the subject about their risk of developing the same disease. Mark Rothstein, JD, from the University of Louisville School of Medicine, provides an overview of the medical/scientific, legal, and ethical issues underlying this case. Lauren Milner, PhD, and colleagues at Stanford University explore how the relationship between researcher and subject affect this debate. Seema Shah, JD, and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) discuss whether and how requirements of the duty to warn are applicable in this case.

  16. Positive immunohistochemical staining of gammaH2AX is associated with tumor progression in gastric cancers from radiation-exposed patients.

    PubMed

    Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Sakamoto, Naoya; Nishisaka, Takashi; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Hiroo; Yasui, Wataru

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced cancers, molecular analysis of cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) exposure is important. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be caused by the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, and gammaH2AX (serine 139 phosphorylated form of histone H2AX) is reported to be a significant marker for DSBs. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of gammaH2AX in gastric cancers (GCs) from 66 exposed and 47 non-exposed patients who developed GC after the bombing. Of the 47 GCs from non-exposed patients, 6 (13%) cases showed nuclear positive staining for gammaH2AX, whereas of the 66 GCs from exposed patients, 20 (30%) cases were positive (P=0.0405). However, among stage I GC, there was no significant difference in gammaH2AX expression frequency between exposed patients and non-exposed patients. Among exposed patients, stage II-IV cases were more frequently positive for gammaH2AX than stage I cases (P=0.0197). Among GCs from non-exposed patients, gammaH2AX staining showed no significant association with Lauren's classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or TNM stage. These results suggest that the characteristics of tumor cells differ between GCs from exposed and non-exposed patients. DSBs may be involved in progression of GC in exposed patients.

  17. From molecular classification to targeted therapeutics: the changing face of systemic therapy in metastatic gastroesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; Kelly, Ronan J

    2015-01-01

    Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician's therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  18. Choosing Disability, Visualizing Care.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel

    This article explores how visual images of dependency and care reflect and reinforce perceptions of people who are ill, disabled, or otherwise dependent, those who sustain them, and the meaning of the work they do. Scenes of care are a valuable index for understanding cultural assumptions about who is deserving of care, how and where care should be given, and who is obligated to serve as a giver of care. It positions these images in the context of the emphasis, within the disability rights movement, on independence. I argue that the insistence on independence entails a form of what Lauren Berlant calls "cruel optimism"-desire for the very things that undermine happiness and well-being-because they rely on a willful disregard of the inevitable interdependency that is a fact of all human existence, as well as the particular forms of dependency that pertain to many disabled bodies. The end of the article considers works of visual art that challenge dominant modes for representing how care is given and received. If the invisibility of caregiving is one aspect of our willful forgetting that all bodies are dependent, I'll argue that visual images of care are an essential resource for recognizing and reimagining its status in our society. One desired outcome of such reconsideration would be to complicate the meaning of autonomy-as it relates to choosing disability-as well as how the work of caregiving is acknowledged and valued.

  19. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  20. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  1. Perioperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer - what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bringeland, Erling A; Wasmuth, Hans H; Grønbech, Jon E

    2017-02-28

    The UK MAGIC trial published in 2006 was the first RCT to identify improved long-term survival rates using preoperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal cancer. Overnight, the treatment regimen impacted European guidelines. However, the majority of patients underwent limited lymph node dissection, and analyses of the rates of curative resection, downsizing and downstaging were not by intention to treat, rightfully raising concerns about their validity. For the subset of true gastric cancers, meta-analyses may even question the claims of improved long-term survival rates by present-day regimens. A rhetorical question can be posed as to whether downstaging and improved survival rates by preoperative (radio)-chemotherapy for cancers of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia, has confounded our conclusions on the (lack of) effect of present-day regimens of perioperative chemotherapy for true gastric cancers, let alone in a situation with proper lymph node dissection. At present, a plea can be made to move one step back and revert to an RCT with a surgery alone arm. Inclusion criteria and analyses of future RCTs must stratify on tumor location and the Lauren type and embrace the newly developed scheme of sub-classification of gastric cancers based on extensive molecular profiling as reported in the seminal Cancer Genome Atlas Study.

  2. Mutations in the hedgehog pathway genes SMO and PTCH1 in human gastric tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-De; Inzunza, Hector; Chang, Han; Qi, Zhenhao; Hu, Beihong; Malone, Daniel; Cogswell, John

    2013-01-01

    The causal role of the hedgehog pathway in cancer has been best documented in basal cell carcinoma of the skin. To assess potential DNA alterations of the hedgehog pathway in gastric cancer, we sequenced SMO and PTCH1 genes in a set of 39 gastric tumors. Tumors were classified by histology based on the Lauren classification and Sanger sequencing was performed to obtain full length coding sequences. Genomic instability was evident in these tumors as a number of silent or missense mutations were found. In addition to those that are potential germline polymorphisms, we found three SMO missense mutations, and one PTCH1 frameshift mutation that are novel and have not been documented in basal cell carcinoma. Mutations were found in both intestinal and diffuse type gastric tumors as well as in tumors that exhibit both intestinal and diffuse features. mRNA expression of hedgehog pathway genes was also examined and their levels do not indicate unequivocal higher pathway activity in tumors with mutations than those without. In summary, SMO and/or PTCH1 mutations are present at low frequency in different histologic subtypes of gastric tumors and these do not appear to be driver mutations.

  3. Mutations in the Hedgehog Pathway Genes SMO and PTCH1 in Human Gastric Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-De; Inzunza, Hector; Chang, Han; Qi, Zhenhao; Hu, Beihong; Malone, Daniel; Cogswell, John

    2013-01-01

    The causal role of the hedgehog pathway in cancer has been best documented in basal cell carcinoma of the skin. To assess potential DNA alterations of the hedgehog pathway in gastric cancer, we sequenced SMO and PTCH1 genes in a set of 39 gastric tumors. Tumors were classified by histology based on the Lauren classification and Sanger sequencing was performed to obtain full length coding sequences. Genomic instability was evident in these tumors as a number of silent or missense mutations were found. In addition to those that are potential germline polymorphisms, we found three SMO missense mutations, and one PTCH1 frameshift mutation that are novel and have not been documented in basal cell carcinoma. Mutations were found in both intestinal and diffuse type gastric tumors as well as in tumors that exhibit both intestinal and diffuse features. mRNA expression of hedgehog pathway genes was also examined and their levels do not indicate unequivocal higher pathway activity in tumors with mutations than those without. In summary, SMO and/or PTCH1 mutations are present at low frequency in different histologic subtypes of gastric tumors and these do not appear to be driver mutations. PMID:23349881

  4. Clinical risk assessment for gastric cancer in asymptomatic population after a health check-up: An individualized consideration of the risk factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Mi; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Baik, Su Jung; Park, Jae Jun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin

    2016-11-01

    For the prevention of gastric cancer, the detection of risk factors associated with precancerous conditions may be more informative. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of gastric cancer, including precancerous conditions: atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia.The clinical and endoscopic findings of 60,261 adults who underwent gastroduodenoscopy as part of a health check-up were reviewed retrospectively. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to age, sex, cancer stage, and histology based on Lauren classification.Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 75 patients (0.12%). Both IM and AG were independent risk factors for gastric cancer in all subgroups. Male, older age, obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), a salty and spicy diet, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were significantly associated with precancerous conditions. However, risk factors related to precancerous conditions were different according to age and sex. In <40 years, H. pylori was the only risk factor related to precancerous conditions, whereas DM with a salty and spicy diet were additional risk factors in ≥40 years. In female individuals, obesity was significant risk factor for precancerous conditions as well as H. pylori infection.AG and IM are independent risk factors for gastric cancer. To prevent gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication may be more useful in <40 years, whereas additional factors such as DM, obesity, salty and spicy diet may be important in female or ≥40 years.

  5. Public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Chapter M in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Laurie; Real, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario simulates a tsunami generated by a hypothetical magnitude 9.1 earthquake that occurs offshore of the Alaska Peninsula (Kirby and others, 2013). In addition to the work performed by the authors on public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR tsunami scenario, this section of the scenario also reflects the policy discussions of the State of California’s Tsunami Policy Work Group, a voluntary advisory body formed in October 2011, which operates under the California Natural Resources Agency (CNRA), Department of Conservation, and is charged with identifying, evaluating, and making recommendations to resolve issues that are preventing full and effective implementation of tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction throughout California’s coastal communities. It also presents the analyses of plans and hazard policies of California’s coastal counties, incorporated cities, and major ports performed by the staff of the California Geological Survey (CGS) and Lauren Prehoda, Office of Environmental and Government Affairs, California Department of Conservation. It also draws on the policy framework and assessment prepared for the ARkStorm Pacific Coast winter storm and catastrophic flooding (Topping and others, 2010).

  6. Expression of sialyl-Tn in gastric cancer: correlation with known prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. W.; Linehan, J.; Smith, P.; Filipe, I.

    1995-01-01

    Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a core region carcinoma-associated carbohydrate determinant expressed on cancer-associated mucins. Expression of STn has been associated with poor prognosis in colon and ovarian cancer, independent of other prognostic factors such as tumour grade, stage or histological type. Recent studies have suggested that STn expression may be an independent prognostic variable in gastric cancer. We have examined 158 patients with gastric cancer using the antibody B72.3 (Biomira, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). Of these, 110 patients (70%) expressed STn. Expression of STn did not correlate with tumour differentiation or the Ming classification, but expression was noted more frequently in the relatively good prognosis intestinal type of tumours (chi 2 = 6.9, P = 0.03). Conversely, early-stage cancers showed a significantly lower frequency of expression than more advanced cases (chi 2 = 13.75, P = 0.003). In this patient group, STn expression did not influence survival, and in multivariate regression analysis only tumour stage and Lauren classification were found to be independent prognostic variables. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7734303

  7. Intestinal and diffuse carcinoma of the stomach among the ethnic and dialect groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Teh, M; Lee, Y S

    1987-08-15

    This study attempts to determine the relative prevalence of intestinal-type and diffuse-type carcinomas (using a modified Lauren classification of gastric carcinomas) and to evaluate its significance in relation to the difference in stomach cancer risks among the different ethnic and Chinese dialect groups in Singapore. Of the 648 cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach studied, 405 (62.5%) were of the intestinal type, 206 (31.8%) of the diffuse type, and 37 (5.7%) of the mixed type. Men had higher proportions of intestinal-type carcinoma than women. The intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio increased progressively with age. Although the relative intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratios in women appeared to reflect the relative incidence rates of stomach cancer of the different ethnic and dialect groups, the ratios in men were inconsistent. Indian men had a higher intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio than Chinese men despite a lower incidence of stomach cancer. Hokkien men had the highest incidence of stomach cancer and the lowest intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio among the Chinese dialect groups. The use of the ratio as an indicator of relative risks for gastric cancer between populations of different genetic makeup is inconsistent and unreliable.

  8. Ataxin-3 expression correlates with the clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Xia; Tang, Yong; Ma, Yun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the expression of Ataxin-3 in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and explore its clinical pathologic significance. Methods: The expression of Ataxin-3 in gastric cancer (n=536) and noncancerous gastric mucosa (n=312) was determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathologic features such as histologic differentiation and tumor size. The expression of Ataxin-3 protein in the human gastric cancer cell lines MKN45, SGC7901 and in normal human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine Ataxin-3 mRNA expression in human gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Results: The expression of Ataxin-3 protein was decreased in the gastric cancer compared to noncancerous gastric tissue, and correlated with tumor size, Lauren classification, histologic differentiation, and mutant p53 protein (P < 0.05). Similarly, Ataxin-3 mRNA expression was decreased in the gastric cancers compared to the noncancerous gastric tissue. Ataxin-3 protein and mRNA expression was lower in MKN45, SGC7901 cells than in the normal GES-1 cells. Conclusion: Decreased expression of Ataxin-3 may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and development of gastric cancer. PMID:24955170

  9. Motion sickness on tilting trains

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bernard; Dai, Mingjia; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Laurens, Jean; Raphan, Theodore; Müller, Philippe; Athanasios, Alexiou; Edmaier, Jürgen; Grossenbacher, Thomas; Stadtmüller, Klaus; Brugger, Ueli; Hauser, Gerald; Straumann, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.—Cohen, B., Dai, M., Ogorodnikov, D., Laurens, J., Raphan, T., Müller, P., Athanasios, A., Edmaier, J., Grossenbacher, T., Stadtmüller, K., Brugger, U., Hauser, G., Straumann, D. Motion sickness on tilting trains. PMID:21788449

  10. [Expression of p27 and proliferative (MIB-1), mitotic (MI) and apoptotic indices in early-phase (EGF) gastric carcinoma. Results of a study by the Italian Gastric Cancer Research Group (IRGGC)].

    PubMed

    Saragoni, L; Morgagni, P; De Manzoni, G; Tomezzoli, A; Roviello, F; Marrelli, D; Di Leo, A; Vindigni, C; Kurihara, H; Fociani, P

    2003-02-01

    Since the Japanese Society for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy (JSGE) introduced the definition of Early Gastric Cancer (EGC), much more and deeper studies were done, which demonstrated that EGC was a more complex phase of the neoplastic disease with different morphologic characteristics, tightly linked to the prognosis. We evaluated the clinical impact of some prognostic factors, known being important in the advanced lesions, in a series of EGC patients with special reference to the clinicomorphological features. We analysed the mitotic (MI) and apoptotic (AI) indices and the immunohistochemical expression of p27 and MIB-1 in 83 EGC cases consecutively recruited in the hospitals of Forlì, Verona, Siena and Milan (IRGGC) in the period 1994-95. The classifications of JSGE, Lauren and Kodama were used to define the macroscopic, microscopic and growth pattern types, respectively. Decreased p27 expression correlated with the macroscopic escavated lesions and diffused mixed histotypes; the increase of MIB-1 detection with tumour size larger than 2 cm, but lesser than 4 cm; MI with intestinal histologic types and AI with mucosal and penetrating lesions, according to Kodama. Statistical analysis showed significative correlations among MIB-1, MI and AI, but not with p27 and the other variables. All these factors did not influence the prognosis of our patients. In our series, p27, MIB-1, MI, and AI did not add any useful clinical. So, in EGC patients the morphological features have still the most important role in influencing the prognosis and treatment of patients.

  11. The Chlorella vulgaris S-Nitrosoproteome under Nitrogen-Replete and -Deplete Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Henard, Calvin A.; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Knoshaug, Eric P.

    2017-01-17

    Oleaginous microalgae synthesize and accumulate large quantities of lipids that are promising feedstocks for the production of biofuels (Hu et al., 2008; Williams and Laurens, 2010; Day et al., 2012; Quinn and Davis, 2015). The algal species Chlorella vulgaris accumulates triacylglycerides that dominate its cellular composition (>60% lipid based on dry cell weight) when cultured in medium lacking a nitrogen source (Guarnieri et al., 2011; Ikaran et al., 2015), which is a 'lipid trigger' in an array of microalgae. As such, C. vulgaris represents a model algal species for examination of lipid accumulation mechanisms and a potential deployment organism inmore » industrial algal biofuels applications. C. vulgaris has been extensively characterized biochemically and physiologically (Converti et al., 2009; Liang et al., 2009), and de novo-generated transcriptomic and proteomic datasets have indicated that post-transcriptional and -translational mechanisms likely govern lipid accumulation in response to nitrogen starvation (Guarnieri et al., 2011, 2013). However, the specific mechanisms underlying lipid biosynthesis in response to nitrogen stress remain elusive.« less

  12. STRESS RISK FACTORS AND STRESS-RELATED PATHOLOGY: NEUROPLASTICITY, EPIGENETICS AND ENDOPHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Jacobson, Lauren; Heydendael, Willem; Yehuda, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights a symposium on stress risk factors and stress susceptibility, presented at the Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Boulder, Colorado, June 2010. This symposium addressed factors linking stress plasticity and reactivity to stress pathology in animal models and in humans. Dr. Jason Radley discussed studies demonstrating prefrontal cortical neuroplasticity and prefrontal control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in rat, highlighting emerging evidence for a critical role of this region in normal and pathological stress integration. Dr. Mohamed Kabbaj summarized his studies of possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying behavioral differences in rat populations bred for differential stress reactivity. Dr. Lauren Jacobson described studies using a mouse model to explore the diverse actions of antidepressant action in brain, suggesting mechanisms whereby antidepressants may be differentially effective in treating specific depression endophenotypes. Dr. Rachel Yehuda discussed the role of glucocorticoids in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that low cortisol may be a trait that predisposes the individual to development of the disorder. Furthermore, she presented evidence indicating that traumatic events can have transgenerational impact on cortisol reactivity and development of PTSD symptoms. Together, the symposium highlighted emerging themes regarding the role of brain reorganization, individual differences and epigenetics in determining stress plasticity and pathology. PMID:21848436

  13. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives’ Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient’s Death: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, M. L.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient’s perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives’ wellbeing. Methods An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice ‘Laurens Cadenza’ (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Results Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14–32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives’ satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient’s death. Conclusions The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives’ evaluation of the patient’s dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient’s death. PMID:26871717

  14. Telomere length is correlated with mitochondrial DNA copy number in intestinal, but not diffuse, gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Jung; Cho, Ji-Hyoung; Park, Won-Jin; Heo, Yu-Ran; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2017-07-01

    A positive correlation between telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has previously been observed in healthy individuals, and in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present study, telomere length and mtDNA copy number were evaluated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue samples. DNA was extracted from 109 GC samples (including 82 intestinal, and 27 diffuse cases), and the telomere length and mtDNA copy number were analyzed using a quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assay. The relative telomere length and mtDNA copy number in tumor tissue, as compared with in normal tissue, (mean ± standard deviation) in all GC samples were 11.48±1.14 and 14.86±1.35, respectively. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were not identified as exhibiting clinical or prognostic value for GC. However, positive correlations between telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number were identified in GC (r=0.408, P<0.001) and in the adjacent normal mucosa (r=0.363; P<0.001). When stratified by Lauren classification, the correlation was identified in intestinal type GC samples (r=0.461; P<0.001), but not in diffuse type GC samples (r=0.225; P=0.260). This result indicated that loss of the correlation of telomeres and mitochondrial function may induce the initiation or progression of GC pathogenesis.

  15. Parity and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2016-01-04

    We performed this meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to comprehensively assess the association between parity and gastric cancer risk, because previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding this topic. Relevant prospective studies were identified by searching the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, and random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our search yielded 10 prospective cohort studies involving a total of 6624 gastric cancer cases and 5,559,695 non-cases. The SRRs for ever parity vs. nulliparous and highest vs. lowest parity number were 0.96 (95%CI = 0.87-1.05, I(2) = 0%) and 1.03 (95%CI = 0.94-1.13, I(2) = 0%), respectively. Additionally, the SRR for an increment of one live birth was 1.00 (95%CI = 0.97-1.03, I(2) = 18.6%). These non-significant associations were observed in all subgroups as stratified by the number of gastric cases, follow-up years, geographic location, menopausal status, anatomic subsite of gastric cancer, and adjustment for potential confounders, as well as in sensitivity analyses. Our meta-analysis found no significant association between parity and gastric cancer risk. However, further studies should be conducted to validate our findings and could provide more detailed results by stratifying their findings by Lauren's subtype, histology, and anatomic site, as well as fully adjusting for potential confounding factors.

  16. CD147 expression in human gastric cancer is associated with tumor recurrence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dake; Zhu, Shaojun; Li, Jipeng; Ji, Gang; Wang, Weizhong; Wu, Guosheng; Zheng, Jianyong

    2014-01-01

    CD147 is correlated with tumor aggressiveness in various human malignancies. Here, we investigated CD147 protein expression in 223 patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and analyzed its association with disease-free and overall survival. CD147 was increased in gastric cancer compared to normal tissues. Additionally, CD147 expression was associated with gastric cancer invasion, metastasis and TNM stage, whereas it was not related to age, sex, differentiation status, tumor site or Lauren classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that CD147 was associated with disease-free and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer; i.e., patients with positive CD147 staining tend to have worse disease-free and overall survival. Moreover, Cox's proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that CD147 was an independent marker of disease-free and overall survival for patients with gastric cancer. These results confirm the association of CD147 with gastric cancer invasion and metastasis and prove that CD147 might be an indicator of tumor recurrence and prognosis in gastric cancer.

  17. Ceremony Honoring Connor Johnson

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-15

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Six-year-old Connor Johnson, left, is welcomed to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida by NASA Kennedy Space Center Director and former astronaut Robert Cabana for a ceremony in which he will present Connor with space mementos to inspire the youngster to continue the dream he has had since the age of three of becoming an astronaut. Connor is accompanied by his parents Eric and Lauren and younger brother Liam, in the background. Connor, of Denver, Colo., gained national attention for having the "right stuff" when he launched an online petition on the White House website in December 2013 to save NASA’s funding from budget cuts. One of the mementos, a piece of space history, was a bolt used to hold the International Space Station's Unity module in place in space shuttle Endeavour's payload bay on the STS-88 mission, the first station assembly mission and Cabana's fourth and final spaceflight. Connor and his family were the guests of Delaware North Companies Parks & Resorts, the concessionaire managing the visitor complex. During his visit, Connor had the opportunity to meet with astronauts, see space vehicles and witness the Robot Rocket Rally underway in the complex' Rocket Garden over the weekend. To learn more about the educational activities available daily at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, visit http://www.kennedyspacecenter.com. Photo credit: NASA/Dan Casper

  18. The predictive role of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity on survival in patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Atay, A E; Kaplan, M A; Evliyaoglu, O; Ekin, N; Isıkdogan, A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of malignancies including gastric cancer (GC). Paraoxonase 1(PON1) is a member of antioxidant defense system which acts by hydrolysing peroxidases. Our aim is to assess the levels PON1 activity in different stages and localizations of GC and analyze the predictive role of PON1 activity on overall survival in GC. One hundred and twenty six patients with GC were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into two groups; group I (nonmetastatic GC, n=65) and group II (metastatic GC, n=61). Paraoxonase 1 activity, albumine and lactate dehidrogenase levels and whole blood count were analyzed. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer system was used for staging procedure. Patients at advanced N or M stage have significantly lower levels of PON1 (34.26 U/L and 29.88 U/L, p=0.04 and p=0.03; respectively). Gender, Lauren's classification, grade, localization and T stage of tumor have nonsignificant impact on PON1 activity. PON1 activity was a significant prognostic factor in GC as well as metastasis, localization of tumor and low hemoglobine or albumine level. Lower levels of paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with metastatic gastric cancer may reflect the presence of enhanced oxidative stress in advanced stages of the disease. PON1 activity is a significant and independent predictor of overall survival. Identifying novel prognostic markers can help to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies, to determine preventive measures and to improve survival rates.

  19. Using gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 as a novel type of biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunben; Shao, Yongfu; Zhu, Mengying; Li, Qier; Yang, Fang; Lu, Xuwen; Xu, Chunjing; Xiao, Bingxiu; Sun, Yanke; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. However, the diagnostic values of most lncRNAs are largely unknown. To investigate whether gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 can be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer, 173 tissue samples and 130 gastric juice from benign lesion, gastric dysplasia, gastric premalignant lesions, and gastric cancer were collected. ABHD11-AS1 levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between ABHD11-AS1 levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The results showed that ABHD11-AS1 levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Its levels in gastric juice from gastric cancer patients were not only significantly higher than those from cases of normal mucosa or minimal gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric ulcers but also associated with gender, tumor size, tumor stage, Lauren type, and blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. More importantly, when using gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 as a marker, the positive detection rate of early gastric cancer patients was reached to 71.4 %. Thanks to the special origin of gastric juice, these results indicate that gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 may be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

  20. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  1. KSC-2011-7939

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-25

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – An educational news conference to explore "Why Mars Excites and Inspires Us" begins in NASA Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida during prelaunch activities for the agency’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch. Participants are, from left, Leland Melvin, NASA associate administrator for Education; Clara Ma, student, NASA contest winner for naming Curiosity, Shawnee Mission East High School, Prairie Village, Kansas; Scott Anderson, teacher and science department chairman, Da Vinci School for Science and the Arts, El Paso, Texas; Lauren Lyons, graduate student, Harvard University, FIRST robotics alumna; and Veronica McGregor, manager, Media Relations Office, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. MSL's car-sized Martian rover, Curiosity, has 10 science instruments designed to search for signs of life, including methane, and help determine if the gas is from a biological or geological source. Ma's entry was selected the winner from 9,000 entries in NASA's nationwide student contest to name the rover. At the time, she was a twelve-year-old sixth-grade student at the Sunflower Elementary school in Lenexa, Kansas. Liftoff of MSL aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is planned during a launch window which extends from 10:02 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. EST on Nov. 26. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/msl. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  2. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  3. PREFACE: Peyresq Physics Workshops 11 and 12—'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France (17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, D.; Verdaguer, E.

    2008-08-01

    -optical and condensed matter physics. The richness of this theme spans a diverse spectrum of current topics which can be gleaned from the titles of the talks presented in these two meetings. Peyresq is a medieval Provençal village situated 100km from Nice at an altitude of 1528m. The village was founded in the early 13th century. At the beginning of the 17th century there were around 50 houses and by 1851 the village counted 208 inhabitants distributed among 53 families. Like many other villages of Haute Provence, it was almost completely deserted after the Second World War. During the 1950s the village was progressively entirely rebuilt in its original spirit and style by students of Belgian universities, mainly the Université Libre de Bruxelles, under the guidance of Mady and Toine Smets. The aim was to create a 'Foyer d'Humanisme', an international humanistic center for cultural, artistic, and scientific pursuits. The workshops were financed by the Fondation Peyresq, Foyer d'Humanisme, the Fondation Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peyresq, and OLAM (Association pour la Recherche Fondamentale, Brussels). We would like to thank all these institutions for their help and financial support. We extend our warm appreciation to Madame Mady Smets without whom none of this work could have come to light. We would like to thank all the participants for the many lively discussions that we have enjoyed and for their effort in preparing written contributions. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Tom Spicer, Joseph Tennant and Eirini Messaritaki, for their support and efficiency in preparing this volume. Finally, we thank Edgar Gunzig and Bei-Lok Hu as the main driving forces behind the organization of these workshops.

  4. First account on the sedimentological, geochemical and petrophysical record of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the subsurface of onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leila, Mahmoud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The giant Cenozoic Nile Delta system in the extreme northern part of Egypt occupies the southeastern part of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and represents the most prolific gas province in Egypt with estimates more than 62 tcf of proven reserves (Niazi and Dahi, 2004). Despite the importance of the Messinian sediments in the Nile Delta hosting excellent petroleum reservoirs and seals (Dolson et al., 2001), they are still poorly studied. A multidisciplinary sedimentological, geochemical and petrophysical study is being carried out to unravel the depositional environment and tectonic setting before, during and after the important Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) period in the Eastern Mediterranean, and how this affected the eastern part of the onshore Nile Delta. The Lower Messinian Qawasim Formation consists of high to low-density turbiditic sandstones displaying several vertical stacked patterns of coarsening and fining upwards trends reflecting different pulses of sedimentation suggesting a sedimentation in a submarine fan developed at the base of shelf slope. The deeply incised valley infill, dating the Upper Messinian consists of the Abu Madi Formation made of lowstand braided and meandering fluvial sandstone interbedded with fine-grained floodplain sandstones and siltstones. The base of this unit is erosional and contains large mud clasts embedded in a fine-grained matrix. The Upper Miocene lowstand fluvial sandstones are capped by estuarine fine-grained cross laminated sandstones, siltstones/mudstones followed by an open marine mudstones of the Early Pliocene Kafr El-Sheikh Formation representing the end of the MSC and the subsequent transgression episode after the re-establishment of the connection between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Both the Qawasim and Abu Madi Formations display similar geochemical fingerprints from the clastic components. Recycled Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary and granodioritic to intermediate igneous rocks located in

  5. High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup for the Eastern Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    use a cycled GSI system similar to the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. The scripts run a 12-hour pre-cycle in which data are assimilated from 12 hours prior up to the model initialization time. A number of different model configurations were tested for both the ER and WFF by varying the horizontal resolution on which the data assimilation was done. Three different grid configurations were run for the ER and two configurations were run for WFF for archive cases from 27 Aug 2013 through 10 Nov 2013. To quantify model performance, standard model output will be compared to the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) data. The MADIS observation data will be compared to the WRF forecasts using the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification package. In addition, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Stage IV precipitation data will be used to validate the WRF precipitation forecasts. The author will summarize the relative skill of the various WRF configurations and how each configuration behaves relative to the others, as well as determine the best model configuration for each space launch range.

  6. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic.

  7. Spatio-temporal evolution of chlorophyll-a in the Bay of Bengal: a remote sensing and bio-argo perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.; Jayaram, Chiranjivi; Rama Rao, E. P.; Rao, K. H.

    2016-05-01

    Argo floats equipped with sensors to measure Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll-a and backscattering are deployed in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Southern Indian Ocean as part of Indian Argo program. In this study, abnormal chlorophyll-a bloom observed by a float with WMO ID 2902086 deployed in the south central Bay of Bengal is analyzed. High concentration of chlorophyll > 0.8 mg/l is observed during December 2013. This period is also associated with drop in temperature and increase in salinity. Analysis of data from the bio-Argo float has shown the impact of many cyclones and depressions that occurred during the period. Of particular importance is cyclone `Madi', which passed very near to the position of mentioned float, during December 2013. This is also evident from the satellite based wind observations from OSCAT through curl of wind stress and Ekman pumping. The sub-surface chlorophyll bloom is substantiated by the surface chlorophyll-a values of MODIS during the period. Intense mixing caused due to the passage of cyclone might have resulted in mixing of subsurface waters thereby breaking the stratification of otherwise stable surface waters of Bay of Bengal, enhancing the nutrient supply, which resulted in strong chlorophyll bloom. The subsurface chlorophyll structure of Bay of Bengal and its variability during the passage of cyclone is for the first time revealed by the floats equipped with biological sensors. This work reveals the synergistic application of in-situ (Bio- Argo) and satellite data to monitor the changes in subsurface structure during the passage of cyclones.

  8. Observation of warm, higher energy electrons transiting a double layer in a helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yung-Ta; Li, Yan; Scharer, John

    2015-11-01

    Experimental observations in MadiHeX indicate that fast electrons with substantial density fractions can be created at low helicon operating pressure. Two-temperature electron distributions including a fast (>80 eV) tail are observed in an inductive RF helicon argon plasma double layer at 0.17 mTorr Ar pressure. The fast, untrapped electrons measured downstream of the double layer have a higher temperature of 13 eV than the trapped, upstream electrons with a temperature of 4 eV. The reduction of plasma potential and density observed in the double layer region would require an upstream temperature ten times the measured 4 eV if occurring via Boltzmann ambipolar expansion. Upstream fluctuations of +/- 30% are also observed in the emissive probe measured plasma potential. Sideband frequencies have been observed at +/- 2 kHz of the driven RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, implying a beam instability effect dominantly upstream of the double layer. This can affect ion acceleration and electron temperature distribution in the region. The mechanism behind this has been explored via several plasma diagnostics tools. An RF-compensated Langmuir probe has been used to measure the electron temperatures and densities, which are cross-checked with ADAS, OES and millimeter wave IF. The EEDF in the plasma has also been profiled to understand the acceleration mechanism. A four-grid RPA and an emissive probe have been used to measure the IEDF and plasma potential. The measured IEDF has also been checked with LIF techniques.

  9. Impact of cyadox on human colonic microflora in chemostat models.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Guo, Weige; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cyadox, a new member of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides (QdNOs), on human intestinal flora. Four chemostats containing human fecal flora were exposed to 0, 16, 32, and 128 μg/mL of cyadox, respectively. Bacterial populations, resistance rates of two predominant bacteria and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were monitored daily prior to and during drug MOA Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products exposure. Colonization resistance (CR) of each community was determined by three successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Efflux pump gene (oqxAB) in the Escherichia coli and Enterococcus strains were analyzed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. No change in SCFA was observed after exposure to different concentrations of cyadox. Lower concentration of cyadox (16 μg/mL) had no adverse effect on human microflora. However, higher concentrations of cyadox (32 and 128 μg/mL) could change bacterial population and increase the proportion of resistant E. coli and Enterococcus. More than 26% (12/46) of cyadox resistant E. coli strains contained oqxAB gene, while all the resistant Enterococcus were negative to oqxAB gene. Relationship between the occurrence of oqxAB gene and cyadox exposure is inconclusive. Our data indicated that 16 μg/mL might be the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of cyadox. Derived microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) would be 1552.03 μg/kg d. The data obtained in present study indicated that cyadox was a safe member of QdNOs family of antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Gene transfer system mediated by PEI-cholesterol lipopolymer with lipid microbubbles].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Nan; Mo, Hong-Ying; Chen, Jian-Hai

    2010-05-01

    The properties of polyethyleneimine-cholesterol cationic lipopolymer (PEI-Chol) as gene carries and its gene transfer efficiency in vitro with lipid microbubbles were presented in this paper. PEI-Chol lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesterol chloroformate to the amino groups of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) of 1 800. The structure and molecular weight of PEI-Chol were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and MADI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry), respectively. The average molecular weight of PEI-Chol was approximately 2 000. The gene delivery system of bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA was constructed by mixed PEI-Chol/pDNA (N/P 10:1) complexes with lipid microbubbles (2-8 microm) which were prepared by DPPC, DSPE-PEG2000 and perfluoropropane with the reverse phase evaporation technique. pEGFP-Cl (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was used as report gene to investigate the DNA condensing ability of PEI-Chol lipopolymer by agarose gel electrophoresis. And their cytotoxicity and in vitro transfer efficiency of different complexes were compared with each other in A549 and MCF-7. The results indicated PEI-Chol lipopolymer can condense plasmid DNA when N/P ratio upto 4, PEI-Chol complexes and bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complexes were nontoxic to A549 and MCF-7 when formulated at the N/P ratio of 10/1 as determined by MTT assay. This bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA delivery system provided good transfer efficiency with other desirable characteristics such as against-precipitation of plasma proteins. In conclusion, bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complex is a novel non-viral gene delivery system.

  11. Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h Warm Season QPF be Improved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that numerical warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for numerous reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the numerical algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.

  12. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction.

  13. Fleet-wide Emissions from Mobile CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H.; Thurlow, M. E.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Fung, I. Y.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    In response to regional and municipal policies, transportation agencies are increasingly integrating greenhouse gas considerations into decision making. At the local level, fuel-based methods suffer leakage, mandating a bottom-up approach based on emissions models driven by local activity data. However, high spatial and temporal resolution traffic datasets are in general scarce and subject to error. Emissions models too are based on limited data and often require inputs that are not directly measured. Here, we show that routine, on-road CO2 surface measurements can be used to improve uncertainties on both of these fronts. Using forty hours of surface concentration data collected on CA Highway 24 together with a simple atmospheric dispersion model, we simultaneously derive traffic density as a function of vehicle speed, composite vehicle parameters needed to map vehicle operation to fuel consumption, and baseline meteorological parameters such as wind speed and mixing height. We compare our results directly with traffic loop detector measurements made by California's Performance Measurement System (PeMS), with emissions predictions from EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and with weather station data included in NOAA's Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS). Using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, we measure the immediate rush-hour emissions reduction associated with congestion alleviation following the opening of the Caldecott Tunnel fourth bore. We use this example to argue that routine and distributed on-road measurements of this kind could serve as a much needed policy tool for testing the impact of traffic-related emissions reduction strategies.

  14. Differentiating Between Models of MCT Evolution in the Annapurna Range, Central Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Decelles, P. G.; Patchett, P.; Isachsen, C.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    Recent thermochronologic data from the Annapurna region of central Nepal show very young ages in the footwall of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), with late Miocene-Pliocene Th/Pb monazite ages especially common 5-15 kilometers south of the MCT (Catlos et al., 2001). These data can be explained with several different models, including: 1) Reactivation of the MCT and its splays in Miocene-Pliocene time with motion on some faults continuing to the present (e.g. Catlos et al., 2001); 2) Growth of a duplex beneath the MCT that passively lifted both the footwall and the hangingwall of the MCT in Miocene-Pliocene time (e.g. DeCelles et al., 2001); 3) A combination of MCT reactivation and duplex growth. When combined with structural mapping, our pilot dataset of in situ monazite Th/Pb ages from hangingwall and footwall rocks in the Madi Khola allows us to begin to validate aspects of some models and eliminate others. Our structural and thermochronologic interpretations are enhanced by Nd isotopic analyses that accurately constrain the location of the MCT (defined as the crustal boundary between Lesser Himalayan and Greater Himalayan rocks). We use Nd isotopes to map the MCT across the 60 kilometers between the Modi and Marsyandi Rivers based on previous studies that showed that Lesser Himalayan rocks contain more radiogenic Nd than Greater Himalayan rocks. In addition to identifying potential structural modifications of the MCT, our map will be useful for future studies in the Annapurna region because the critical task of locating the MCT is not always straightforward in the field.

  15. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland District, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Gabalebatse, Moabiemang; Ngwenya, Barbara N; Teketay, Demel; Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2013-01-01

    We carried out a study to determine ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases in Toteng Village in Ngamiland District, northwestern Botswana. Primary data were collected through simple random sampling of 45 households in Toteng. Respondents were either livestock owners or cattle herders. Respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire which had both open and closed-ended questions. Cattle ownership or herdership in Toteng is an inter-generational occupation with people ranging from 15 to 94 years old. Cattle were acquired either through inheritance, buying, mafisa (reciprocal exchange) system or government scheme. Women in the study area were more involved in livestock farming activities. Eleven livestock diseases were reported to be prevalent in the study area. The top six diseases were tlhako le molomo -foot and mouth disease (FMD), matlho -eye infections, letshololo-diarrhea, madi -pasteurollosis, mokokomalo -aphosphorisis and pholoso-contagious abortion. At least nine medicinal plant species having ethno-veterinary applications were recorded in the study area. Single plants are mostly used rather than a combination of plants. A number of social strategies were mentioned such as 'go fetola mafudiso' - to change grazing areas, and 'go thaa lesaka' - to ritualistically 'protect a kraal' or livestock against evil spells and predators (lions). Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable and experienced in treating a range of livestock diseases, but also in performing other veterinary tasks such as assisting in births, treating fractures and range management strategies to mitigate particular threats from their local environment. The efficacy of ethno

  16. Nanoscale topographic pattern formation on Kr{sup +}-bombarded germanium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Perkinson, Joy C.; Madi, Charbel S.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2013-03-15

    The nanoscale pattern formation of Ge surfaces uniformly irradiated by Kr{sup +} ions was studied in a low-contamination environment at ion energies of 250 and 500 eV and at angles of 0 Degree-Sign through 80 Degree-Sign . The authors present a phase diagram of domains of pattern formation occurring as these two control parameters are varied. The results are insensitive to ion energy over the range covered by the experiments. Flat surfaces are stable from normal incidence up to an incidence angle of {theta} = 55 Degree-Sign from normal. At higher angles, the surface is linearly unstable to the formation of parallel-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is parallel to the projection of the ion beam on the surface. For {theta} {>=} 75 Degree-Sign the authors observe perpendicular-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is perpendicular to the ion beam. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those of Madi et al. for Ar{sup +}-irradiated Si but is inconsistent with those of Ziberi et al. for Kr{sup +}-irradiated Ge. The existence of a window of stability is qualitatively inconsistent with a theory based on sputter erosion [R. M. Bradley and J. M. Harper, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2390 (1988)] and qualitatively consistent with a model of ion impact-induced mass redistribution [G. Carter and V. Vishnyakov, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17647 (1996)] as well as a crater function theory incorporating both effects [S. A. Norris et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 276 (2011)]. The critical transition angle between stable and rippled surfaces occurs 10 Degree-Sign -15 Degree-Sign above the value of 45 Degree-Sign predicted by the mass redistribution model.

  17. Changing landscapes, changing practice: negotiating access to sleeping sickness services in a post-conflict society.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Kelly, Ann H; Surur, Elizeous I; Checchi, Francesco; Jones, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    For several decades, control programmes for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) in South Sudan have been delivered almost entirely as humanitarian interventions: large, well-organised, externally-funded but short-term programmes with a strategic focus on active screening. When attempts to hand over these programmes to local partners fail, resident populations must actively seek and negotiate access to tests at hospitals via passive screening. However, little is known about the social impact of such humanitarian interventions or the consequences of withdrawal on access to and utilisation of remaining services by local populations. Based on qualitative and quantitative fieldwork in Nimule, South Sudan (2008-2010), where passive screening necessarily became the predominant strategy, this paper investigates the reasons why, among two ethnic groups (Madi returnees and Dinka displaced populations), service uptake was so much higher among the latter. HAT tests were the only form of clinical care for which displaced Dinka populations could self-refer; access to all other services was negotiated through indigenous area workers. Because of the long history of conflict, these encounters were often morally and politically fraught. An open-door policy to screening supported Dinka people to 'try' HAT tests in the normal course of treatment-seeking, thereby empowering them to use HAT services more actively. This paper argues that in a context like South Sudan, where HAT control increasingly depends upon patient-led approaches to case-detection, it is imperative to understand the cultural values and political histories associated with the practice of testing and how medical humanitarian programmes shape this landscape of care, even after they have been scaled down.

  18. Histology-based prediction of lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer as decision guidance for endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Grobholz, Rainer; Lang, Siegfried; Post, Stefan; Kähler, Georg; Gaiser, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Background Selected cases of early gastric cancer (EGC) can be successfully treated by endoscopic therapy if the risk of concurrent lymph node metastases (LNM) is negligible. Criteria for endoscopic resection based on risk factor analyses for LNM have been established mainly in Asia. However, it is not clear to what extent these recommendations can be transferred to Western collectives. The aim of this study was to analyze predictors for LNM in EGC in a Western study population. Methods From our institutional archive, we selected all patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who had undergone gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy (1972 – 2005). Among 1970 patients 275 cases with EGC were identified. Clinical and pathological data were collected and logistic regression analyses performed. Results LNM were present in 36/275 (13.1%) patients. With deeper invasion proportion of LNM increased. At submucosa level (sm1), patients were almost five times more likely to have LNM than at mucosa levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed lymphovascular invasion, diffuse- and mixed-type, and invasion depth as significant independent histopathological predictors of LNM. In patients with intestinal type according to Lauren and no lymphovascular invasion, we found only one LNM-positive case out of 43 patients in the pT1b (sm1 and sm2) groups. Conclusions Our results underline the recommendation of most guidelines that endoscopic resection is sufficient for pT1a ECG because of the low incidence of LNM in this group. However, there seems also a role for endoscopic therapy in cases of pT1b (sm1/2) EGC with intestinal type differentiation and no lymphovascular invasion. PMID:26863452

  19. Mixed Carcinoma as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Submucosal Invasive Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yung; Yoo, Moon-Won; Hwang, Tae Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carcinoma shows a mixture of glandular and signet ring/poorly cohesive cellular histological components and the prognostic significance of each component is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the significance of the poorly cohesive cellular histological component as a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and to examine the diagnostic reliability of endoscopic biopsy. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 202 patients who underwent submucosal invasive gastric carcinoma resection with lymph node dissection in 2005-2012 were reviewed. Mixed carcinoma accounted for 27.2% (56/202) of cases. The overall prevalence of lymph node metastasis was 17.3% (35/202). Lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001), family history of carcinoma (P = 0.025), tumor size (P = 0.004), Lauren classification (P = 0.042), and presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component (P = 0.021) positively correlated with the lymph node metastasis rate on univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses revealed lymphatic invasion, family history of any carcinoma, and the presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component to be significant and independent factors related to lymph node metastasis. Review of preoperative biopsy slides showed that preoperative biopsy demonstrated a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 100% in detecting the presence of the poorly cohesive cellular histological component, compared with gastrectomy specimens. The presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component was an independent risk factor associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive gastric carcinoma. Endoscopic biopsy had limited value in predicting the presence and proportion of the poorly cohesive cellular histologic component due to the heterogeneity of mixed carcinoma.

  20. To Excavate Biomarkers Predictive of the Response for Capecitabine plus RAD001 through Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansang; Lee, Jeeyun; Sohn, Insuk; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Seung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of individual patients' tumour is important to realize personalized medicine. Here, we investigate to identify subsets that benefit from capecitabine plus RAD001 in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). Archival tumour tissue blocks, if possible, were collected at phase II trial of capecitabine plus RAD001 in 47 refractory GC patients (at clinicaltrials.gov NCT#01099527). A total of 42 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples were available for nanostring based-multigene Assay. An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels has been used. We performed correlation analyses between expression levels of kinase genes and response for capecitabine plus RAD001. Among 42 patients with An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels, 4 patients achieved confirmed partial response and 15 patients revealed stable disease, resulting in an overall response rate (ORR) of 9.5%. No difference in ORR was observed in terms of gender, performance status, primary tumour site, gastric resection, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, No. of metastatic site and No. of chemotherapy. In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. This study is first report that investigated to identify biomarkers predictive of the response for RAD001 containing treatment in refractory GC patients, by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay).

  1. Expression of aurora kinase A correlates with the Wnt-modulator RACGAP1 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Jan; Nielitz, Jessica; Drozdov, Ignat; Selgrad, Michael; Wex, Thomas; Jechorek, Doerthe; Link, Alexander; Vieth, Michael; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the link between Wnt signaling and aurora kinase A (AURKA), a target for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Publicly available microarray data were used to identify phenotype-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetworks. The in silico analysis revealed a gastric cancer-specific PPI subnetwork consisting of 2745 proteins and 50,935 interactions. We focused on the link of AURKA to a Wnt-specific interaction module consisting of 92 proteins. There was a direct association of AURKA with Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 (RACGAP1), as well as with CTNBB1 (β-catenin) and CDKN1A as second-order interactors. Differential expression analysis revealed a significant downregulation of both AURKA and RACGAP1 in gastric cancer compared to noncancer controls. Biopsies from a prospective cohort of 56 patients with gastric cancer (32 intestinal type, 24 diffuse type) and 20 noncancer controls were used for validation of the identified targets. The RT-PCR data confirmed a strong correlation of AURKA and RACGAP1 gene expression both in the tumor, the tumor-adjacent and the tumor-distant mucosa. RACGAP1 in the tumor was also associated with CTNBB1 expression, and inversely associated with CDKN1A gene expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of the RACGAP1 protein in gastric cancer and the tumor-adjacent mucosa. RACGAP1 expression was not associated with tumor stage, grading, Lauren type, Helicobacter pylori infection, or age. In conclusion, AURKA is directly associated with the expression of RACGAP1, a modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

  2. The 2009 Eclipse of EE Cephei: An Educational and Collaborative Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, John; Elder, Lauren; Hopkins, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    In December 2008 Jeff Hopkins of the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory (HPO) put out a request for assistance in extracting data from images taken by the AAVSO SRO (Sonoita Research Observatory) of EE Cephei, an 11th magnitude (V) long period (5.6 years) eclipsing binary star system that was due to eclipse in January of 2009. The Hopkins Phoenix Observatory originally planned to do BVRI CCD photometry of EE Cephei for the 2009 eclipse, but equipment and logistical changes at HPO meant the EE Cephei project would not be possible. However, in the fall of 2008 Arne Henden of the AAVSO announced the availability of a remote robotic 16" telescope (the Sonoita Research Observatory) in southern Arizona for use by members of the AAVSO. Jeff Hopkins contacted Arne Henden and arrangements were made to have the EE Cephei star system imaged with BVRI filters beginning in November 2008 and running through February 2009. Image files were archived on the AAVSO web site. Soon after his initial request went out, Jeff Hopkins was contacted by John Pye from Maui Community College, who agreed to help with the project by having one of his students, Lauren Elder, examine the image files and extract EE Cephei and 3 comparison stars flux (ADU) counts for each band. The resulting data were then sent to the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory for data reduction and analysis. The project was a successful joint collaboration with 40 nights of observations for over 300 BVRI data points from 20 November 2008 to 17 February 2009. Light curves for each band as well as color indices were plotted and eclipse contact points were determined. The data were also contributed to the EE Cephei Campaign organized by Cezary Galan at the Centre for Astronomy at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (Poland). Our results are plotted along with those of several dozen other observers from around the world.

  3. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Results Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, P<0.001). Similarly, the OS of patients with single cell invasion and large cell invasion was reduced (single cell invasion, HR: 3.553, P<0.001; large cell invasion, HR: 2.466, P<0.001). Following multivariate analysis, tumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). According to the Lauren classification, patients with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma had better outcomes than those with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (HR: 2.563, P<0.001). Conclusion Tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:28255247

  4. Chemotherapy resistance in diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma is mediated by RhoA activation in cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Changhwan; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Park, Do Joong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Ryeom, Sandra W.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Lauren diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinoma (DGA), as opposed to the intestinal type (IGA), often harbor mutations in RHOA but little is known about the role of RhoA in DGA. Experimental Design We examined RhoA activity and RhoA pathway inhibition in DGA cell lines and in two mouse xenograft models. RhoA activity was also assessed in patient tumor samples. Results RhoA activity was higher in DGA compared to IGA cell lines, and was further increased when grown as spheroids to enrich for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) or when sorted using the gastric CSC marker CD44. RhoA shRNA or the RhoA inhibitor Rhosin decreased expression of the stem cell transcription factor, Sox2, and decreased spheroid formation by 78–81%. DGA spheroid cells had 3–5 fold greater migration and invasion than monolayer cells, and this activity was Rho-dependent. Diffuse GA spheroid cells were resistant in a cytotoxicity assay to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy, and this resistance could be reversed with RhoA pathway inhibition. In two xenograft models, cisplatin inhibited tumor growth by 40–50%, RhoA inhibition by 32–60%, and the combination by 77–83%. In 288 patient tumors, increased RhoA activity correlated with worse OS in DGA patients (p=0.017) but not in IGA patients (p=0.612). Conclusions RhoA signaling promotes CSC phenotypes in DGA cells. Increased RhoA activity is correlated with worse OS in DGA patients and RhoA inhibition can reverse chemotherapy resistance in DGA CSC and in tumor xenografts. Thus the RhoA pathway is a promising new target in DGA patients. PMID:26482039

  5. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Corral, Juan E; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J; Domínguez, Ricardo L; Valdez de Cuéllar, Marisabel; Balmore Cruz, Carlos; Morgan, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the USA. Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based, and hospital-based registries. US data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Epidemiology End Results Program (SEER) registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985 and 2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two thirds of the cases were male, 20.5 % were under age 55, and 58.5 %were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n = 7871), 57.8 % were male and 28.9 % were under age 55. Among the US Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n = 1210), 50.3 % of cases were male and 38.1 % were under age 55. Non-cardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3 %), among US Hispanics (80.2 %), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3 %). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6 %), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among US Hispanics (54.0 %). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7 %) and US Hispanics (69.5 %), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50 % of cases. A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and US Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing US Hispanic population.

  6. Enhanced nonlinear optics and other applications of resonant plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-10-01

    A surface plasmon polariton is the result of a photon coupling to a collective charge excitation in an electron gas. It is the optical equivalent of ordinary electrical currents at lower frequencies. By this analogy, just as regular electronic circuits can have resonances at discrete frequencies, metal nanostructures can exhibit plasmonic resonances in the optical frequency regime. These resonances tend to concentrate the electromagnetic field intensity by several orders of magnitude within nanometer scale hotspots located at sharp corners or inside narrow gaps in the structure. This phenomenon can be used to enhance a number of different effects, such as Raman scattering, fluorescence efficiency and photochemical reactions. This talk will give an overview of some of our recent work in this area, focusing on using plasmons to enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) from nonlinear optical films. In particular, we have shown that the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles to such a film can increase the SHG emission as much as 2000 times. We have applied this idea to SHG generation in tapered optical fiber, where we obtain quasi-phase matching by patterning the deposition of metal nanoparticles onto the otherwise uniform nonlinear film that coats the fiber. I will also discuss our recent work on plasmonically enhanced nonlinear microscopy and plasmon enhanced photovotaics. [4pt] In collaboration with Kai Chen, Chih-Yu Jao, Chalongrat Daengngam, Jeong-Ah Lee, and J. Randall Heflin, VirginiaTech, Department of Physics; Sungsool Wi, VirginiaTech, Department of Chemistry; Lauren Neely, Vladimir Kochergin, MicroXact, Inc.; and Yong Xu, Virginia Tech, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  7. Clinicopathologic significance and prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in patients with gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanying; Hu, Yunzhao; Zhang, Zhiqiao; Wang, Peng; Luo, Zhaowen; Lin, Jinxin; Cheng, Canchang; Yang, You

    2017-07-25

    The prognostic value and clinicopathologic significance of Ki-67 expression in gastric cancer patients was controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify the prognostic value and clinicopathologic significance of Ki-67 expression in gastric cancer patients. Several electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. The pooled odds ratio (OR), hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval(CI) were calculated to explore the prognostic value and clinicopathologic significance of Ki-67 expression for disease free survival and overall survival. Totally 5600 gastric cancer patients from 29 studies were included in this study. High Ki-67 expression was significantly related with Lauren's classification (OR = 1.70; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 1.40-2.06) and tumor size(OR = 1.54; P = 0.006; 95%CI: 1.14-2.09). However, high Ki-67 expression was not significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.37; P = 0.138; 95% CI: 0.90-2.08) , tumor stage (OR = 1.31; P = 0.296; 95% CI: 0.79-2.16) and tumor differentiation (OR = 1.03; P = 0.839; 95% CI: 0.78-1.35). The pooled HRs were 1.87(P = 0.001; 95% CI 1.30-2.69) for disease free survival and 1.23(P = 0.005; 95% CI 1.06-1.42) for overall survival. High Ki-67 expression may serve as a predictive biomarker for poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Stratification by Ki-67 expression may be a consideration for selection of therapeutic regimen and integrated managements.

  8. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, P<0.001). Similarly, the OS of patients with single cell invasion and large cell invasion was reduced (single cell invasion, HR: 3.553, P<0.001; large cell invasion, HR: 2.466, P<0.001). Following multivariate analysis, tumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). According to the Lauren classification, patients with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma had better outcomes than those with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (HR: 2.563, P<0.001). Tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis.

  9. Atmosphere-Snowpack NOx Exchange: Measurements at Summit, Greenland and Process-Scale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Keenan; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Kramer, Louisa; Doskey, Paul; Helmig, Detlev; Seok, Brian; Van Dam, Brie

    2013-04-01

    Atmosphere-Snowpack NOx Exchange: Measurements at Summit, Greenland and Process-Scale Modeling Keenan A. Murray, Laurens Ganzeveld, Louisa J. Kramer, Paul V. Doskey, Detlev Helmig, Brian Seok, Brie Van Dam Snowpack over glacial ice is a reservoir for reactive nitrogen gases. During the sunlit season, NOx is generated in the interstitial air of snowpack through photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) in snow. Gradients in NOx mixing ratios between snowpack interstitial air and the overlying atmosphere regulate transfer of NOx to/from snowpack and affect the atmospheric O3 budget, oxidation capacity and, consequently, climate. To better understand the dynamics in cryosphere-atmosphere exchange of NOx we have collected 2 years of meteorological and chemical data at Summit, Greenland. Profiles of NO, NO2 and O3 mixing ratios were measured in interstitial air at several depths in the snowpack and at 2 levels above the snow surface. NOx emissions are episodic, with large NOx events occurring in early spring during high wind speed events (10-20 mph) that elevate NOx levels to ~500 pptv to depths of 2.5 meters into the snowpack. The poster will present measurements of NO, NO2, O3, wind, and irradiance for a high NOx event in the snowpack during the 2008-2010 period. Analysis of these observations will be based upon the application of a 1-D process-scale model of the atmosphere-snowpack exchange of NOx, which includes representations of the snowpack chemistry of reactive nitrogen, peroxides, and small hydrocarbon species. A more highly parameterized version of the process-scale model is currently being developed for inclusion in a global-scale model to assess the implications of climate change on cryosphere-atmosphere NOx and Ox exchange. We will present a first comparison of the predicated NOx and O3 profiles and fluxes from the process-scale/parameterized models, respectively, to observed measurements.

  10. "Healthier than thou? 'Practicing what you preach' backfires by increasing anticipated devaluation": Correction to Howe and Monin (2017).

    PubMed

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "Healthier Than Thou? "Practicing What You Preach" Backfires by Increasing Anticipated Devaluation" by Lauren C. Howe and Benoît Monin (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 27, 2017, np). In the article, the beginning phrase of the second paragraph of the Internal Meta-Analysis of Studies 3 Through 5 section is incorrect. It should instead begin as follows: Across the three studies. The Monin et al. (2014) reference in both the References list and in text is included in error. The correct citation should read as follows: Monin, B., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The limits of direct replications and the virtues of stimulus sampling: Commentary on Klein et al., 2014. Social Psychology, 45, 299-300. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-08697-001.) Should experts always practice what they preach? When an expert displays exemplary behavior, individuals who fear negative devaluation sometimes anticipate that this expert will look down on them. As a result, displays of excellence can paradoxically turn off the very people they are trying to inspire. Five studies document this in the medical domain, showing that individuals who are overweight or obese and concerned about their weight avoid physicians who advertise their fitness, for fear that these doctors will judge them negatively. People (erroneously) believe that doctors have healthier habits than other individuals (Study 1), doctors advertise healthy habits (Study 2), and overweight individuals anticipate devaluation from, and thus avoid and feel less comfortable with, doctors who portray themselves as fitness-focused (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 test strategies for physicians to emphasize their own fitness without turning off weight-sensitive patients. This work demonstrates that it is critical to take into account ego-defensive processes when attempting to lead by example. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  11. Comparison between Resectable Helicobacter pylori-Negative and -Positive Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Ju Yup; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Yoon, Kichul; Jo, Hyun Jin; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Controversy exists regarding the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection-negative gastric cancer (HPIN-GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features of HPIN-GC compared to H. pylori infection-positive gastric cancer (HPIP-GC) using a comprehensive analysis that included genetic and environmental factors. H. pylori infection status of 705 resectable gastric cancer patients was determined by the rapid urease test, testing for anti-H. pylori antibodies, histologic analysis and culture of gastric cancer tissue samples, and history of H. pylori eradication. HPIN-GC was defined as gastric cancer that was negative for H. pylori infection based on all five methods and that had no evidence of atrophy in histology or serology. The prevalence of HPIN-GC was 4% (28/705). No significant differences with respect to age, sex, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer or obesity were observed between the two groups. HPIN-GC tumors were marginally more likely to involve the cardia (14.3% for HPIN-GC vs 5.3% for HPIP-GC, p=0.068). The Lauren classification, histology, and TNM stage did not differ according to H. pylori infection status. Microsatellite instability was not different between the two groups, but p53 overexpression in HPIN-GC was marginally higher than in HPIP-GC (56.0% for HPIN-GC vs 37.0% for HPIP-GC, p=0.055). The prevalence of HPIN-GC was extremely low, and its clinicopathologic characteristics were similar to HPIP-GC.

  12. Physical activity domains and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huerta, José M; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Molina, Antonio J; Amiano, Pilar; Martín, Vicente; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Moreno, Víctor; Burgui, Rosana; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Ramos-Lora, Manuel; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Peiró, Rosana; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for a protective role of physical activity against development of stomach cancer is yet inconclusive. We studied the association of domain-specific physical activity and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), by site and histology, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. 428 histologically confirmed GAC cases (67% men) including the gastro-esophageal region and 3225 controls were included. Cases were recruited in hospitals from 10 different Spanish regions, whereas population controls were randomly selected within the respective hospitals' catchment areas. A physical activity (PA) questionnaire was used to gather information on household and recreational activities, allowing estimation of PA volume (in metabolic equivalents (MET)-min/week). Participants also reported the intensity of working PA and daily sitting time. Questionnaire data on diet, lifestyles and clinical variables including Helicobacter pylori serology were available. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of GAC were estimated for domains of physical activity, stratifying by sex, site (cardia vs. non-cardia), and Lauren classification (intestinal vs. diffuse). Household physical activity (HPA) showed a strong inverse association with GAC, observed for both cardia and non-cardia tumours. Risk of overall gastric cancer was 50% lower risk among participants in the highest HPA category (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.38, 0.66). Recreational physical activity (RPA) was also associated with lower overall GAC risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88), particularly at moderate levels of intensity such as walking (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.79). The protective effect of RPA was strongest for non-cardia tumours. Sedentary time was not related to GAC risk (p-trend = 0.392), but the potential protective effect of RPA was restricted to non-sedentary participants. Both household and recreational physical activities were independently related to lower GAC risk in the MCC-Spain study.

  13. Relationship Between the DPD and TS mRNA Expression and the Response to S-1-Based Chemotherapy and Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Chong; Lian, Lian; Li, Li-Qun; Li, Wei; Tao, Min

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to determine changes in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNAs in the blood of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients to see whether these enzymes affected the patients' response to S-1-based chemotherapy and prognosis. For this purpose, pretreatment DPD/TS mRNA expressions were determined in 40 AGC patients using RT-PCR. The patients were then administered with S-1-based regimen (S-1 + cisplatin) and toxicities were recorded. The relationship between the DPD/TS mRNA expressions and the chemotherapy response, drug resistance, and prognosis was analyzed. The data show that DPD mRNA expression correlated significantly with Lauren type while TS mRNA expression correlated with distant metastasis. Patients with higher DPD and/or TS mRNA expression(s) showed poor response, while those with low DPD mRNA expression showed better response to the chemotherapy. Pooled analysis showed that the patients with low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had better therapeutic response. The incidence of bone marrow suppression, diarrhea, and oral mucositis was high in patients with low DPD mRNA expression. Median overall survival (OS) in 40 patients was 13.5 months. It was 17 months for low and 10 months for high DPD (P = 0.044) and TS mRNA expression (P = 0.047). Pooled analysis showed that the patients with both low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had longer OS (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the detection of DPD and/or TS mRNA expression can be used to predict the response to S-1-based chemotherapy, drug resistance, and prognosis in AGC patients as well as to help guide the individualized treatment of gastric cancer.

  14. HOXB7 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients by inducing expression of both AKT and MARKs

    PubMed Central

    He, Xujun; Liu, Zhengchuang; Xia, Yingjie; Xu, Ji; Lv, Guocai; Wang, Lu; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Liping; Mou, Yiping; Jiang, Xiaoting; Ma, Jie; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Ni, Haibin; Xu, Wenjuan; Ru, Guoqing; Huang, Dongsheng; Tao, Houquan

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of HOXB7 has been reported to correlate with the progression in many cancers. However, the specific mechanism by which it promotes the evolution of gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC by assessing HOXB7 expression in patient tissue and its correlation to clinical characteristics. We found that GC tissues showed increased expression of HOXB7 and that the HOXB7 expression was significantly associated with Lauren classification, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis, and could serve as an independent prognostic factor. To further investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC, we generated stable GC cell lines and both over-expressed and knocked down HOXB7 expression. Over-expression of HOXB7 in GC cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion ability, whereas the opposite trends were observed upon reduction of HOXB7 expression by knockdown. These findings were further supported by our in vivo studies which show that HOXB7 expression can affect the GC cells' subcutaneous growth and lung metastases. A Phospho-MAPK Array Kit was used to explore the possible mechanism of HOXB7-induced cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the AKT signaling pathway and the two members of the MAPK pathway, were involved in those promoting effects. In conclusion, our results showed that increased expression of HOXB7 might play an important role in promoting GC proliferation, migration and invasion by inducing both AKT and MAPK pathways, thus resulting in progression of, and poor prognosis in GC patients. PMID:27901487

  15. Attention bias modification training for adolescents with chronic pain: a randomized placebocontrolled trial.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Lauren C; Jacobs, Konrad; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Fisher, Emma; Eccleston, Christopher; Fox, Elaine; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2017-09-29

    Attention bias for pain-related information is theorised to maintain chronic pain, indicating that changing this bias could improve pain-related outcomes. Modifying attention biases in adolescents, when chronic pain often first emerges, may be particularly beneficial. We report here a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of Attention Bias Modification (ABM) training in adolescents with chronic non-cancer pain. Adolescent patients (N=66) were randomly assigned to complete multiple sessions of dot-probe ABM training (N=23), placebo training (N=22), or no training (waitlist; N=21) across a period of four weeks. Patients completed all assessments at a hospital-based pediatric pain clinic, and completed all training at home. We examined the relative effects of ABM on attention bias and attention control, as well as pain symptomatology (primary outcome), pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression symptoms and functional disability (secondary outcomes) immediately after training and three months later. We found no evidence that ABM changed attention bias or attention control in comparison with placebo training or no training. We also found that pain and pain-related outcomes were no different for those undergoing ABM compared with placebo training or no training when tested immediately after training or three months later. Overall, we found no evidence to support the efficacy of dot-probe ABM for improving pain-related outcomes in adolescents with chronic pain. This study was registered on the NIHR Clinical Research Network Portfolio in August 2014 (UK Clinical Trials Gateway: CPMS 17251) and funded by a Research Training Fellowship awarded to Lauren Heathcote by Action Medical Research for Children.

  16. Poorly Differentiated Medullary Phenotype Predicts Poor Survival in Early Lymph Node-Negative Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Grabowski, Patricia; Berg, Erika; Bläker, Hendrik; Kruschewski, Martin; Haase, Oliver; Hummel, Michael; Daum, Severin

    2016-01-01

    Background 5-year survival rate in patients with early adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction or stomach (AGE/S) in Caucasian patients is reported to be 60–80%. We aimed to identify prognostic markers for patients with UICC-I without lymph-node involvement (N0). Methods Clinical data and tissue specimen from patients with AGE/S stage UICC-I-N0, treated by surgery only, were collected retrospectively. Tumor size, lymphatic vessel or vein invasion, grading, classification systems (WHO, Lauren, Ming), expression of BAX, BCL-2, CDX2, Cyclin E, E-cadherin, Ki-67, TP53, TP21, SHH, Survivin, HIF1A, TROP2 and mismatch repair deficiency were analyzed using tissue microarrays and correlated with overall and tumor related survival. Results 129 patients (48 female) with a mean follow-up of 129.1 months were identified. 5-year overall survival was 83.9%, 5-year tumor related survival was 95.1%. Poorly differentiated medullary cancer subtypes (p<0.001) and positive vein invasion (p<0.001) were identified as risk factors for decreased overall—and tumor related survival. Ki-67 (p = 0.012) and TP53 mutation (p = 0.044) were the only immunohistochemical markers associated with worse overall survival but did not reach significance for decreased tumor related survival. Conclusion In the presented study patients with AGE/S in stage UICC-I-N0 had a better prognosis as previously reported for Caucasian patients. Poorly differentiated medullary subtype was associated with reduced survival and should be considered when studying prognosis in these patients. PMID:28030564

  17. Association of Polymorphisms in three pri-miRNAs that Target Pepsinogen C with the Risk and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ye-feng; Xu, Qian; He, Cai-yun; Li, Ying; Liu, Jing-wei; Deng, Na; Sun, Li-ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of polymorphisms in three microRNAs (miRNAs) (let-7e rs8111742, miR-365b rs121224 and miR-4795 rs1002765) that target PGC with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer/atrophic gastritis. Sequenom’s MassArray was used to genotype the miRNA polymorphisms in 724 gastric cancer cases, 862 atrophic gastritis cases and 862 controls in a Chinese population. We found that let-7e rs8111742 and miR-4795 rs1002765 were associated with the risk of gastric cancer in the H. pylori-positive subgroup. MiR-365b rs121224 was associated with the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in the alcohol consumption subgroup. Intestinal-type gastric cancer patients at Borrmann stages III-IV who carry the miR-365b rs121224 GG genotype had better prognosis compared with those who carry the CG or CC genotypes. MiR-365b rs121224 was associated with Lauren typing and TNM staging, in which the distribution of GG genotype carriers in intestinal-type gastric cancer and the TNM stage I-II subgroup was higher than that of CG or CC genotypes, which contrasted with the distribution in diffuse-type gastric cancer or TNM III-IV groups. These findings suggested that the polymorphisms in these miRNAs might be biomarkers for gastric cancer risk and prognosis, especially for populations infected with Helicobacter pylori or who consume alcohol. PMID:28067243

  18. Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.

    2009-01-01

    The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

  19. Significant Racial Disparities Exist in Noncardia Gastric Cancer Outcomes Among Kaiser Permanente's Patient Population.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Marita C; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Armstrong, Mary Anne; Kakar, Sanjay; Postlethwaite, Debbie; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Racial and ethnic differences in gastric cancer are not well understood. This study sought to compare the clinicopathological features and survival of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA) patients with different racial/ethnic backgrounds in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), a large integrated health care system. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1,366 patients with newly diagnosed NCGA between 2000 and 2010. The subjects were categorized into four racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics. Clinicopathological information and survival data were obtained from the KPNC electronic databases and compared among the four racial/ethnic groups. The incidence of NCGA declined in Blacks and Whites, but remained stable in Asians and Hispanics. Whites had a lower incidence of NCGA compared with non-Whites. Asians and Hispanics were diagnosed at a younger age compared with Whites (mean age at diagnosis: 66, 63, and 72 years, respectively; P < 0.0001). Diffuse/mixed histological type (Lauren classification) was more prevalent in Asians and Hispanics than in Whites and Blacks (46 and 45 vs. 36 and 29 %, respectively, P = 0.001). History of Helicobacter pylori testing was associated with better survival. Asians had the highest survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years, while Whites had the lowest (P < 0.0001). Significant racial/ethnic differences exist in patients with noncardia gastric cancer. Asians and Hispanics were younger at diagnosis and had more diffuse/mixed histological type. Asians had the highest survival, while Whites had the lowest. Such differences may be related to biological, environmental, and treatment-related factors.

  20. THE PRESENCE OF METASTASES IN REGIONAL LYMPH NODES IS ASSOCIATED WITH TUMOR SIZE AND DEPTH OF INVASION IN SPORADIC GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    CAMBRUZZI, Eduardo; de AZEREDO, Andreza Mariane; KRONHART, Ardala; FOLTZ, Katia Martins; ZETTLER, Cláudio Galeano; PÊGAS, Karla Lais

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric adenocarcinoma is more often found in men over 50 years in the form of an antral lesion. The tumor has heterogeneous histopathologic features and a poor prognosis (median survival of 15% in five years). Aim To estimate the relationship between the presence of nodal metastasis and other prognostic factors in sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Method Were evaluated 164 consecutive cases of gastric adenocarcinoma previously undergone gastrectomy (partial or total), without clinical evidence of distant metastasis, and determined the following variables: topography of the lesion, tumor size, Borrmann macroscopic configuration, histological grade, early or advanced lesions, Lauren histological subtype, presence of signet ring cell, degree of invasion, perigastric lymph node status, angiolymphatic/perineural invasion, and staging. Results Were found 21 early lesions (12.8%) and 143 advanced lesions (87.2%), with a predominance of lesions classified as T3 (n=99/60, 4%) and N1 (n=62/37, 8%). The nodal status was associated with depth of invasion (p<0.001) and tumor size (p<0.001). The staging was related to age (p=0.048), histological grade (p=0.003), and presence of signet ring cells (p = 0.007), angiolymphatic invasion (p = 0.001), and perineural invasion (p=0.003). Conclusion In gastric cancer, lymph node involvement, tumor size and depth of invasion are histopathological data associated with the pattern of growth/tumor spread, suggesting that a wide dissection of perigastric lymph nodes is a fundamental step in the surgical treatment of these patients. PMID:24676292

  1. AGR2 is associated with gastric cancer progression and poor survival

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUN; JIN, YONGMING; XU, SHAONAN; ZHENG, JIAYIN; ZHANG, QI; WANG, YUANYU; CHEN, JINPING; HUANG, YAZENG; HE, XUJUN; ZHAO, ZHONGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) has been reported as a novel biomarker with a potential oncogenic role. However, its association with the prognosis and survival rate of gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been determined. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the expression and prognostic significance of AGR2 in patients with GC. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze AGR2 and cathepsin D (CTSD) protein expression in 436 clinicopathologically characterized GC cases and 92 noncancerous tissue samples. AGR2 and CTSD expression were both elevated in GC lesions compared with noncancerous tissues. In 204/436 (46.8%) GC patients, high expression of AGR2 was positively correlated with the expression of CTSD (r=0.577, P<0.01). Furthermore, several clinicopathological parameters were significantly associated with AGR2 expression level, including tumor size, depth of invasion and TNM stage (P<0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, it was determined that the mean survival time of patients with low levels of AGR2 expression was significantly longer than those with high ARG2 expression (in stages I, II and III; P<0.05). For stage IV disease, no significant difference in survival time was identified. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that AGR2 was an independent prognostic factor and was associated in the progression of GC. The findings of the present study indicate that AGR2 expression is significantly associated with location and size of GC, depth of invasion, TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, vessel invasion, distant metastasis, Lauren's classification, high CTSD expression and poor prognosis. Thus, AGR2 may be a novel GC marker and may present a potential therapeutic target for GC. PMID:26998125

  2. Association of Polymorphisms in three pri-miRNAs that Target Pepsinogen C with the Risk and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye-Feng; Xu, Qian; He, Cai-Yun; Li, Ying; Liu, Jing-Wei; Deng, Na; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-09

    We aimed to explore the associations of polymorphisms in three microRNAs (miRNAs) (let-7e rs8111742, miR-365b rs121224 and miR-4795 rs1002765) that target PGC with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer/atrophic gastritis. Sequenom's MassArray was used to genotype the miRNA polymorphisms in 724 gastric cancer cases, 862 atrophic gastritis cases and 862 controls in a Chinese population. We found that let-7e rs8111742 and miR-4795 rs1002765 were associated with the risk of gastric cancer in the H. pylori-positive subgroup. MiR-365b rs121224 was associated with the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in the alcohol consumption subgroup. Intestinal-type gastric cancer patients at Borrmann stages III-IV who carry the miR-365b rs121224 GG genotype had better prognosis compared with those who carry the CG or CC genotypes. MiR-365b rs121224 was associated with Lauren typing and TNM staging, in which the distribution of GG genotype carriers in intestinal-type gastric cancer and the TNM stage I-II subgroup was higher than that of CG or CC genotypes, which contrasted with the distribution in diffuse-type gastric cancer or TNM III-IV groups. These findings suggested that the polymorphisms in these miRNAs might be biomarkers for gastric cancer risk and prognosis, especially for populations infected with Helicobacter pylori or who consume alcohol.

  3. Case-case comparison of smoking and alcohol risk associations with Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Koriyama, Chihaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kim, Woo-Ho; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Liao, Linda M.; Yu, Jun; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Lissowska, Jolanta; Meneses-Gonzalez, Fernando; Yatabe, Yashushi; Ding, Ti; Hu, Nan; Taylor, Philip R.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Torres, Javier; Akiba, Suminori; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983–2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01–2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23904115

  4. Histopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma in Mexican patients: a 10-year experience at the Hospital Juárez of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Galindo, M G; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F; Carmona-Castañeda, A; Angeles-Labra, A; Peñavera-Hernández, R; Ugarte-Briones, C; Blanco-Vela, C I

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of death by cancer worldwide. Histologic classification may predict tumor biology, clinical behavior, and outcome. According to the Lauren classification, the disease is divided into 2 types, diffuse and intestinal, and the latter has a better prognosis. To determine the frequency of gastric adenocarcinoma and compare the histopathologic characteristics of intestinal and diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma in Mexican patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. A retrospective study evaluated the pathology reports of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma corresponding to the time frame of January 2003 to December 2012. Adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia were excluded. Frequencies were expressed as percentages and the categorical variables were compared with the chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at a P<.05. A total of 417 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were found, 230 (55.2%) of which were diffuse-type and 118 (28.2%) were intestinal-type. The mean age of the patients with diffuse type gastric cancer was 54.02±14.93 and 119 (51.3%) of those patients were men. The mean age of the patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer was 63.43±13.78, and 69 (62.2%) were men. Ninety-two of the diffuse-type patients were under the age of 50 years, compared with 22 of the patients with intestinal-type carcinoma. This is the first study on the Mexican population to analyze the differences in the histologic types of adenocarcinoma. Diffuse-type gastric carcinoma was the most frequent subtype in our study population and it is associated with worse outcome. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping Mortality and Geophysical Features During a Heat Wave in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, L.

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and duration, particularly in areas where they have occurred previously. Human mortality increases during heat waves, and that increase may vary by community due to a variety of factors including differing geophysical and built environment features. In July 2006, California experienced a statewide heat wave that was unprecedented in duration, lasting 10 days in much of the state, and longer in some areas. To explore heat wave health impacts by community, we focused on Los Angeles County, selected for its urban density and diverse social and geographic landscapes. We calculated the ratio of deaths during the heat wave period (July 15 - Aug 1) to deaths in reference days from the non-heat wave period in the same summer. The raw and empirical Bayes smoothed rate ratios were mapped by census tract (average population size approximately 5000). We then used spatial scanning procedures to identify census tract clusters of high and low mortality. Onto the heat mortality maps, we overlaid such geographic and built environment characteristics as elevation, recordings from temperature monitors, building climate zone boundaries, and air conditioning use. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential relationship between mortality and geophysical and built environment features. In the future, we will expand this analysis statewide and share our findings with local stakeholders to explore factors which may make their communities more resilient (low health impact) or vulnerable (high health impact). Ultimately, knowledge of vulnerability and resiliency factors may inform future applied research and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Authors: Lauren Joe, Daniel Smith, Svetlana Smorodinksy, Sumi Hoshiko, Martha Harnly Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health

  6. To Excavate Biomarkers Predictive of the Response for Capecitabine plus RAD001 through Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansang; Lee, Jeeyun; Sohn, Insuk; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Seung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of individual patients' tumour is important to realize personalized medicine. Here, we investigate to identify subsets that benefit from capecitabine plus RAD001 in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). Archival tumour tissue blocks, if possible, were collected at phase II trial of capecitabine plus RAD001 in 47 refractory GC patients (at clinicaltrials.gov NCT#01099527). A total of 42 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples were available for nanostring based-multigene Assay. An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels has been used. We performed correlation analyses between expression levels of kinase genes and response for capecitabine plus RAD001. Among 42 patients with An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels, 4 patients achieved confirmed partial response and 15 patients revealed stable disease, resulting in an overall response rate (ORR) of 9.5%. No difference in ORR was observed in terms of gender, performance status, primary tumour site, gastric resection, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, No. of metastatic site and No. of chemotherapy. In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. This study is first report that investigated to identify biomarkers predictive of the response for RAD001 containing treatment in refractory GC patients, by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). PMID:27994652

  7. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J.; Domínguez, Ricardo L.; de Cuéllar, Marisabel Valdez; Cruz, Carlos Balmore; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the U.S. Methods Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based and hospital-based registries. U.S. data was obtained from the NCI-SEER registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985–2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. Results In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two-thirds of cases were male, 20.5% were under age 55, and 58.5% were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n=7,871), 57.8% were male, and 28.9% were under age 55. Among the U.S. Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n=1,210), 50.3% of cases were male, and 38.1% were under age 55. Noncardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3%), among U.S. Hispanics (80.2%), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3%). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6%), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among U.S. Hispanics (54.0%). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7%), and U.S. Hispanics (69.5%), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50% of cases. Conclusions A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and U.S. Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing U.S. Hispanic population. PMID:25412859

  8. Relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cao, Tao; Han, Ya-Di; Huang, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), plays an important role in the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of MGMT promoter methylation in the occurrence of gastric cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been fully clarified. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, were used to systematically search related clinical studies published in English until April 1, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk or clinicopathologic characteristics. A total of 16 studies including 1,935 patients and 1,948 control persons were included in the analysis. Our study suggested that MGMT promoter methylation frequency was associated with gastric cancer (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.13-5.61, P<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in the no lymph node metastasis group was lower than that in lymph node metastasis group, with marginal significance (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.01, P=0.05). Additionally, the methylation rate of the MGMT promoter was much lower in patients without distant metastases than in those with metastases (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.18-0.40, P<0.001). No significant association of MGMT promoter methylation with Lauren classification, tumor location, tumor invasion, or Helicobacter pylori infection was found. In conclusion, the methylation status of the MGMT promoter was related to gastric cancer risk, distant metastasis, and lymph node metastasis, which indicates that MGMT promoter methylation may play an important role in gastric cancer development.

  9. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in signet ring cell gastric cancer and the feasibility of endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yi Young; Kim, Se Jin; Park, Jung Chul; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Jung, Min Kyu; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Chung, Ho Young; Yu, Wansik; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Sung Sik; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2013-06-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection has recently been practiced on a differentiated type of early gastric cancer. However, there is no clear evidence for endoscopic treatments of signet ring cell carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis in signet ring cell carcinoma for assisting endoscopic submucosal dissection trials. A total of 186 patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma who underwent radical curative gastrectomy between January 2001 and September 2009 were enrolled in this study. Retrospective reviews of their medical records are being conducted. Several clinicopathologic factors were being investigated in order to identify predictive factors for lymph nodes metastasis: age, gender, tumor size, type of operation, tumor location, gross type, ulceration, Lauren's classification, depth of invasion, and lymphatic invasion. The lymph node metastasis rate for signet ring cell carcinoma was 4.3% (n=8). Of the 186 lesions with early signet ring cell carcinoma, 91 (48.9%) tumors were larger than 15 mm in size and 40 (21.5%) showed submucosal invasions in the resection specimens. In multivariate analysis, only the lymphatic invasion (P<0.0001) showed an association with lymph node metastasis. To evaluate cutoff values for tumor sizes in the presence of lymph node metastasis, early signet ring cell carcinomas with lymphatic invasions were excluded. In the absence of lymphatic invasion, mucosal cancer with tumor sizes <15 mm had no lymph node metastasis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed on patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma limited to the mucosa and less than 15 mm.

  10. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Ma, Minmin; Yang, Jie; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-07-01

    The association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer risk has been investigated by many studies, with inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to analyze this association. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase through October 2012. We analyzed 21 articles, which included 580,064 subjects. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses were performed. The summary odds ratios of gastric cancer for the highest, compared with the lowest, dietary fiber intake was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.67) with significant heterogeneity among studies (P < .001, I(2) = 62.2%). Stratified analysis for study design, geographic area, source and type of fiber, Lauren's classification, publication year, sample size, and quality score of study yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis associated a 10-g/day increment in fiber intake with a significant (44%) reduction in gastric cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. In a meta-analysis, we show that dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with gastric cancer risk; the effect probably is independent of conventional risk factors. The direction of the protective association of dietary fiber was consistent among all studies, but the absolute magnitude was less certain because of heterogeneity among the studies. Further studies therefore are required to establish this association. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Zhang, Junyan; Luo, Jiazi; Lu, Chunyang; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huimian

    2017-01-01

    Objective Comprehensive studies have investigated the prognostic and clinicopathological value of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in gastric cancer patients, yet results remain controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue. Methods PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify eligible studies. We extracted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to estimate the effect sizes. In addition, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were also conducted. Results A total of 19 studies involving 2242 patients were included. High generalised TAMs density was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95). Subgroup analysis revealed that CD68+ TAMs had no significant effect on OS (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00–1.91). High M1 TAMs density was correlated with better OS (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32–0.65). By contrast, high density of M2 TAMs was correlated with a poor prognosis for OS (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.25–1.75). Furthermore, high M2 TAMs density was correlated with larger tumor size, diffuse Lauren type, poor histologic differentiation, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. Conclusions Overall, this meta-analysis reveal that although CD68+ TAMs infiltration has the neutral prognostic effects on OS, the M1/M2 polarization of TAMs are predicative factor of prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID:28081243

  12. k-link EST clustering: evaluating error introduced by chimeric sequences under different degrees of linkage

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Lauren M.; Stone, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The clustering of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is a crucial step in many sequence analysis studies that require a high level of redundancy. Chimeric sequences, while uncommon, can make achieving the optimal EST clustering a challenge. Single-linkage algorithms are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chimeras. To avoid chimera-facilitated erroneous merges, researchers using single-linkage algorithms are forced to use stringent sequence–similarity thresholds. Such thresholds reduce the sensitivity of the clustering algorithm. Results: We introduce the concept of k-link clustering for EST data. We evaluate how clustering error rates vary over a range of linkage thresholds. Using k-link, we show that Type II error decreases in response to increasing the number of shared ESTs (ie. links) required. We observe a base level of Type II error likely caused by the presence of unmasked low-complexity or repetitive sequence. We find that Type I error increases gradually with increased linkage. To minimize the Type I error introduced by increased linkage requirements, we propose an extension to k-link which modifies the required number of links with respect to the size of clusters being compared. Availability: The implementation of k-link is available under the terms of the GPL from http://www.bioinformatics.csiro.au/products.shtml. k-link is licensed under the GNU General Public License, and can be downloaded from http://www.bioinformatics.csiro.au/products.shtml. k-link is written in C++. Contact: lauren.bragg@csiro.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19570806

  13. Physical activity domains and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the MCC-Spain case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Molina, Antonio J.; Amiano, Pilar; Martín, Vicente; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Moreno, Víctor; Burgui, Rosana; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Ramos-Lora, Manuel; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Peiró, Rosana; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence for a protective role of physical activity against development of stomach cancer is yet inconclusive. We studied the association of domain-specific physical activity and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), by site and histology, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. Methods 428 histologically confirmed GAC cases (67% men) including the gastro-esophageal region and 3225 controls were included. Cases were recruited in hospitals from 10 different Spanish regions, whereas population controls were randomly selected within the respective hospitals' catchment areas. A physical activity (PA) questionnaire was used to gather information on household and recreational activities, allowing estimation of PA volume (in metabolic equivalents (MET)-min/week). Participants also reported the intensity of working PA and daily sitting time. Questionnaire data on diet, lifestyles and clinical variables including Helicobacter pylori serology were available. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of GAC were estimated for domains of physical activity, stratifying by sex, site (cardia vs. non-cardia), and Lauren classification (intestinal vs. diffuse). Results Household physical activity (HPA) showed a strong inverse association with GAC, observed for both cardia and non-cardia tumours. Risk of overall gastric cancer was 50% lower risk among participants in the highest HPA category (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.38, 0.66). Recreational physical activity (RPA) was also associated with lower overall GAC risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88), particularly at moderate levels of intensity such as walking (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.79). The protective effect of RPA was strongest for non-cardia tumours. Sedentary time was not related to GAC risk (p-trend = 0.392), but the potential protective effect of RPA was restricted to non-sedentary participants. Conclusions Both household and recreational physical activities were independently related to lower GAC risk in the MCC-Spain study. PMID

  14. KSC-2011-7940

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-25

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – An educational news conference to explore "Why Mars Excites and Inspires Us" is under way in NASA Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida during prelaunch activities for the agency’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch. Participants are, from left, moderator George Diller, NASA Public Affairs, NASA Kennedy Space Center; Leland Melvin, NASA associate administrator for Education; Clara Ma, student, NASA contest winner for naming Curiosity, Shawnee Mission East High School, Prairie Village, Kansas; Scott Anderson, teacher and science department chairman, Da Vinci School for Science and the Arts, El Paso, Texas; Lauren Lyons, graduate student, Harvard University, FIRST robotics alumna; and Veronica McGregor, manager, Media Relations Office, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. MSL's car-sized Martian rover, Curiosity, has 10 science instruments designed to search for signs of life, including methane, and help determine if the gas is from a biological or geological source. Ma's entry was selected the winner from 9,000 entries in NASA's nationwide student contest to name the rover. At the time, she was a twelve-year-old sixth-grade student at the Sunflower Elementary school in Lenexa, Kansas. Liftoff of MSL aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is planned during a launch window which extends from 10:02 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. EST on Nov. 26. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/msl. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  15. Adverse consequences of immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic uses of immunostimulatory agents are generally in the treatments of infections or cancer. The traditional example of vaccination is one form of immunostimulation used in the prevention of pathogenic infections or cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus vaccine). Recombinant cytokines are increasingly used to stimulate immune system function. For example, interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) and interleukin (IL)-2 have been used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection and metastatic melanoma, respectively. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies are used to target malignant cells for elimination via antibody-dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms or apoptosis, including the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-CD56 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, and the anti-erb2 receptor antibody trastuzumab used in the treatment of breast cancer. Finally, immunostimulation may develop via modulation of pathways involved in immune system regulation. For example, the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412 was developed as an agonist of regulatory T-cells for treatment of T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases or leukemias. A panel was convened to discuss potential toxicities associated with immunostimulation. At the Immunotoxicology IV meeting in 2006, a panel, moderated by Dr. Robert House (Dynport Vaccine Co., Frederick, MD), included Drs. Gary Burleson (Burleson Research Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC), Kenneth Hastings (US FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER], Rockville, MD), Barbara Mounho (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), Rafael Ponce (ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA), Mark Wing (Huntington Life Sciences, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), Lauren Black (Navigators Consulting, Sparks, NV) and Anne Pilaro (US FDA, CDER, Rockville, MD). This paper reviews the major identified toxicities associated with immunostimulation, including the acute phase response, cell and tissue abnormalities/injury, cytokine

  16. Low Expression of CDK5 and p27 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Lin, Yao; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 or p27 expression in gastric cancer are associated with overall survival. We have previously reported that tumor suppressive function of CDK5 is related to p27. The aim of this study was to investigate correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and overall survival with different CDK5/p27 expression statuses in 244 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemistry. Low CDK5 expression was detected in 93 cases (38.11%) and low p27 in 157 cases (64.34%). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.034) and Lauren's classification (P = 0.013). The expression of p27 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.012), differentiation (P = 0.003), TNM stage (P = 0.013) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Based on the combined expression of CDK5 and p27, we classified the patients into four subtypes: CDK5 Low/p27 Low (n = 69), CDK5 High/p27 Low (n = 88), CDK5 Low/p27 High (n = 24) and CDK5 High/p27 High (n = 63). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low expression was closely related to female (P = 0.026), diffuse type (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low patients displayed poorer survival in comparison with the rest of the patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. No significant overall survival difference was observed among the patients with CDK5 High and/or p27 High expression. In the multivariate analysis, CDK5 and p27 co-expression status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27326247

  17. Improved survival of gastric cancer with tumour Epstein–Barr virus positivity: an international pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M Constanza; Kim, Woo-Ho; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Matsuo, Keitaro; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Meneses-Gonzalez, Fernando; Kijima, Yuko; Natsugoe, Shoji; Liao, Linda M; Lissowska, Jolanta; Kim, Sung; Hu, Nan; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Yatabe, Yashushi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Hewitt, Stephen M; Akiba, Suminori; Gulley, Margaret L; Taylor, Philip R; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective About 9% of gastric carcinomas have Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the tumour cells, but it is unclear whether viral presence influences clinical progression. We therefore examined a large multicentre case series for the association of tumour EBV status with survival after gastric cancer diagnosis, accounting for surgical stage and other prognostic factors. Methods We combined individual-level data on 4599 gastric cancer patients diagnosed between 1976 and 2010 from 13 studies in Asia (n=8), Europe (n=3), and Latin America (n=2). EBV positivity of tumours was assessed by in situ hybridisation. Mortality HRs for EBV positivity were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by study, adjusted for distributions of sex (71% male), age (mean 58 years), stage (52% tumour-node-metastasis stages III or IV), tumour histology (49% poorly differentiated, 57% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (70% non-cardia) and year of diagnosis. Variations by study and continent were assessed using study-specific HRs for EBV positivity. Results During median 3.0 years follow-up, 49% of patients died. Stage was strongly predictive of mortality, with unadjusted HRs (vs stage I) of 3.1 for stage II, 8.1 for stage III and 13.2 for stage IV. Tumour EBV positivity was 8.2% overall and inversely associated with stage (adjusted OR: 0.79 per unit change). Adjusted for stage and other confounders, EBV positivity was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.86), with low heterogeneity among the study populations (p=0.2). The association did not significantly vary across patient or tumour characteristics. There was no significant variation among the three continent-specific HRs (p=0.4). Conclusions Our findings suggest that tumour EBV positivity is an additional prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Further studies are warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying this protective association. PMID:23580779

  18. Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection in the eastern Libya: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, Abdel-Naser Y; Buhjab, Soad I; Alkialani, Akram; Habel, Salah; Sasco, Annie J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of histologically-proven gastric cancer in Eastern Libya and explore its association with Helicobacter pylori infection. The registries of the Departments of Histopathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benghazi University and Oncology, Al-Jomhoria Hospital, Benghazi, were reviewed for cases with primary gastrointestinal cancer from January 2000 to December 2002 (sole Histopathology and Oncology Departments in Eastern Libya). Slides of hematoxylin and eosin stain of gastric cancer patients were re-stained to detect H. pylori. The American Joint Committee on Cancer Tumor, Node, Metastasis staging was used for clinical and pathologic staging. Gastric cancer biopsy materials were classified into intestinal or diffuse type according to Lauren criteria. One hundred and fourteen cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed. Tumor stages were: 2 (14%), 3 (21%), 4 (57%) and unknown (8%). Most common site of involvement was the antrum (48%). Diffuse adenocarcinoma occurred in 56 patients (49.1%), intestinal adenocarcinoma in 46 (40.4%) and malignant gastric lymphoma in 12 (10.5%). The overall frequency of H. pylori infection was 63.2% (72/114), more frequent in intestinal adenocarcinoma (71.7%) and malignant lymphoma (66.6%) than diffuse adenocarcinoma (55.3%). The frequency of gastric cancer increased throughout the three years of study. The majority of the patients were diagnosed in locally advanced or metastatic stage. Clearly more efforts need to be given to early detection. We showed a stronger association of H. pylori infection with intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma and malignant lymphoma than diffuse adenocarcinoma suggesting that H. pylori infection is the most probable causal factor of gastric cancer in this part of Libya. Copyright © 2012 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Implication of M2 Macrophages Are Determined by the Proportional Balance of Tumor Associated Macrophages and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Microsatellite-Unstable Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ju; Wen, Xian-Yu; Yang, Han Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages are major inflammatory cells that play an important role in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in MSI-high gastric cancers using immunohistochemistry. CD68 and CD163 were used as markers for total infiltrating macrophages and M2-polarized macrophages, respectively. The density of CD68+ or CD163+ TAMs in four different areas (epithelial and stromal compartments of both the tumor center and invasive front) were analyzed in 143 cases of MSI-high advanced gastric cancers using a computerized image analysis system. Gastric cancers were scored as “0” or “1” in each area when the density of CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs was below or above the median value. Low density of CD68+ or CD163+ macrophages in four combined areas was closely associated with more frequent low-grade histology and the intestinal type tumor of the Lauren classification. In survival analysis, the low density of CD163+ TAMs was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival. In multivariate survival analysis, CD163+ TAMs in four combined areas, stromal and epithelial compartments of both tumor center and invasive front were independent prognostic indicator in MSI-high gastric cancers. In addition, the density of CD163+ TAMs correlated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Our results indicate that the high density of CD163+ TAMs is an independent prognostic marker heralding prolonged disease-free survival and that the prognostic implication of CD163+ TAMs might be determined by the proportional balance of TAMs and TILs in MSI-high gastric cancers. PMID:26714314

  20. The cytologic diagnosis of gastric carcinoma related to the histologic type.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Rilke, F; Clemente, C; Alasio, L; Grigioni, M

    1977-01-01

    In gastric smears obtained by direct vision fiberoptic brush technique from 78 patients with carcinoma of the stomach, an attempt was made to recognize cytologically the histologic type of the tumor with reference to Lauren's classification. The cytologic diagnosis of intestinal type carcinoma was made in 36/45 positive cases on the basis of an abundant cellularity and the presence of rather large pleomorphic cohesive cells often arranged in sheets with a moderately increased N/C ratio. One case of intramucous and two of "early" invasive carcinoma revealed malignant cells which did not differ from those of the advanced cases. In these cases as well as in some of the advanced ones, atypical epithelial cells were found in addition to the malignant ones; these cells could have derived from the histologic areas of atypical hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa surrounding the carcinoma. 14/15 cases of advanced diffuse carcinoma of the stomach could be cytologically identified on the basis of a scanty cellularity and the presence of rather small, monomorphic poorly differentiated cells with a high N/C ratio. The cytologic diagnosis of the mixed-type carcinoma was made in 2/5 positive cases on the basis of the presence of an admixture of both cell types described above. In two cases of the mixed-type carcinoma, only intestinal type cells were found. In the smears of nine cases of intestinal type carcinoma, one of which was intramucous, and of one case of mixed-type carcinoma, the tumor cells could not be specified. 13/78 cases (16.7%) showed negative cytology. The overall accuracy rate was 83.3 per cent. The statistical analysis of a number of cytologic parameters indicated that morphologic differences between Type I and Type D carcinomas of the stomach do exist and that they can be evaluated for differential diagnostic purposes.

  1. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  2. Clinicopathological significance of claudin 4 expression in gastric carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Zhao, Junhua; Li, Ailin; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Song, Yongxi; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of claudin 4 (CLDN4) in patients with gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. This meta-analysis aims to assess the correlation between CLDN4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and assess the prognostic significance of CLDN4 in GC. Methods We searched the PubMed and Embase databases. We performed the meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) as effect values. Results Fourteen studies containing 2,106 patients with GC were analyzed. The overall analysis showed that CLDN4 expression was associated with increasing pT category, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis in patients with GC (pT3–T4 vs pT1–T2: OR =1.56, 95% CI =1.13–2.16; P<0.01; large tumor size vs small tumor size: OR =1.64, 95% CI =1.15–2.34; P<0.01; positive lymph node metastasis vs negative lymph node metastasis: OR =1.49, 95% CI =1.12–1.97; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was associated with histological differentiation (differentiated type vs undifferentiated type: OR =2.90, 95% CI =1.32–6.37; P=0.01; Lauren intestinal type vs diffuse type: OR =3.51, 95% CI =1.48–8.28; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was also strongly associated with sex and age. This meta-analysis found no significant association between CLDN4 expression and prognosis for overall survival in patients with GC (HR =0.74, 95% CI =0.43–1.27; P=0.28). Conclusion Present study indicates that aberrant CLDN4 expression plays an important role in the clinicopathological characteristics of GC. PMID:27313466

  3. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young’s modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic

  4. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    /Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS), as well as the Kennedy Space Center ICape Canaveral Air Force Station wind tower network. The scripts provide NWS MLB and SMG with several options for setting a desirable runtime configuration of the LDIS to account for adjustments in grid spacing, domain location, choice of observational data sources, and selection of background model fields, among others. The utility of an improved LDIS will be demonstrated through postanalysis warm and cool season case studies that compare high-resolution model output with and without the ADAS analyses. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  5. Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD): A Cyberinfrastructure for Mesoscale Meteorology Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droegemeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    A new National Science Foundation Large Information Technology Research (ITR) grant - known as Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) - has been funded to facilitate the identification, access, preparation, assimilation, prediction, management, analysis, mining, and visualization of a broad array of meteorological data and model output, independent of format and physical location. A transforming element of LEAD is dynamic workflow orchestration and data management, which will allow use of analysis tools, forecast models, and data repositories as dynamically adaptive, on-demand systems that can a) change configuration rapidly and automatically in response to weather; b) continually be steered by new data; c) respond to decision-driven inputs from users; d) initiate other processes automatically; and e) steer remote observing technologies to optimize data collection for the problem at hand. Having been in operation for slightly more than a year, LEAD has created a technology roadmap and architecture for developing its capabilities and placing them within the academic and research environment. Further, much of the LEAD infrastructure being developed for the WRF model, particularly workflow orchestration, will play a significant role in the nascent WRF Developmental Test Bed Center located at NCAR. This paper updates the status of LEAD (e.g., the topics noted above), its ties with other community activities (e.g., CONDUIT, THREDDS, MADIS, NOMADS), and the manner in which LEAD technologies will be made available for general use. Each component LEAD application is being created as a standards-based Web service that can be run in stand-alone configuration or chained together to build an end-to-end environment for on-demand, real time NWP. We describe in this paper the concepts, implementation plans, and expected impacts of LEAD, the underpinning of which will be a series of interconnected, heterogeneous virtual IT "Grid environments" designed to provide a

  6. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis for Delineating the Sedimentation Characteristic and Modeling of Nidoco Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El Deen, Ahmed; Abu El-Ata, Ahmed; El-Gendy, Nader

    2014-05-01

    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  7. The Role of Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis in the Messinian crisis at Baltim Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M.; Abu El-Ata, A. S.; El-Gendy, N. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  8. Menstrual taboos among Havik Brahmin women: a study of ritual change.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, H E

    1992-01-01

    Field work among the Havik Brahmins in a 1 village in the Malnad area of Karnataka State, South India provides some understanding of menstrual practices in 1964, 1985, and 1987. Changes in the pollution and purity rituals which were part of their belief system lead to the replacement of religious ritual with hygiene. Women's status reflected in the change from a subordinate one with a menstrual taboos to a more urbanized one with educational opportunities and economic independence. Ethnographic background is provide on social organization, education, women's professions, ritual organization, and the reasons for change. Menstrual beliefs and practices, reproductive beliefs, menarche, and the significance of rituals are also described for 1966 and 1987. The Havik Brahmin have a patrilocal, patrilineal, and patriarchal society with joint family practices. The ideal of a nuclear family was still not predominately attained even in 1987 with 14 nuclear families out of 32 families or in 1964 with 12 out of 28. Women in 1964 supported their husbands, were not included in decision making and had little contact with the outside world. Higher education is still secondary to marriage, and frequently women spend time in college while kin seek a suitable groom. Women 40 years had primarily a 7th grade education, while only 3 40 years did not have at least a high school education. Employment now enhances a woman's marital options. Fathers still view security for their daughters in marriage. Women's religious involvement is restricted to 1 service and they are prohibited from learning sacred Vedic prayers. The village structure is based on castes, residential sites, and ritual statuses. Havik Brahmins are the highest status and their men have a ritual status of purity (maDi) or neutrality, while women during menses become polluted (muTTuceTtu). The rationale for change is the opinion that decreased ritual observance is essential to economic viability, and there are cheating rules

  9. Rheology of two-phase composites: implications for flow properties of the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Nishiyama, N.; Hilairet, N.; Fiquet, G.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2011-12-01

    . et al. (2004) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226, 117-126. [2] Madi, K., et al. (2005) Earth and Planetary Sci. Lett., 237, 223-238.

  10. Th-Pb Monazite-in-Garnet Ages From the Greater Himalayan Sequence of Central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, G.; Decelles, P.; Martin, A.

    2007-12-01

    431 new Th-Pb ages have been determined from rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) of central Nepal. Some of these ages are reported by Martin et al. (2007, Chem. Geol.), most have not been reported previously. 42 samples were collected from transects along Kali Gandaki, Modi Khola, Seti Nadi, Madi Nadi, Nayu Ridge, and Marsyangdi Nadi in the Annapurna region, with three transects extending across the GHS and three transects concentrated near the base of the sequence. Garnet crystals were extracted from the samples, and monazite inclusions were identified by BSE imaging and then analyzed by LA-MC-ICPMS with a 10 micron laser beam. Where possible, inclusions were sampled from both cores and rims of the garnet crystals. The resulting ages belong to four groups: (1) 3 ages (all cores) between 801 Ma and 1407 Ma that are inherited from GHS protoliths, (2) 42 ages (all cores) from 550 Ma to 400 Ma (peak age of 487 Ma) that record early Paleozoic prograde metamorphism, (3) 102 ages (nearly all cores) scattered between 400 Ma and ~50 Ma that are interpreted as early Paleozoic grains which have experienced either Pb loss or overgrowth of Tertiary monazite, and (4) 284 ages (2/3 cores, 1/3 rims) between ca. 50 Ma and ca. 10 Ma, with cores only slightly (avg of 1.5 m.y.) older than rims. The Tertiary ages consistently young northward/upsection from ca. 35 to ca. 18 Ma, and in Marsyangdi Nadi define two separate panels that are interpreted to be imbricated along a north-dipping thrust fault. This fault is near the base of sillimanite-bearing rocks, similar to the Langtang thrust (Kohn et al. 2005, JMG), and may be partly responsible for the inverted metamorphic gradient discussed by many previous workers. Our preferred structural scenario is that the Tertiary monazite ages record progressive burial of the GHS by shortening in the Tethyan thrust belt between ca. 35 and ca. 18 Ma, termination of this metamorphism due to onset of motion along the MCT, and ca. 10 Ma

  11. Investigating the Origin of Natural and Anthropogenic Deformation across the Nile Delta Using Radar Interferometry, GRACE, Modeling, and Field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; El Bastawesy, M.; Cherif, O.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Fathy, K.; Karki, S.; Chouinard, K.

    2016-12-01

    We applied an integrated approach (radar interferometry, flood simulation, GRACE, GIS) to investigate the nature and distribution of land deformation in the Nile Delta and to identify the natural and anthropogenic controlling factors. Our methodology involved: (1) applying persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) across the entire Delta (scenes: 108 level 0 scenes; Tracks: 4 tracks; time period: 2003-2010); (2) correcting the interferometry output for various phase contributing errors (e.g., atmosphere, orbit, etc.) and calibrating/validating the output against 3 GNSS GPS stations (2 in Alexandria, 1 in Helwan); (3) conducting spatial correlation (in a GIS environment) of the radar outputs with relevant remote sensing, subsurface, and geologic datasets; (4) simulating flood depth and inundation to investigate the spatial extent and depth of the Holocene sediments using the HEC-RAS software (inputs: DEM and monthly discharge data; period: 1871-1902), (5) identifying subsurface structures by processing 712 gridded field gravity data points in Geosoft Oasis Montaj software (Bouguer anomaly analysis), and (6) analyzing monthly (2002-2015) GRACE-derived TWS solutions (0.5° x 0.5° CSR mascons). Our findings include: (1) three main structural trends (E-W, NW-SE and NE-SW trending) were mapped across the Delta, (2) areas of high subsidence coincide with the distribution of relatively thick recent sediments (<3000 years), probably due to sediment compaction, in three settings: (a) areas susceptible to flooding from the Damietta and Rosetta branches (e.g., east Damietta branch; latitude 30.8° to 31.2°; longitude 31.2° to 31.6°), (b) areas susceptible to sediment deposition at bifurcation locations of primary channels (e.g., near Cairo) and, (c) areas where mapped faults intersect Damietta and Rosetta channels, change their course, and cause ponding of surface water and sediment deposition, (3) extraction of gas from the Abu Madi gas field in north central delta

  12. Use of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry to Assess Land Deformation in the Nile Delta and its Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    We applied Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSInSAR) to assess land deformation (subsidence and uplift) across the entire Nile delta and its surroundings and to identify possible causes of the observed deformation. For the purpose of the present study, 100 Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR; level 0) scenes that were acquired along four tracks and covering a time span of seven years (2004 to 2010) were used. The scenes extend from the Mediterranean coast in the north to Cairo city in the south. These scenes were focused using Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage (ROI_PAC) software and the subsequent PSI processing was done using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) method. A low coherence threshold (0.2) was used to decrease the impact of vegetation-related poor coherence and decorrelation of the scenes over the investigated time span. Subsidence was observed over: (1) the Demietta Nile River branch (3 to 14 mm/yr) where it intersects the Mediterranean coastline, (2) thick (~ 40 m) Holocene sediments in lake Manzala (up to 9 mm/yr), (3) reclaimed desert areas (west of Nile Delta; up to 12 mm/yr) of high groundwater extraction, (4) along parts of a previously proposed flexure line (up to 10 mm/yr), and (5) along the eastern sections of the Mediterranean coastline (up to 15.7 mm/yr). The city of Alexandria (underlain by carbonate platform) and the terminus of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River seem to experience almost no ground movement (mean subsidence of 0.28 mm/yr and 0.74 mm/yr respectively) while the cities of Ras Elbar and Port Said (underlain by thick Holocene sediment) exhibit the highest subsidence values (up to 14 mm/yr and 8.5 mm/yr respectively). The city of Cairo has also experienced subsidence in limited areas of up to 7.8 mm/yr. High spatial correlation was also observed between the subsiding areas and the Abu Madi incised valley; the largest gas field in the Nile Delta. Most of the area undergoing subsidence in the

  13. Prognostic significance of glutathione peroxidase 2 in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongzhe; Sun, Liang; Tong, Jinxue; Chen, Xiuhui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qifan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the glutathione peroxidase 2 may actually play important roles in tumorigenesis and progression in various human cancers such as colorectal carcinomas and lung adenocarcinomas. However, the role of glutathione peroxidase 2 in gastric carcinoma remains to be determined. In this study, the expression and prognostic significance of glutathione peroxidase 2 in gastric carcinoma were investigated and the well-known prognostic factor Ki-67 labeling index was also assessed as positive control. Glutathione peroxidase 2 expression levels in the tumor tissue specimens, the matched adjacent normal tissue specimens, and the lymph node metastases of 176 patients with gastric carcinoma were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. The associations between glutathione peroxidase 2 expression levels, as determined by immunohistochemical staining, and multiple clinicopathological characteristics were determined by Pearson's chi-square test and Spearman's correlation analysis. The relationships between glutathione peroxidase 2 expression and other clinicopathological variables and patient prognoses were analyzed further by the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox multivariate regression. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining results showed that glutathione peroxidase 2 expression levels were upregulated in both the primary tumor foci and the lymph node metastases of patients with gastric carcinoma (all p values < 0.05). Furthermore, Pearson's chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation analysis, revealed that glutathione peroxidase 2 expression levels were strongly correlated with the Ki-67 labeling index, differentiation, histological patterns, Lauren classifications, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion, tumor-node-metastasis stages, Helicobacter pylori infection, and overall survival (all p values

  14. Prognostic Model Based on Systemic Inflammatory Response and Clinicopathological Factors to Predict Outcome of Patients with Node-Negative Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing-lei; Qu, Xiu-juan; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jing-dong; Liu, Jing; Teng, Yue-e; Jin, Bo; Zhao, Ming-fang; Yu, Ping; Shi, Jing; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Zhen-ning; Liu, Yun-peng

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic models are generally used to predict gastric cancer outcomes. However, no model combining patient-, tumor- and host-related factors has been established to predict outcomes after radical gastrectomy, especially outcomes of patients without nodal involvement. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model based on the systemic inflammatory response and clinicopathological factors of resectable gastric cancer and determine whether the model can improve prognostic accuracy in node-negative patients. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, histopathological and survival data of 1397 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy between 2007 and 2013. Patients were split into development and validation sets of 1123 and 274 patients, respectively. Among all 1397 patients, 545 had node-negative gastric cancer; 440 were included in the development set, 105 were included in the validation set. A prognostic model was constructed from the development set. The scoring system was based on hazard ratios in a Cox proportional hazard model. In the multivariate analysis, age, tumor size, Lauren type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and the neutrophil--lymphocyte ratio were independent prognostic indicators of overall survival. A prognostic model was then established based on the significant factors. Patients were categorized into five groups according to their scores. The 3-year survival rates for the low- to high-risk groups were 98.9%, 92.8%, 82.4%, 58.4%, and 36.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). The prognostic model clearly discriminated patients with stage pT1-4N0M0 tumor into four risk groups with significant differences in the 3-year survival rates (P < 0.001). Compared with the pathological T stage, the model improved the predictive accuracy of the 3-year survival rate by 5% for node-negative patients. The prognostic scores also stratified the patients with stage pT4aN0M0 tumor into significantly different risk groups (P = 0.004). Furthermore, the

  15. CD44 family proteins in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Chenlu; Yu, Kai; Teng, Zan; Zheng, Guoliang; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Yunpeng; Cui, Lei; Yu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    With a meta-analysis and narrative review, we evaluated the clinical and prognostic role of all CD44 family proteins in gastric cancer (GC). Literatures published up to August 2014 were searched on PubMed. Among the 37 eligible studies (6606 patients), 34 were included in meta-analysis, and 10 were subjected to narrative review. With meta-analysis, standard CD44 (CD44s) was demonstrated to predict reduced overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.58-2.34, PHR = 0.0222) and disease free survival (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.02-9.68, PHR = 0.0469), advanced N-stage (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21, PRR = 0.0019), and distant metastasis (RR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.46-3.14, PRR < 0.0001) of GC. CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) in GC might influence OS (5 studies; HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.75-2.14, PHR = 0.3783; 4 studies; HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14, PHR = 0.0139), while significantly associated with N-stage (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03-1.48, PRR = 0.0240), M-stage (RR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.08-6.00, PRR = 0.0333), TNM-stage (RR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50, PRR = 0.0045), Lauren type (RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.91, PRR = 0.0106), lymphatic invasion (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23, PRR = 0.0057), and liver metastasis (RR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.94-5.27, PRR < 0.0001) of the disease. Moreover, a narrative review was performed for CD44 isoforms, such as v3, v5, v7, v8-10, and v9, in GC. In conclusion, CD44s and CD44v6 as evaluated by immunohistochemistry, respectively, predicts the prognosis and disease severity of GC.

  16. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  17. CD44v6: A metastasis-associated biomarker in patients with gastric cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Zhicheng; Li, Chuan; Liu, Tong; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The diagnostic and prognostic value of CD44v6 in patients with gastric cancer remains unclear. Therefore, a quantitative meta-analysis was conducted to determine the clinical value of CD44v6 in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Sixteen studies with 2177 patients were included. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the impact of CD44v6 in patients with gastric cancer on clinicopathological features and 5-year overall survival (OS). Sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and regression analysis were introduced to evaluate the heterogeneity across the studies. Publication bias was also explored among the studies. Results: The meta-analysis showed that the upregulated CD44v6 was associated with lymph node metastasis (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.19–3.08; P = 0.007), distant metastasis (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.01–5.78; P = 0.000), high TNM stage (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.10–4.75; P = 0.026), lymphatic vessel invasion (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.21–2.09; P = 0.001), and vascular invasion (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.07; P = 0.001). When excluded 1 study based on sensitivity analysis, pooled HR indicated that CD44v6 positive expression was correlated poor 5-year OS (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.30–2.39; P = 0.000), meanwhile, heterogeneity was eliminated. The heterogeneity of Lauren type mainly existed in the big sample size subgroup. Different region and publication year might contribute to the heterogeneity of differentiation type. While the heterogeneity of lymph node mainly existed in Asian and big sample size group. Publication bias was observed among 12 studies on lymph node metastasis (Ppublication bias = 0.041), and 5 studies on TNM stage (Ppublication bias = 0.026). Conclusion: Taken together, CD44v6 overexpression might be correlated to the characteristics of tumor metastasis in gastric cancer, consisting with many mechanism studies. Therefore, CD44v6 might present a

  18. Prognostic value of diffuse versus intestinal histotype in patients with gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berenato, Rosa; Turati, Luca; Mennitto, Alessia; Steccanella, Francesca; Caporale, Marta; Dallera, Pierpaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Pezzica, Ezio; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sgroi, Giovanni; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Barni, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Background There are two distinct types of gastric carcinoma (GC), intestinal, more frequently sporadic and linked to environmental factors, and diffuse (undifferentiated) that is highly metastatic and characterized by rapid disease progression and a poor prognosis. However, there are many conflicting data in the literature concerning the association between histology and prognosis in GC. This meta-analysis was performed to provide demonstration if histology according to Lauren classification is associated with different prognosis in patients with GC. Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, and EMBASE for all eligible studies. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in terms of overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results A total of 73 published studies including 61,468 patients with GC were included in this meta-analysis. Our analysis indicates that GC patients with diffuse-type histology have a worst prognosis than those with intestinal subgroup in all studies (HR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17–1.29; P<0.0001), in both loco-regional confined (HR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12–1.30; P<0.0001) and advanced disease (HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.046–1.50; P=0.014), in Asiatic (HR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.14–1.27; P<0.0001) and Western patients (HR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.19–1.41; P<0.0001), and in those not exposed (HR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07–1.24; P<0.0001) or exposed (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17–1.37; P<0.0001) to (neo)adjuvant therapy. Conclusions Our results indicated that histology might be a useful prognostic marker for both early and advanced GC patients, with intestinal-type associated with a better outcome. This information could be used for stratification purpose in future clinical trials. PMID:28280619

  19. Early gastric cancer: diagnosis, staging, and clinical impact. Evaluation of 530 patients. New elements for an updated definition and classification.

    PubMed

    Saragoni, Luca; Morgagni, Paolo; Gardini, Andrea; Marfisi, Caterina; Vittimberga, Giovanni; Garcea, Domenico; Scarpi, Emanuela

    2013-10-01

    The prevention and early diagnosis of gastric cancer permit clinicians to discover the tumor in the initial phase, during which time it can be completely eradicated, endoscopically or surgically. Since Murakami gave the definition of early gastric cancer (EGC) in 1971, many authors have identified various subtypes of EGC with different morphological characteristics and clinical behaviour. We evaluated retrospectively 530 patients: the median follow-up time was 10.4 months (range 0.3-29.2). All tumors were classified according to the macroscopic and microscopic criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy and Lauren, respectively. The infiltrative growth pattern was evaluated according to Kodama's classification. Only tumor-related death was considered as an endpoint of interest for the survival analysis. The overall survival rates of our patients were 94 % (95 % CI, 92-96) and 90 % (95 % CI, 87-93) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Only 44 patients (8.3 %) died of the disease. Kodama's type (p < 0.0001), lymph node status, both for number and pathological stage according to the 7th Edition of TNM (p < 0.0001), and depth of infiltration (p = 0.0006) were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis identified Kodama's PENA type (HR, 3.91; 95 % CI, 2.08-7.33; p < 0.0001) and lymph node status for more than three positive nodes versus negative nodes (HR, 12.78; 95 % CI, 5.37-30.43; p < 0.0001) as the only independent prognostic factors in our series. Lymph node status, especially when more than three lymph nodes are involved, is the most important prognostic factor in EGC. However, it is also important to evaluate the infiltrative growth pattern of the cancers in their early phase according to Kodama's classification, considering PEN A type lesions to be more aggressive than the other EGC types. Then, we propose new elements for an updated definition and classification of EGC, with an important clinical

  20. Characteristics of gastric cancer in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ae-Ra; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-04-28

    To evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Between January 2003 and December 2013, the medical records of patients diagnosed with GC were retrospectively reviewed. Those with previous gastric ulcer (GU) and H. pylori infection were assigned to the HpGU-GC group (n = 86) and those with previous duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and H. pylori infection were assigned to the HpDU-GC group (n = 35). The incidence rates of GC in the HpGU-GC and HpDU-GC groups were analyzed. Data on demographics (age, gender, peptic ulcer complications and cancer treatment), GC clinical characteristics [location, pathological diagnosis, differentiation, T stage, Lauren's classification, atrophy of surrounding mucosa and intestinal metaplasia (IM)], outcome of eradication therapy for H. pylori infection, esophagogastroduodenoscopy number and the duration until GC onset were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors influencing GC development. The relative risk of GC was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence rates of GC were 3.60% (86/2387) in the HpGU-GC group and 1.66% (35/2098) in the HpDU-GC group. The annual incidence was 0.41% in the HpGU-GC group and 0.11% in the HpDU-GC group. The rates of moderate-to-severe atrophy of the surrounding mucosa and IM were higher in the HpGU-GC group than in the HpDU-GC group (86% vs 34.3%, respectively, and 61.6% vs 14.3%, respectively, P < 0.05). In the univariate analysis, atrophy of surrounding mucosa, IM and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection were significantly associated with the development of GC (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prognosis of GC patients between the HpGU-GC and HpDU-GC groups (P = 0.347). The relative risk of GC development in the HpGU-GC group compared to that of the HpDU-GC group, after correction for age and gender, was 1.71 (95%CI

  1. Seismic observations of mid-mantle discontinuities on a global scale: implications for convection and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waszek, L.; Schmerr, N. C.; Ballmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic observations of mid-mantle discontinuities on a global scale Dr Lauren Waszek & Dr Nicholas Schmerr University of Maryland, Department of Geology Contact: lwaszek@umd.edu Recent tomographical studies have found that some slabs stagnate at the 660 km discontinuity, whereas others stagnate at 1000 km depth. Very few slabs continue subducting into the mid mantle (Fukao & Obayashi, 2013). Conversely, upwelling material also shows deflection at various depths. These depths show some relationship to observed mantle discontinuities. The apparent transition at 1000 km depth is particularly enigmatic, as both subducting slabs and upwelling material are observed to be displaced here (French & Romanowicz, 2013). Although some recent publications suggest that the transition is a viscosity jump (Rudolph et al., 2015) or a compositional difference (Ballmer et al., 2015), the relationship to observed seismic discontinuities is unclear. Here, we present global-scale interrogations of mid-mantle discontinuities.We have compiled a large high quality global dataset of over 45,000 hand-picked SS phases. We use SS precursors to search for the presence (of lack thereof) of discontinuities in the mid-mantle, from 700 km to 1200 km depth. The data are partitioned into spherical caps to generate regional maps, using different cap sizes to investigate the lateral extent of the discontinuities. Differential precursor-SS travel time measurements with respect to AK135 are used to estimate the depth of the discontinuities. Amplitude ratios of precursors/SS help to constrain velocity and density contrasts across the boundaries.Our results display evidence for multiple discontinuities at various depths in the mid-mantle. We analyse the locations of mid-mantle discontinuities for any relationship to SS tomographical models and other mantle structures. We find some correlation to subduction zones, oceanic ridges and LIPS, however the discontinuities cannot be linked to any one mantle

  2. E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma and their prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Itoh, Tetsuhiko; Sueyoshi, Kazunobu; Minakami, Yoshie; Corvalan, Alejandro; Yonezawa, Suguru; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the role of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in carcinogenesis and to assess their prognostic implication in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas (EBV-GCs). METHODS: We compared the frequency of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in 59 EBV-GCs and 120 non-EBV-GCs, and examined the association between patients' prognosis and the expressions of these proteins. RESULTS: Neither the cellular-membranous nor the cytoplasmic E-cadherin expression showed any difference between EBV-GCs and non-EBV-GCs. On the other hand, loss of membranous expression of beta-catenin occurred more frequently in non-EBV-GCs than EBV-GCs [odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.19-0.90]. Furthermore, the nuclear and/or cytoplosmic expression of beta-catenin was seen more frequently in EBV-GCs than non-EBV-GCs (odds ratio = 2.23; 95% CI, 0.97-5.09), and was observed in a larger proportion of carcinoma cells of EBV-GCs than non-EBV-GCs (P = 0.024). Survival analysis for non-EBV-GC revealed that lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001). Among EBV-GCs, the depth of invasion (P = 0.005), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004) and an intestinal type by Lauren classification (hazard ratio = 9.47; 95% CI, 2.67-33.6) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. On the other hand, nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin was associated with a better prognosis in patients with EBV-GC (hazard ratio = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.93). CONCLUSION: We observed more frequent preservation of beta-catenin in cell membrane and accumulation in nuclei and/or cytoplasm in EBV-GCs than in non-EBV-GCs. Factors involved in the prognosis of EBV-GCs and non-EBV-GCs are different in the two conditions. PMID:17663505

  3. High performance x-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan Laurens; van Breemen, Albert; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gilot, Jan; Andriessen, Ronn; Simon, Matthias; Ruetten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-10-01

    High performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current Abhishek Kumara, Date Moeta, Albert van Breemena, Santhosh Shanmugama, Jan-Laurens van der Steena, Jan Gilota, Ronn Andriessena, Matthias Simonb, Walter Ruettenb, Alexander U. Douglasb, Rob Raaijmakersc, Pawel E. Malinowskid, Kris Mynyd and Gerwin H. Gelincka,e a. Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven 5656 AE, The Netherlands b. Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands c. Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 6-8, 5684 PC Best, The Netherlands d. Department of Large Area Electronics, imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B3001, Belgium e. Applied Physics Department, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating technique with end of line processing temperature below 100°C. These photodiodes have extremely low dark leakage current density of 10-7 mA/cm2 at -2V bias with very high yield and have peak absorption around 550 nm wavelength. We combine these organic photodiodes with high mobility metal oxide semiconductor based thin film transistor arrays with high pixel resolution of 200ppi on thin plastic substrate. When combined with a typical CsI(TI) scintillator material on top, they are well suited for low dose X-ray imaging applications. The optical crosstalk is insignificant upto resolution of 200 ppi despite the fact that the photodiode layer is one continuous layer and is non-pixelated. Low processing temperatures are another key advantage since they can be fabricated on plastic substrate. This implies that we can make X-ray detectors on flexible foil. Those

  4. Surgical care quality and oncologic outcome after D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mrena, Johanna; Mattila, Anne; Böhm, Jan; Jantunen, Ismo; Kellokumpu, Ilmo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the quality of surgical care and long-term oncologic outcome after D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: From 1999 to 2008, a total of 109 consecutive patients underwent D2 gastrectomy without routine pancreaticosplenectomy in a multimodal setting at our institution. Oncologic outcomes together with clinical and histopathologic data were analyzed in relation to the type of surgery performed. Staging was carried out according to the Union for International Cancer Control criteria of 2002. Patients were followed-up for five years at the outpatient clinic. The primary measure of outcome was long-term survival with the quality of surgery as a secondary outcome measure. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from the patient records, and causes of death were obtained from national registries. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients (58 men) with a mean age of 67.4 ± 11.2 years underwent total gastrectomy or gastric resection with D2 lymph node dissection. The tumor stage distribution was as follows: stage I, (27/109) 24.8%; stage II, (31/109) 28.4%; stage III, (41/109) 37.6%; and stage IV, (10/109) 9.2%. Forty patients (36.7%) received chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The five-year overall survival rate for all 109 patients was 45.0%, and was 47.1% for the 104 patients treated with curative R0 resection. The five-year disease-specific survival rates were 53.0% and 55.8%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, body mass index and tumor stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (both P < 0.01), whereas body mass index, tumor stage, tumor site, Lauren classification, and lymph node invasion were prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (all P < 0.05). Postoperative 30-d mortality was 1.8% and 30-d, surgical (including three anastomotic leaks, two of which were treated conservatively), and general morbidities were 26.6%, 12.8%, and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: D2 dissection is a safe surgical option for gastric

  5. Histotype-based prognostic classification of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Klersy, Catherine; Vanoli, Alessandro; Ferretti, Andrea; Capella, Carlo; Solcia, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To test the efficiency of a recently proposed histotype-based grading system in a consecutive series of gastric cancers. METHODS: Two hundred advanced gastric cancers operated upon in 1980-1987 and followed for a median 159 mo were investigated on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections to identify low-grade [muconodular, well differentiated tubular, diffuse desmoplastic and high lymphoid response (HLR)], high-grade (anaplastic and mucinous invasive) and intermediate-grade (ordinary cohesive, diffuse and mucinous) cancers, in parallel with a previously investigated series of 292 cases. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for CD8, CD11 and HLA-DR antigens, pancytokeratin and podoplanin, as well as immunohistochemical and molecular tests for microsatellite DNA instability and in situ hybridization for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBER1 gene were performed. Patient survival was assessed with death rates per 100 person-years and with Kaplan-Meier or Cox model estimates. RESULTS: Collectively, the four low-grade histotypes accounted for 22% and the two high-grade histotypes for 7% of the consecutive cancers investigated, while the remaining 71% of cases were intermediate-grade cancers, with highly significant, stage-independent, survival differences among the three tumor grades (P = 0.004 for grade 1 vs 2 and P = 0.0019 for grade 2 vs grade 3), thus confirming the results in the original series. A combined analysis of 492 cases showed an improved prognostic value of histotype-based grading compared with the Lauren classification. In addition, it allowed better characterization of rare histotypes, particularly the three subsets of prognostically different mucinous neoplasms, of which 10 ordinary mucinous cancers showed stage-inclusive survival worse than that of 20 muconodular (P = 0.037) and better than that of 21 high-grade (P < 0.001) cases. Tumors with high-level microsatellite DNA instability (MSI-H) or EBV infection, together with a third subset negative for

  6. Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firn, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment Jennifer Firn1, James McGree2, Eric Lind3, Elizabeth Borer3, Eric Seabloom3, Lauren Sullivan3, Kimberly Lapierre4 and the Nutrient Network 1Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 2Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 3Universtiy of Minnesota, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 1479 Gortner Avenue, 140 Gortner Laboratory, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA 4Department of integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Functional trait research has developed with the aim of finding general patterns in how the function of plant assemblages changes with respect to different land-uses. Most studies have compared sites within and across regions with variations in land-use history, but not necessarily with standardized treatments in an experimental framework. The trends that have emerged from this research is that characteristics of leaf traits such as specific leaf area (SLA) correlate with carbon acquisition strategies known to influence ecosystem functioning. SLA has been found to represent a plant's investment in growing light-capturing area per dry mass content. Species with a relatively high SLA tend to have a higher rate of return on the resources invested into making tissue (cheaper leaves in terms of energy and resources needed to produce them) when compared to species with a lower SLA (more expensive leaves to produce). Few studies have examined quantitatively measured traits in an experimental framework. The Nutrient Network experiment, globally distributed experiment, presents a unique opportunity to examine the response of functional traits across grassland ecosystems characterised by a diverse range of

  7. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    change in the dielectric constants exists between transversal and parallel directions. The dielectric constant shows values that coincide with the case of radial polarization of the EM field. This can be explained from the propagation path of direct waves. Since the EM field of direct waves, propagates in the upper part of the sample, the effect of polarization is almost the same in both directions as it is the case of radial polarization when the reflected method was used. During future STSMs we foresee to do further experimental work with the direct wave method (WARR) on different wood samples, in order to confirm the effect of wood anisotropy and moisture content on GPR direct wave propagation. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to COST - European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). Many thanks to the I2M, University of Bordeaux, for the valuable collaboration and hospitality during this STSM. References 1. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Ballivy G and Arliguie G (2006a) Effect of concrete moisture on radar signal amplitude. ACI Materials Journal 103 (6): 419-426. 2. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Arliguie G, Ballivy G (2006b) Ability of the direct wave of radar ground-coupled antenna for NDT of concrete structures. NDT & E International 39 (5): 400-407. 3. Tien Chinh Mai, Stephen Razafindratsima, Zoubir Mehdi Sbartaï, François Demontoux, Frédéric Bos (2015) Non-destructive evaluation of moisture content of wood material at GPR frequency. Construction and Building Materials 77 (2015) 213-217 4. Rodríguez-Abad I, Martínez-Sala R, CapuzLladró R, Díez Barra R and García-García F (2011) Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinuspinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique. Materiales de Construcción 61(301): 143-156. 5. Martínez-Sala R, Rodríguez-Abad I, del Val I (2013) Effect of

  8. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to

  9. The network average gust factor, its measurement and environmental controls, and role in gust forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Alexander A.

    There exists a strong, well documented linear relationship between network averaged sustained (or mean) wind and gust speeds within the San Diego Gas and Electric (SDGE) mesonet that is characterized by the slope of the linear regression between the two known as the network average gust factor (GF). The network average GF potentially contains information on the average obstruction of the stations within the network and when paired with numerical model output, may be used for gust prediction. Using the network average GF for gust prediction can also result in the correction of biases due to poorly resolved terrain or unresolved obstructions. This thesis explores the presence of strong network average GFs in a collection of diverse observation networks, different methods for estimating network GF, and the influence of potential measurement and environmental controls on network average GF. Sustained wind speed and gust data from the Air Research Laboratory Field Research Division (ARLFRD), Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Delaware Earth Observing System (DEOS), and SDGE mesonets were taken for the year of 2015 from NCEP MADIS for calculations and comparison of network average GF. Additional data obtained to aide in the assessment of controls on network average GF include wind measurements from select regions of ASOS stations (both METAR filtered and raw one-minute) and the RAWS network, wind measurements from HPWREN, and temperature measurements from the ARLFRD. Using these data each network was found to have a strong and persistent network average GF each unique from each other. Estimates of these GFs were found to be most accurate when using a zero-intercept linear regression model, arithmetic averaging between stations, and only incorporating observations time when nearly all potential stations within a network report in the calculation. By using these methods when calculating network average GF the physicality of the estimate is ensured, the shape of the GF

  10. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    monitoring using PMU devices and enhanced grid analysis tools; and Initiative 3: Identifying grid automation and smart technology architecture retrofit/improvement opportunities following a systematic review approach, inclusive of increasing renewables and variable distributed generation. Each of the initiative was conducted in partnership with industry technology and equipment providers to facilitate utility deployment experiences inform decision making, assess supporting infrastructure cost considerations, showcase state of the technology, address integration hurdles with viable workarounds. For each initiative, a multi-phased approach was followed that included 1) investigative planning and review of existing state-of-the-art, 2) hands on deployment experiences and 3) process implementation considerations. Each phase of the approach allowed for mid-course corrections, process review and change to any equipment/devices to be used by the utilities. To help the island grids transform legacy infrastructure, the Wind HUI provided more systematic approaches and exposure with vendor/manufacturers, hand-on review and experience with the equipment not only from the initial planning stages but through to deployment and assessment of field performance of some of the new, remote sensing and high-resolution grid monitoring technologies. HELCO became one of the first utilities in the nation to install and operate a high resolution (WindNet) network of remote sensing devices such as radiometers and SODARs to enable a short-term ramp event forecasting capability. This utility-industry and federal government partnership produced new information on wind energy forecasting including new data additions to the NOAA MADIS database; addressed remote sensing technology performance and O&M (operations and maintenance) challenges; assessed legacy equipment compatibility issues and technology solutions; evaluated cyber-security concerns; and engaged in community outreach opportunities that will

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Recent Flood Events With Persistent High Surface Runoff From Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S.; Hakeem, K. Abdul; Raju, P. V.; Rao, V. V.; Yadav, A.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    /locations with probable flooding conditions. These thresholds were refined through iterative process by comparing with satellite data derived flood maps of 2013 and 2014 monsoon season over India. India encountered many cyclonic flood events during Oct-Dec 2013, among which Phailin, Lehar, and Madi were rated to be very severe cyclonic storm. The path and intensity of these cyclonic events was very well captured by the model and areas were marked with persistent coverage of high runoff risk/flooded area. These thresholds were used to monitor floods in Jammu Kashmir during 4-5 Sep and Odisha during 8-9 Aug, 2014. The analysis indicated the need to vary the thresholds across space considering the terrain and geographical conditions. With respect to this a sub-basin wise study was made based on terrain characteristics (slope, elevation) using Aster DEM. It was found that basins with higher elevation represent higher thresholds as compared to basins with lesser elevation. The results show very promising correlation with the satellite derived flood maps. Further refinement and optimization of thresholds, varying them spatially accounting for topographic/terrain conditions, would lead to estimation of high runoff/flood risk areas for both riverine and drainage congested areas. Use of weather forecast data (NCMWRF, (GEFS/R)), etc. would enhance the scope to develop early warning systems.

  12. Simulation of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: application to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta

    2010-05-01

    In small and shallow coastal streams, morphological changes may have a dramatic effect on tidal propagation and distortion, on hydrodynamics and, ultimately, on the transport and fate of water-borne material. Hence, the ability to simulate the morphodynamic evolution of these dynamic and complex systems can be required for water quality studies. This work aimed at implementing, validating and exploring the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D (Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004, Bertin et al., 2009) in the Aljezur stream, a small and dynamic coastal system located in south-west Portugal. Four extensive field campaigns were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to measure bathymetry, water levels, waves and currents, in both the estuary and the adjoining beach. Between the two 2009 campaigns, bathymetry was measured on a monthly basis. Data revealed significant morphological changes, including channel migration and the formation of sandbars. The morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D consists of a wave model (SWAN - Booij et al., 1999), a circulation model (ELCIRC - Zhang et al., 2004) and a sediment transport and bottom update model (SAND2D, Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004), and is controlled by a script that runs the models, manages the transfer of information between them and performs control checks. The model was shown to reproduce successfully the waves, the water levels and the velocities. Preliminary morphodynamic simulations revealed that the model is highly sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions, the parameterization of friction and the sediment transport formulation. This presentation will describe the calibration and validation of the morphodynamic modelling system and will investigate on the circumstances that can lead to the inlet closure (including wave action and river flow). Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), project MADyCOS (PTDC/ECM/66484/2006). The authors thank the developers of the

  13. Gotha - the instruments of the observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the

  14. Essays on Commodity Prices and Macroeconomic Performance of Developing and Resources Rich Economies: Evidence from Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ferhat I.

    by the previous quarter's mark-up. Essay 3 empirically examines the determinants of the trade balance for a small oil exporting country within the context of Kazakhstan. The dominant theory by Harberger-Lauren-Metzler (HML) predicts that positive terms of trade shocks will improve the trade balance in the short run, but will fade away in the long run. I estimate cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) and vector error correction model (VECM) to study the long-run and short-run impacts on the trade balance. The results suggest that, in the long run, an increase in the terms of trade has a positive effect on the trade balance, an increase in GDP and appreciation of the real effective exchange rate have negative effect on the trade balance. In the short run, the terms of trade has a direct positive impact on the trade balance, real income and real exchange rate. On the other hand, appreciation of the currency has a negative impact on the trade balance. The error correction term, which represents the deviation from the long- run equilibrium between the trade balance, real income, terms of trade and real exchange rate, has a negative effect on the growth rate of the trade balance. These results provide further evidence to the idea that, in the long run, the HML effect not only depends on the duration of the shock, but also depends on the structure of the economy.

  15. Towards temporally and spatially varying extreme hydraulic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, Sofia; Groeneweg, Jacco

    2013-04-01

    In compliance with the Dutch Water Act the strength of the Dutch primary water defences must be assessed periodically for the required level of protection against hydraulic loads with return periods of up to 10,000 years. In the determination of the hydraulic loads, typically only one instant during a storm is considered, e.g. the instant at which the maximum water level is achieved in the region of the dike section of interest. For the determination of the required water defence crest level this is an appropriate approach, since the maximum wave overtopping rate is typically obtained at the maximum water level. For failure mechanisms other than overtopping, the instant of the maximum water level does not necessarily lead to the critical load on the water defence. Furthermore, failure mechanisms such as dune retreat and erosion of revetments typically depend on the temporal, and therefore also spatial, variation of the storm. In order to produce temporally and spatially varying hydraulic loads, numerical models (e.g. wave model) should be driven by wind fields evolving in time and space and provided with fields of other relevant variables (in the case of the wave model: offshore wave conditions, water levels and eventually currents) associated with extreme wind speeds. Given the complexity of the problem, two leading experts in extreme value theory, Prof. Laurens de Haan and Prof. Richard L. Smith, were asked for advice on how to approach the estimation of time and space evolving multivariate extremes. Each expert independently derived a semi-parametric method, referred to as the method de Haan and the method Smith, based on the theory of max-stable processes. Roughly speaking, both methods use time series of the variables of interest (e.g. wind speed, significant wave height) over a grid of locations in order to lift (transform, translate) observed extreme events into yet unobserved and even more extreme events. The 'lifted events' provide descriptions of what

  16. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and

  17. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small, the data suggest that for miners under the age of 60, exposure to chromium is associated with the development of the intestinal rather than the diffuse type of gastric cancer. PMID:8435344

  18. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    unit ranging in thickness from approximately 20 to 80 feet. The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is identified in the subsurface throughout the New Jersey Coastal Plain southeast of its outcrop area. Sediments that overlie the Wenonah-Mount Lauren aquifer and that are subjacent to the major aquifers within the Kirkwood Formation and the Cohansey Sand are described hydrologically as a composite confining bed. These include the Navesink Formation, Red Bank Sand, Tinton Sand, Hornerstown Sand, Vincentown Formation, Manasquan Formation, Shark River Formation, and Piney Point Formation and the basal clay of the Kirkwood Formation.. The Vincentown Formation functions as n aquifer within 3 to 10 miles downdip of its outcrop area. In areas farther downdip the Vincentown Formation functions as a confining bed. The Piney Point aquifer is laterally persistent from the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain northward into parts of Burlington and Ocean Counties. The Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation can be recognized in the subsurface along coastal areas of Cape May, Atlantic, and southern Ocean Counties, but inland only as far west as the extent of the overlying confining bed. In areas west of the extent of the overlying confining bed, the Kirkwood Formation is in hydraulic connection with the overlying Cohansey Sand and younger surficial deposits and functions as an unconfined aquifer.

  19. [Time trends and characteristics of gastric cancer incidence in urban Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Jie-Jun

    2007-09-01

    detailed records on histopathologic types. Adenocarcinoma was the most common type (76.8%), followed by signet ring cell carcinoma (9.4%). The proportions of adenocarcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma were higher in males than in females while signet ring cell cancer was higher in females than in males. Intestinal type gastric cancer was the most prominent type in Lauren system. The proportion of male was higher than female in intestinal type whereas female was higher than male in diffused type. In lesion location, the antrum was the most common tumor site. The gastric antrum cancer of females was more common than males while the gastric cardia cancer presented quite the contrary. The proximal gastric cancer was more prevalent in males than in females whereas the distal gastric cancer was in opposite pattern. A dramatic decreasing trend during 1973 - 2004 and several current and interesting characteristics in view of gender, age, stage at diagnosis, histopathologic type and tumor location of gastric cancer in urban Shanghai were determined in this study, which might contribute to the development of control and prevention strategy for gastric cancer.

  20. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  1. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    clínicos e anatomopatológicos dos prontuários de 71 doentes com adenocarcinoma gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia. O material obtido na operação foi submetido à análise imunoistoquímica e a frequência da expressão de cada proteína pôde ser analisada de acordo com a sua localização na célula e relacionada com as variáveis clinicopatológicas. A graduação percentualda expressão e da localização das proteínas foi a seguinte: E-caderina em 3% na membrana; betacatenina em 23,4% no citoplasma e 3,1% no núcleo; APC em 94,6% no citoplasma; TCF-4 em19,4% no núcleo; e survivina em 93,9% no núcleo. Houve relação entre expressão da proteína E-caderina com a idade mais avançada (p=0,007); betacatenina com tumores <5 cm de diâmetro (p=0,041);APC com tumores proximais (p=0,047); e TCF-4 com tipo difuso da classificação de Lauren (p=0,017) e com o grau de penetração tumoral (p=0,002). A via Wnt/betacatenina não está envolvida na carcinogênese gástrica. Porém, a frequência elevada de survivina permite sugerir que outras vias sinalizadoras devam estar envolvidas na transformação do tecido gástrico.

  2. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the

  3. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  4. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformity all the way to redshift z=1, an effect that makes galaxies more likely to be found around neighbors that are very similar (in terms of color or shape) than different kinds. Georgiana Ogrean closed the session by showing a merger between two galaxies that is not producing a strong shock front. 112: Astronomy Education for All: The 2017 Eclipse, Accessibility and NASA (by Meredith Rawls)This afternoon session kicked off with an advertisement for US-based astronomers favorite upcoming event: the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Jay Pasachoff reviewed plans for the August 21, 2017 event and pointed us to resources about choosing the best viewing site and what to expect on the momentous day. We also heard from Denise Smith, Jim Manning, and Daniel McIntosh about various NASA-funded efforts for education and outreach in the classroom and beyond. A sampling of NASA education and outreach resources compiled over several years, presented by Jim Manning #aas228 pic.twitter.com/T41gdHFoDv Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016The other two talks from this session focused on the newly-formed AAS Working Group for Accessibility and Disability and what the astronomical community can do to cultivate a more accessible culture. Speakers Jackie Monkiewicz and Lauren Gilbert described how and why inaccessibility is driving people away from the field: by requiring people with disabilities to disclose those disabilities, by maintaining inaccessible buildings and observatories, by acting inappropriately when accommodations are requested, and by not working well in advance of a course or event to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities. To learn more about what you can do to make astronomy accessible, and what efforts are already underway (including right here at AAS 228), see these resources compiled by AstroBetter.Press Conference: From Molecules to Galaxies (by Leonardo dos Santos