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Sample records for madis pdra lauren

  1. Madi Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoga, Frederick K.

    This Madi textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers, and contains 32 lessons. Lessons consist of sample phrases that the students are intended to master and dialogues and conversations built around the sample phrases and key vocabulary. Topics covered include learning names, meals and the ordering and buying of food, the weather, health,…

  2. Analysis of the Ft. Laurens, Ohio, skeletal sample.

    PubMed

    Sciulli, P W; Gramly, R M

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the analysis of the Colonial Period (1779) skeletal sample (N = 21) from Ft. Laurens, Ohio. The determination of age, sex, and ancestry reveals a relatively young sample (mean = 23.5 years) of males of northern European ancestry. Morphometric analysis shows little difference in cranial and postcranial size and shape measures between this sample and a modern sample of Euro-Americans and previously described Colonial to Civil War samples. The analysis of skeletal pathologies indicates that the individuals in the Ft. Laurens sample were active and subject to at least moderate amounts of stress. Dental pathologies were frequent, with a caries incidence higher than would be expected for a Euro-American Colonial period sample. Numerous traumatic pathologies, in the form of cut and hack marks, are present in this sample. These marks were expected, since historical records indicate a violent death and scalping for virtually all individuals lost at Ft. Laurens. The results of the various analyses are interpreted in light of available historical information. In most cases the results are consistent with historically based expectations.

  3. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAURENE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the vessel LAURENE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter, motor/sailing/ snorkeling/scuba/diving and instruction, sport fishing site seeing, ferry, travel, etc.'' Geographic Region: ``U.S....

  4. High resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Late Miocene Abu Madi Formation, Northern Nile Delta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah

    2015-12-01

    Abu Madi Formation represents the Upper Miocene Messinian age in the Nile Delta basin. It consists mainly of sandstones and shale intercalations and because of its richness in hydrocarbon, it has been subdivided by the petroleum companies into Level-I, Level-II and Level-III, respectively according to the increase in the sandstone to the shale ratio. The Miocene cycle in the northern subsurface section of the Nile Delta encompasses three main formations namely from the base; Sidi Salim formation, Qawasim Formation and Abu Madi Formation at the top. The high resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis, using gamma ray responses, has been done for the Late Miocene formation in the northern part of the Nile delta subsurface section. For this purpose, the gamma-ray logs of ten deep wells, arranged in four cross-sections trending in almost north-south direction throughout the northern region of the Nile Delta, were analyzed. The analysis has revealed that the interpreted 4th order depositional cycles within Abu Madi Formation display great variations in both number and gamma ray responses in each investigated well, and cannot be traced laterally, even in the nearest well. These variations in the interpreted 4th order depositional sequences could be attributed to the presence of normal faults buried in the inter-area laying between the investigated wells. This finding matches with the conclusion of that Abu Madi Formation represents a part of the Upper Miocene Nile Delta syn-rift megasequence, developed during the Upper Miocene rift phase of the Red Sea - Gulf of Suez province in Egypt. Accordingly, in the sequence stratigraphic approach, the depositional history of Abu Madi Formation was strongly overprinted by the tectonic controls rather than the relative sea-level changes which are assumed to be of a secondary influence. Regarding the hydrocarbon aspects of the Abu Madi Formation, the present work recommends to direct the drilling efforts into the stratigraphic traps

  5. Clinical Relevance of the Tumor Location-Modified Lauren Classification System of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang Kyu; Park, Young Suk; Jung, Do Hyun; Son, Sang Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Lauren classification system is a very commonly used pathological classification system of gastric adenocarcinoma. A recent study proposed that the Lauren classification should be modified to include the anatomical location of the tumor. The resulting three types were found to differ significantly in terms of genomic expression profiles. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the modified Lauren classification (MLC). Materials and Methods A total of 677 consecutive patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from January 2005 to December 2007 for histologically confirmed gastric cancer were included. The patients were divided according to the MLC into proximal non-diffuse (PND), diffuse (D), and distal non-diffuse (DND) type. The groups were compared in terms of clinical features and overall survival. Multivariate analysis served to assess the association between MLC and prognosis. Results Of the 677 patients, 48, 358, and 271 had PND, D, and DND, respectively. Their 5-year overall survival rates were 77.1%, 77.7%, and 90.4%. Compared to D and PND, DND was associated with significantly better overall survival (both P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age, differentiation, lympho-vascular invasion, T and N stage, but not MLC, were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Multivariate analysis of early gastric cancer patients showed that MLC was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (odds ratio, 5.946; 95% confidence intervals, 1.524~23.197; P=0.010). Conclusions MLC is prognostic for survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, in early gastric cancer. DND was associated with an improved prognosis compared to PND or D. PMID:26468416

  6. Appraisal of recent theories to understand cyclogenesis pathways of tropical cyclone Madi (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Umakanth, U.; Singh, Vikas; Harish Varma, T.

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims to examine the new understanding of cyclogenesis by analyzing the genesis sequence of formation of a very severe cyclonic storm Madi (6-13 December 2013) that occurred over the Bay of Bengal. We have generated a high-resolution (18 km, 6 km, and 2 km) analysis using three-dimensional variational data assimilation technique and Weather Research and Forecasting model. The genesis sequence of Madi cyclone is analyzed using the concepts in the marsupial theory and other theories of tropical cyclone formation. Major results are as follows: the developed analysis is found useful for tracking the movement of westward moving parent disturbance from 15 days prior to the genesis; identifying developed pouch region in the Lagrangian frame of reference; understanding the evolution of the pouch and convection within the pouch region and for the study of intensification inside the pouch region. Also, large-scale priming of environment concurs with the hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. The analysis of dynamical and thermodynamical processes within the pouch region showed gradual moistening, uplifting of moisture, diabatic heating causing buoyant convection in the vorticity-rich environment followed by vortex tube stretching, development of convection, heavy precipitation, strengthening of lower level convergence, and hence spin-up during a day or two preceding the genesis of Madi cyclone. In general, it is concluded that intensification within pouch region during the cyclogenesis phase followed the marsupial paradigm and bottom-up mechanism.

  7. Focusing the lens of language experience: perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D

    2013-04-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek-English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals' discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group. PMID:23556605

  8. Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek–English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals’ discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group. PMID:23556605

  9. Lauren Slater and the Experts: Malingering, Masquerade, and the Disciplinary Control of Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    The work of psychologist and author Lauren Slater has elicited strong reactions from both medical professionals and disability studies theorists, ranging from criticism to high praise. Attending to these responses, I argue that her work, in perhaps perverse fashion, can provide a narrative touch point for attempts from both fields to complicate the outdated binary division of the medical and social models. I illustrate the need for this collaboration through the example of malingering, suggesting that reading Slater's work through the lens of Tobin Siebers's theory of "masquerade" can open progressive conversations about "illness deception," which is an issue of central importance in disability rights, psychiatry, and political conversations. By using Slater's work and research on malingering as a test case, I point to potentially productive convergences among academic, medical, and social fields.

  10. Interview: stabilization of biological assays: conventional versus new technology. Interview by Lauren Constable.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Miles

    2013-12-01

    Miles Burrows speaks to Lauren Constable, Head of Commissioning Following completion of his PhD in Chemistry at Cardiff University (UK), Miles Burrows started his career at Amersham Biosciences (UK), predominately researching fluorescent reagents and the labeling of biological compounds. Following the acquisition of Amersham by GE Healthcare (UK), Burrows took on the role of R&D Technology Manager, leading a multifunctional team of chemists, biologists and industrial design engineers through new product introduction, research and product care projects. During this period, Burrows oversaw the launch of a custom assay stabilization service based on the well-established technology as used in GE Healthcare's Ready-To-Go™ product range. Since 2012 Burrows has been the Global Product Manager for custom molecular biology and fluorescent reagents for GE Healthcare Life Sciences.

  11. Sequence stratigraphic controls on reservoir characterization and architecture: case study of the Messinian Abu Madi incised-valley fill, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Slatt, Roger M.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding sequence stratigraphy architecture in the incised-valley is a crucial step to understanding the effect of relative sea level changes on reservoir characterization and architecture. This paper presents a sequence stratigraphic framework of the incised-valley strata within the late Messinian Abu Madi Formation based on seismic and borehole data. Analysis of sand-body distribution reveals that fluvial channel sandstones in the Abu Madi Formation in the Baltim Fields, offshore Nile Delta, Egypt, are not randomly distributed but are predictable in their spatial and stratigraphic position. Elucidation of the distribution of sandstones in the Abu Madi incised-valley fill within a sequence stratigraphic framework allows a better understanding of their characterization and architecture during burial. Strata of the Abu Madi Formation are interpreted to comprise two sequences, which are the most complex stratigraphically; their deposits comprise a complex incised valley fill. The lower sequence (SQ1) consists of a thick incised valley-fill of a Lowstand Systems Tract (LST1)) overlain by a Transgressive Systems Tract (TST1) and Highstand Systems Tract (HST1). The upper sequence (SQ2) contains channel-fill and is interpreted as a LST2 which has a thin sandstone channel deposits. Above this, channel-fill sandstone and related strata with tidal influence delineates the base of TST2, which is overlain by a HST2. Gas reservoirs of the Abu Madi Formation (present-day depth ˜3552 m), the Baltim Fields, Egypt, consist of fluvial lowstand systems tract (LST) sandstones deposited in an incised valley. LST sandstones have a wide range of porosity (15 to 28%) and permeability (1 to 5080mD), which reflect both depositional facies and diagenetic controls. This work demonstrates the value of constraining and evaluating the impact of sequence stratigraphic distribution on reservoir characterization and architecture in incised-valley deposits, and thus has an important impact on

  12. Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Al Temamy, A. M.; Salah, Mohamed K.; Kassab, M.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity investigations were carried out to assess the origin and characteristics of a brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area. Twenty six surface water, shallow and deep groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various ionic concentrations as well as oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic contents. In addition, a total of 20 vertical electrical sounding sites were conducted to investigate layers' thicknesses, resistivities, and to detect the water-bearing layers. Then, 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) along two profiles in the study area was conducted to get information about the surface water effect on recharge. The stable isotopic composition and the chloride concentrations strongly suggest that the deep groundwater in Abu Madi area is dominated by inland freshwater with a minor seawater component. This groundwater was recharged during the first and the third Holocene humid climatic cycles where the sea surface was about 125 and 25 m below the current sea level, respectively. The brackish nature and higher piezometric surface of the groundwater, as well as the occurrence of vertical low-salinity seawater zone in front of the study area, support the possibility of submarine groundwater discharge. The geoelectrical resistivity surveying, on the other hand, revealed a number of geoelectrical groundwater-bearing layers. The main water-bearing layer in the study area is represented by the sixth geoelectrical layer, which has relatively high resistivity and a considerable thickness being consistent with the hydrogeochemical observations. ERT results point to the presence of shallow water-bearing layers recharged from the surface water drains with low resistivity and surface rain water of moderate resistivity. Results from the hydrogeochemical analyses and the different hydrogeological data are consistent with the high resistivity values of this geoelectrical layer. However, the overall high specific

  13. R and D status of ERIC-7 and MADIS: two systems for MPEG-7 indexing/search of audio-visual content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, L.

    2005-10-01

    We present the research and development status of two MPEG-7 indexing/search systems under development at the Computer Research Institute of Montreal (CRIM). The first (called ERIC-7) targets content-based encoding of still images and is mainly designed to experiment with the various aspects of the visual MPEG-7/XML schema with the help of analysis and exploration tools. The interface allows navigating graphically among the various descriptors in the XML files and through interactive UML graphics. The second (called MADIS) aims at providing a practical audio-visual MPEG-7 indexing/retrieval tool, within the framework of a light architecture. MADIS is designed to (1) be fully MPEG-7 compliant, (2) address both encoding and search, (3) combine audio, speech and visual modalities and (4) have search capability on the Internet. MADIS currently targets content-based indexing of documentary films.

  14. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  15. The Efficacy of Taxanes- and Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Cancer After D2 Gastrectomy for Different Lauren Types

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhen; Jin, Xiance; He, Qiuxiang; Lin, Baochai; Su, Huafang; Chen, Hanbin; Fei, Shaoran; Fei, Zhenghua; Chen, Guorong; Pan, Huangle; Chen, Xiaolei; Xie, Congying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the efficacy of Taxanes- and Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapies (TC and OC) in the treatment of gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy with different Lauren types. In this study, 299 patients of gastric adenocarcinoma with D2 lymph node dissection were reviewed between 2007 and 2014. Chemotherapies were classified as Oxaliplatin-based and Taxanes-based regimen. Treatment outcomes were analyzed according to different Lauren types, such as the intestinal type, diffuse type, and mixed type groups, respectively. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The log-rank test was used for univariate analysis, and Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the Oxaliplatin-based arm had a longer median DFS and OS compared with Taxanes-based arm (DFS: 47.0 vs 28.6 months, P = 0.04; OS: 51.9 vs 34.5 months, P = 0.048). The chemotherapy regimen was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS of diffuse type gastric cancer patients by multivariate analysis (P = 0.01). In the intestinal type, although the DFS and OS of intestinal type patients in TC group were higher than those in OC group (DFS: 53.4 vs 42.4 months; OS: 69.7 vs 57.8 months), there was no statistical significance observed (both P > 0.05). For the mixed type, the 2 different chemotherapy regimens achieved similar median DFS and OS. In a conclusion, the patients of diffuse type were more sensitive to OC, and the intestinal type patients may be benefit from TC. Therefore, it will be of benefit for gastric patients by introducing Lauren classification clinically and to help the choice of chemotherapy regimen for gastric patients after D2 gastrectomy. PMID:26871834

  16. 3D Depositional Model in a Complex Incised Valley Fill: An Example from the Late Messinian Abu Madi Formation, Nile Delta Basin, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M. E. S.

    2015-12-01

    The study area lies in the Central Marine Delta, which is located in the Baltim offshore concession, about 25 kms from the shoreline and 40 kms North Abu Madi-El Qara fields. The current study is aiming to give a comprehensive combined and conjugated study between well data and seismic survey interpretations. The former includes well logging data, acquired results of actual drilling and biostratigraphic study, to give an integrated picture for the considered area in a true attempt to visualize the geological and geophysical data given from both wells and seismic reflection surveys, and hence introduce an updated sequence stratigraphic framework for the Messinian sequence at the offshore Nile Delta area. The 3D geological model, based on all the available well data (faunal contents, litho-facies, log signatures…...etc.) and the seismic expressions (facies and geometry), has been constructed for the study area. This model shows that, the study area was changed from shelf (considered as erosional), to delta channels and then directed to the north. It changed to delta front mouth bars on the shoreface and affected by the main Rosetta fault to collect deposits as sand bars in the southern part on the downthrown side of the fault. Most deposits on this face were highstand system tracts. This deduced from the sequence stratigraphy study. The area was then sloped to the north, as shelf slope with the deposition of slumps, which was formed during erosions and mass flows. Some mud diapers also formed upon this slope. After dropping the sea level with the activity of some syn-sedimentary faults, some channels with sediment supply started their activities to dig their ways to the north.

  17. On Learning Research: A Conversation with Lauren Resnick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Highlights new directions in cognitive research. Instead of searching for universally valid principles, new style reseachers are studying how people learn particular things in particular environments. Findings need to be corroborated by numerous researchers using a variety of observational and experimental methodologies. Includes two references.…

  18. An Interview with Elizabeth Gordon and Lauren Wohl of the Walt Disney Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Presents an interview with the vice president and publisher, and the marketing director, of the Walt Disney Company concerning plans for the company to enter the competitive field of children's book publishing. (RS)

  19. The evolution of the danger theory. Interview by Lauren Constable, Commissioning Editor.

    PubMed

    Matzinger, Polly

    2012-05-01

    Polly Matzinger, now Chief of the Ghost Laboratory and the section on T-cell Tolerance and Memory at the NIH, has previously worked as a bartender, carpenter, jazz musician, Playboy bunny and dog trainer. She completed her PhD at the University of California, San Diego (USA) and was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Cambridge (UK). She has worried for years that the dominant model of immunity does not explain a wealth of accumulated data and has recently suggested an alternative, the danger model, which suggests that the immune system is far less concerned with things that are foreign than with those that do damage. This model, whose two major tenets Matzinger admits were thought up in a bath and on a field while herding sheep, has very few assumptions and yet "explains most of what the immune system seems to do right, as well as most of what it appears to do wrong", covering such areas as transplantation, autoimmunity and the immunobiology of tumors. The model has been the subject of a BBC Horizon film and has featured in two other films about immunity and countless articles in both the scientific and the lay press. In her spare time, Matzinger trains border collies for competitive shepherding trials and, in her own words, "composes songs that are not really worth listening to, and worries about the next major question in the immune system", namely "once it decides to respond, how does the immune system know what kind of response to make?" PMID:22607177

  20. High Standards and Cultural Diversity: Cautionary Tales of Comparative Research--a Comment on "Benchmarking Education Standards" by Lauren B. Resnick, Katherine J. Nolan, and Daniel P. Resnick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The recent examination of the curriculum and examination systems of France and the Netherlands overlooks the real process of creating a national consensus around standards in the Netherlands, balancing local autonomy and national standards. A comment by the original authors acknowledges the implications of the Dutch approach for U.S. standards.…

  1. 76 FR 69318 - In the Matter of the Designation of Mali Khan also known as Madi Khan as a Specially Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the... Order. This notice shall be published in the Federal Register. Dated: October 24, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State. BILLING CODE 4710-10-P...

  2. 76 FR 14017 - Call for Comments on the Draft Report of the Adult Immunization Working Group to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    .../adultimmunization .html. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lauren Wu, e-mail: lauren.wu@hhs.gov , phone: 202-690... available on the Web at http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac/subgroups/adultimmunization .html. Dated: March 9,...

  3. 78 FR 77202 - Request for Comments of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lauren Brand, Director, Office of Marine Highways and Passenger Services, MAR... 20590. Telephone: 202-366-7057; or email lauren.brand@dot.gov . Copies of this collection also can...

  4. Isolation and characterization of plaque-purified strains of Malacosoma disstria Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Martin A; Baldwin, Doug; Haveroen, Melissa; Keddie, B Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Seven plaque-purified genotypic variants or strains, derived from a previously described field isolate of the Malacosoma disstria Nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiNPV) from Alberta populations of forest tent caterpillar, were characterized based on distinctive restriction endonuclease fragment patterns. Two strains, MadiNPV-pp3 and MadiNPV-pp11, were selected for further characterization, as they represented strains producing high and low budded virus (BV) titres, respectively, in the M. disstria cell line UA-Md203. Analysis of restriction endonuclease fragment profiles indicated the genomes differed significantly in size, 133.8 +/- 2.4 kb for MadiNPV-pp3 and 118.1 +/- 3.5 kb for MadiNPV-pp11. These strains were characterized based on their BV production in three different cell lines derived from M. disstria haemocytes. Compared with MadiNPV-pp11, MadiNPV-pp3 produced two- to three-fold more BVs in UA-Md203 and 210 other cell lines; however, BV production was only marginally higher for MadiNPV-pp3 in the UA-Md221 cell line. Similarly, the yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies was significantly higher for MadiNPV-pp3 in UA-Md203 and 210 cell lines than for MadiNPV-pp11 but not in the UA-Md221 cell line. This data, although derived from a limited number of cell lines, suggested MadiNPV-pp3 may have a broader tissue tropism than MadiNPV-pp11.

  5. 77 FR 61755 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... LAUREN ATKINSON LESLIE BAITMAN FRANKLIN BARCLAY LISA BEADLE MIRTHA BERGER SHERRI BERNARDY PETER BOWERS... ELAINE POTTS OLIVER RAJKUMAR RAHUL REILLY THOMAS RODRIGUEZ LEON SCHWEITZER ROXANNE SEYLER DEAN...

  6. Autism and an Empty Nest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman-Api, Diona

    2006-01-01

    The author, a mother of Lauren, a three-year-old girl diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, describes her anxieties and worries in sending her daughter to preschool. She worried that Lauren's GFCF diet might not be followed and that she might regress with the overwhelming options and stimulation that school offered. The author describes her…

  7. Synthesis of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in E. coli using stress-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Keum-Young; Lee, Boram; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Song, Jong-Am; Lee, Doo Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-09-01

    We found Escherichia coli proteins, elongation factor Ts (Tsf), and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) that can exist in the form of native and soluble proteins even under stress situation such as heat shock and protein denaturing condition. To examine their property as solubility enhancers, aggregation-prone Mycoplasma arginine deiminase (mADI), which has been suggested as anti-cancer agent, was fused to the C-terminal of each of them and cloned into pET28a to be expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm. When mADI was fused to fusion partners (Mdh, Tsf), a significant portion of the recombinant mADI was expressed in a soluble fraction (>90%) whereas the directly expressed mADI was aggregated to the inclusion body. In addition, recombinant mADI released from the fusion tag retained its soluble form and presented its specific enzymatic activity of converting l-arginine into citrulline (>10 U/mg). These results show that Tsf and Mdh could serve as effective solubility enhancers for aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mADI in this case) when used as fusion expression partners in bacterial expression systems. PMID:25039059

  8. Synthesis of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in E. coli using stress-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Keum-Young; Lee, Boram; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Song, Jong-Am; Lee, Doo Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-09-01

    We found Escherichia coli proteins, elongation factor Ts (Tsf), and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) that can exist in the form of native and soluble proteins even under stress situation such as heat shock and protein denaturing condition. To examine their property as solubility enhancers, aggregation-prone Mycoplasma arginine deiminase (mADI), which has been suggested as anti-cancer agent, was fused to the C-terminal of each of them and cloned into pET28a to be expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm. When mADI was fused to fusion partners (Mdh, Tsf), a significant portion of the recombinant mADI was expressed in a soluble fraction (>90%) whereas the directly expressed mADI was aggregated to the inclusion body. In addition, recombinant mADI released from the fusion tag retained its soluble form and presented its specific enzymatic activity of converting l-arginine into citrulline (>10 U/mg). These results show that Tsf and Mdh could serve as effective solubility enhancers for aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mADI in this case) when used as fusion expression partners in bacterial expression systems.

  9. Study of a ternary blend system for bulk heterojunction thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-08-01

    In this research, we report a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell consisting of a ternary blend system. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT is used as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) plays the role of acceptor whereas vanadyl 2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) is selected as an ambipolar transport material. The materials are selected and assembled in such a fashion that the generated charge carriers could efficiently be transported rightwards within the blend. The organic BHJ solar cells consist of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ternary BHJ blend/Al structure. The power conversion efficiencies of the ITO/ PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT:PCBM:VOPcPhO/Al solar cells are found to be 2.3% and 3.4%, respectively. This publication was made possible by PDRA (Grant No. PDRA1-0117-14109) from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The findings achieved herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

  10. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kimberly Guilfoyle Villency, Kim Cattrall, Katharine McPhee, Sheila Johnson, Danica Patrick, Angela Bassett, Mae Jemison, Lauren Hutton, ... Matlin, Zuleyka Rivera, Natalie Morales, Helena Christensen, Betsey Johnson, Kelly Ripa, Kristin Chenoweth, Billie Jean King, Jane ...

  11. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  12. Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161569.html Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility Study found too little ... appears to be 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night, said study author Lauren Wise, a ...

  13. 76 FR 31962 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., Application Type: New NVO & OFF. International First Service USA, Inc. dba Global Wine Logistics, Inc. (NVO..., (Qualifying Individual), Mohammad A. Madi, President, Application Type: Add NVO Service. Nano Express Corp... Type: New OFF License. Zai Cargo, Inc. dba Zai Ocean Services dba Zai Container Line (NVO & OFF),...

  14. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  15. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Cooper, Dawn; Short, Steven M; Myers, Judith H; Suttle, Curtis A

    2002-11-01

    Baculoviruses infect larval lepidopterans, and thus have potential value as microbial controls of agricultural and forest pests. Understanding their genetic relatedness and host specificity is relevant to the risk assessment of viral insecticides if non-target impacts are to be avoided. DNA polymerase gene sequences have been demonstrated to be useful for inferring genetic relatedness among dsDNA viruses. We have adopted this approach to examine the relatedness among natural isolates of two uncharacterized caterpillar-infecting baculoviruses, Malacosoma californicum pluviale nucleopolyhedrovirus (McplMNPV) and Malacosoma disstria nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiMNPV), which infect two closely related host species with little to no cross-infectivity. We designed two degenerate primers (BVP1 and BVP2) based on protein motifs conserved among baculoviruses. McplMNPV and MadiMNPV viral DNA was obtained from naturally infected caterpillars collected from geographically distinct sites in the Southern Gulf Islands and Prince George regions of British Columbia, Canada. Sequencing of 0.9 kb PCR amplicons from six McplMNPV and six MadiMNPV isolates obtained from a total of eight sites, revealed very low nucleotide variation among McplMNPV isolates (99.2-100% nucleotide identity) and among MadiMNPV isolates (98.9-100% nucleotide identity). Greater nucleotide variation was observed between viral isolates from the two different caterpillar species (only 84.7-86.1% nucleotide identity). Both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support placement of McplMNPV and MadiMNPV in a clade that is distinct from other groups of baculoviruses.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Norovirus GII.4_2006b, a Variant of Minerva 2006

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhihui; Mammel, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the National Calicivirus Laboratory at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed multistate outbreaks of norovirus infection and identified two new GII.4 norovirus strains (Minerva and Laurens) through partial sequencing of the major capsid (VP1) gene. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of the GII.4 Minerva isolate. PMID:26823589

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Norovirus GII.4_2006b, a Variant of Minerva 2006.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihui; Mammel, Mark K; Kulka, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the National Calicivirus Laboratory at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed multistate outbreaks of norovirus infection and identified two new GII.4 norovirus strains (Minerva and Laurens) through partial sequencing of the major capsid (VP1) gene. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of the GII.4 Minerva isolate. PMID:26823589

  18. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  19. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  20. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  1. Perspectives for a Diverse America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    Lauren Gallant is committed to making social justice issues part of her U.S. history teaching. An avid user of Teaching Tolerance materials, she's always in search of tools "that help illuminate the subject matter and the human condition." But the Simi Valley High School, Calif., teacher has a typical challenge: There is little time for "extras"…

  2. 33 CFR 165.T13-221 - Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXPLORER, HARVEY SPIRIT, HARVY SISUAQ, AIVIQ, NANUQ, GUARDSMAN, KALMATH, ARTIC CHALLENGER, TUUQ, LAUREN... Sector Puget Sound Captain Of The Port (COTP) Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-10. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C, no person may enter or remain in...

  3. Modern Czech Studies. Brown Slavic Contributions, Volume XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Alexander, Ed.; Fidler, Masako U., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The following papers are included: "Responses to the Literature Papers" (Malynne M. Sternstein); "Kitsch and Irony in Kundera: 'The Joke' and 'The Unbearable Lightness of Being'" (Aaron Beaver); "Daniela Fischerova's 'The Message Table': (Lauren McConnell); "Rethinking the Grotesque in Hrabal's Fiction" Carnival as a Model for Closely Watching…

  4. 75 FR 53285 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... service for Laurens, SC and Shelby, NC. Filed Date: 08/16/2010. Accession Number: 201008165121. Comment... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an eRegistration account using the eRegistration link. Select the eFiling link to log on and submit...

  5. Handbook of Diversity in Parent Education: The Changing Faces of Parenting and Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marvin J., Ed.; Lee, Steven W., Ed.

    This collection of papers identifies programs designed to educate and meet the needs of diverse parents. The 16 papers are: (1) "American Families in the 1990s and Beyond" (Dennis H. Karpowitz); (2) "Gender Issues in Parenting: Parenting Teenage Girls" (Lauren Ayers); (3) "Teaching about Sexual Diversity: A New Frontier for Parenthood Educators"…

  6. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open...-3110); e-mail: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at...

  7. 78 FR 19460 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice...-7265, Fax: 301-713-3110); email: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site...

  8. New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

  9. Embedded, Emboldened, and (Net)Working for Change: Support-Seeking and Teacher Agency in Urban, High-Needs Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Lauren Anderson takes an inductive approach to the study of teacher agency, specifically considering who supports teachers, and how, in their efforts to advance equity in urban, high-needs schools. Drawing from a larger research project, Anderson focuses on a multiyear case study of one early-career teacher and incorporates social…

  10. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.341 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington...

  11. Diagnosing and Treating Millennial Student Disillusionment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lauren S. Cardon states that what faculty see as student apathy or disengagement in the millennial generation is due to a number of factors, most of which are associated with the technological revolution. Millennial students are generally resistant to highly abstract material if not given the opportunity to reflect on its…

  12. The Attack of the Pod People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the "Northern Star," a university student newspaper, reporter Lauren Stott began a lyrical note: "It's every student's dream: Wake up for school, stumble over to the computer, and download the day's class lectures ... then crawl back into bed--iPod in one hand, notebook in the other." The object of the student journalist's…

  13. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  14. "Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    "Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…

  15. Science and Math Assessment in K-6 Rural and Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 14, Spring 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of journal articles and other resources concerning the assessment of science and math in small, rural elementary schools. Articles include: (1) "Standards, Assessment, and Educational Quality" (Lauren B. Resnick); (2) "A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment" (Grant Wiggins); (3) "How World-Class…

  16. The Power of Expectations: Two Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Laurene E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the power of the word "CAN". The author, Laurene E. Simms reports that as a poor, black, deaf youngster her teacher's facial expressions conveyed their feelings that she was of low IQ and mentally retarded, however two persons had a positive impact on her, her father and 7th grade math teacher. They challenged…

  17. 76 FR 19993 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Building Products Corporation; Lauren Holdco Inc. Quanex Building Products Corporation 03/11/2011 20110609... Martin 20110661 G HOV Services Limited; SCH Services Inc.; HOV Services Limited 20110662 G Apollo Investment Fund V, L.P.; SCH Services Inc.; Apollo Investment Fund V, L.P. 20110665 G R. Marcelo Claure,...

  18. Picturing Economic Childhoods: Agency, Inevitability and Social Class in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This article considers ideological, pedagogical and constitutive functions of children's picture books, with particular emphasis on the ways in which texts construct children and childhood in economic terms. Through an analysis of Lauren Childs' "Hubert Horatio Bartle Bobton-Trent" and Anthony Browne's "Voices in the Park", the article…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "The Designers' Toolbox: Newsroom Experience and Ideal Characteristics of Newspaper Designers" (Wayne Wanta and Lauren Danner); "Patterned Image of the Homeless: Discourse Analysis of Television News Narrative" (In-Sung Whang…

  20. Hope in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    When President Barack Obama announced that he would direct the Department of Homeland Security to grant deferred deportation and a work permit for two years to undocumented immigrant youth who meet certain criteria, he renewed hope for a better future for a million young people. Lauren Burke, an adjunct law professor at Brooklyn College of Law and…

  1. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  2. One Point Short: Let's Not Define Students by Their Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Lauren Seymour recounts her experience as a first year teacher dealing with a senior who could not pass the math California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through no fault of her own. Math so overwhelmed the student that she shuddered every time her math teacher approached her. Team interventions for this student in both basic operations and…

  3. Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research. 1989 ASCD Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B., Ed.; Klopfer, Leopold E., Ed.

    A project of the Center for the Study of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh, this yearbook combines the two major trends/concerns impacting the future of educational development for the next decade: knowledge and thinking. The yearbook comprises the following chapters: (1) "Toward the Thinking Curriculum: An Overview" (Lauren B. Resnick and…

  4. Library of Congress Gives Teachers Digital Access to All Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchowski, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    "Learning to think is the real goal of educators," said Lauren Resnick, internationally known University of Pittsburgh professor of cognitive science, in mid-March at the Library of Congress (LOC). "The real pedagogical conflict is over what comes first: content or thinking skills?" According to Resnick, new brain research leads to the answer:…

  5. Using Tests To Evaluate the Impact of Curricular Reform on Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan

    The dominant issues in considering the use of tests developed outside the classroom to measure the impact of curriculum reform on higher order thinking are reviewed by a panel interviewed for this discussion. Panel members are: (1) Stuart Kahl, (2) Robert Linn, (3) Senta A. Raizen, (4) Lauren Resnick, and (5) Thomas A. Romberg. It is conceded…

  6. 40 CFR 81.341 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys... County X Greenwood County X Hampton County X Horry County X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster... X Jasper County X Kershaw County X Lancaster County X Laurens County X Lee County X Lexington...

  7. Stratigraphic framework, sedimentology and structural setting of Miocene-Pliocene sediments of the Abu Qir area, offshore Nile delta

    SciTech Connect

    Ince, D.M.; Deibis, S.; McSherry, A.; Seymour, W.P.

    1988-08-01

    The offshore Nile delta contains significant gas resources which are currently undergoing both production and appraisal in the Abu Qir field and adjacent areas. The principal reservoir occurs in sandstones of the upper Abu Madi Member (upper Miocene), but excellent potential reservoirs exist in the lower Abu Madi Member (upper Miocene), Sidi Salem (middle-upper Miocene), and Moghra (middle Miocene) Formations. Gas is trapped in fault-bounded anticlinal structures sealed by shales of the Pliocene Kafr el Sheikh Formation. Early wells in the Abu Qir field revealed an apparently simple stratigraphic picture. More recently, however, drilled wells have revealed a more complex stratigraphic situation. Integrated biostratigraphic and sedimentologic studies demonstrate the existence of a fault block or horst structure beneath part of the field, giving rise to the observed stratigraphic complexity. Such a structure was not visible on seismic data due to inhibited reflection quality beneath the overlying Messinian anhydrite but has since been demonstrated by reprocessing and reinterpreting seismic data. The presence of a structural style of this type provides a new concept for hydrocarbon exploration in the area. Reservoir sandstones of the Abu Madi, Sidi Salem, and Moghra Formations are interpreted as sediment gravity flow deposits whose distribution is strongly influenced by syndepositional tectonics. This interpretation, supported by microfossil assemblages, provides important constraints for both reservoir modeling and further exploration.

  8. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  9. New data on Horaeomorphus Schaufuss (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) from the Oriental region, with description of a bizarre new species from Yunnan, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Horaeomorphus bicornis sp. n., a remarkable species with strongly modified head from Yunnan, Southwest China is described. A distinctly different female from the same locality is also recorded, its identity remains unconfirmed until associated males become available. The previously unknown female of H. hujiayaoi Zhou & Zhang, 2016, is discovered, with its spermatheca and female terminalia illustrated. Horaeomorphus punctatissimus Franz, 1992 is newly recorded from Mount Trus Madi, Malaysia. Two females of H. eumicroides Schaufuss, 1889 were discovered from Singapore, with female terminalia illustrated. PMID:27615929

  10. Structural basis for the specific recognition of the major antigenic peptide from the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 by HLA-DP5.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Seisuke; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Satta, Yoko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Ikeda, Mariko; Terada, Takaho; Yamamoto, Ken; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-08-26

    The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.

  11. Verbal memory elicited by ambient odor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Standing, L; de Man, A

    1992-04-01

    This study examined whether an ambient odor can act as a contextual cue for retrieval of verbal stimuli. Subjects (N = 47) learned a list of 24 words while exposed to one of two odors (either jasmine incense or Lauren perfume) and subsequently relearned the list with either the same or the alternative odor present. Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory. There were no differences in initial learning between the two odor conditions. No differences in pleasantness or intensity were found between the odors.

  12. Justice at the margins: witches, poisoners, and social accountability in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be 'witches' or 'poisoners' among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting 'traditional' approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer.

  13. First Findings in the Route of the Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Within Its Vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    González, J García; Ossamu Tanaka, F A; Spotti Lopes, J R

    2016-04-01

    In the pathosystem of Dalbulus madis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP), the interactions occurring during the passage, invasion, and multiplication of the phytoplasma inside the vector body have been generalized from other pathosystems, with a poor understanding of the specific interactions. With the aim to understand MBSP movement and potential specific interactions with its vector, D. maidis adults were dissected to obtain the intestine and salivary gland of both infected (acquisition access period=4 d; latent period=23 d) and noninfected individuals. The organs were processed for visualization with transmission electronic microscopy. Images of phytoplasma cells were observed in the alimentary canal, epithelium of the mesenteron, hemocele, and salivary gland of the vector, and were confirmed through observation of similar cells in maize roots with advanced disease symptoms. The study of the MBSP movement within its vector shows novel findings between the synergy of the MBSP phytoplasma and D. maidis.

  14. Justice at the margins: witches, poisoners, and social accountability in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be 'witches' or 'poisoners' among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting 'traditional' approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer. PMID:25358097

  15. Justice at the Margins: Witches, Poisoners, and Social Accountability in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be ‘witches’ or ‘poisoners’ among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting ‘traditional’ approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer. PMID:25358097

  16. Simultaneous effects of photo- and radio- darkening in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Duchez, Jean-Bernard Mady, Franck Mebrouk, Yasmine Benabdesselam, Mourad

    2014-10-21

    We present original characterizations of photo-radio-darkening in ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers submitted to the simultaneous action of the pump and of an ionizing radiation. We present the interplay between both radiations, showing e.g. that the pump is able to darken or bleach the fiber depending on the ionizing dose. The photo-resistance of the fiber is shown to play a crucial role on its radio-resistance, and that photo-resistant fibers should be also radio-resistant in low dose rate conditions. All the results are thoroughly explained by a physical model presented in a separate article by Mady et al. (this conference proceeding)

  17. Sensitivity of WRF precipitation field to assimilation sources in northeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzana, Jesús; Merino, Andrés; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) of precipitation is a challenge. Models predict precipitation after solving many physical processes. In particular, mesoscale NWP models have different parameterizations, such as microphysics, cumulus or radiation schemes. These facilitate, according to required spatial and temporal resolutions, precipitation fields with increasing reliability. Nevertheless, large uncertainties are inherent to precipitation forecasting. Consequently, assimilation methods are very important. The Atmospheric Physics Group at the University of León in Spain and the Castile and León Supercomputing Center carry out daily weather prediction based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. Forecasts of severe precipitation affecting the Ebro Valley, in the southern Pyrenees range of northeastern Spain, are crucial in the decision-making process for managing reservoirs or initializing runoff models. These actions can avert floods and ensure uninterrupted economic activity in the area. We investigated a set of cases corresponding to intense or severe precipitation patterns, using a rain gauge network. Simulations were performed with a dual objective, i.e., to analyze forecast improvement using a specific assimilation method, and to study the sensitivity of model outputs to different types of assimilation data. A WRF forecast model initialized by an NCEP SST analysis was used as the control run. The assimilation was based on the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) developed by NOAA. The MADIS data used were METAR, maritime, ACARS, radiosonde, and satellite products. The results show forecast improvement using the suggested assimilation method, and differences in the accuracy of forecast precipitation patterns varied with the assimilation data source.

  18. NASA DEVELOP students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA DEVELOP students at Stennis Space Center recently held a midterm review with George Crozier, who serves as a science adviser to the team. The team also was joined by Jamie Favors of the Mobile (Ala.) County Health Department DEVELOP Team; Cheri Miller, the team's NASA adviser; and Kenton Ross, a team science adviser. Students participating in the meeting included: Lauren Childs, Jason Jones, Maddie Brozen, Matt Batina, Jenn Frey, Angie Maki and Aaron Brooks. The primary purpose of the meeting was to update Crozier on the status of the team's work for the summer 2008 term and discuss plans for the fiscal year 2009 project proposal. This included discussion of a possible project to study the effects of hurricanes on the Florida panhandle. DEVELOP is a NASA-sponsored, student-led, student-run program focused on developing projects to help communities.

  19. Angular fluctuations of a multi-component order describe the pseudogap regime of the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir

    2014-03-01

    The hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors enter the pseudogap regime as their superconducting critical temperature, Tc, falls with decreasing hole density. Experiments have probed this regime for over two decades, but we argue that decisive new information has emerged from recent X-ray scattering experiments. The experiments observe incommensurate charge density wave fluctuations whose strength rises gradually over a wide temperature range above Tc, but then decreases as the temperature is lowered below Tc. We propose a theory in which the superconducting and charge-density wave orders exhibit angular fluctuations in a 6-dimensional space. The theory provides a natural quantitative fit to the X-ray data, and is consistent with other observed characteristics of the pseudogap. Results will also be presented on the microscopic origins of these order parameters. Work in collaboration with Lauren Hayward, Roger Melko, David Hawthorn, and Jay Sau.

  20. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  1. Determinants of First Antenatal Care Visit by Pregnant Women at Community Based Education, Research and Service Sites in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    TURYASIIMA, M.; TUGUME, R.; OPENY, A.; AHAIRWOMUGISHA, E.; OPIO, R.; NTUNGUKA, M.; MAHULO, N.; AKERA, P.; ODONGO-AGINYA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) aims mainly at prevention, early detection and management of general medical and pregnancy associated disorders. Early booking is recommended for maximum utilisation. Objective To investigate the determinants of first ANC visit and trimesters at which pregnant mothers enrol for ANC at the COBERS sites of Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Five community based education, research and service sites (COBERS) of Atiak, Madi Opei, Mungula, Namukora and Pajule health centre fours (HC IV) in the five respective districts of Amuru, Lamwo, Adjumani, Kitgum and Pader, Northern Uganda, from April to July 2013. Subjects Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in five health centers and 10 purposively selected midwives were interviewed using questionnaires. Results Of the 417 respondents, only 11.5% (n = 48) had their first ANC at the recommended period of 0–16 weeks. Prevalence of late entry to ANC was 88.5% (n = 369). Mean gestational age at booking was 22.6±5.7 weeks. Paternal level of education, outcome of previous pregnancy, previous ANC attendance, weeks of amenorrhea, convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to health facility, knowing the right time for ANC enrollment, and pregnancy planning remained significant predictors governing early booking. Conclusion Late ANC booking is still a major public health concern that demands public enlightenment, and paternal education coupled with women empowerment will reduce the magnitude of the problem. PMID:26640281

  2. LOW PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG FISHERFOLK LIVING ALONG THE RIVER NILE IN NORTH-WESTERN UGANDA: A BIOSOCIAL INVESTIGATION.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Georgina

    2016-09-01

    Mass drug administration has been less successful as a technique for controlling intestinal schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) than anticipated. In Uganda, the mass distribution of praziquantel has been provided to populations at risk of infection since the early 2000s, but prevalence mostly remains high. This is the case, for example, at locations in north-western and south-eastern Uganda. However, there is a remarkable exception. Among Madi fishing populations and their immediate neighbours, living close to the border with South Sudan, the rate of infection has dropped dramatically. A parasitological survey carried out at twelve fishing sites in 2013 identified only three cases of S. mansoni among 383 adults tested. This article asks: why is the prevalence of S. mansoni so low among fisherfolk in northern Uganda? Taking a biosocial approach, it suggests that the mass distribution of drugs, free of charge, has had an impact. However, the low prevalence of infection cannot be attributed to this alone. Other important factors may also have contributed to the decline in infection. These include changing fishing livelihoods, local attitudes to public health interventions, access to water and sanitation facilities, hygiene practices and the use of anti-malarial treatments. Above all, the article highlights the importance of investigating both social and biological dimensions of infection simultaneously, and of recognizing the local complexities of sustainably treating this debilitating parasitic disease. PMID:27428067

  3. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  4. Effect of Tulathromycin on Colonization Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence of Human Gut Microbiota in Chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Zhou, Shengxi; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate microbiological safety of tulathromycin on human intestinal bacteria, tulathromycin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) was added into Chemostats. Before and after drug exposure, we monitored (1) population, SCFA products, antimicrobial resistance, and colonization resistance of gut microbiota, and (2) the antimicrobial resistance genes, transferability, virulent genes, pathogenicity of Enterococus faecalis. Results showed that low level of tulathromycin did not exhibit microbiological hazard on resistance selection and colonization resistance. However, high level of tulathromycin (10 and 100 μg/mL) may disturb colonization resistance of human gut microbiota and select antimicrobial resistant E. faecalis. Most of the selected resistant E. faecalis carried resistant gene of ermB, transferable element of Tn1545 and three virulence genes (esp, cylA, and ace). One of them (E. faecalis 143) was confirmed to have higher horizontal transfer risk and higher pathogenicity. The calculated no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) and microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) in our study was 1 μg/mL and 14.66 μg/kg.bw/day, respectively. PMID:27092131

  5. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  6. Slit2 expression and its correlation with subcellular localization of β-catenin in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongliang; Liu, Weiyan; Liu, Bingya; Xu, Ziping; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Ziping

    2013-10-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Several signaling pathways are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Slit2 was recently found to be involved in cancer; however, its expression pattern in gastric cancer has not been discovered yet. In the present study, we investigated the expression of Slit2 in human gastric cancer and its correlation with the expression and subcellular localization of β-catenin. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining revealed that Slit2 was highly expressed in human gastric cancer tissues, while it was low or weakly expressed in normal gastric tissues. The differences in clinicopathological features between different groups were determined using Pearson's χ2 test. Slit2 levels were significantly associated with differentiation, Lauren's classification, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging. Slit2 levels were positively correlated with β-catenin level in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. High levels of Slit2 were correlated with the membrane localization of β-catenin, and low levels of Slit2 were correlated with nuclear translocation of β-catenin in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines assayed by IHC and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Our data suggest that Slit2 was highly expressed in gastric cancer patients with less advanced clinicopathological features. Slit2 levels were correlated with β-catenin level and subcellular localization.

  7. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  8. The ethics of contacting family members of a subject in a genetic research study to return results for an autosomal dominant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    This case explores the ethical landscape around recontacting a subject's relatives to return genetic research results when the informed consent form signed by the original cohort of subjects is silent on whether investigators may share new information with the research subject's family. As a result of rapid advances in genetic technology, methods to identify genetic markers can mature during the life course of a study. In this case, the investigators identified the genetic mutation responsible for the disorder after a number of their original subjects had died. The researchers now have the ability to inform relatives of the subject about their risk of developing the same disease. Mark Rothstein, JD, from the University of Louisville School of Medicine, provides an overview of the medical/scientific, legal, and ethical issues underlying this case. Lauren Milner, PhD, and colleagues at Stanford University explore how the relationship between researcher and subject affect this debate. Seema Shah, JD, and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) discuss whether and how requirements of the duty to warn are applicable in this case.

  9. The Expression of Bcl-2 and BID in Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bcl-2 and BID play a major role in the process of apoptosis and their dysfunction underlies carcinogenesis. The study objective was to assess the expression of Bcl-2 and BID in gastric cancer cells in correlation with chosen clinicopathological parameters, presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, and patients' survival. Materials and Methods. The study involved 88 patients operated on for gastric cancer. The expressions of Bcl-2 and BID were determined immunohistochemically. Results. Positive Bcl-2 expression was found in 55.7% and, BID in 53.6% of patients. The Bcl-2 expression correlated with stage pT3 and T4 gastric cancer (P < 0.05), with the intestinal type according to Lauren (P < 0.001), ulcerated type according to Bormann's classification (P < 0.01), and with local lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The Bcl-2 protein plays a key role in the process of gastric cancer formation and is associated with the growth of definite types of gastric cancer. PMID:24741635

  10. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives’ Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient’s Death: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, M. L.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient’s perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives’ wellbeing. Methods An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice ‘Laurens Cadenza’ (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Results Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14–32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives’ satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient’s death. Conclusions The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives’ evaluation of the patient’s dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient’s death. PMID:26871717

  11. STRESS RISK FACTORS AND STRESS-RELATED PATHOLOGY: NEUROPLASTICITY, EPIGENETICS AND ENDOPHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Jacobson, Lauren; Heydendael, Willem; Yehuda, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights a symposium on stress risk factors and stress susceptibility, presented at the Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Boulder, Colorado, June 2010. This symposium addressed factors linking stress plasticity and reactivity to stress pathology in animal models and in humans. Dr. Jason Radley discussed studies demonstrating prefrontal cortical neuroplasticity and prefrontal control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in rat, highlighting emerging evidence for a critical role of this region in normal and pathological stress integration. Dr. Mohamed Kabbaj summarized his studies of possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying behavioral differences in rat populations bred for differential stress reactivity. Dr. Lauren Jacobson described studies using a mouse model to explore the diverse actions of antidepressant action in brain, suggesting mechanisms whereby antidepressants may be differentially effective in treating specific depression endophenotypes. Dr. Rachel Yehuda discussed the role of glucocorticoids in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that low cortisol may be a trait that predisposes the individual to development of the disorder. Furthermore, she presented evidence indicating that traumatic events can have transgenerational impact on cortisol reactivity and development of PTSD symptoms. Together, the symposium highlighted emerging themes regarding the role of brain reorganization, individual differences and epigenetics in determining stress plasticity and pathology. PMID:21848436

  12. Public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Chapter M in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Laurie; Real, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario simulates a tsunami generated by a hypothetical magnitude 9.1 earthquake that occurs offshore of the Alaska Peninsula (Kirby and others, 2013). In addition to the work performed by the authors on public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR tsunami scenario, this section of the scenario also reflects the policy discussions of the State of California’s Tsunami Policy Work Group, a voluntary advisory body formed in October 2011, which operates under the California Natural Resources Agency (CNRA), Department of Conservation, and is charged with identifying, evaluating, and making recommendations to resolve issues that are preventing full and effective implementation of tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction throughout California’s coastal communities. It also presents the analyses of plans and hazard policies of California’s coastal counties, incorporated cities, and major ports performed by the staff of the California Geological Survey (CGS) and Lauren Prehoda, Office of Environmental and Government Affairs, California Department of Conservation. It also draws on the policy framework and assessment prepared for the ARkStorm Pacific Coast winter storm and catastrophic flooding (Topping and others, 2010).

  13. Establishment and characterisation of patient-derived xenografts as paraclinical models for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Young; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Hyunki; Sim, Moon Hee; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Lee, Gunho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; An, Ji Yeong; Hyung, Woo Jin; Kim, Choong-Bai; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sangwoo; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is emerging as a promising translational platform to duplicate the characteristics of tumours. However, few studies have reported detailed histological and genomic analyses for model fidelity and for factors affecting successful model establishment of gastric cancer. Here, we generated PDX tumours surgically-derived from 62 gastric cancer patients. Fifteen PDX models were successfully established (24.2%, 15/62) and passaged to maintain tumours in immune-compromised mice. Diffuse type and low tumour cell percentage were negatively correlated with success rates (p = 0.005 and p = 0.025, respectively), while reducing ex vivo and overall procedure times were positively correlated with success rates (p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). The histology and genetic characteristics of PDX tumour models were stable over subsequent passages. Lymphoma transformation occurred in five cases (33.3%, 5/15), and all were in the NOG mouse, with none in the nude mouse. Together, the present study identified Lauren classification, tumour cell percentages, and ex vivo times along with overall procedure times, as key determinants for successful PDX engraftment. Furthermore, genetic and histological characteristics were highly consistent between primary and PDX tumours, which provide realistic paraclinical models, enabling personalised development of treatment options for gastric cancer. PMID:26926953

  14. Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of Transducer-Like Enhancer of Split 1 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Son, Myoung-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Oh, Mee-Hye; Cho, Hyundeuk; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jang, Si-Hyong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is a member of the Groucho/TLE family of transcriptional co-repressors that regulate the transcriptional activity of numerous genes. TLE1 is involved in the tumorigenesis of various tumors. We investigated the prognostic significance of TLE1 expression and its association with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of six tissue microarrays was performed to examine TLE1 expression using 291 surgically resected GC specimens from the Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital between July 2006 and December 2009. Results In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, TLE1 expression was negative. In GC, 121 patients (41.6%) were positive for TLE1. The expression of TLE1 was significantly associated with male gender (P=0.021), less frequent lymphatic (P=0.017) or perineural invasion (P=0.029), intestinal type according to the Lauren classification (P=0.024), good histologic grade (P<0.001), early pathologic T-stage (P=0.012), and early American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P=0.022). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the TLE1 expression was significantly associated with longer disease-free (P=0.022) and overall (P=0.001) survival rates. Conclusions We suggested that TLE1 expression is a good prognostic indicator in GCs. PMID:27104023

  15. Establishment and characterisation of patient-derived xenografts as paraclinical models for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Young; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Hyunki; Sim, Moon Hee; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Lee, Gunho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; An, Ji Yeong; Hyung, Woo Jin; Kim, Choong-Bai; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sangwoo; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is emerging as a promising translational platform to duplicate the characteristics of tumours. However, few studies have reported detailed histological and genomic analyses for model fidelity and for factors affecting successful model establishment of gastric cancer. Here, we generated PDX tumours surgically-derived from 62 gastric cancer patients. Fifteen PDX models were successfully established (24.2%, 15/62) and passaged to maintain tumours in immune-compromised mice. Diffuse type and low tumour cell percentage were negatively correlated with success rates (p = 0.005 and p = 0.025, respectively), while reducing ex vivo and overall procedure times were positively correlated with success rates (p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). The histology and genetic characteristics of PDX tumour models were stable over subsequent passages. Lymphoma transformation occurred in five cases (33.3%, 5/15), and all were in the NOG mouse, with none in the nude mouse. Together, the present study identified Lauren classification, tumour cell percentages, and ex vivo times along with overall procedure times, as key determinants for successful PDX engraftment. Furthermore, genetic and histological characteristics were highly consistent between primary and PDX tumours, which provide realistic paraclinical models, enabling personalised development of treatment options for gastric cancer.

  16. From molecular classification to targeted therapeutics: the changing face of systemic therapy in metastatic gastroesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; Kelly, Ronan J

    2015-01-01

    Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician's therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  17. Multimodal treatment of gastric cancer in the west: Where are we going?

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Daniele; Polom, Karol; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Morgagni, Paolo; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Roviello, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer (GC) is decreasing worldwide, especially for intestinal histotype of the distal third of the stomach. On the contrary, proximal location and diffuse Lauren histotype have been reported to be generally stable over time. In the west, no clear improvement in long-term results was observed in clinical and population-based studies. Results of treatment in these neoplasms are strictly dependent on tumor stage. Adequate surgery and extended lymphadenectomy are associated with good long-term outcome in early-stage cancer; however, results are still unsatisfactory for advanced stages (III and IV), for which additional treatments could provide a survival benefit. This implies a tailored approach to GC. The aim of this review was to summarize the main multimodal treatment options in advanced resectable GC. Perioperative or postoperative treatments, including chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, targeted therapies, and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have been reviewed, and the main ongoing and completed trials have been analyzed. An original tailored multimodal approach to non-cardia GC has been also proposed. PMID:26185368

  18. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  19. Coping in young women: theoretical retroduction.

    PubMed

    Gramling, L F; Lambert, V A; Pursley-Crotteau, S

    1998-11-01

    Although there is increasing interest in women's health, there remains little empirical evidence concerning concepts related to health and women's life trajectory. Our purpose in conducting this research was to examine women's developmental stressors and coping during young adulthood. Lazarus and Folkman's coping model provided sensitizing concepts for data generation in a retroductive research methodology. The sample included 26 women of diverse perspectives who participated in interviews and groups. Philosophical concerns of subjectivity, context and gender sensitivity were actualized in iterative stages of data collection, analysis and comparison to extant theory. Rapidly expanding multiple roles were identified as developmental stressors for young women. Decontextualized coping strategies are arranged on a behavioural continuum: avoidance, distraction, and confrontation. Contextualized descriptions of coping are presented in two representative accounts: Lauren and Mary Ellen. A philosophical stance, assumed at about the age of 30, provides a lens for assessing developmental stressors that influence the appraisal process. Rich descriptions of young women's coping and developmental influences move beyond abstract theory to a contextual understanding of young women's experiences.

  20. Salt and stress synergize H. pylori-induced gastric lesions, cell proliferation, and p21 expression in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ubbelohde, Tom; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Romano-Mazzoti, Luis; Cervantes, Minerva; Domínguez-Fonseca, Claudia; de la Luz Estreber, Maria; Ruíz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2007-06-01

    Our aim was to determine if salt and stress enhance Helicobacter pylori (Hp) lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. Two hundred seventy-eight pathogen-free gerbils were allocated to seven groups: Hp-Sydney strain (45), 8% higher-salt diet (38), stress (60% space reduction/water immersion; 36), Hp + salt (33), Hp + stress (34), N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (34), and sham (58). Gerbils were sacrificed at 1 week (67), 12 weeks (73), 52 weeks (65), and 68 weeks (73). Sydney, Padova, and Lauren classifications were blindly used. Proliferation, p53, p21, and apoptosis were assessed. Follicular active gastritis (grade 2/3) was observed in 10% of Hp gerbils, 38% of Hp + salt gerbils, and 29% of Hp + stress gerbils at 52 weeks and 67%, 83%, and 43% at 68 weeks (P < 0.05). Heterotopic proliferative glands were identified in synergy groups from 52 weeks, with increases in their number and size by 68 weeks. Higher proliferative rates were observed in Hp+salt gerbils (P < 0.0001), and p21 overexpression in Hp+salt and Hp+stress gerbils (both P's < 0.0001), by 68 weeks, without p53 increases. We conclude that salt and stress synergize Hp damage and increase pseudo-invasive gland foci. PMID:17404882

  1. Prognostic values of four Notch receptor mRNA expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wentao; Tang, Ding; Xiao, Haijuan; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Che; Yao, Xuequan; Liu, Fukun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Notch ligands and receptors are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. The activation of Notch signaling has been reported to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and progression. However, the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in gastric cancer patients remain elusive. In the current study, we accessed the prognostic roles of four Notch receptors, Notch 1–4, in gastric cancer patients through “The Kaplan-Meier plotter” (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information include a total of 876 gastric cancer patients. All four Notch receptors’ high mRNA expression was found to be correlated to worsen overall survival (OS) for all gastric cancer patients followed for 20 years. We further accessed the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in different clinicopathological features using Lauren classification, pathological grades, clinical grades, HER2 status and different choices of treatments of gastric cancer patients. These results indicate that there are critical prognostic values of the four Notch receptors in gastric cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of gastric cancer and to develop tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. PMID:27363496

  2. From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ronan J.

    2015-01-01

    Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician's therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients. PMID:25784931

  3. Are PIK3CA Mutation and Amplification Associated with Clinicopathological Characteristics of Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsu; Hwang, Il-Seon; Choi, In-Jang; Kang, Yu-Na; Park, Keon-Uk; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been studied in various cancers. However, the clinical value of mtDNA copy number (mtCN) alterations in gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether alterations in mtCNs might be associated with clinicopathological parameters in GC cases. mtCN was measured in 109 patients with GC by real-time PCR. Then, correlations with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. mtCN was elevated in 64.2% of GC tissues compared with paired, adjacent, non- cancerous tissue. However, the observed alterations in mtCN were not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, TN stage, Lauren classification, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that mtCN was not significantly associated with the survival of GC patients. In this study, we demonstrated that mtCN was not a significant marker for predicting clinical characteristics or prognosis in GC. PMID:26107192

  4. Is mitochondrial DNA copy number associated with clinical characteristics and prognosis in gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsu; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Choon; Hwang, IlSeon; Kang, Yu-Na; Gwon, Gi-Jeong; Choi, In-Jang; Kim, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been studied in various cancers. However, the clinical value of mtDNA copy number (mtCN) alterations in gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether alterations in mtCNs might be associated with clinicopathological parameters in GC cases. mtCN was measured in 109 patients with GC by quantitative real-time PCR. Then, correlations with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. mtCN was elevated in 64.2% of GC tissues compared with paired, adjacent, non-cancerous tissue. However, the observed alterations in mtCN were not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, TN stage, Lauren classification, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that mtCN was not significantly associated with the survival of GC patients. In this study, we demonstrated that mtCN was not a significant marker for predicting clinical characteristics or prognosis in GC. PMID:25640396

  5. PREFACE: Peyresq Physics Workshops 11 and 12—'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France (17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, D.; Verdaguer, E.

    2008-08-01

    -optical and condensed matter physics. The richness of this theme spans a diverse spectrum of current topics which can be gleaned from the titles of the talks presented in these two meetings. Peyresq is a medieval Provençal village situated 100km from Nice at an altitude of 1528m. The village was founded in the early 13th century. At the beginning of the 17th century there were around 50 houses and by 1851 the village counted 208 inhabitants distributed among 53 families. Like many other villages of Haute Provence, it was almost completely deserted after the Second World War. During the 1950s the village was progressively entirely rebuilt in its original spirit and style by students of Belgian universities, mainly the Université Libre de Bruxelles, under the guidance of Mady and Toine Smets. The aim was to create a 'Foyer d'Humanisme', an international humanistic center for cultural, artistic, and scientific pursuits. The workshops were financed by the Fondation Peyresq, Foyer d'Humanisme, the Fondation Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peyresq, and OLAM (Association pour la Recherche Fondamentale, Brussels). We would like to thank all these institutions for their help and financial support. We extend our warm appreciation to Madame Mady Smets without whom none of this work could have come to light. We would like to thank all the participants for the many lively discussions that we have enjoyed and for their effort in preparing written contributions. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Tom Spicer, Joseph Tennant and Eirini Messaritaki, for their support and efficiency in preparing this volume. Finally, we thank Edgar Gunzig and Bei-Lok Hu as the main driving forces behind the organization of these workshops.

  6. High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup for the Eastern Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    use a cycled GSI system similar to the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. The scripts run a 12-hour pre-cycle in which data are assimilated from 12 hours prior up to the model initialization time. A number of different model configurations were tested for both the ER and WFF by varying the horizontal resolution on which the data assimilation was done. Three different grid configurations were run for the ER and two configurations were run for WFF for archive cases from 27 Aug 2013 through 10 Nov 2013. To quantify model performance, standard model output will be compared to the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) data. The MADIS observation data will be compared to the WRF forecasts using the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification package. In addition, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Stage IV precipitation data will be used to validate the WRF precipitation forecasts. The author will summarize the relative skill of the various WRF configurations and how each configuration behaves relative to the others, as well as determine the best model configuration for each space launch range.

  7. First account on the sedimentological, geochemical and petrophysical record of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the subsurface of onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leila, Mahmoud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The giant Cenozoic Nile Delta system in the extreme northern part of Egypt occupies the southeastern part of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and represents the most prolific gas province in Egypt with estimates more than 62 tcf of proven reserves (Niazi and Dahi, 2004). Despite the importance of the Messinian sediments in the Nile Delta hosting excellent petroleum reservoirs and seals (Dolson et al., 2001), they are still poorly studied. A multidisciplinary sedimentological, geochemical and petrophysical study is being carried out to unravel the depositional environment and tectonic setting before, during and after the important Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) period in the Eastern Mediterranean, and how this affected the eastern part of the onshore Nile Delta. The Lower Messinian Qawasim Formation consists of high to low-density turbiditic sandstones displaying several vertical stacked patterns of coarsening and fining upwards trends reflecting different pulses of sedimentation suggesting a sedimentation in a submarine fan developed at the base of shelf slope. The deeply incised valley infill, dating the Upper Messinian consists of the Abu Madi Formation made of lowstand braided and meandering fluvial sandstone interbedded with fine-grained floodplain sandstones and siltstones. The base of this unit is erosional and contains large mud clasts embedded in a fine-grained matrix. The Upper Miocene lowstand fluvial sandstones are capped by estuarine fine-grained cross laminated sandstones, siltstones/mudstones followed by an open marine mudstones of the Early Pliocene Kafr El-Sheikh Formation representing the end of the MSC and the subsequent transgression episode after the re-establishment of the connection between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Both the Qawasim and Abu Madi Formations display similar geochemical fingerprints from the clastic components. Recycled Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary and granodioritic to intermediate igneous rocks located in

  8. Nanoscale topographic pattern formation on Kr{sup +}-bombarded germanium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Perkinson, Joy C.; Madi, Charbel S.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2013-03-15

    The nanoscale pattern formation of Ge surfaces uniformly irradiated by Kr{sup +} ions was studied in a low-contamination environment at ion energies of 250 and 500 eV and at angles of 0 Degree-Sign through 80 Degree-Sign . The authors present a phase diagram of domains of pattern formation occurring as these two control parameters are varied. The results are insensitive to ion energy over the range covered by the experiments. Flat surfaces are stable from normal incidence up to an incidence angle of {theta} = 55 Degree-Sign from normal. At higher angles, the surface is linearly unstable to the formation of parallel-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is parallel to the projection of the ion beam on the surface. For {theta} {>=} 75 Degree-Sign the authors observe perpendicular-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is perpendicular to the ion beam. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those of Madi et al. for Ar{sup +}-irradiated Si but is inconsistent with those of Ziberi et al. for Kr{sup +}-irradiated Ge. The existence of a window of stability is qualitatively inconsistent with a theory based on sputter erosion [R. M. Bradley and J. M. Harper, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2390 (1988)] and qualitatively consistent with a model of ion impact-induced mass redistribution [G. Carter and V. Vishnyakov, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17647 (1996)] as well as a crater function theory incorporating both effects [S. A. Norris et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 276 (2011)]. The critical transition angle between stable and rippled surfaces occurs 10 Degree-Sign -15 Degree-Sign above the value of 45 Degree-Sign predicted by the mass redistribution model.

  9. Fleet-wide Emissions from Mobile CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H.; Thurlow, M. E.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Fung, I. Y.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    In response to regional and municipal policies, transportation agencies are increasingly integrating greenhouse gas considerations into decision making. At the local level, fuel-based methods suffer leakage, mandating a bottom-up approach based on emissions models driven by local activity data. However, high spatial and temporal resolution traffic datasets are in general scarce and subject to error. Emissions models too are based on limited data and often require inputs that are not directly measured. Here, we show that routine, on-road CO2 surface measurements can be used to improve uncertainties on both of these fronts. Using forty hours of surface concentration data collected on CA Highway 24 together with a simple atmospheric dispersion model, we simultaneously derive traffic density as a function of vehicle speed, composite vehicle parameters needed to map vehicle operation to fuel consumption, and baseline meteorological parameters such as wind speed and mixing height. We compare our results directly with traffic loop detector measurements made by California's Performance Measurement System (PeMS), with emissions predictions from EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and with weather station data included in NOAA's Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS). Using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, we measure the immediate rush-hour emissions reduction associated with congestion alleviation following the opening of the Caldecott Tunnel fourth bore. We use this example to argue that routine and distributed on-road measurements of this kind could serve as a much needed policy tool for testing the impact of traffic-related emissions reduction strategies.

  10. Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h Warm Season QPF be Improved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that numerical warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for numerous reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the numerical algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.

  11. Observation of warm, higher energy electrons transiting a double layer in a helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yung-Ta; Li, Yan; Scharer, John

    2015-11-01

    Experimental observations in MadiHeX indicate that fast electrons with substantial density fractions can be created at low helicon operating pressure. Two-temperature electron distributions including a fast (>80 eV) tail are observed in an inductive RF helicon argon plasma double layer at 0.17 mTorr Ar pressure. The fast, untrapped electrons measured downstream of the double layer have a higher temperature of 13 eV than the trapped, upstream electrons with a temperature of 4 eV. The reduction of plasma potential and density observed in the double layer region would require an upstream temperature ten times the measured 4 eV if occurring via Boltzmann ambipolar expansion. Upstream fluctuations of +/- 30% are also observed in the emissive probe measured plasma potential. Sideband frequencies have been observed at +/- 2 kHz of the driven RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, implying a beam instability effect dominantly upstream of the double layer. This can affect ion acceleration and electron temperature distribution in the region. The mechanism behind this has been explored via several plasma diagnostics tools. An RF-compensated Langmuir probe has been used to measure the electron temperatures and densities, which are cross-checked with ADAS, OES and millimeter wave IF. The EEDF in the plasma has also been profiled to understand the acceleration mechanism. A four-grid RPA and an emissive probe have been used to measure the IEDF and plasma potential. The measured IEDF has also been checked with LIF techniques.

  12. [Gene transfer system mediated by PEI-cholesterol lipopolymer with lipid microbubbles].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Nan; Mo, Hong-Ying; Chen, Jian-Hai

    2010-05-01

    The properties of polyethyleneimine-cholesterol cationic lipopolymer (PEI-Chol) as gene carries and its gene transfer efficiency in vitro with lipid microbubbles were presented in this paper. PEI-Chol lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesterol chloroformate to the amino groups of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) of 1 800. The structure and molecular weight of PEI-Chol were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and MADI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry), respectively. The average molecular weight of PEI-Chol was approximately 2 000. The gene delivery system of bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA was constructed by mixed PEI-Chol/pDNA (N/P 10:1) complexes with lipid microbubbles (2-8 microm) which were prepared by DPPC, DSPE-PEG2000 and perfluoropropane with the reverse phase evaporation technique. pEGFP-Cl (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was used as report gene to investigate the DNA condensing ability of PEI-Chol lipopolymer by agarose gel electrophoresis. And their cytotoxicity and in vitro transfer efficiency of different complexes were compared with each other in A549 and MCF-7. The results indicated PEI-Chol lipopolymer can condense plasmid DNA when N/P ratio upto 4, PEI-Chol complexes and bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complexes were nontoxic to A549 and MCF-7 when formulated at the N/P ratio of 10/1 as determined by MTT assay. This bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA delivery system provided good transfer efficiency with other desirable characteristics such as against-precipitation of plasma proteins. In conclusion, bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complex is a novel non-viral gene delivery system.

  13. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic.

  14. Integrin αvβ6 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 correlate with survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Pei-Long; Liu, Zhao; Yang, Guang-Yun; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Zhao-Yang; Chen, Yue-Guang; Zhuang, Zhuo-Nan; Xu, Ke-Sen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of integrin αvβ6 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), their association with prognostic factors and to assess their predictive role in gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expressions of integrin αvβ6 and MMP-9 in 126 specimens from patients with primary gastric carcinoma. Associations between immunohistochemical staining and various clinic pathologic variables of tissue specimens were evaluated by the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test. Expression correlation of αvβ6 and MMP-9 was assessed using bivariate correlation analysis. The patients were followed-up every 3 mo in the first two years and at least every 6 mo afterwards, with a median follow-up of 56 mo (ranging from 2 mo to 94 mo). Four different combinations of αvβ6 and MMP-9 levels (that is, both markers positive, both markers negative, αvβ6 positive with MMP-9 negative, and αvβ6 negative with MMP-9 positive) were evaluated for their relative effect on survival. The difference in survival curves was evaluated with a log-rank test. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards model analysis. RESULTS: The expressions of integrin αvβ6 and MMP-9 were investigated in 126 cases, among which 34.92% were positive for αvβ6 expression, and 42.06% for MMP-9 expression. The expression of αvβ6 was associated with Lauren type, differentiation, N stage, and TNM stage (the P values were 0.006, 0.038, 0.016, and 0.002, respectively). While MMP-9 expression was associated with differentiation, T stage, N stage, and TNM stage (the P values were 0.039, 0.014, 0.033, and 0.008, respectively). The positive correlation between αvβ6 and MMP-9 in gastric cancer was confirmed by a correlation analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with expression of αvβ6 or MMP-9 alone died earlier than those with negative expression and that patients who were both αvβ6

  15. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  16. Epstein–Barr Virus in Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinomas – Single Center Experiences in the Context of Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Genitsch, Vera; Novotny, Alexander; Seiler, Christian A.; Kröll, Dino; Walch, Axel; Langer, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas (GC) represent a distinct and well-recognized subtype of gastric cancer with a prevalence of around 10% of all GC. In contrast, EBV has not been reported to play a major role in esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and adenocarcinomas of the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ). We report our experiences on EBV in collections of gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas from two surgical centers and discuss the current state of research in this field. Tumor samples from 465 primary resected gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas (118 EAC, 73 GEJ, and 274 GC) were investigated. Presence of EBV was determined by EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBER) in situ hybridization. Results were correlated with pathologic parameters (UICC pTNM category, Her2 status, tumor grading) and survival. EBER positivity was observed in 14 cases. None of the EAC were positive for EBER. In contrast, we observed EBER positivity in 2/73 adenocarcinomas of the GEJ (2.7%) and 12/274 GC (4.4%). These were of intestinal type (seven cases) or unclassifiable (six cases), while only one case was of diffuse type according to the Lauren classification. No association between EBV and pT, pN, or tumor grading was found, neither was there a correlation with clinical outcome. None of the EBER positive cases were Her2 positive. In conclusion, EBV does not seem to play a role in the carcinogenesis of EAC. Moreover, adenocarcinomas of the GEJ show lower rates of EBV positivity compared to GC. Our data only partially correlate with previous reports from the literature. This highlights the need for further research on this distinct entity. Recent reports, however, have identified specific epigenetic and genetic alterations in EBV-associated GC, which might lead to a distinct treatment approach for this specific subtype of GC in the future. PMID:25859432

  17. Mapping Mortality and Geophysical Features During a Heat Wave in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, L.

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and duration, particularly in areas where they have occurred previously. Human mortality increases during heat waves, and that increase may vary by community due to a variety of factors including differing geophysical and built environment features. In July 2006, California experienced a statewide heat wave that was unprecedented in duration, lasting 10 days in much of the state, and longer in some areas. To explore heat wave health impacts by community, we focused on Los Angeles County, selected for its urban density and diverse social and geographic landscapes. We calculated the ratio of deaths during the heat wave period (July 15 - Aug 1) to deaths in reference days from the non-heat wave period in the same summer. The raw and empirical Bayes smoothed rate ratios were mapped by census tract (average population size approximately 5000). We then used spatial scanning procedures to identify census tract clusters of high and low mortality. Onto the heat mortality maps, we overlaid such geographic and built environment characteristics as elevation, recordings from temperature monitors, building climate zone boundaries, and air conditioning use. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential relationship between mortality and geophysical and built environment features. In the future, we will expand this analysis statewide and share our findings with local stakeholders to explore factors which may make their communities more resilient (low health impact) or vulnerable (high health impact). Ultimately, knowledge of vulnerability and resiliency factors may inform future applied research and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Authors: Lauren Joe, Daniel Smith, Svetlana Smorodinksy, Sumi Hoshiko, Martha Harnly Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health

  18. Relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan; Cao, Tao; Han, Ya-Di; Huang, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), plays an important role in the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of MGMT promoter methylation in the occurrence of gastric cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been fully clarified. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, were used to systematically search related clinical studies published in English until April 1, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk or clinicopathologic characteristics. A total of 16 studies including 1,935 patients and 1,948 control persons were included in the analysis. Our study suggested that MGMT promoter methylation frequency was associated with gastric cancer (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.13–5.61, P<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in the no lymph node metastasis group was lower than that in lymph node metastasis group, with marginal significance (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.42–1.01, P=0.05). Additionally, the methylation rate of the MGMT promoter was much lower in patients without distant metastases than in those with metastases (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.18–0.40, P<0.001). No significant association of MGMT promoter methylation with Lauren classification, tumor location, tumor invasion, or Helicobacter pylori infection was found. In conclusion, the methylation status of the MGMT promoter was related to gastric cancer risk, distant metastasis, and lymph node metastasis, which indicates that MGMT promoter methylation may play an important role in gastric cancer development. PMID:27785051

  19. Frequency and Geographical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Cotton in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. E.; Davis, R. F.; Alt, P. J.; Mullinix, B. G.; Padgett, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the geographical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia cotton fields. A total of 778 fields in 11 Georgia counties were sampled from 1 September through 15 December 1995. Four nematode genera parasitic on cotton were found in this survey: Meloidogyne spp., Rotylenchulus sp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Belonolaimus sp. Meloidogyne spp. was present in 9% to 56% of the fields in individual counties. Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 10 counties, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 6 counties, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 2 counties. From all of the samples collected for this survey, Meloidogyne spp. were found in 31% of the samples, Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 14%, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 7%, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 0.3%. Burke County had the greatest number of fields infested by at least one of these genera (67%) and the greatest number of fields above Georgia's action thresholds (38%). Laurens County had the fewest fields where these genera were present (13%), and only 3% of fields had nematode populations above threshold levels. Data from samples collected from cotton fields and submitted by county agents from 1993 through 1994 were compiled to provide historical information about nematode distribution and population density. The results from this survey show that the major nematodes damaging to cotton are not present in all counties in Georgia. Counties in which cotton has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Meloidogyne spp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops. Counties in which soybean has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Hoplolaimus sp. and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops. PMID:19277192

  20. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J.; Domínguez, Ricardo L.; de Cuéllar, Marisabel Valdez; Cruz, Carlos Balmore; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the U.S. Methods Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based and hospital-based registries. U.S. data was obtained from the NCI-SEER registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985–2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. Results In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two-thirds of cases were male, 20.5% were under age 55, and 58.5% were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n=7,871), 57.8% were male, and 28.9% were under age 55. Among the U.S. Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n=1,210), 50.3% of cases were male, and 38.1% were under age 55. Noncardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3%), among U.S. Hispanics (80.2%), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3%). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6%), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among U.S. Hispanics (54.0%). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7%), and U.S. Hispanics (69.5%), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50% of cases. Conclusions A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and U.S. Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing U.S. Hispanic population. PMID:25412859

  1. Low Expression of CDK5 and p27 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Lin, Yao; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 or p27 expression in gastric cancer are associated with overall survival. We have previously reported that tumor suppressive function of CDK5 is related to p27. The aim of this study was to investigate correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and overall survival with different CDK5/p27 expression statuses in 244 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemistry. Low CDK5 expression was detected in 93 cases (38.11%) and low p27 in 157 cases (64.34%). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.034) and Lauren's classification (P = 0.013). The expression of p27 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.012), differentiation (P = 0.003), TNM stage (P = 0.013) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Based on the combined expression of CDK5 and p27, we classified the patients into four subtypes: CDK5 Low/p27 Low (n = 69), CDK5 High/p27 Low (n = 88), CDK5 Low/p27 High (n = 24) and CDK5 High/p27 High (n = 63). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low expression was closely related to female (P = 0.026), diffuse type (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low patients displayed poorer survival in comparison with the rest of the patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. No significant overall survival difference was observed among the patients with CDK5 High and/or p27 High expression. In the multivariate analysis, CDK5 and p27 co-expression status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27326247

  2. Low Expression of CDK5 and p27 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Lin, Yao; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 or p27 expression in gastric cancer are associated with overall survival. We have previously reported that tumor suppressive function of CDK5 is related to p27. The aim of this study was to investigate correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and overall survival with different CDK5/p27 expression statuses in 244 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemistry. Low CDK5 expression was detected in 93 cases (38.11%) and low p27 in 157 cases (64.34%). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.034) and Lauren's classification (P = 0.013). The expression of p27 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.012), differentiation (P = 0.003), TNM stage (P = 0.013) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Based on the combined expression of CDK5 and p27, we classified the patients into four subtypes: CDK5 Low/p27 Low (n = 69), CDK5 High/p27 Low (n = 88), CDK5 Low/p27 High (n = 24) and CDK5 High/p27 High (n = 63). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low expression was closely related to female (P = 0.026), diffuse type (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low patients displayed poorer survival in comparison with the rest of the patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. No significant overall survival difference was observed among the patients with CDK5 High and/or p27 High expression. In the multivariate analysis, CDK5 and p27 co-expression status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27326247

  3. AGR2 is associated with gastric cancer progression and poor survival

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUN; JIN, YONGMING; XU, SHAONAN; ZHENG, JIAYIN; ZHANG, QI; WANG, YUANYU; CHEN, JINPING; HUANG, YAZENG; HE, XUJUN; ZHAO, ZHONGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) has been reported as a novel biomarker with a potential oncogenic role. However, its association with the prognosis and survival rate of gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been determined. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the expression and prognostic significance of AGR2 in patients with GC. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze AGR2 and cathepsin D (CTSD) protein expression in 436 clinicopathologically characterized GC cases and 92 noncancerous tissue samples. AGR2 and CTSD expression were both elevated in GC lesions compared with noncancerous tissues. In 204/436 (46.8%) GC patients, high expression of AGR2 was positively correlated with the expression of CTSD (r=0.577, P<0.01). Furthermore, several clinicopathological parameters were significantly associated with AGR2 expression level, including tumor size, depth of invasion and TNM stage (P<0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, it was determined that the mean survival time of patients with low levels of AGR2 expression was significantly longer than those with high ARG2 expression (in stages I, II and III; P<0.05). For stage IV disease, no significant difference in survival time was identified. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that AGR2 was an independent prognostic factor and was associated in the progression of GC. The findings of the present study indicate that AGR2 expression is significantly associated with location and size of GC, depth of invasion, TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, vessel invasion, distant metastasis, Lauren's classification, high CTSD expression and poor prognosis. Thus, AGR2 may be a novel GC marker and may present a potential therapeutic target for GC. PMID:26998125

  4. THE PRESENCE OF METASTASES IN REGIONAL LYMPH NODES IS ASSOCIATED WITH TUMOR SIZE AND DEPTH OF INVASION IN SPORADIC GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    CAMBRUZZI, Eduardo; de AZEREDO, Andreza Mariane; KRONHART, Ardala; FOLTZ, Katia Martins; ZETTLER, Cláudio Galeano; PÊGAS, Karla Lais

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric adenocarcinoma is more often found in men over 50 years in the form of an antral lesion. The tumor has heterogeneous histopathologic features and a poor prognosis (median survival of 15% in five years). Aim To estimate the relationship between the presence of nodal metastasis and other prognostic factors in sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Method Were evaluated 164 consecutive cases of gastric adenocarcinoma previously undergone gastrectomy (partial or total), without clinical evidence of distant metastasis, and determined the following variables: topography of the lesion, tumor size, Borrmann macroscopic configuration, histological grade, early or advanced lesions, Lauren histological subtype, presence of signet ring cell, degree of invasion, perigastric lymph node status, angiolymphatic/perineural invasion, and staging. Results Were found 21 early lesions (12.8%) and 143 advanced lesions (87.2%), with a predominance of lesions classified as T3 (n=99/60, 4%) and N1 (n=62/37, 8%). The nodal status was associated with depth of invasion (p<0.001) and tumor size (p<0.001). The staging was related to age (p=0.048), histological grade (p=0.003), and presence of signet ring cells (p = 0.007), angiolymphatic invasion (p = 0.001), and perineural invasion (p=0.003). Conclusion In gastric cancer, lymph node involvement, tumor size and depth of invasion are histopathological data associated with the pattern of growth/tumor spread, suggesting that a wide dissection of perigastric lymph nodes is a fundamental step in the surgical treatment of these patients. PMID:24676292

  5. Prognostic Significance of Tag SNP rs1045411 in HMGB1 of the Aggressive Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Zhao, Huadong; Wang, Nan; Ji, Gang; He, Xianli

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidences have suggested that high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) gene plays a crucial role in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HMGB1 gene on the survival of gastric cancer (GC) patients. Three tag SNPs from HMGB1 gene were selected and genotyped using Sequenom iPEX genotyping system in a cohort of 1030 GC patients (704 in training set, 326 in validation set). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier Curve were used for prognosis analysis. AG/AA genotypes of SNP rs1045411 in HMGB1 gene were significantly associated with better overall survival (OS) in a set of 704 GC patients when compared with GG genotypes (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.97, P = 0.032). This prognostic effect was verified in an independent validation set and pooled analysis (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.62–0.99, P = 0.046; HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98, P = 0.043, respectively). In stratified analysis, the protective effect of rs1045411 AG/AA genotypes was more prominent in patients with adverse strata, compared with patients with favorable strata. Furthermore, strong joint predictive effects on OS of GC patients were noted between rs1045411 genotypes and Lauren classification, differentiation, stage or adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, functional assay indicated a significant effect of rs1045411 on HMGB1 expression. Our results suggest that rs1045411 in HMGB1 is significantly associated with clinical outcomes of Chinese GC patients after surgery, especially in those with aggressive status, which warrants further validation in other ethnic populations. PMID:27116470

  6. [Atrophy in the mucosa neighboring an intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma by comparing the Sydney vs. OLGA systems].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Pablo; Hernández-Briseño, Liliana; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Ángeles-Garay, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el carcinoma gástrico ocasiona al año unas 700 000 muertes en el mundo. El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la atrofia en la mucosa vecina al adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal comparando los sistemas Sídney y OLGA. Diferencias en el rendimiento diagnóstico impulsarían el empleo de alguno. Métodos: estudiamos 28 sujetos con adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal (Lauren), que comparamos con 32 casos sin neoplasia, ambos grupos con gastrectomía total. Dos patólogos evaluaron la atrofia en el epitelio de cuerpo y antro no neoplásico con los sistemas Sídney y OLGA. Se obtuvieron la media, mediana y distribución de frecuencias por escala de medición, así como la distribución de las variables del estudio. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y los valores predictivos para cáncer gástrico gracias a dicotomizar las escalas con resultado positivo y negativo para atrofia avanzada. Resultados: veinticuatro de 28 casos con adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal mostraron atrofia avanzada con OLGA con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 77 y 85 % respectivamente. Con el sistema Sídney, 4 de 28 mostraron atrofia avanzada con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 14 y 100 % respectivamente. Conclusiones: el sistema OLGA tiene elevada sensibilidad y especificidad (77 y 85 % respectivamente) para reconocer cambios preneoplásicos en la mucosa vecina al cáncer gástrico. Empero, OLGA no mostró atrofia avanzada en adenomas foveolares con displasia de alto grado, ni en adenocarcinomas en las porciones proximales del estómago.

  7. Risk factors for lymph node metastasis in mucosal gastric cancer and re-evaluation of endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si-Hak; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Chang In; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Kim, Dong-Heon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The selection of the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with mucosal gastric cancer (MGC) remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for lymph node (LN) metastasis in MGC and reassess the role of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods We examined 1,191 MGC patients who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2005 and December 2014. We determined the clinicopathologic risk factors for LN metastasis among the MGC patients. Results Among 1,191 patients with MGC, 42 patients (3.5%) had LN metastasis. Univariate analysis indicated that age ≤ 50 years (P = 0.045), tumor invasion to the muscularis mucosa (P < 0.001), tumor size > 2 cm (P = 0.014), presence of ulceration (P = 0.01), diffuse type as per Lauren classification (P = 0.005), and undifferentiated-type histology (P = 0.001) were associated with LN metastasis. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that tumor invasion to the muscularis mucosa (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 4.909), presence of ulceration (P = 0.036; OR, 1.982), and undifferentiated-type histology (P = 0.025; OR, 4.233) were independent risk factors for LN metastasis. In particular, LN metastasis was observed in some MGC cases with indications for ESD, including absolute indications (1 of 179, 0.6%) and expanded indications (9 of 493, 1.8%). Conclusion Although MGC patients can be treated via ESD, we recommend that they undergo a more aggressive treatment strategy if they have tumor invasion to the muscularis mucosa, ulceration, or undifferentiated-type histology in the final pathology report.

  8. Role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in gastric cancer: Biological and pharmacological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene and overexpression of the HER2 protein is found in 15%-20% of patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. The degree of HER2 overexpression and amplification varies with the location of the carcinoma, with higher expression in the gastroesophageal and proximal parts compared to the distal parts of the stomach. Further, HER2 overexpression and amplification also seems to be related to the Lauren histological classification, with higher levels found in the intestinal phenotype compared to the diffuse and mixed types. The prognostic properties of HER2 overexpression and amplification are still under debate, but a large number of studies seem to indicate that HER2 is a negative prognostic factor. The usefulness of HER2 targeted therapy in gastric cancer was demonstrated in the ToGA trial, where HER2-positive patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma were randomized to receive 5-FU/capecitabine and cisplatin, either alone or in combination with trastuzumab. A statically significant gain in overall survival was seen in patients who received the combined treatment of trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Patients with a strong overexpression of the HER2 protein (IHC3+) specifically benefited from the treatment, with a median overall survival of 17.9 mo. As a consequence of the positive results of the ToGA trial, patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma are now routinely tested for HER2. The ToGA trial must be characterized as a landmark in the treatment of gastric cancer and it has paved the way for a number of new HER2 targeted compounds such as pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, lapatinib, afatinib, and dacomitinib, which are currently undergoing phase II and III clinical testing. Overall, this review will discuss the current status of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer and the future direction in

  9. Clinical Evidence for Three Distinct Gastric Cancer Subtypes: Time for a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bittoni, Alessandro; Scartozzi, Mario; Giampieri, Riccardo; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Prete, Michela Del; Pistelli, Mirco; Cecchini, Luca; Bearzi, Italo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, a new classification for gastric cancer (GC) has been proposed, based on Lauren's histology and on anatomic tumour location, identifying three subtypes of disease: type 1 (proximal non diffuse GC), type 2 (diffuse GC) and type 3 (distal non diffuse GC). Aim of our analysis was to compare clinical outcome according to different GC subtypes (1,2,3) in metastatic GC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Advanced GC pts treated with a first-line combination chemotherapy were included in our analysis. Pts were divided in three subgroups (type 1, type 2 and type 3) as previously defined. Results A total of 248 advanced GC pts were included: 45.2% belonged to type 2, 43.6% to type 3 and 11.2% to type 1. Patients received a fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy doublet or three drugs regimens including a platinum derivate and a fluoropyrimidine with the addition of an anthracycline, a taxane or mytomicin C. RR was higher in type 1 pts (RR = 46.1%) and type 3 (34,3%) compared to type 2 (20,4%), (p = 0.015). Type 2 presented a shorter PFS, median PFS = 4.2 months, compared to type 1, mPFS = 7.2 months, and type 3, mPFS = 5.9 months (p = 0.011) and also a shorter OS (p = 0.022). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that GC subtypes may be important predictors of benefit from chemotherapy in advanced GC patients. Future clinical trials should take in account these differences for a better stratification of patients. PMID:24265697

  10. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  11. Upregulation of adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) increases the tumorigenic potential of cells by activating the CREB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Il-Ju; Seo, Hyehyun; Park, Jong-Hoon; Suzuki, Hiromu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Kim, In-Hoo; Jeong, Jin Sook; Ju, Mi Ha; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Yeon-Su

    2013-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is a widely expressed membrane-associated protein in human tissues, which catalyzes the formation of cyclic adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP). However, our transcriptome analysis of gastric cancer tissue samples (NCBI GEO GSE30727) revealed that ADCY3 expression was specifically altered in cancer samples. Here we investigated the tumor-promoting effects of ADCY3 overexpression and confirmed a significant correlation between the upregulation of ADCY3 and Lauren's intestinal-type gastric cancers. ADCY3 overexpression increased cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and clonogenicity in HEK293 cells; conversely, silencing ADCY3 expression in SNU-216 cells reduced these phenotypes. Interestingly, ADCY3 overexpression increased both the mRNA level and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 by increasing the levels of cAMP and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Consistent with these findings, treatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor decreased MMP2 and MMP9 expression levels in ADCY3-overexpressing cells. Knockdown of ADCY3 expression by stable shRNA in human gastric cancer cells suppressed tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model. Thus, ADCY3 overexpression may exert its tumor-promoting effects via the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Additionally, bisulfite sequencing of the ADCY3 promoter region revealed that gene expression was reduced by hypermethylation of CpG sites, and increased by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC)-induced demethylation. Our study is the first to report an association of ADCY3 with gastric cancer as well as its tumorigenic potentials. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of ADCY3 is regulated through an epigenetic mechanism. Further study on the mechanism of ADCY3 in tumorigenesis will provide the basis as a new molecular target of gastric cancer. PMID:24113161

  12. Clinicopathological significance of claudin 4 expression in gastric carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Zhao, Junhua; Li, Ailin; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Song, Yongxi; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of claudin 4 (CLDN4) in patients with gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. This meta-analysis aims to assess the correlation between CLDN4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and assess the prognostic significance of CLDN4 in GC. Methods We searched the PubMed and Embase databases. We performed the meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) as effect values. Results Fourteen studies containing 2,106 patients with GC were analyzed. The overall analysis showed that CLDN4 expression was associated with increasing pT category, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis in patients with GC (pT3–T4 vs pT1–T2: OR =1.56, 95% CI =1.13–2.16; P<0.01; large tumor size vs small tumor size: OR =1.64, 95% CI =1.15–2.34; P<0.01; positive lymph node metastasis vs negative lymph node metastasis: OR =1.49, 95% CI =1.12–1.97; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was associated with histological differentiation (differentiated type vs undifferentiated type: OR =2.90, 95% CI =1.32–6.37; P=0.01; Lauren intestinal type vs diffuse type: OR =3.51, 95% CI =1.48–8.28; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was also strongly associated with sex and age. This meta-analysis found no significant association between CLDN4 expression and prognosis for overall survival in patients with GC (HR =0.74, 95% CI =0.43–1.27; P=0.28). Conclusion Present study indicates that aberrant CLDN4 expression plays an important role in the clinicopathological characteristics of GC. PMID:27313466

  13. The 2009 Eclipse of EE Cephei: An Educational and Collaborative Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, John; Elder, Lauren; Hopkins, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    In December 2008 Jeff Hopkins of the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory (HPO) put out a request for assistance in extracting data from images taken by the AAVSO SRO (Sonoita Research Observatory) of EE Cephei, an 11th magnitude (V) long period (5.6 years) eclipsing binary star system that was due to eclipse in January of 2009. The Hopkins Phoenix Observatory originally planned to do BVRI CCD photometry of EE Cephei for the 2009 eclipse, but equipment and logistical changes at HPO meant the EE Cephei project would not be possible. However, in the fall of 2008 Arne Henden of the AAVSO announced the availability of a remote robotic 16" telescope (the Sonoita Research Observatory) in southern Arizona for use by members of the AAVSO. Jeff Hopkins contacted Arne Henden and arrangements were made to have the EE Cephei star system imaged with BVRI filters beginning in November 2008 and running through February 2009. Image files were archived on the AAVSO web site. Soon after his initial request went out, Jeff Hopkins was contacted by John Pye from Maui Community College, who agreed to help with the project by having one of his students, Lauren Elder, examine the image files and extract EE Cephei and 3 comparison stars flux (ADU) counts for each band. The resulting data were then sent to the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory for data reduction and analysis. The project was a successful joint collaboration with 40 nights of observations for over 300 BVRI data points from 20 November 2008 to 17 February 2009. Light curves for each band as well as color indices were plotted and eclipse contact points were determined. The data were also contributed to the EE Cephei Campaign organized by Cezary Galan at the Centre for Astronomy at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (Poland). Our results are plotted along with those of several dozen other observers from around the world.

  14. Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE)-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE) resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice) further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers. PMID:20015407

  15. Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.

    2009-01-01

    The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

  16. Use of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry to Assess Land Deformation in the Nile Delta and its Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    We applied Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSInSAR) to assess land deformation (subsidence and uplift) across the entire Nile delta and its surroundings and to identify possible causes of the observed deformation. For the purpose of the present study, 100 Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR; level 0) scenes that were acquired along four tracks and covering a time span of seven years (2004 to 2010) were used. The scenes extend from the Mediterranean coast in the north to Cairo city in the south. These scenes were focused using Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage (ROI_PAC) software and the subsequent PSI processing was done using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) method. A low coherence threshold (0.2) was used to decrease the impact of vegetation-related poor coherence and decorrelation of the scenes over the investigated time span. Subsidence was observed over: (1) the Demietta Nile River branch (3 to 14 mm/yr) where it intersects the Mediterranean coastline, (2) thick (~ 40 m) Holocene sediments in lake Manzala (up to 9 mm/yr), (3) reclaimed desert areas (west of Nile Delta; up to 12 mm/yr) of high groundwater extraction, (4) along parts of a previously proposed flexure line (up to 10 mm/yr), and (5) along the eastern sections of the Mediterranean coastline (up to 15.7 mm/yr). The city of Alexandria (underlain by carbonate platform) and the terminus of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River seem to experience almost no ground movement (mean subsidence of 0.28 mm/yr and 0.74 mm/yr respectively) while the cities of Ras Elbar and Port Said (underlain by thick Holocene sediment) exhibit the highest subsidence values (up to 14 mm/yr and 8.5 mm/yr respectively). The city of Cairo has also experienced subsidence in limited areas of up to 7.8 mm/yr. High spatial correlation was also observed between the subsiding areas and the Abu Madi incised valley; the largest gas field in the Nile Delta. Most of the area undergoing subsidence in the

  17. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis for Delineating the Sedimentation Characteristic and Modeling of Nidoco Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El Deen, Ahmed; Abu El-Ata, Ahmed; El-Gendy, Nader

    2014-05-01

    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  18. The Role of Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis in the Messinian crisis at Baltim Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M.; Abu El-Ata, A. S.; El-Gendy, N. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  19. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young’s modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic

  20. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    /Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS), as well as the Kennedy Space Center ICape Canaveral Air Force Station wind tower network. The scripts provide NWS MLB and SMG with several options for setting a desirable runtime configuration of the LDIS to account for adjustments in grid spacing, domain location, choice of observational data sources, and selection of background model fields, among others. The utility of an improved LDIS will be demonstrated through postanalysis warm and cool season case studies that compare high-resolution model output with and without the ADAS analyses. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  1. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic

  2. Menstrual taboos among Havik Brahmin women: a study of ritual change.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, H E

    1992-01-01

    Field work among the Havik Brahmins in a 1 village in the Malnad area of Karnataka State, South India provides some understanding of menstrual practices in 1964, 1985, and 1987. Changes in the pollution and purity rituals which were part of their belief system lead to the replacement of religious ritual with hygiene. Women's status reflected in the change from a subordinate one with a menstrual taboos to a more urbanized one with educational opportunities and economic independence. Ethnographic background is provide on social organization, education, women's professions, ritual organization, and the reasons for change. Menstrual beliefs and practices, reproductive beliefs, menarche, and the significance of rituals are also described for 1966 and 1987. The Havik Brahmin have a patrilocal, patrilineal, and patriarchal society with joint family practices. The ideal of a nuclear family was still not predominately attained even in 1987 with 14 nuclear families out of 32 families or in 1964 with 12 out of 28. Women in 1964 supported their husbands, were not included in decision making and had little contact with the outside world. Higher education is still secondary to marriage, and frequently women spend time in college while kin seek a suitable groom. Women 40 years had primarily a 7th grade education, while only 3 40 years did not have at least a high school education. Employment now enhances a woman's marital options. Fathers still view security for their daughters in marriage. Women's religious involvement is restricted to 1 service and they are prohibited from learning sacred Vedic prayers. The village structure is based on castes, residential sites, and ritual statuses. Havik Brahmins are the highest status and their men have a ritual status of purity (maDi) or neutrality, while women during menses become polluted (muTTuceTtu). The rationale for change is the opinion that decreased ritual observance is essential to economic viability, and there are cheating rules

  3. Evaluation of c-Met, HGF, and HER-2 expressions in gastric carcinoma and their association with other clinicopathological factors

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Yetkin; Sokmensuer, Cenk; Yalcin, Suayib

    2016-01-01

    Background Met and HER-2 are proto-oncogenes encoding receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met and HER-2, respectively. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a ligand of c-Met. The frequency of c-Met, HGF, and HER-2 expressions in gastric cancer and their association with other clinicopathological factors have not been fully understood. Patients and methods Patients with stage 1–4 disease were analyzed. Expressions of c-Met, HGF, and HER-2 were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results A total of 143 patients, 97 males and 46 females, were included. C-Met scores were 3(+) in 31.5%, 2(+) in 27.3%, and 1(+) in 10.5% of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, tumor location, differentiation, Lauren classification, TNM staging, presence of distant metastasis, depth of tumor invasion (T), lymphovascular invasion, and survival between c-Met subgroups. Overall HGF positivity was 20.6%. HER-2 scores were 3(+) in 9.1%, 2(+) in 9.8%, and 1(+) in 16.1% of the patients. HER-2 overexpression was associated with better differentiation, intestinal subtype, and advanced stage. C-Met overexpressions were 84.6% in the HER-2-overexpression-positive group and 56.2% in the HER-2-overexpression-negative group. There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the high c-Met-expression-positive and -negative stage 3 and stage 4 patients and between the HGF-positive and -negative groups. The mean survival was 11.6±6.3 months in the HER-2-overexpression-positive stage 4 group and 11.9±6.8 months in the HER-2-overexpression-negative stage 4 group. There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the two groups. Conclusion c-Met was not associated with any prognostic factors in gastric cancer. HER-2 was associated with better differentiation, intestinal subtype, advanced stage, and c-Met overexpression. PMID:27703380

  4. Gastric Carcinomas in Young (Younger than 40 Years) Chinese Patients: Clinicopathology, Family History, and Postresection Survival.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Shi, Jiong; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) in young (≤40 years) Chinese patients. We aimed in this study to analyze those features along with family history and prognostic factors after resection. We retrospectively reviewed all 4671 GC resections (surgical and endoscopic) performed at our center from 2004 to 2014 and identified 152 (3.2%) consecutive young patients. Patient demographics, clinical results, family history, and endoscopic-pathological findings were analyzed along with the older (>41 years) GC controls recruited in the same study period. Clinicopathological factors related to postresection outcomes were assessed statistically. The trend of GC resections in young patients was not changed over the study period. Compared to old GCs, the young GC cohort was predominant in women, positive family history, middle gastric location, the diffuse histology type, shorter duration of symptoms, and advanced stage (pIII+pIV, 53.3%). Radical resection was carried out in 90.1% (n = 137) with a better 5-year survival rate (70.3%) than palliative surgery (0%, n = 15). There was no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics between familial GC (FGC, n = 38) and sporadic GC (SGC, n = 114) groups. Very young patients (≤ 30 years, n = 38) showed lower Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and significantly higher perineural invasion rates, compared to older (31-40 years) patients. Hp infection was more commonly seen in the Lauren's intestinal type and early pT stages (T1+T2). Independent prognostic factors for worse outcomes included higher serum CA 72-4, CA 125 levels, positive resection margin, and stage pIII-pIV tumors. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with radical resection than those without. GCs in young Chinese patients were prevalent in women with advanced stages but showed no significant differences in clinicopathology between FGC and SGC groups. High serum

  5. Gastric Carcinomas in Young (Younger than 40 Years) Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Shi, Jiong; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) in young (≤40 years) Chinese patients. We aimed in this study to analyze those features along with family history and prognostic factors after resection. We retrospectively reviewed all 4671 GC resections (surgical and endoscopic) performed at our center from 2004 to 2014 and identified 152 (3.2%) consecutive young patients. Patient demographics, clinical results, family history, and endoscopic-pathological findings were analyzed along with the older (>41 years) GC controls recruited in the same study period. Clinicopathological factors related to postresection outcomes were assessed statistically. The trend of GC resections in young patients was not changed over the study period. Compared to old GCs, the young GC cohort was predominant in women, positive family history, middle gastric location, the diffuse histology type, shorter duration of symptoms, and advanced stage (pIII+pIV, 53.3%). Radical resection was carried out in 90.1% (n = 137) with a better 5-year survival rate (70.3%) than palliative surgery (0%, n = 15). There was no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics between familial GC (FGC, n = 38) and sporadic GC (SGC, n = 114) groups. Very young patients (≤ 30 years, n = 38) showed lower Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and significantly higher perineural invasion rates, compared to older (31–40 years) patients. Hp infection was more commonly seen in the Lauren's intestinal type and early pT stages (T1+T2). Independent prognostic factors for worse outcomes included higher serum CA 72–4, CA 125 levels, positive resection margin, and stage pIII–pIV tumors. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with radical resection than those without. GCs in young Chinese patients were prevalent in women with advanced stages but showed no significant differences in clinicopathology between FGC and SGC

  6. High performance x-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan Laurens; van Breemen, Albert; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gilot, Jan; Andriessen, Ronn; Simon, Matthias; Ruetten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-10-01

    High performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current Abhishek Kumara, Date Moeta, Albert van Breemena, Santhosh Shanmugama, Jan-Laurens van der Steena, Jan Gilota, Ronn Andriessena, Matthias Simonb, Walter Ruettenb, Alexander U. Douglasb, Rob Raaijmakersc, Pawel E. Malinowskid, Kris Mynyd and Gerwin H. Gelincka,e a. Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven 5656 AE, The Netherlands b. Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands c. Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 6-8, 5684 PC Best, The Netherlands d. Department of Large Area Electronics, imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B3001, Belgium e. Applied Physics Department, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating technique with end of line processing temperature below 100°C. These photodiodes have extremely low dark leakage current density of 10-7 mA/cm2 at -2V bias with very high yield and have peak absorption around 550 nm wavelength. We combine these organic photodiodes with high mobility metal oxide semiconductor based thin film transistor arrays with high pixel resolution of 200ppi on thin plastic substrate. When combined with a typical CsI(TI) scintillator material on top, they are well suited for low dose X-ray imaging applications. The optical crosstalk is insignificant upto resolution of 200 ppi despite the fact that the photodiode layer is one continuous layer and is non-pixelated. Low processing temperatures are another key advantage since they can be fabricated on plastic substrate. This implies that we can make X-ray detectors on flexible foil. Those

  7. Expression and clinical implication of S100A12 in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Zhi; Yu, Tao; Qin, Jian; Wu, Jie; Song, Jin-Chun; Zhou, Zi-Ying; Yuan, Jing-Ping

    2016-05-01

    S100 protein family has been implicated in multiple stages of tumorigenesis and progression in which S100A12 is one of the subtypes. However, the role of S100A12 in gastric carcinoma (GC) has not been elucidated yet. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of S100A12 in GC tissues and evaluate the clinical significance of S100A12 in GC patients. S100A12 protein was detected in 207 GC and 52 paired non-cancerous mucosal tissues by immunohistochemistry, while messenger RNA (mRNA) was investigated by Oncomine database analysis. Moreover, survival analysis was performed and the correlation between S100A12 and ubiquitin-specific protease 10 (USP10) and p53 was determined. As for tumor cells, the expression of S100A12 protein and mRNA in GC was proved to be lower than that in non-cancerous mucosa tissues (p < 0.05). Clinicopathological analysis showed that S100A12 protein was negatively associated with tumor size (p = 0.004), depth of invasion (p = 0.022), tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (p = 0.018), Lauren classification (p < 0.000), and cell differentiation (p < 0.000). In contrast, a positive correlation was found between S100A12 and USP10 protein (p < 0.000). However, no relationship was detected between S100A12 and p53. Moreover, the survival analysis indicated that S100A12 protein was a favorable factor of prognosis of GC (p < 0.05). Although the expression of S100A12 in the stromal cells was detected higher than that in the tumor cells, no relationship between S100A12 protein in stromal cells and the clinicopathological features described above was found (p > 0.05). Our findings suggested that low expression of S100A12 might be served as a new marker in the tumorigenesis and progression of GC.

  8. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  9. Endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics of early gastric cancer with high microsatellite instability

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jaehoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yu, Junghwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Hogeun; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Sang In

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics of early gastric cancer (EGC) according to microsatellite instability phenotype. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a single tertiary referral center. Of 981 EGC patients surgically treated between December 2003 and October 2007, 73 consecutive EGC patients with two or more microsatellite instability (MSI) mutation [high MSI (MSI-H)] and 146 consecutive EGC patients with one or no MSI mutation (non-MSI-H) were selected. The endoscopic and clinicopathologic features were compared between the MSI-H and non-MSI-H EGC groups. RESULTS: In terms of endoscopic characteristics, MSI-H EGCs more frequently presented with elevated pattern (OR 4.38, 95% CI: 2.40-8.01, P < 0.001), moderate-to-severe atrophy in the surrounding mucosa (OR 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.47, P = 0.033), antral location (OR 3.99, 95% CI: 2.12-7.52, P < 0.001) and synchronous lesions, compared to non-MSI-H EGCs (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.07, P = 0.021). Other significant clinicopathologic characteristics of MSI-H EGC included predominance of female sex (OR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.53-4.99, P < 0.001), older age (> 70 years) (OR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.57-6.92, P = 0.002), better histologic differentiation (OR 2.35, 95% CI: 1.27-4.34, P = 0.007), intestinal type by Lauren classification (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.15-4.76, P = 0.019), absence of a signet ring cell component (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.02-5.86, P = 0.046), presence of mucinous component (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 1.27-20.17, P = 0.022), moderate-to-severe lymphoid stromal reaction (OR 3.95, 95% CI: 1.59-9.80, P = 0.003), and co-existing underlying adenoma (OR 2.66, 95% CI: 1.43-4.95, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: MSI-H EGC is associated with unique endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics including frequent presentation in protruded type, co-existing underlying adenoma, and synchronous lesions. PMID:22826622

  10. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    change in the dielectric constants exists between transversal and parallel directions. The dielectric constant shows values that coincide with the case of radial polarization of the EM field. This can be explained from the propagation path of direct waves. Since the EM field of direct waves, propagates in the upper part of the sample, the effect of polarization is almost the same in both directions as it is the case of radial polarization when the reflected method was used. During future STSMs we foresee to do further experimental work with the direct wave method (WARR) on different wood samples, in order to confirm the effect of wood anisotropy and moisture content on GPR direct wave propagation. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to COST - European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). Many thanks to the I2M, University of Bordeaux, for the valuable collaboration and hospitality during this STSM. References 1. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Ballivy G and Arliguie G (2006a) Effect of concrete moisture on radar signal amplitude. ACI Materials Journal 103 (6): 419-426. 2. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Arliguie G, Ballivy G (2006b) Ability of the direct wave of radar ground-coupled antenna for NDT of concrete structures. NDT & E International 39 (5): 400-407. 3. Tien Chinh Mai, Stephen Razafindratsima, Zoubir Mehdi Sbartaï, François Demontoux, Frédéric Bos (2015) Non-destructive evaluation of moisture content of wood material at GPR frequency. Construction and Building Materials 77 (2015) 213-217 4. Rodríguez-Abad I, Martínez-Sala R, CapuzLladró R, Díez Barra R and García-García F (2011) Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinuspinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique. Materiales de Construcción 61(301): 143-156. 5. Martínez-Sala R, Rodríguez-Abad I, del Val I (2013) Effect of

  11. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    change in the dielectric constants exists between transversal and parallel directions. The dielectric constant shows values that coincide with the case of radial polarization of the EM field. This can be explained from the propagation path of direct waves. Since the EM field of direct waves, propagates in the upper part of the sample, the effect of polarization is almost the same in both directions as it is the case of radial polarization when the reflected method was used. During future STSMs we foresee to do further experimental work with the direct wave method (WARR) on different wood samples, in order to confirm the effect of wood anisotropy and moisture content on GPR direct wave propagation. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to COST - European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). Many thanks to the I2M, University of Bordeaux, for the valuable collaboration and hospitality during this STSM. References 1. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Ballivy G and Arliguie G (2006a) Effect of concrete moisture on radar signal amplitude. ACI Materials Journal 103 (6): 419-426. 2. Sbartai ZM, Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Arliguie G, Ballivy G (2006b) Ability of the direct wave of radar ground-coupled antenna for NDT of concrete structures. NDT & E International 39 (5): 400-407. 3. Tien Chinh Mai, Stephen Razafindratsima, Zoubir Mehdi Sbartaï, François Demontoux, Frédéric Bos (2015) Non-destructive evaluation of moisture content of wood material at GPR frequency. Construction and Building Materials 77 (2015) 213-217 4. Rodríguez-Abad I, Martínez-Sala R, CapuzLladró R, Díez Barra R and García-García F (2011) Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinuspinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique. Materiales de Construcción 61(301): 143-156. 5. Martínez-Sala R, Rodríguez-Abad I, del Val I (2013) Effect of

  12. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to

  13. Gotha - the instruments of the observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the

  14. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    monitoring using PMU devices and enhanced grid analysis tools; and Initiative 3: Identifying grid automation and smart technology architecture retrofit/improvement opportunities following a systematic review approach, inclusive of increasing renewables and variable distributed generation. Each of the initiative was conducted in partnership with industry technology and equipment providers to facilitate utility deployment experiences inform decision making, assess supporting infrastructure cost considerations, showcase state of the technology, address integration hurdles with viable workarounds. For each initiative, a multi-phased approach was followed that included 1) investigative planning and review of existing state-of-the-art, 2) hands on deployment experiences and 3) process implementation considerations. Each phase of the approach allowed for mid-course corrections, process review and change to any equipment/devices to be used by the utilities. To help the island grids transform legacy infrastructure, the Wind HUI provided more systematic approaches and exposure with vendor/manufacturers, hand-on review and experience with the equipment not only from the initial planning stages but through to deployment and assessment of field performance of some of the new, remote sensing and high-resolution grid monitoring technologies. HELCO became one of the first utilities in the nation to install and operate a high resolution (WindNet) network of remote sensing devices such as radiometers and SODARs to enable a short-term ramp event forecasting capability. This utility-industry and federal government partnership produced new information on wind energy forecasting including new data additions to the NOAA MADIS database; addressed remote sensing technology performance and O&M (operations and maintenance) challenges; assessed legacy equipment compatibility issues and technology solutions; evaluated cyber-security concerns; and engaged in community outreach opportunities that will

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Recent Flood Events With Persistent High Surface Runoff From Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S.; Hakeem, K. Abdul; Raju, P. V.; Rao, V. V.; Yadav, A.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    /locations with probable flooding conditions. These thresholds were refined through iterative process by comparing with satellite data derived flood maps of 2013 and 2014 monsoon season over India. India encountered many cyclonic flood events during Oct-Dec 2013, among which Phailin, Lehar, and Madi were rated to be very severe cyclonic storm. The path and intensity of these cyclonic events was very well captured by the model and areas were marked with persistent coverage of high runoff risk/flooded area. These thresholds were used to monitor floods in Jammu Kashmir during 4-5 Sep and Odisha during 8-9 Aug, 2014. The analysis indicated the need to vary the thresholds across space considering the terrain and geographical conditions. With respect to this a sub-basin wise study was made based on terrain characteristics (slope, elevation) using Aster DEM. It was found that basins with higher elevation represent higher thresholds as compared to basins with lesser elevation. The results show very promising correlation with the satellite derived flood maps. Further refinement and optimization of thresholds, varying them spatially accounting for topographic/terrain conditions, would lead to estimation of high runoff/flood risk areas for both riverine and drainage congested areas. Use of weather forecast data (NCMWRF, (GEFS/R)), etc. would enhance the scope to develop early warning systems.

  16. Simulation of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: application to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta

    2010-05-01

    In small and shallow coastal streams, morphological changes may have a dramatic effect on tidal propagation and distortion, on hydrodynamics and, ultimately, on the transport and fate of water-borne material. Hence, the ability to simulate the morphodynamic evolution of these dynamic and complex systems can be required for water quality studies. This work aimed at implementing, validating and exploring the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D (Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004, Bertin et al., 2009) in the Aljezur stream, a small and dynamic coastal system located in south-west Portugal. Four extensive field campaigns were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to measure bathymetry, water levels, waves and currents, in both the estuary and the adjoining beach. Between the two 2009 campaigns, bathymetry was measured on a monthly basis. Data revealed significant morphological changes, including channel migration and the formation of sandbars. The morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D consists of a wave model (SWAN - Booij et al., 1999), a circulation model (ELCIRC - Zhang et al., 2004) and a sediment transport and bottom update model (SAND2D, Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004), and is controlled by a script that runs the models, manages the transfer of information between them and performs control checks. The model was shown to reproduce successfully the waves, the water levels and the velocities. Preliminary morphodynamic simulations revealed that the model is highly sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions, the parameterization of friction and the sediment transport formulation. This presentation will describe the calibration and validation of the morphodynamic modelling system and will investigate on the circumstances that can lead to the inlet closure (including wave action and river flow). Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), project MADyCOS (PTDC/ECM/66484/2006). The authors thank the developers of the

  17. Gastric Cancer Incidence Estimation in a Resource-Limited Nation: Use of Endoscopy Registry Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Crockett, Seth D.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Suazo, Lia P.; Heidt-Davis, Paris; Martin, Christopher; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    performed for each new diagnosis of gastric cancer. The ASIRs for the decade were 30.8 for males and 13.9 for females. Clinically, 60.3% of gastric cancers were Borrmann type 3 (ulcerated mass), and evidence of advanced disease with pyloric obstruction was common (35.2%). Subtypes by the Lauren classification were distributed among diffuse (56%), intestinal (34%) and indeterminate (9.9%), in subjects with available pathology (526/670). Conclusions The endoscopy procedure registry may serve as a complimentary data resource for gastric cancer incidence estimation in resource-limited nation settings wherein pathology services and cancer registries are absent. The results remain an underestimation in this setting due to the challenges of access-to-care and related factors. The methodology helps to more fully characterize the high incidence of gastric cancer in western Honduras and this region of Central America, and demonstrate the need for additional epidemiology research and interventions focused on prevention and treatment. PMID:23263776

  18. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and

  19. Essays on Commodity Prices and Macroeconomic Performance of Developing and Resources Rich Economies: Evidence from Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ferhat I.

    by the previous quarter's mark-up. Essay 3 empirically examines the determinants of the trade balance for a small oil exporting country within the context of Kazakhstan. The dominant theory by Harberger-Lauren-Metzler (HML) predicts that positive terms of trade shocks will improve the trade balance in the short run, but will fade away in the long run. I estimate cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) and vector error correction model (VECM) to study the long-run and short-run impacts on the trade balance. The results suggest that, in the long run, an increase in the terms of trade has a positive effect on the trade balance, an increase in GDP and appreciation of the real effective exchange rate have negative effect on the trade balance. In the short run, the terms of trade has a direct positive impact on the trade balance, real income and real exchange rate. On the other hand, appreciation of the currency has a negative impact on the trade balance. The error correction term, which represents the deviation from the long- run equilibrium between the trade balance, real income, terms of trade and real exchange rate, has a negative effect on the growth rate of the trade balance. These results provide further evidence to the idea that, in the long run, the HML effect not only depends on the duration of the shock, but also depends on the structure of the economy.

  20. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small, the data suggest that for miners under the age of 60, exposure to chromium is associated with the development of the intestinal rather than the diffuse type of gastric cancer. PMID:8435344

  1. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    unit ranging in thickness from approximately 20 to 80 feet. The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is identified in the subsurface throughout the New Jersey Coastal Plain southeast of its outcrop area. Sediments that overlie the Wenonah-Mount Lauren aquifer and that are subjacent to the major aquifers within the Kirkwood Formation and the Cohansey Sand are described hydrologically as a composite confining bed. These include the Navesink Formation, Red Bank Sand, Tinton Sand, Hornerstown Sand, Vincentown Formation, Manasquan Formation, Shark River Formation, and Piney Point Formation and the basal clay of the Kirkwood Formation.. The Vincentown Formation functions as n aquifer within 3 to 10 miles downdip of its outcrop area. In areas farther downdip the Vincentown Formation functions as a confining bed. The Piney Point aquifer is laterally persistent from the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain northward into parts of Burlington and Ocean Counties. The Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation can be recognized in the subsurface along coastal areas of Cape May, Atlantic, and southern Ocean Counties, but inland only as far west as the extent of the overlying confining bed. In areas west of the extent of the overlying confining bed, the Kirkwood Formation is in hydraulic connection with the overlying Cohansey Sand and younger surficial deposits and functions as an unconfined aquifer.

  2. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the

  3. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  4. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to

  5. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  6. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the

  7. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformity all the way to redshift z=1, an effect that makes galaxies more likely to be found around neighbors that are very similar (in terms of color or shape) than different kinds. Georgiana Ogrean closed the session by showing a merger between two galaxies that is not producing a strong shock front. 112: Astronomy Education for All: The 2017 Eclipse, Accessibility and NASA (by Meredith Rawls)This afternoon session kicked off with an advertisement for US-based astronomers favorite upcoming event: the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Jay Pasachoff reviewed plans for the August 21, 2017 event and pointed us to resources about choosing the best viewing site and what to expect on the momentous day. We also heard from Denise Smith, Jim Manning, and Daniel McIntosh about various NASA-funded efforts for education and outreach in the classroom and beyond. A sampling of NASA education and outreach resources compiled over several years, presented by Jim Manning #aas228 pic.twitter.com/T41gdHFoDv Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016The other two talks from this session focused on the newly-formed AAS Working Group for Accessibility and Disability and what the astronomical community can do to cultivate a more accessible culture. Speakers Jackie Monkiewicz and Lauren Gilbert described how and why inaccessibility is driving people away from the field: by requiring people with disabilities to disclose those disabilities, by maintaining inaccessible buildings and observatories, by acting inappropriately when accommodations are requested, and by not working well in advance of a course or event to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities. To learn more about what you can do to make astronomy accessible, and what efforts are already underway (including right here at AAS 228), see these resources compiled by AstroBetter.Press Conference: From Molecules to Galaxies (by Leonardo dos Santos