Science.gov

Sample records for madness picking upsets

  1. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  2. Metric Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2007-01-01

    Created for a Metric Day activity, Metric Madness is a board game for two to four players. Students review and practice metric vocabulary, measurement, and calculations by playing the game. Playing time is approximately twenty to thirty minutes.

  3. March Money Madness: The Coaches vs. the Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    College basketball's March Madness has come at a time when one prominent coach's salary has been held up for inspection. Apparently, the fact that the $1.6-million annual income of the University of Connecticut's Jim Calhoun makes him the highest-paid public employee in his state has rankled some people. Or are they more upset that he was caught…

  4. March Money Madness: The Coaches vs. the Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    College basketball's March Madness has come at a time when one prominent coach's salary has been held up for inspection. Apparently, the fact that the $1.6-million annual income of the University of Connecticut's Jim Calhoun makes him the highest-paid public employee in his state has rankled some people. Or are they more upset that he was caught…

  5. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  6. [Madness in Foucault: art and madness, madness and unreason].

    PubMed

    Providello, Guilherme Gonzaga Duarte; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    After presenting the ideas on madness and its interface with art as expressed in the writings of Michel Foucault, Peter Pál Pelbart, and Gilles Deleuze, the article explores how these authors question the relationship between art and madness. It begins with the notion that madness does not tell the truth about art, and vice versa, but that there are links between both that must be delved into if we are to engage in deeper reflection on the topic. The text problematizes the statement that madness is the absence of an oeuvre and examines how this impacts the possibility of achieving an artistic oeuvre. It further problematizes the idea of madness as excluded language, that is, the idea that madness implies not only the exclusion of the body but also the disqualification of discourse.

  7. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  8. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  9. Computer simulation of upset welding

    SciTech Connect

    Spingarn, J R; Mason, W E; Swearengen, J C

    1982-04-01

    Useful process modeling of upset welding requires contributions from metallurgy, welding engineering, thermal analysis and experimental mechanics. In this report, the significant milestones for such an effort are outlined and probable difficult areas are pointed out. Progress to date is summarized and directions for future research are offered. With regard to the computational aspects of this problem, a 2-D heat conduction computer code has been modified to incorporate electrical heating, and computations have been run for an axisymmetric problem with simple viscous material laws and d.c. electrical boundary conditions. In the experimental endeavor, the boundary conditions have been measured during the welding process, although interpretation of voltage drop measurements is not straightforward. The ranges of strain, strain rate and temperature encountered during upset welding have been measured or calculated, and the need for a unifying constitutive law is described. Finally, the possible complications of microstructure and interfaces are clarified.

  10. Single event upset in avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Taber, A. ); Normand, E. )

    1993-04-01

    Data from military/experimental flights and laboratory testing indicate that typical non radiation-hardened 64K and 256K static random access memories (SRAMs) can experience a significant soft upset rate at aircraft altitudes due to energetic neutrons created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that error detection and correction (EDAC) circuitry be considered for all avionics designs containing large amounts of semi-conductor memory.

  11. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Upset provision. 403.16 Section 403.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision....

  12. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Upset provision. 403.16 Section 403.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision....

  13. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    NPD; Sphingomyelinase deficiency; Lipid storage disorder - Niemann-Pick disease; Lysosomal storage disease - Niemann-Pick ... cannot properly break down cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This leads to too much cholesterol in the ...

  14. Transient upset models in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Essential factors for the design of transient upset monitors for computers are discussed. The upset is a system level event that is software dependent. It can occur in the program flow, the opcode set, the opcode address domain, the read address domain, and the write address domain. Most upsets are in the program flow. It is shown that simple, external monitors functioning transparently relative to the system operations can be built if a detailed accounting is made of the characteristics of the faults that can happen. Sample applications are provided for different states of the Z-80 and 8085 based system.

  15. Single-event upset in advanced commercial power PC microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, F.; Farmanesh, F.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    Single-event upset from heavy ions in measured for advanced commercial microprocessors, comparing upset sensitivity in registers and d-cache for several generations of devices. Multiple-bit upsets and asymmetry in registers upset cross sections are also discussed.

  16. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  17. Mads.jl

    SciTech Connect

    Vesselinov, Velimir; O'Malley, Daniel; Lin, Youzuo; Vesselinova, Neda

    2016-07-01

    Mads.jl (Model analysis and decision support in Julia) is a code that streamlines the process of using data and models for analysis and decision support. It is based on another open-source code developed at LANL and written in C/C++ (MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov; LA-CC-11- 035). Mads.jl can work with external models of arbitrary complexity as well as built-in models of flow and transport in porous media. It enables a number of data- and model-based analyses including model calibration, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and decision analysis. The code also can use a series of alternative adaptive computational techniques for Bayesian sampling, Monte Carlo, and Bayesian Information-Gap Decision Theory. The code is implemented in the Julia programming language, and has high-performance (parallel) and memory management capabilities. The code uses a series of third party modules developed by others. The code development will also include contributions to the existing third party modules written in Julia; this contributions will be important for the efficient implementation of the algorithm used by Mads.jl. The code also uses a series of LANL developed modules that are developed by Dan O'Malley; these modules will be also a part of the Mads.jl release. Mads.jl will be released under GPL V3 license. The code will be distributed as a Git repo at gitlab.com and github.com. Mads.jl manual and documentation will be posted at madsjulia.lanl.gov.

  18. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... being operated in a prudent and workman-like manner and in compliance with applicable operation...

  19. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... being operated in a prudent and workman-like manner and in compliance with applicable operation...

  20. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... being operated in a prudent and workman-like manner and in compliance with applicable operation...

  1. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  2. MAD phasing with krypton.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ellis, P; Kresge, N; Soltis, S M

    2001-02-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of Kr-edge MAD on frozen crystals as a routine method for structure determination are reported. Approximately 50% of protein crystals can be successfully derivatized by pressurization with the noble gases xenon or krypton. While Xe has produced many useful derivatives for MIR phasing over the last several years, the Xe edges (K edge = 34.6 keV, L(I) = 5.5 keV) are not easily accessible for MAD studies. As the Kr K edge (14.3 keV) is accessible on most MAD beamlines, Kr derivatization provides the additional opportunity to conduct a MAD experiment and obtain phases using only a single crystal. This paper describes the phasing of two proteins using Kr MAD: the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin (Mb) from sperm whale (Physeter catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (Haliotis fulgens). Three-wavelength data were collected at SSRL beamline 9-2 from crystals of Mb and SP18 incubated in 2.76 MPa of Kr gas for 2 min, depressurized and then flash-frozen in a stream of nitrogen gas at 100 K. MAD phases were calculated using the program SHARP and the resulting density improved with wARP. The final maps for both Mb and SP18 were of excellent quality.

  3. 13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp Picking Shaker (right) Photograph taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  4. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  5. Envelope Protection and Recovery Guidance for Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John; Shish, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The slides are an overview and summary of past and current research projects in the field of envelope protection, upset prevention and upset recovery, with the aim to avoid loss of control accidents and improve safety in air transportation.

  6. Single-event upset in advanced PowerPC microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, F.; Swift, G. M.; Farmanesh, F.; Millward, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Proton and heavy-ion single-event upset susceptibility has been measured for the MotorolaPowerPC7400. The results show that this advanced device has low upset susceptibility, despite the scaling and design advances.

  7. MAD - Monitoring ALICE Dataflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Grigoras, C.; Wegrzynek, A.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Following a successful Run 1, which ended in February 2013, the ALICE data acquisition (DAQ) entered a consolidation phase to prepare for Run 2 which will start in the beginning of 2015. A new software tool has been developed by the data acquisition project to improve the monitoring of the experiment's dataflow, from the data readout in the DAQ farm up to its shipment to CERN's main computer centre. This software, called ALICE MAD (Monitoring ALICE Dataflow), uses the MonALISA framework as core module to gather, process, aggregate and distribute monitoring values from the different processes running in the distributed DAQ farm. Data are not only pulled from the data sources to MAD but can also be pushed by dedicated data collectors or the data source processes. A large set of monitored metrics (from the backpressure status on the readout links to event counters in each of the DAQ nodes and aggregated data rates for the whole data acquisition) is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the DAQ status. MAD also injects alarms in the Orthos alarm system whenever abnormal conditions are detected. The MAD web-based GUI uses WebSockets to provide dynamic and on-time status displays for the ALICE shift crew. Designed as a widget-based system, MAD supports an easy integration of new visualization blocks and also customization of the information displayed to the shift crew based on the ALICE activities.

  8. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  9. Empirical Modeling Of Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Soli, George A.; Thieberger, Peter; Smith, Stephen L.; Atwood, Gregory E.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental study presents examples of empirical modeling of single-event upset in negatively-doped-source/drain metal-oxide-semiconductor static random-access memory cells. Data supports adoption of simplified worst-case model in which cross sectionof SEU by ion above threshold energy equals area of memory cell.

  10. New Mode For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Soli, George A.; Lo, Roger Y.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents theory and experimental data regarding newly discovered mode for single-event upsets, (SEU's) in complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor, static random-access memories, CMOS SRAM's. SEU cross sections larger than those expected from previously known modes given rise to speculation regarding additional mode, and subsequent cross-section measurements appear to confirm speculation.

  11. Empirical Modeling Of Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Soli, George A.; Thieberger, Peter; Smith, Stephen L.; Atwood, Gregory E.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental study presents examples of empirical modeling of single-event upset in negatively-doped-source/drain metal-oxide-semiconductor static random-access memory cells. Data supports adoption of simplified worst-case model in which cross sectionof SEU by ion above threshold energy equals area of memory cell.

  12. Skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  13. Madness as disability.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  15. Resistance upset welding for vessel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state resistance upset welding has been successfully applied to fabrication of small vessels. The process has advantages compared with the fusion welding processes currently used to join the two halves of such vessels. These advantages result from the improved metallurgical properties of the weld zone and the simplicity of the welding process. Spherical and cylindrical shapes have been fabricated using the upset welding process. Nondestructive and destructive tests have shown excellent weld strength. Storage tests have demonstrated long term compatibility of the welds for cylindrical parts made from 304L stainless steel that have been in storage for eight years. Spherical vessels and reinforced desip vessels made from forged 21-6-9 stainless steel have been prepared for storage.

  16. Predicting transient upset in gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, R.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Scherr, S.

    1987-12-01

    A simulation program for predicting dose rate upset has been adapted from the Power Analysis for Integrated Circuits program (PANIC). The program provides detailed analysis on the V/sub CC/V/sub SS/ difference at any location within the array as well as the amount of photocurrent being collected, as a function of design. The simulation has been compared to experiment for a specific design and was found to correlate to within 20% at 5 volts.

  17. Studies Of Single-Event-Upset Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents latest in series of investigations of "soft" bit errors known as single-event upsets (SEU). In this investigation, SEU response of low-power, Schottky-diode-clamped, transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) static random-access memory (RAM) observed during irradiation by Br and O ions in ranges of 100 to 240 and 20 to 100 MeV, respectively. Experimental data complete verification of computer model used to simulate SEU in this circuit.

  18. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  19. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  20. Proton induced upsets in the low altitude polar orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, L.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Daly, E. ); Ward, J. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report on observations of single event upsets occurring in large dynamic NMOS and static CMOs memories on-board the low altitude, polar orbiting UOSAT-2 satellite. The strong localization of these upsets to the South Atlantic region leads to the conclusion that the majority of upsets in these devices are caused by nuclear reactions involving energetic radiation-belt protons encouraged in the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  1. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    PubMed

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  2. Screening Madness in American Culture.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    This two-step argument first establishes that the majority of recent American films dealing with mental illness draw on a traditional iconography of madness as it has been established over the centuries in Western culture. In this vocabulary of images, the mad are typically seen as wise fools, as dangerous villains or as gifted geniuses. The author then argues that some of these new films add a fourth category in which the mad are defined as normal and the person with autism as the embodiment of this normalcy. A close examination of the films then suggests that high functioning autism has become the embodiment of America's current cultural condition.

  3. Single Event Upset Behavior of CMOS Static RAM Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Jeppson, Kjell O.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1993-01-01

    An improved state-space analysis of the CMOS static RAM cell is presented. Introducing theconcept of the dividing line, the critical charge for heavy-ion-induced upset of memory cells can becalculated considering symmetrical as well as asymmetrical capacitive loads. From the criticalcharge, the upset-rate per bit-day for static RAMs can be estimated.

  4. Rice MADS6 interacts with the floral homeotic genes SUPERWOMAN1, MADS3, MADS58, MADS13, and DROOPING LEAF in specifying floral organ identities and meristem fate.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Liang, Wanqi; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Lu; Yin, Changsong; Xu, Jie; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-07-01

    AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes play essential roles in flower development, but whether and how they work with floral organ identity genes remain less understood. Here, we describe interactions of the rice (Oryza sativa) AGL6 gene MADS6 with other rice floral homeotic genes in flower development. Genetic analyses revealed that MADS6 specifies the identity of the three inner whorls and floral meristem determinacy redundantly with SUPERWOMAN1/MADS16 (B-gene) or MADS3 (C-gene). MADS6 was shown to define carpel/ovule development and floral determinacy by interacting with MADS13 (D-gene) and control the palea and floral meristem identities together with the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF. Expression analyses revealed that the transcript levels of six B-, C-, and E-class genes were reduced in mads6-1 at the early flower developmental stage, suggesting that MADS6 is a key regulator of early flower development. Moreover, MADS6 can directly bind to a putative regulatory motif on MADS58 (C-gene), and mads6-1 mads58 displayed phenotypes similar to that of mads6-1. These results suggest that MADS6 is a key player in specifying flower development via interacting with other floral homeotic genes in rice, thus providing new insights into the mechanism by which flower development is controlled.

  5. Performance analysis of a generalized upset detection procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blough, Douglas M.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for upset detection in complex systems, called the data block capture and analysis upset monitoring process is described and analyzed. The process consists of repeatedly recording a fixed amount of data from a set of predetermined observation lines of the system being monitored (i.e., capturing a block of data), and then analyzing the captured block in an attempt to determine whether the system is functioning correctly. The algorithm which analyzes the data blocks can be characterized in terms of the amount of time it requires to examine a given length data block to ascertain the existence of features/conditions that have been predetermined to characterize the upset-free behavior of the system. The performance of linear, quadratic, and logarithmic data analysis algorithms is rigorously characterized in terms of three performance measures: (1) the probability of correctly detecting an upset; (2) the expected number of false alarms; and (3) the expected latency in detecting upsets.

  6. Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Nina; Ferrás, Cristina; Kern, David M.; Logarinho, Elsa; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 before mitosis. Tpr coimmunoprecipitated with Mad1 and Mad2 (hereafter designated as Tpr/Mad1/Mad2 or TM2 complex) during interphase and mitosis, and is required for Mad1–c-Mad2 recruitment to NPCs. Interestingly, Tpr was normally undetectable at kinetochores and dispensable for Mad1, but not for Mad2, kinetochore localization, which suggests that SAC robustness depends on Mad2 levels at kinetochores. Protein half-life measurements demonstrate that Tpr stabilizes Mad1 and Mad2, ensuring normal Mad1–c-Mad2 production in an mRNA- and kinetochore-independent manner. Overexpression of GFP-Mad2 restored normal SAC response and Mad2 kinetochore levels in Tpr-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that Tpr might spatially regulate SAC proteostasis through the SUMO-isopeptidases SENP1 and SENP2 at NPCs. Thus, Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response. PMID:24344181

  7. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  8. Insights into Mad2 Regulation in the Spindle Checkpoint Revealed by the Crystal Structure of the Symmetric Mad2 Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Maojun; Li, Bing; Liu, Chyong-Jy; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Rizo, Josep; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2008-08-20

    In response to misaligned sister chromatids during mitosis, the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) through binding to its mitotic activator Cdc20, thus delaying anaphase onset. Mad1, an upstream regulator of Mad2, forms a tight core complex with Mad2 and facilitates Mad2 binding to Cdc20. In the absence of its binding proteins, free Mad2 has two natively folded conformers, termed N1-Mad2/open-Mad2 (O-Mad2) and N2-Mad2/closed Mad2 (C-Mad2), with C-Mad2 being more active in APC/CCdc20 inhibition. Here, we show that whereas O-Mad2 is monomeric, C-Mad2 forms either symmetric C-Mad2-C-Mad2 (C-C) or asymmetric O-Mad2-C-Mad2 (O-C) dimers. We also report the crystal structure of the symmetric C-C Mad2 dimer, revealing the basis for the ability of unliganded C-Mad2, but not O-Mad2 or liganded C-Mad2, to form symmetric dimers. A Mad2 mutant that predominantly forms the C-C dimer is functional in vitro and in living cells. Finally, the Mad1-Mad2 core complex facilitates the conversion of O-Mad2 to C-Mad2 in vitro. Collectively, our results establish the existence of a symmetric Mad2 dimer and provide insights into Mad1-assisted conformational activation of Mad2 in the spindle checkpoint.

  9. New Developments in MadGraph/MadEvent

    SciTech Connect

    Alwall, Johan; Artoisenet, Pierre; de Visscher, Simon; Duhr, Claude; Frederix, Rikkert; Herquet, Michel; Mattelaer, Olivier; /IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve

    2011-11-08

    We here present some recent developments of MadGraph/MadEvent since the latest published version, 4.0. These developments include: Jet matching with Pythia parton showers for both Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model processes, decay chain functionality, decay width calculation and decay simulation, process generation for the Grid, a package for calculation of quarkonium amplitudes, calculation of Matrix Element weights for experimental events, automatic dipole subtraction for next-to-leading order calculations, and an interface to FeynRules, a package for automatic calculation of Feynman rules and model files from the Lagrangian of any New Physics model.

  10. Instrumented Pick Detects Coal/Rock Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Erkes, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumented pick installed on cutting drum of coal shearer for longwall mining measures cutting force with strain-gage-bridge load cell. Force signal transmitted to remote recorder. Transmitter located in base of pick assembly. Antenna located in shadow of rotating pick. Changes in characteristics of force signals from pick used to determine whether pick is cutting coal or rock.

  11. The upset machine and furnace in bay 24 of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The upset machine and furnace in bay 24 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Testing Electronic Devices for Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report prepared describes equipment and summarizes both pretest and onsite procedures for testing of digital electronic devices for susceptibility to single-event upset. Term "single-event upset" denotes variety of temporary or permanent bit flips or latchup induced by single particles of ionizing radiation. Vacuum chamber houses device under test while exposed to ion beam. Vacuum chamber and associated equipment must be brought to ion-beam facility for test.

  13. Angular and Energy Dependence of Proton Upset in Optocouplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.; Swift, G. M.; Guertin, S.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2000-01-01

    Proton upset effects in optocouplers were reported by LaBel, et al. that showed an unexpected increase in cross section for incident angles above 80 degrees. Although it appeared that the angular dependence was related to direct ionization from protons, the angular dependence was weaker than expected from basic geometrical arguments using a shallow charge collection depth. Later work showed that the angular dependence of proton upset observed in the earlier studies at a single energy could be explained by considering the distribution of proton recoil energies along with the assumption of a deeper charge collection depth, which was consistent with upset tests from heavy ions. However, an experimental test of the underlying assumptions in the latter work has yet to be done. Protons in space not only arrive over a wide range of incident angles, but also involve a distribution of proton energies. It is necessary to understand both the angular dependence and the dependence of proton upset on energy in order to determine how optocouplers will respond in space. If the angular dependence only occurs for extreme angles of incidence, it will have little impact on the overall cross section because of the narrow acceptance angle. The present work examines mechanisms for proton upset in optocouplers in more detail, investigating the energy dependence and the effects of different load conditions. A model for proton upset is developed, along with a laboratory screening method to determine whether direct ionization is significant for specific device types.

  14. Ultrafast optomechanical pulse picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienfein, Nikolai; Holzberger, Simon; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art optical switches for coupling pulses into and/or out of resonators are based on either the electro-optic or the acousto-optic effect in transmissive elements. In high-power applications, the damage threshold and other nonlinear and thermal effects in these elements impede further improvements in pulse energy, duration, and average power. We propose a new optomechanical switching concept which is based solely on reflective elements and is suitable for switching times down to the ten-nanosecond range. To this end, an isolated section of a beam path is moved in a system comprising mirrors rotating at a high angular velocity and stationary imaging mirrors, without affecting the propagation of the beam thereafter. We discuss three variants of the concept and exemplify practical parameters for its application in regenerative amplifiers and stack-and-dump enhancement cavities. We find that optomechanical pulse picking has the potential to achieve switching rates of up to a few tens of kilohertz while supporting pulse energies of up to several joules.

  15. ["Imperial madness" - truth or legend?].

    PubMed

    V Zerssen, D

    2011-03-01

    The notion of "imperial madness" was coined in the historical literature and belles-lettres of the 19th century. Around that time up to the first quarter of the 20th century, it was adopted by a few German psychiatrists. Two of them viewed "imperial madness" as ordinary forms of insanity which became excessive only due to reactions of the social environment. Another one, however, classified it as one of "mental borderland states" in between insanity and normality, although he conceived the final stage of the disorder as a paranoid one. In agreement with the historians he postulated that "imperial madness" resulted from unlimited power of predisposed rulers. In recent times the whole concept of "imperial madness" was referred to the realm of legends by historians of antiquity and other historically interested authors. Yet the existence of the phenomenon cannot be denied. Despite its rarity it has played and is still playing an important role with often catastrophic consequences in various cultures all over the world. Therefore, psychiatrists and other physicians as well as clinical psychologists should be acquainted with it. From a modern point of view, it is not a paranoid disorder but rather a syndrome of addiction-like behavioural excesses representing an intensification of a Hybris syndrome as described by Anglo-Saxon psychiatrists. According to the present authors' view, it should be classified nosologically as a chronic adjustment disorder. In this case, the underlying stresses need to be extended to situations of temptation (here: the temptation to abuse almost unlimited power).

  16. Creativity, the Arts, and Madness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    An historical review of the alleged association between creativity and madness is followed by highlights from recent research in psychiatry and psychology that address this relationship. The nature of this link is explored from the perspective of several disciplines, and implications for the creative process in gifted education are discussed.…

  17. New mechanism for upset of electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Patterson, Paull Edward; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2004-03-01

    For many decades, engineers and scientists have studied the effects of high power microwaves (HPM) on electronics. These studies usually focus on means of delivering energy to upset electronic equipment and ways to protect equipment from HPM. The motivation for these studies is to develop the knowledge necessary either to cause disruption or to protect electronics from disruption. Since electronic circuits must absorb sufficient energy to fail and the source used to deliver this energy is far away from the electronic circuit, the source must emit a large quantity of energy. In free space, for example, as the distance between the source and the target increases, the source energy must increase by the square of distance. The HPM community has dedicated substantial resources to the development of higher energy sources as a result. Recently, members of the HPM community suggested a new disruption mechanism that could potentially cause system disruptions at much lower energy levels. The new mechanism, based on nonlinear dynamics, requires an expanded theory of circuit operation. This report summarizes an investigation of electronic circuit nonlinear behavior as it applies to inductor-resistor-diode circuits (known as the Linsay circuit) and phased-locked-loops. With the improvement in computing power and the need to model circuit behavior with greater precision, the nonlinear effects of circuit has become very important. In addition, every integrated circuit has as part of its design a protective circuit. These protective circuits use some variation of semiconductor junctions that can interact with parasitic components, present in every real system. Hence, the protective circuit can behave as a Linsay circuit. Although the nonlinear behavior is understandable, it is difficult to model accurately. Many researchers have used classical diode models successfully to show nonlinear effects within predicted regions of operation. However, these models do not accurately predict

  18. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  19. Neuroendocrine disruption: more than hormones are upset.

    PubMed

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  20. [The madness of "The Quixote"].

    PubMed

    Peña, S; Lillo, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this fiction psychiatric article, is to take a psychiatric look to El Quijote and to determine his strange and fascinating madness. His symptoms are analyzed as those of any patient and the conclusion is that he had a pre senile paranoia. This diagnosis, that gratifies clinicians curiosity, says nothing about the charm of his unusual mental profile or the captivating fascination of his nobility and poetry.

  1. MAD for visual tracker fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Existing tracking methods vary strongly in their approach and therefore have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, a single tracking algorithm may be good at handling variations in illumination, but does not cope well with deformation. Hence, their failures can occur on entirely different time intervals on the same sequence. One possible solution for overcoming limitations of a single tracker and for benefitting from individual strengths, is to run a set of tracking algorithms in parallel and fuse their outputs. But in general, tracking algorithms are not designed to receive feedback from a higher level fusion strategy or require a high degree of integration between individual levels. Towards this end, we introduce a fusion strategy serving the purpose of online single object tracking, for which no knowledge about individual tracker characteristics is needed. The key idea is to combine several independent and heterogeneous tracking approaches and to robustly identify an outlier subset based on the "Median Absolute Deviations" (MAD) measure. The MAD fusion strategy is very generic and only requires frame-based object bounding boxes as input. Thus, it can work with arbitrary tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the MAD fusion strategy can also be applied for combining several instances of the same tracker to form a more robust ensemble for tracking an object. The evaluation is done on public available datasets. With a set of heterogeneous, commonly used trackers we show that the proposed MAD fusion strategy improves the tracking results in comparison to a classical combination of parallel trackers and that the tracker ensemble helps to deal with the initialization uncertainty of a single tracker.

  2. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  3. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  4. Multiple single event upsets in CMOS static rams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple upset errors during ground tests can contaminate the data and lead to error cross sections which are too high. In space, multiple errors may produce higher upsets than predicted and if they occur in single words they can defeat error detection and correction hardware. This investigation involves data which were taken during an experimental study of dose imprint effects in static memories. The results show that multiple errors occurred mainly for heavy ions with high linear energy transfers and with the majority of these in the soft upset sections of the dose-imprinted memory samples. The percentages of the total number of errors which were singles, doubles, and triplets, were determined as a function of LET, dose, and soft or hard section of the devices. The experimental observations are compared to the predictions of simple binomial statistics.

  5. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Single-Event Upsets Caused by High-Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy secondary ions do not significantly alter device responses. Conclusion that external reaction products cause no significant alteration of single-event-upset response based on comparison of data obtained from both lidded and unlidded devices and for proton beams impinging at angles ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees with respect to chip face. Study also found single-event-upset cross section increases only modestly as proton energy increased to 590 MeV, characteristic of maximum energies expected in belts of trapped protons surrounding Earth and Jupiter.

  7. Investigation for single-event upset in MSI devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, J. P.; Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that low-power TTL, standard TTL, low-power Schottky, and Schottky devices are all subject to upset by heavy ions. Low-power Schottky was the most sensitive of the device technologies tested. No evidence was found to correlate sensitivity to cosmic rays with any particular device manufacturer. The probability of upset of the logic devices is comparable to that of RAM's on a per-flip-flop basis, based on RAM data obtained by Kolasinski et al. (1979). The testing was performed by subjecting the devices to 120 MeV krypton ions from a cyclotron.

  8. Predicting Proton-Induced Single Event Upsets Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Robert Andrew

    Microelectronic devices are susceptible to single event effects in some space radiation environments. A traversal by a single energetic particle that leads to a change in the information stored on a single memory element is known as a single event upset. The cross section for producing an upset can vary with the angle of incidence of the proton, depending on the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the critical charge. Satellites encounter a high proton flux region when they traverse the inner radiation belts in space. The goal of this research was to develop an algorithm for predicting proton-induced memory upset rates for orbits that cross these belts that includes the angular variations in the upset cross section. This required extending an existing Monte-Carlo code that simulates proton -induced spallation reactions in silicon to be capable of handling protons incident at any angle of incidence. These codes were used to predict upset cross sections. The radiation environment was modeled as a set of monoenergetic omnidirectional proton beams where the relative flux at each energy was predicted by AP8. The shielding that surrounds a device was assumed to be a six sided shell. Protons that traverse the shell will enter the device with a new energy. A shielding code was developed that translated each omnidirectional exposure into a new spectrum of energies. Each spectrum was used as input into the Monte-Carlo code which determined the angle-average upset cross section for that incident proton energy (i.e., the proton's energy before traversing the shielding). The upset rate was predicted from the cross section predictions and the flux prediction of AP8. Applying the codes to specific devices requires knowledge of the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the critical charge, i.e., the threshold energy that must be deposited in the sensitive volume to upset the device. These parameters were determined for four devices flown as part of the Microelectronic Package

  9. Frequency Dependence of Single-Event Upset in Highly Advanced PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; White, Mark; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions were measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes at three frequencies of 500, 1066 and 1600 MHz. Frequency dependence of single-event upsets is discussed. The results of our studies suggest the single-event upset in registers and D-Cache tend to increase with frequency. This might have important implications for the overall single-event upset trend as technology moves toward higher frequencies.

  10. [Women and madness in the Eneid].

    PubMed

    Totola, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    The article presents female cases of madness in Latin Vergilian Literature, comparing the Greek Dyonisian divine possession of the Maenads and Bacchae with the madness of Dido and Amata. Transcultural psychiatry is here proposed as a useful tool for reading the descriptions of the Aeneid - to try to understand every kind of world where barriers disappear between visible and invisible.

  11. The madness of Gerard de Nerval.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the madness of Gerard de Nerval, the nineteenth-century French writer. It looks at his account of mental disturbance, how he responded to the psychiatric profession and how he reacted to being diagnosed as insane. It considers his autobiographical novella of madness, Aurelia, which he began at the suggestion of his alienist, Dr Emile Blanche, and while he was still an asylum inmate. Nerval's story raises important questions about the nature of madness. Is it, as he contended, a mystical experience revealing truths about spiritual worlds inaccessible to the 'sane'? Does psychiatry fail to understand it and inappropriately reduce it to the categories of scientific reason? Or are such notions of the spiritual value of madness guilty of the charge that they romanticise insanity? Do they make extravagant claims for an experience that is often disturbing and debilitating? What is the relationship between madness and recovery? Should an individual try to forget their experience of mental disturbance once they recover, or should they examine what the event reveals about themselves? Can the language of madness be decoded to unveil profound truths as Carl Jung and R.D. Laing have suggested, or is it, as the psychiatrist German Berrios maintains, merely a series of 'empty speech acts', signifying nothing? And finally, how does one avoid writing about madness, and instead write madness?

  12. Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup; Soli, George A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

    1992-01-01

    Microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) is opto/electro/mechanical apparatus for nondestructive testing of integrated memory circuits, logic circuits, and other microelectronic devices. Multipurpose diagnostic system used to determine ultrafast time response, leakage, latchup, and electrical overstress. Used to simulate some of effects of heavy ions accelerated to high energies to determine susceptibility of digital device to single-event upsets.

  13. Electrical upsetting of metal sheet forms weld edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherba, E. S.

    1966-01-01

    Electric gathering of sheet stock edges forms metal sheets in the shape of gore sections with heavier edge areas that can be welded without loss of strength. The edges are gathered by progressive resistance heating and upsetting, and are formed automatically. This process avoids disturbance of the metals internal structure.

  14. Modeling and experimental verification of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, T. N.; Attia, J. O.; Kumar, A. A.; Tang, T. S.; Lindner, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed and the results obtained at the Laboratory for Radiation Studies, Prairie View A&M University and Texas A&I University, on the problem of Single Events Upsets, the various schemes employed to limit them and the effects they have on the reliability and fault tolerance at the systems level, such as robotic systems are reviewed.

  15. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  16. Pick a Number ... Any Number?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.; Price, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    A recent classroom revelation caused us to reconsider the adequacy of the instructions offered in our textbooks for one of our most elementary quantitative methods. Specifically, we found that many students were mystified concerning how to pick an initial objective function value when plotting an isoprofit line in order to graphically solve a…

  17. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  18. Elizabethan madness: on London's stage.

    PubMed

    Dalby, J T

    1997-12-01

    During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a renaissance of both literary and political history occurred. The stage was transformed from primitive echoes of the morality plays to a vibrant and diverse exploration of human endeavor and man's place in the universe. The titanic literary figure of Shakespeare today veils a group of friends and challengers whose pens strove for the same goal. The depiction of madness was ubiquitous during plays of this time and reflection on the views of this group of men gives us a more reliable insight into mental illness then and today.

  19. Madness Decolonized?: Madness as Transnational Identity in Gail Hornstein's Agnes's Jacket.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-02-13

    The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood. This rhetoric is augmented by a model in which the mad comprise a diaspora without an origin, coalescing into a single transnational community. The mad are also depicted as persons displaced from their metaphorical homeland, the "inner" world "colonized" by the psychiatric regime. There are a number of difficulties with Hornstein's rhetoric, however. Her "ethnicity-and-rights" response to the oppression of the mad is symptomatic of Western parochialism, while her proposed transmutation of putative psychopathology from limit upon identity to parameter of successful identity is open to contestation. Moreover, unless one accepts Hornstein's porous vision of mad identity, her self-ascribed insider status in relation to the mad community may present a problematic "re-colonization" of mad experience.

  20. Mad2 phosphorylation regulates its association with Mad1 and the APC/C

    PubMed Central

    Wassmann, Katja; Liberal, Vasco; Benezra, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Improper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the kinetochores of paired sister chromatids in mitosis is monitored by a checkpoint that leads to an arrest in early metaphase. This arrest requires the inhibitory association of Mad2 with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). It is not known how the association of Mad2 with the kinetochore and the APC/C is regulated in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that human Mad2 is modified through phosphorylation on multiple serine residues in vivo in a cell cycle dependent manner and that only unphosphorylated Mad2 interacts with Mad1 or the APC/C in vivo. A Mad2 mutant containing serine to aspartic acid mutations mimicking the C-terminal phosphorylation events fails to interact with Mad1 or the APC/C and acts as a dominant-negative antagonist of wild-type Mad2. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of Mad2 regulates its checkpoint activity by modulating its association with Mad1 and the APC/C. PMID:12574116

  1. RH1020 Single Event Clock Upset Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Wang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the testing and analysis of "single event clock upset' in the RH1020. Also included are SEU-rate predictions and design recommendations for risk analysis and reduction. The subject of "upsets" in the RH1020 is best understood by using a model consisting of a global clock buffer and a D-type flip-flop as the basic memory unit. The RH1020 is built on the ACT 1 family architecture. As such, it has one low-skew global clock buffer with a TTL-level input threshold that is accessed via a single dedicated pin. The clock signal is driven to full CMOS levels, buffered, and sent to individual row buffers with one buffer per channel. For low-skew performance, the outputs of all of the RH1020 row buffers are shorted together via metal lines, as is done in the A1020B. All storage in the RH1020 consists of routed flip-flops, constructed with multiplexors and feedback through the routing segments. A simple latch can be constructed from a single (combinatorial or C) module; an edge-triggered flip-flop is constructed using two concatenated latches. There is no storage in the I/O modules. The front end of the clock buffering circuitry, at a common point relative to the row buffer, is a sub-circuit that was determined to be the most susceptible to heavy ions. This is due, in part, to its smaller transistors compared to the rest of the circuitry. This conclusion is also supported by SPICE simulations and an analysis of the heavy ion data, described in this report. The edge triggered D flip-flop has two single-event-upset modes. Mode one, called C-module upset, is caused by a heavy ion striking the C-module's sensitive area on the silicon and produces a soft single bit error at the output of the flip-flop. Mode two, called clock upset, is caused by a heavy ion strike on the clock buffer, generating a runt pulse interpreted as a false clock signal and consequently producing errors at the flip-flop outputs. C-module upset sensitivity in the RH1020 is essentially

  2. An analytical method for predicting CMOS SRAM upsets with application to asymmetrical memory cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Allen, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to predict the heavy-ion-induced upset rate of static random access memory (SRAM) cells. The method was applied to the design of a memory with asymmetrical cells where the goal was to increase the upset rate in order to increase the number of observed upsets in a space environment. The asymmetry is achieved by increasing the drain area of selected transistors in the cell. Results from the analytical model for a space environment indicate the upset rate for the experimental asymmetrical cell (17.2 upsets/1 kbit-year) will be 4.7 times larger than the upset rate for the minimum-geometry balanced cell (3.6 upsets/1 kbit-year). The asymmetrical SRAM was designed into a test chip intended for the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES).

  3. Die-upset hybrid Pr-Fe-B nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2004-07-01

    Anisotropic nanocomposite R-Fe-B/Fe magnets (R =Pr, Tb) were synthesized by hot pressing and subsequent die upsetting blends of R-rich and R-lean melt-spun ribbons. The magnets have a layered structure, in which alternating layers of the two starting alloys lay perpendicularly to the pressing direction. A crystallographic alignment of the R2Fe14B grains is observed in the R-rich layers, whose microstructure is identical to that of the conventional die-upset magnets. The R-lean layers consisting of exchange-coupled R2Fe14B and α-Fe grains retain the random crystallographic orientation. The obtained bulk R-lean magnets show better properties than magnets of the same overall composition prepared from a single alloy.

  4. Simulation of magnetic coupling in die-upset composite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George; Gabay, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Die-upset composite magnets fabricated from blends of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B ribbons and coarse (micron-size) soft magnetic powders (Fe, Fe-Co) exhibit uniform magnetization behavior despite the fact that the soft magnetic inclusions are too large to be magnetically coupled through inter-phase exchange interactions. In this study, we present the results of numerical simulation showing that in the case of a layered microstructure (typical of the die-upset composites) the long-range magnetostatic interactions assure smooth demagnetization curves. Still, at least partial exchange coupling is required to have an increased remanence. It is argued that the effect of magnetostatic coupling in composite magnets with a layered morphology considerably relaxes the strict requirements for the size of the soft inclusions and it may facilitate the future development of high-performance composite anisotropic permanent magnets.

  5. Single event upset sensitivity of low power Schottky devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Measel, P. R.; Wahlin, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Data taken from tests involving heavy ions in the Berkeley 88 in. cyclotron being directed at low power Schottky barrier devices are reported. The tests also included trials in the Harvard cyclotron with 130 MeV protons, and at the U.C. Davis cyclotron using 56 MeV protons. The experiments were performed to study the single event upsets in MSI logic devices containing flip-flops. Results are presented of single-event upsets (SEU) causing functional degradation observed in post-exposure tests of six different devices. The effectiveness of the particles in producing SEUs in logic device functioning was found to be directly proportional to the proton energy. Shielding was determined to offer negligible protection from the particle bombardment. The results are considered significant for the design and fabrication of LS devices for space applications.

  6. Closed MAD2 (C-MAD2) is selectively incorporated into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Aaron R; Tipton, Michael; Yen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint is a specialized signal transduction pathway that monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment to achieve faithful chromosome segregation. MAD2 is an evolutionarily conserved mitotic checkpoint protein that exists in open (O) and closed (C) conformations. The increase of intracellular C-MAD2 level during mitosis, through O→C-MAD2 conversion as catalyzed by unattached kinetochores, is a critical signaling event for the mitotic checkpoint. However, it remains controversial whether MAD2 is an integral component of the effector of the mitotic checkpoint—the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). We show here that endogenous human MCC is assembled by first forming a BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 complex in G2 and then selectively incorporating C-MAD2 during mitosis. Nevertheless, MCC can be induced to form in G1/S cells by expressing a C-conformation locked MAD2 mutant, indicating intracellular level of C-MAD2 as a major limiting factor for MCC assembly. In addition, a recombinant MCC containing C-MAD2 exhibits effective inhibitory activity toward APC/C isolated from mitotic HeLa cells, while a recombinant BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 ternary complex is ineffective at comparable concentrations despite association with APC/C. These results help establish a direct connection between a major signal transducer (C-MAD2) and the potent effector (MCC) of the mitotic checkpoint, and provide novel insights into protein-protein interactions during assembly of a functional MCC. PMID:22037211

  7. Simulating Single-Event Upsets in Bipolar RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation technique saves testing. Uses interactive version of SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). Device and subcircuit models available in software used to construct macromodel for an integrated bipolar transistor. Time-dependent current generators placed inside transistor macromodel to simulate charge collection from ion track. Significant finding of experiments is standard design practice of reducing power in unaddressed bipolar RAM cell increases sensitivity of cell to single-event upsets.

  8. Digital system upset. The effects of simulated lightning-induced transients on a general-purpose microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Flight critical computer based control systems designed for advanced aircraft must exhibit ultrareliable performance in lightning charged environments. Digital system upset can occur as a result of lightning induced electrical transients, and a methodology was developed to test specific digital systems for upset susceptibility. Initial upset data indicates that there are several distinct upset modes and that the occurrence of upset is related to the relative synchronization of the transient input with the processing sate of the digital system. A large upset test data base will aid in the formulation and verification of analytical upset reliability modeling techniques which are being developed.

  9. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  10. Rice MADS6 Interacts with the Floral Homeotic Genes SUPERWOMAN1, MADS3, MADS58, MADS13, and DROOPING LEAF in Specifying Floral Organ Identities and Meristem Fate[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Liang, Wanqi; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Lu; Yin, Changsong; Xu, Jie; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M.; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes play essential roles in flower development, but whether and how they work with floral organ identity genes remain less understood. Here, we describe interactions of the rice (Oryza sativa) AGL6 gene MADS6 with other rice floral homeotic genes in flower development. Genetic analyses revealed that MADS6 specifies the identity of the three inner whorls and floral meristem determinacy redundantly with SUPERWOMAN1/MADS16 (B-gene) or MADS3 (C-gene). MADS6 was shown to define carpel/ovule development and floral determinacy by interacting with MADS13 (D-gene) and control the palea and floral meristem identities together with the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF. Expression analyses revealed that the transcript levels of six B-, C-, and E-class genes were reduced in mads6-1 at the early flower developmental stage, suggesting that MADS6 is a key regulator of early flower development. Moreover, MADS6 can directly bind to a putative regulatory motif on MADS58 (C-gene), and mads6-1 mads58 displayed phenotypes similar to that of mads6-1. These results suggest that MADS6 is a key player in specifying flower development via interacting with other floral homeotic genes in rice, thus providing new insights into the mechanism by which flower development is controlled. PMID:21784949

  11. DSM-5 field survey: skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD. Patients age >10 with skin-picking symptoms were recruited. Patients were assessed with 2 modules based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, which addressed proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for SPD. Additional questions were included to test other possible diagnostic criteria. Thirty-eight patients had SPD. All had recurrent skin picking that resulted in skin lesions. Skin picking persisted despite repeated attempts to decrease or stop. "Urges" or "needs" to pull were not endorsed by all patients, but did correlate with severity of skin picking. "Resistance" to picking also was not universally endorsed. These data support the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for SPD. Although most patients have urges to pick or a sense of relief when picking, such phenomena are not universal and should not be included in the diagnostic criteria set. An additional criterion of repeated attempts to decrease or stop skin picking seems warranted.

  12. Nail picking disorder (onychotillomania): a case report.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-03-01

    Nail picking disorder (onychotillomania) is characterized by excessive picking or pulling at one's own finger- or toenails. This condition has received scant research attention and may be related to other body focused repetitive behaviors such as pathological nail biting, skin picking and hair pulling. We present a case of a male client with a chronic and severe nail picking habit treated with acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy. The client showed clinical characteristics similar to other body focused repetitive behaviors and responded moderately well to the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Operating Performance of Mining Machine Picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, S.; Li, A.; Kurzina, I.; Sushko, A.

    2016-08-01

    The reasons of low performance of mining machine picks are stated herein. In order to improve the wear resistance and the cutting ability of picks a new design of a cutting carbide tip insert to be fixed on a removable and rotating pick head is developed. Owing to the new design, the tool ensures a twofold increase in the cutting force maintained longer, a twofold reduction in the specific power consumption of the breaking process, and extended service life of picks and the possibility of their multiple use.

  14. How big is big? How often is often? Characterizing Texas petroleum refining upset air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Britney J.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Gerard, David

    2010-11-01

    This work examines the magnitude and frequency of Texas petroleum refineries upset air emissions over a 44-month period. Upset emissions occur during plant start-ups, shut-downs, maintenance, malfunctions and flaring incidents, and these emissions are typically exempt from regulation. These emissions contain a variety of chemicals, including benzene, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and butadiene. Unlike other states, Texas has detailed reporting requirements, regulations in place, and an extensive upset emissions database. A key scientific and public policy question is whether upset emissions have significant impacts on local air quality and public health. However, it is not possible to address this question without first understanding the magnitude and properties of upsets. We merge related databases to examine over 3,900 upset emission events and find that upset emissions are significant in both size and occurrence when compared to routine operation emissions. It is determined that these events are not random, being more likely to occur during the summer, in the morning, and early in the workweek. A regional analysis of Port Arthur suggests that upset emissions from co-located refineries are equivalent to having an additional refinery within the region. Because of uncertainties within the reporting process and an obvious underestimation by some refineries, there is a need for better tracking of upset emissions.

  15. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, W.T.; Weaver, H.T.

    1994-04-26

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed is described. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states. 5 figures.

  16. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, Wayne T.; Weaver, Harry T.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states.

  17. Effects of cosmic rays on single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, D. D.; Zajic, V.; Lowe, C. W.; Olidapupo, A.; Fogarty, T. N.

    1989-02-01

    Assistance was provided to the Brookhaven Single Event Upset (SEU) Test Facility. Computer codes were developed for fragmentation and secondary radiation affecting Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) in space. A computer controlled CV (HP4192) test was developed for Terman analysis. Also developed were high speed parametric tests which are independent of operator judgment and a charge pumping technique for measurement of Dit (E). The X-ray secondary effects, and parametric degradation as a function of dose rate were simulated. The SPICE simulation of static RAMs with various resistor filters was tested.

  18. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  19. Effects of cosmic rays on single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Zajic, V.; Lowe, C. W.; Olidapupo, A.; Fogarty, T. N.

    1989-01-01

    Assistance was provided to the Brookhaven Single Event Upset (SEU) Test Facility. Computer codes were developed for fragmentation and secondary radiation affecting Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) in space. A computer controlled CV (HP4192) test was developed for Terman analysis. Also developed were high speed parametric tests which are independent of operator judgment and a charge pumping technique for measurement of D(sub it) (E). The X-ray secondary effects, and parametric degradation as a function of dose rate were simulated. The SPICE simulation of static RAMs with various resistor filters was tested.

  20. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  1. Mad2 and Mad3 Cooperate to Arrest Budding Yeast in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Derek T. C.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome transmission by delaying chromosome segregation until all chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdc20. Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit APCCdc20 activity. Results To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or non-covalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:22209528

  2. Inhibition of cell proliferation by the Mad1 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, M F; Ashmun, R A; Sherr, C J; Eisenman, R N; Ayer, D E

    1996-01-01

    Mad1 is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that is induced upon differentiation of a number of distinct cell types. Mad1 dimerizes with Max and recognizes the same DNA sequences as do Myc:Max dimers. However, Mad1 and Myc appear to have opposing functions. Myc:Max heterodimers activate transcription while Mad:Max heterodimers repress transcription from the same promoter. In addition Mad1 has been shown to block the oncogenic activity of Myc. Here we show that ectopic expression of Mad1 inhibits the proliferative response of 3T3 cells to signaling through the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor. The ability of over-expressed Myc and cyclin D1 to complement the mutant CSF-1 receptor Y809F (containing a Y-to-F mutation at position 809) is also inhibited by Mad1. Cell cycle analysis of proliferating 3T3 cells transfected with Mad1 demonstrates a significant decrease in the fraction of cells in the S and G2/M phases and a concomitant increase in the fraction of G1 phase cells, indicating that Mad1 negatively influences cell cycle progression from the G1 to the S phase. Mutations in Mad1 which inhibit its activity as a transcription repressor also result in loss of Mad1 cell cycle inhibitory activity. Thus, the ability of Mad1 to inhibit cell cycle progression is tightly coupled to its function as a transcriptional repressor. PMID:8649388

  3. Conflict in married couples: personality predictors of anger and upset.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M

    1991-12-01

    This research had two central goals: to examine the role of personality in (a) performing actions that anger spouses, and (b) eliciting anger-provoking actions from spouses. Personality data on a sample of married persons (N = 214) were obtained from three sources--self-report, spouse-observer report, and independent interviewers' reports. In a separate session, subjects recorded which of 147 upsetting actions their spouses had performed in the past year. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed the effects of Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect on evoking upset in spouses through condescension (e.g., treating spouse as stupid or inferior), possessiveness (demanding too much time and attention), abuse (slapping spouse), unfaithfulness (having sex with others), inconsiderateness (leaving toilet seat up), moodiness (crying a lot), alcohol abuse (drinking too much alcohol), emotional constriction (hiding emotions to act tough), and self-centeredness (acting selfishly). Discussion of this research focuses on the implications of personality for conflict in marital relationships.

  4. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. [In search of puerperal madness in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify cases and scientific works about "puerperal madness" between 1850 and 1940 in Buenos Aires. The gradual installation of the device of maternities in the Argentina, and especially in the city of Buenos Aires, was not exempt from difficulties, in the medical boarding of the pregnant woman and parturient as well as in the cultural conception of the mothers. This fact presupposes an increase of the phenomenon called "puerperal madness" in the moment where the displacement of the act of giving birth in the house to the hospital takes place. Certainly, the clinical fact of the "puerperal madness" exceeds to the historical social context, and in this way appear all the psychopathologies related to the pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperal fevers. We also must take in account the influence of the medical speech about the feminine body and his translation to a scientific and institutional speech never before experienced in Argentina.

  6. Kynanthropy: canine madness in Byzantine late antiquity.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Nadine

    2015-09-01

    Those afflicted bark like dogs, scramble on all fours and loiter around graveyards - canine madness, referred to as kynanthropy, was an illness concept in its own right in the medicine of late antiquity. At roughly the same time as the medical description produced by Aëtius of Amida, the Syrian chronicler John of Ephesus, also from Amida, reported an epidemic of dog-like madness sweeping his home town in ad 560. The symptoms are identical and both authors are from Amida - what is the connection between the two depictions? In addition to the history of the medical concept, the example of the canine madness of Amida and its cultural embedding allows us to contextualize and interpret the significance of dog-like behaviour for the people of the sixth century AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Reduced Mad2 expression keeps relaxed kinetochores from arresting budding yeast in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Dorer, Russell K.; Murray, Andrew W.; Schuyler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome segregation depends on the spindle checkpoint, which delays anaphase until all chromosomes have bound microtubules and have been placed under tension. The Mad1–Mad2 complex is an essential component of the checkpoint. We studied the consequences of removing one copy of MAD2 in diploid cells of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to MAD2/MAD2 cells, MAD2/mad2Δ heterozygotes show increased chromosome loss and have different responses to two insults that activate the spindle checkpoint: MAD2/mad2Δ cells respond normally to antimicrotubule drugs but cannot respond to chromosomes that lack tension between sister chromatids. In MAD2/mad2Δ cells with normal sister chromatid cohesion, removing one copy of MAD1 restores the checkpoint and returns chromosome loss to wild-type levels. We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond to chromosomes that are not under tension. PMID:21593209

  8. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets in a NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found that the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with cumulative fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. Furthermore, the effect impacts only single cell upsets in general. The rate of multiple-bit upsets remained relatively constant with fluence. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, traditional SEE testing techniques may underestimate the on-orbit event rate for a device with variable upset sensitivity.

  9. Review of Research On Guidance for Recovery from Pitch Axis Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify past efforts in providing control guidance for aircraft upset recovery including stall recovery. Because guidance is integrally linked to the intended function of aircraft attitude awareness and upset recognition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to consider these issues separately. This literature review covered the aspects of instrumentation and display symbologies for attitude awareness, aircraft upset recognition, upset and stall alerting, and control guidance. Many different forms of symbology have been investigated including, but not limited to, pitch scale depictions, attitude indicator icons, horizon symbology, attitude recovery arrows, and pitch trim indicators. Past research on different visual and alerting strategies that provide advisories, cautions, and warnings to pilots before entering an unusual attitude (UA) are also discussed. Finally, potential control guidance for recovery from upset or unusual attitudes, including approach-to-stall and stall conditions, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are made.

  10. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-10-11

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state.

  11. Phosphorylation of Mad Controls Competition Between Wingless and BMP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H.; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state. PMID:21990430

  12. [Voices of madness in song: outlooks on madness and the insane in Brazilian songs].

    PubMed

    Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2011-12-01

    This article is the result of research associated with the representation of madness and the insane in contemporary Brazilian songs. Michel Foucault's considerations about the history of madness and those of Mary Jane Spink about discursive practices and the production of meaning formed the theoretical base for the study. The methodology consisted in mapping the circulation of words and meanings about madness in thirty songs collected by Google's search engine. The results of the mapping reveal the polyphony of the literary/musical discourse, and a heterogeneous discursive panorama in which five zones of meaning about madness and the insane stand out. Thus, it can be concluded that these signs are prevalent on a day-to-day basis, Some of the meanings in the songs refer to institutionalized ways of dealing with madness, others constitute modes of subjectivity that flee from routine treatment. By delineating symbolic formations that permeate social imagery, this article brings systematic attention to popular representations of various forms of madness of relevance to multidisciplinary fields in mental health, discussing their appearance in popular music and their possible repercussions.

  13. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants

    PubMed Central

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. Methods The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Key Results Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11–14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14–16 Type II MADS-box genes. Conclusions The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS

  14. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants.

    PubMed

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11-14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14-16 Type II MADS-box genes. The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS-box genes for the development of gymnosperms. This study is

  15. America's Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  16. America's Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  17. The Galileo single-event upset solution and risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, Garry M.; Kopf, Edward H.; Meyer, Donald D.

    1986-01-01

    The Galileo probe will be subject to radiation fields and energetic particle bombardment during its outward bound journey and in orbit around Jupiter and its moons. To avoid the occurrence and propagation of effects of single event upset (SEU) bit state changes induced by the bombardments attempts were made to harden the Galileo electronics against SEUs. The hazards are especially acute for Schottky diode and low-power Schottky TTL parts. The preventive action options which were scheduled are reviewed, noting the selection of CMOS chips as replacements for SEU-susceptible devices. The simulation and risk assessment that were performed to evaluate the potential success of the replacements are summarized, with emphasis on the data employed to ensure the accuracy of the assessments and the predicted effects of SEUs in the various Galileo subsystems.

  18. Heavy ion microscopy of single event upsets in CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, S.; Dreute, J.; Heinrich, W.; Roecher, H. ); Fischer, B.E. ); Harboe-Soerensen, R.; Adams, L. )

    1994-06-01

    The single event upset (SEU) imaging has been applied at the GSI heavy ion microprobe to determine the sensitivity of integrated circuits (IC) to heavy ion irradiation. This method offers the possibility to directly image those parts of an IC which are sensitive to ion-induced malfunctions. By a 3-dimensional simulation of charge collection across p-n-micro-junctions the authors can predict SEU cross-sections. For a MHS65162 2k [times] 8bit CMOS SRAM they found two regions per bit with different sensitivity and measured a total cross-section of (71[+-]18)[mu]m[sup 2] for a bitflip per cell and simulated 60[mu]m[sup 2] with an argon beam of 1.4 MeV/nucl. (LET of 19.7 MeV/mg/cm[sup 2]).

  19. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  20. Pick-up ions at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemety, K.; Cravens, T. E.

    1993-04-01

    Methane molecules escaping from Pluto's atmosphere are ionized, and the resulting ions are picked up by the solar wind. The mass loading associated with this ion pick-up can produce a cometlike interaction of the solar wind with Pluto. Heavy ion gyroradii are as large as a half million km in the weak interplanetary magnetic field that exists at 30 AU, which is about an order of magnitude larger than the size of the 'interaction region'. We have calculated velocity space distributions of pick-up ions using numerically determined ion trajectories. The predicted pick-up ion fluxes are high enough to be detectable by standard charged particle detectors as far upstream of Pluto as 10 exp 6 km.

  1. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  2. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  3. Method for characterizing the upset response of CMOS circuits using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. A technique utilizing test structures to quickly and inexpensively characterize the SEU sensitivity of standard cell latches intended for use in a space environment. This bench-level approach utilizes alpha particles to induce upsets in a low LET sensitive 4-k bit test SRAM. This SRAM consists of cells that employ an offset voltage to adjust their upset sensitivity and an enlarged sensitive drain junction to enhance the cell's upset rate.

  4. Markovian Statistical Data Analysis of Single-Event Upsets Triggered by High Intensity Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakdawala, Anushka V.; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from a single-event upset experiment conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Statistical tools, based on well-known x(sup 2) hypothesis testing theory, are used to determine if sequences of upsets can be modeled as a homogeneous Markov chain of a specific order. The experiment consisted of radiating a new experimental flight control computer (FCC) with a high intensity neutron beam while the FCC controlled a simulation of a Boeing 737. The analyzed data is a sequence of states that indicates when the FCC is under an upset condition.

  5. Markovian Statistical Data Analysis of Single-Event Upsets Triggered by High Intensity Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakdawala, Anushka V.; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from a single-event upset experiment conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Statistical tools, based on well-known x(sup 2) hypothesis testing theory, are used to determine if sequences of upsets can be modeled as a homogeneous Markov chain of a specific order. The experiment consisted of radiating a new experimental flight control computer (FCC) with a high intensity neutron beam while the FCC controlled a simulation of a Boeing 737. The analyzed data is a sequence of states that indicates when the FCC is under an upset condition.

  6. Variation in proton-induced upsets rates from large solar flares using an improved SEU model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, Eugene; Stapor, William J.

    1990-12-01

    Proton integral flux measurements during solar energetic particle (SEP) events, from the CPME instrument onboard the IMP-8 satellite, and the proton detector on the GOES-7 satellite, are utilized to calculate proton-induced single-event upset (SEU). An improved two-parameter SEU cross section model is used for three RAM devices. The log of the 239 actual RAM upsets on the TDRS-1 satellite during the October 19, 1989 SEP event allowed a comparison between the recorded number of upsets/chip per day and those predicted based on the GOES-7 data, the two-parameter model, and the shielding distribution curve.

  7. Frequency Dependence of Single-event Upset in Advanced Commerical PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Frokh; Farmanesh, Farhad F.; Swift, Gary M.; Johnston, Allen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines single-event upsets in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors in a dynamic mode, studying SEU sensitivity of General Purpose Registers (GPRs) with clock frequency. Results are presented for SOI processors with feature sizes of 0.18 microns and two different core voltages. Single-event upset from heavy ions is measured for advanced commercial microprocessors in a dynamic mode with clock frequency up to 1GHz. Frequency and core voltage dependence of single-event upsets in registers is discussed.

  8. Picking among pen-reared quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  9. MADS-box transcription factor OsMADS25 regulates root development through affection of nitrate accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant's responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice.

  10. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  11. Data and results of a laboratory investigation of microprocessor upset caused by simulated lightning-induced analog transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed a assess the upset susceptibility/reliability of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general purpose microprocessor were studied. The upset tests involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080 based microcomputer from which upset error data was recorded. The program code on the microprocessor during tests is designed to exercise all of the machine cycles and memory addressing techniques implemented in the 8080 central processing unit. A statistical analysis is presented in which possible correlations are established between the probability of upset occurrence and transient signal inputs during specific processing states and operations. A stochastic upset susceptibility model for the 8080 microprocessor is presented. The susceptibility of this microprocessor to upset, once analog transients have entered the system, is determined analytically by calculating the state probabilities of the stochastic model.

  12. Mad honey poisoning‐related asystole

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Durmus, Ismet; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Ozturk, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning is well known in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The cause of the poisoning is the toxin grayanotoxin, found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species on the mountains in the region. A 60‐year‐old man was brought to the emergency department with dizziness and syncope after eating a few spoonfuls of honey. While the patient was being treated, bradycardia and asystole developed. The patient was given 0.5 mg of atropine, and asystole began and ended. The patient was transferred to the catheter laboratory and a temporary pacemaker was implanted. Mad honey poisoning related asystole has not been previously reported, and the rapid response to atropine is significant. PMID:17652692

  13. [Hippocrates's evaluation of the madness of Democritus].

    PubMed

    Sjöstrand, L

    2001-01-01

    Hippocrates is a historical as well as a legendary character. In legends he is presented as a personification of the highest intellectual and moral virtues as they were understood by the ancient greeks and romans. One of these legends deals with a fictitious meeting between him and Democritus, the philosopher. We can follow the story in a collection of pseudepigraphic letters from the end of the first christian century. On the behalf of the senate of the city of Abdera Hippocrates takes upon himself the commission to cure Democritus - the eminent son of the city - who is supposed to be mad because he is laughing at everything. However, Hippocrates soon realizes that his commission transcends his medical profession. Democritus is not mad but a very wise man whose yearn for solitude and serenity constrains him to discriminate himself from ordinary people by an odd behaviour. He is a melancholic. In these letters we follow a discussion about moral and medical aspects of madness and the relationship between the noble outsider and his ordinary fellowmen. It is a discussion that points forward at recurrent themes in the history of ideas. Hippocrates stands out as a philantropist and Democritus as a misanthropist.

  14. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  15. System-level analysis of single event upset susceptibility in RRAM architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Yu, Shimeng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the single event upset susceptibility of a resistive random access memory (RRAM) system with 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) and crossbar architectures to heavy ion strikes is investigated from the circuit-level to the system-level. From a circuit-level perspective, the 1T1R is only susceptible to single-bit-upset (SBU) due to the isolation of cells, while in the crossbar, multiple-bit-upsets may occur because ion-induced voltage spikes generated on drivers may propagate along rows or columns. Three factors are considered to evaluate system-level susceptibility: the upset rate, the sensitive area, and the vulnerable time window. Our analysis indicates that the crossbar architecture has a smaller maximum bit-error-rate per day as compared to the 1T1R architecture for a given sub-array size, I/O width and susceptible time window.

  16. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM Based FPGAs from the Xilinix Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Yui, Candice C.; Carmichael, Carl; Koga, Rocky; George, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the single event upset static testing of the Virtex II field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) that were tested in protons and heavy-ions. The test designs and static and dynamic test results are reviewed.

  17. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  18. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  19. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    DOE PAGES

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; ...

    2015-08-24

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. In this paper, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2.more » Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Finally, our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2.« less

  20. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-08-24

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. In this paper, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Finally, our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2.

  1. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. Here, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2. PMID:26305957

  2. An Approach for the Assessment of System Upset Resilience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes an approach for the assessment of upset resilience that is applicable to systems in general, including safety-critical, real-time systems. For this work, resilience is defined as the ability to preserve and restore service availability and integrity under stated conditions of configuration, functional inputs and environmental conditions. To enable a quantitative approach, we define novel system service degradation metrics and propose a new mathematical definition of resilience. These behavioral-level metrics are based on the fundamental service classification criteria of correctness, detectability, symmetry and persistence. This approach consists of a Monte-Carlo-based stimulus injection experiment, on a physical implementation or an error-propagation model of a system, to generate a system response set that can be characterized in terms of dimensional error metrics and integrated to form an overall measure of resilience. We expect this approach to be helpful in gaining insight into the error containment and repair capabilities of systems for a wide range of conditions.

  3. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L. . Space and Communications Dept.); Johansson, K.; Pettersson, H. ); Farren, J. . Harwell Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight.

  4. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  5. A lex-based mad parser and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Krivosheev et al.

    2001-07-03

    An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

  6. RZZ and Mad1 dynamics in Drosophila mitosis.

    PubMed

    Défachelles, Lénaïg; Raich, Natacha; Terracol, Régine; Baudin, Xavier; Williams, Byron; Goldberg, Michael; Karess, Roger E

    2015-06-01

    The presence or absence of Mad1 at kinetochores is a major determinant of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity, the surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset if one or more kinetochores remain unattached to spindle fibers. Among the factors regulating the levels of Mad1 at kinetochores is the Rod, Zw10, and Zwilch (RZZ) complex, which is required for Mad1 recruitment through a mechanism that remains unknown. The relative dynamics and interactions of Mad1 and RZZ at kinetochores have not been extensively investigated, although Mad1 has been reported to be stably recruited to unattached kinetochores. In this study, we directly compare Mad1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) turnover dynamics on unattached Drosophila kinetochores with that of RZZ, tagged either with GFP-Rod or GFP-Zw10. We find that nearly 40 % of kinetochore-bound Mad1 has a significant dynamic component, turning over with a half-life of 12 s. RZZ in contrast is essentially stable on unattached kinetochores. In addition, we report that a fraction of RZZ and Mad1 can co-immunoprecipitate, indicating that the genetically determined recruitment hierarchy (in which Mad1 depends on RZZ) may reflect a physical association of the two complexes.

  7. Model Analysis of Complex Systems Behavior using MADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; O'Malley, D.

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of robustness (reliability) of model predictions is challenging for models representing complex system behavior. Frequently in science and engineering applications related to complex systems, several alternative physics models may describe the available data equally well and are physically reasonable based on the available conceptual understanding. However, these alternative models could give very different predictions about the future states of the analyzed system. Furthermore, in the case of complex systems, we often must do modeling with an incomplete understanding of the underlying physical processes and model parameters. The analyses of model predictions representing complex system behavior are particularly challenging when we are quantifying uncertainties of rare events in the model prediction space that can have major consequences (also called "black swans"). These types of analyses are also computationally challenging. Here, we demonstrate the application of a general high-performance computational tool for Model Analysis & Decision Support (MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) which can be applied to perform analyses using any external physics or systems model. The coupling between MADS and the external model can be performed using different methods. MADS is implemented in Julia, a high-level, high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing (http://mads.lanl.gov/, https://github.com/madsjulia/Mads.jl, http://mads.readthedocs.org). MADS has been applied to perform analyses for environmental-management and water-energy-food nexus problems. To demonstrate MADS capabilities and functionalities, we analyze a series of synthetic problems consistent with actual real-world problems.

  8. Trauma and truth: representations of madness in Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Linder, Birgit

    2011-12-01

    With only a few exceptions, the literary theme of madness has long been a domain of Western cultural studies. Much of Western writing represents madness as an inquiry into the deepest recesses of the mind, while the comparatively scarce Chinese tradition is generally defined by madness as a voice of social truth. This paper looks at five works of twentieth-century Chinese fiction that draw on socio-somatic aspects of madness to reflect upon social truths, suggesting that the inner voice of subjectivity is perhaps not the only true voice of the self.

  9. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-21

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TN-2016-0003 TN-2016-0003 A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic ...Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9451-15-C-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...malfunction of—a microcontroller (µC) subjected to external irradiation by a narrowband electromagnetic (EM) pulse. In our model, the state of a µC is

  10. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

  11. GaAs MMIC: recovery from upset by x-ray pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Castle, J.G. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Tolerance for fast neutrons and total ionizing dose is a feature of GaAs microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC). However, upset during an ionizing pulse is expected to occur and delayed recovery due to backgating may be a problem. The purpose of this study of an experimental MMIC design is to observe the recovery of oscillator power output following upset by a short ionizing pulse as a function of applied bias, dose per pulse and case temperature.

  12. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    DOE PAGES

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; ...

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environmentsmore » for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.« less

  13. Upset among youth in response to questions about exposure to violence, sexual assault and family maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether youth are upset by being asked questions about sensitive kinds of abuse, victimization, family maltreatment, and sexual victimization in the course of standard epidemiological surveys. A national sample of youth aged 10-17 were interviewed on the telephone by experienced interviewers as part of the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence. At the end they were asked whether answering questions had upset them. Of the youth interviewed, 4.5% reported being at all upset and 0.8% reported being pretty or a lot upset. However, only a minority of those upset, .3% of the total sample, said they would not participate again had they known about the content. But even in this group, the regret about participation was mostly due to the length of the survey, not the types of questions being asked. Thus, asking about exposure to abuse and sensitive kinds of victimization in standard interview surveys is associated with low levels of respondent upset due to the nature of the questions.

  14. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Labello, R.; Nichols, J.; Weeden-Wright, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environments for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.

  15. Modeling and analysis of the HPM pulse-width upset effect on CMOS inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xinhai, Yu; Changchun, Chai; Liping, Qiao; Yintang, Yang; Yang, Liu; Xiaowen, Xi

    2015-05-01

    We derive analytical models of the excess carrier density distribution and the HPM (high-power microwave) upset susceptibility with dependence of pulse-width, which are validated by the simulated results and experimental data. Mechanism analysis and model derivation verify that the excess carriers dominate the current amplification process of the latch-up. Our results reveal that the excess carrier density distribution in P-substrate behaves as pulse-width dependence. The HPM upset voltage threshold Vp decreases with the incremental pulse-width, while there is an inflection point which is caused because the excess carrier accumulation in the P-substrate will be suppressed over time. For the first time, the physical essence of the HPM pulse-width upset effect is proposed to be the excess carrier accumulation effect. Validation concludes that the Vp model is capable of giving a reliable and accurate prediction to the HPM upset susceptibility of a CMOS inverter, which simultaneously considers technology information, ambient temperature, and layout parameters. From the model, the layout parameter LB has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the pulse-width upset effect: a CMOS inverter with minor LB is more susceptible to HPM, which enables us to put forward hardening measures for inverters that are immune from the HPM upset. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60776034) and the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2014CB339900).

  16. HbMADS4, a MADS-box Transcription Factor from Hevea brasiliensis, Negatively Regulates HbSRPP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Wei, Li-Ran; Guo, Dong; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In plants MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in growth and development. However, no plant MADS-box gene has been identified to have a function related to secondary metabolites regulation. Here, a MADS-box TF gene, designated as HbMADS4, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis by the yeast one-hybrid experiment to screen the latex cDNA library using the promoter of the gene encoding H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (HbSRPP) as bait. HbMADS4 was 984-bp containing 633-bp open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 230 amino acid residues with a typical conserved MADS-box motif at the N terminus. HbMADS4 was preferentially expressed in the latex, but little expression was detected in the leaves, flowers, and roots. Its expression was inducible by methyl jasmonate and ethylene. Furthermore, transient over-expression and over-expression of HbMADS4 in transgenic tobacco plants significantly suppressed the activity of the HbSRP promoter. Altogether, it is proposed that HbMADS4 is a negative regulator of HbSRPP which participates in the biosynthesis of natural rubber. PMID:27895659

  17. Modular Pick-and-Bucket Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Concept for improved conventional pick-and-bucket mining machine offered as backup for hydrojet-jaw mining machine. Picks on chain dislodge coal and buckets on chain scoop it up. Depending on width cut, unit composed of only two end modules or end modules plus one, two, or three incremental modules. Folding curved shields protect sides of miner from falling coal and rock. Two side stabilizers - extendable hydraulic members - anchor miner against lateral drift. Unlike conventional machines, new version tilts cutters vertically and skews them horizontally to changing floor slopes and seam heights.

  18. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and Arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Koia, Jonni H; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James; Botella, Jose R

    2014-11-01

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of ethylene in climacteric tomato. LeMADS-RIN has been proposed to be a global ripening regulator shared among climacteric and non-climacteric species, although few functional homologs of LeMADS-RIN have been identified in non-climacteric species. AcMADS1 shares 67 % protein sequence similarity and a similar expression pattern in ripening fruits as LeMADS-RIN. However, in this study AcMADS1 was not able to complement the tomato rin mutant phenotype, indicating AcMADS1 may not be a functionally conserved homolog of LeMADS-RIN or has sufficiently diverged to be unable to act in the context of the tomato network of interacting proteins. The AcMADS1 promoter directed strong expression of the GUS reporter gene to fruits and developing floral organs in tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting AcMADS1 may play a role in flower development as well as fruitlet ripening. The AcMADS1 promoter provides a useful molecular tool for directing transgene expression, particularly where up-regulation in developing flowers and fruits is desirable.

  19. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there by W. Scot Appel under the direction of Dr. John E. Finn. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia and at Vanderbilt University by W. Scot Appel under the direction of M. Douglas LeVan. All three participants collaborated in all of the various phases of the research. The most comprehensive document describing the research is the Ph.D. dissertation of W. Scot Appel. Results have been published in several papers and presented in talks at technical conferences. All documents have been transmitted to Dr. John E. Finn.

  20. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  1. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  2. Teaching Children with Niemann-Pick Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Cooley, Jennifer; Barnett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that are both systemic and degenerative. Knowledge of the disease, its characteristics, and its progression are essential for the teacher and related service personnel to provide an appropriate educational experience for the student. For the teacher who has a student with NPC in…

  3. An Elementary Proof of Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, Howard W.

    1979-01-01

    Pick's Theorem, a statement of the relationship between the area of a polygonal region on a lattice and its interior and boundary lattice points, is familiar to those whose students have participated in activities and discovery lessons using the geoboard. The proof presented, although rather long, is well within the grasp of the average geometry…

  4. Does mad honey poisoning require hospital admission?

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Meriçé, Emine Sayin; Baydin, Ahmet; Topbaş, Murat; Uzun, Hüküm; Türedi, Süleyman; Kalkan, Asim

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe current patterns of monitoring and treatment of mad honey intoxication to make recommendations for a more standardized approach to care of patients with mad honey poisoning. Patients presenting to emergency departments because of honey poisoning between January and October 2007. Age, length of stay in the emergency department, pulse rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure are cited as mean +/- SD. Forty-seven cases presenting to the 3 health institutions during 2007 were investigated. It was determined that patients had ingested "mad" honey between 0.5 and 9 hours (mean +/- SD, 2.8 +/- 1.8 hours) before presentation. Patients' pulse rates were 30 to 77/min (mean +/- SD, 46.6 +/- 12.1/min), and systolic blood pressure ranged from 50 to 140 mm Hg (mean +/- SD, 46.6 +/- 12.1 mm Hg). Patient rhythms on arrival were determined as 37 (7.7%) sinus bradycardia, 6 (12.8%) nodal rhythm, 3 (6.4%) normal sinus rhythm, and 1 (2.1%) complete atrioventricular block. Lengths of stay in hospital were 3.6 +/- 2.2 hours in the first university hospital, 22.2 +/- 3.8 hours in the second university hospital, and 3.4 +/- 1.7 hours in the state hospital. A 0.5 to 2 mg of atropine was given to all patients. Our study did not reveal any difference in complications or mortality between patients cared for with brief emergency department observation when compared with patients cared for with 1 day inpatient observation.

  5. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.

  6. Two registers of madness in Enlightenment Britain. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Laffey, Paul

    2002-12-01

    Part 1 of this essay argues that in Augustan and Georgian England it was widely understood that madness could have two more-or-less distinct meanings. 'Moral' madness was the subject's own fault, and he/she remained accountable for actions commissioned under its effects. The delusional ideas arose in the mind, and by definition remained within the moral province of the individual. By contrast, in 'real' madness, the sufferer was the passive recipient of body-based sickness, and he/she was understood to be innocent, but paid for this exculpation of moral accountability by surrendering full personhood. Part 2 of the essay examines how Georgian churchmen viewed madness, and then returns to psychiatry proper for a closer look at how certain theories of madness were inflected by the problematics of insanity's conflicting meanings. Finally, a previously unrecognized Georgian psychiatric therapy, 'classical moral treatment', is described and put in the context of the better-known Tukean 'moral treatment'.

  7. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  8. Hospital Medicine: Make Method from Madness!

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The challenge confronting politicians and administrators to control the madness overcoming hospital organization must also be met by the physician. If he uses hospitals for his medical practice then he must be prepared and willing to participate in hospital government. He must be aware of the impact of the hospital on his patients as well as his own relationships with other physicians, medical and paramedical staff, administration and board members. Physicians and laymen alike must develop a responsible approach to the hospital as the centre of a community health care system and not as an isolated acute care unit. PMID:20468944

  9. MAD2γ, a novel MAD2 isoform, reduces mitotic arrest and is associated with resistance in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Ramírez-Otero, Miguel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Justo-Garrido, Monserrat; Andonegui, Marco A.; Mendoza, Julia; Downie-Ruíz, Ángela; Cortés-González, Carlo; Reynoso, Nancy; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Santibáñez, Miguel; Fabián-Morales, Eunice; Pruefer, Franz; Luna-Maldonado, Fernando; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Herrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prolonged mitotic arrest in response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, such as DNA-damaging agents, induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Disruptions in mitotic checkpoints contribute resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer. MAD2 has been associated with checkpoint failure and chemotherapy response. In this study, a novel splice variant of MAD2, designated MAD2γ, was identified, and its association with the DNA damage response was investigated. Methods: Endogenous expression of MAD2γ and full-length MAD2 (MAD2α) was measured using RT-PCR in cancer cell lines, normal foreskin fibroblasts, and tumor samples collected from patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A plasmid expressing MAD2γ was transfected into HCT116 cells, and its intracellular localization and checkpoint function were evaluated according to immunofluorescence and mitotic index. Results: MAD2γ was expressed in several cancer cell lines and non-cancerous fibroblasts. Ectopically expressed MAD2γ localized to the nucleus and reduced the mitotic index, suggesting checkpoint impairment. In patients with TGCTs, the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, was associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Likewise, cisplatin induced the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, in HCT116 cells. Conclusions: Overexpression of MAD2γ may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in TGCTs. PMID:27315568

  10. Cep57 is a Mis12-interacting kinetochore protein involved in kinetochore targeting of Mad1–Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haining; Wang, Tianning; Zheng, Tao; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) arrests cells in mitosis by sensing unattached kinetochores, until all chromosomes are bi-oriented by spindle microtubules. Kinetochore accumulation of the SAC component Mad1–Mad2 is crucial for SAC activation. However, the mechanism by which Mad1–Mad2 accumulation at kinetochores is regulated is not clear. Here we find that Cep57 is localized to kinetochores in human cells, and binds to Mis12, a KMN (KNL1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex) network component. Cep57 also interacts with Mad1, and depletion of Cep57 results in decreased kinetochore localization of Mad1–Mad2, reduced SAC signalling and increased chromosome segregation errors. We also show that the microtubule-binding activity of Cep57 is involved in the timely removal of Mad1 from kinetochores. Thus, these findings reveal that the KMN network-binding protein Cep57 is a mitotic kinetochore component, and demonstrate the functional connection between the KMN network and the SAC. PMID:26743940

  11. 'Wanting' and 'liking' skin picking: A validation of the Skin Picking Reward Scale.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Houghton, David C; Woods, Douglas W; Lee, Han-Joo

    2015-12-01

    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is often conceptualized as a behavioral addiction in which aberrant reward processing may play an important role. The current study sought to develop a self-report instrument--the Skin Picking Reward Scale (SPRS)--that measures how strongly skin picking is 'liked' (i.e., the degree of pleasurable feelings while receiving the reward) and 'wanted' (i.e., the degree of the motivation to seek the reward). We administered the SPRS to individuals who endorsed excessive skin picking in online surveys and examined the scale's factor structure (Studies 1 and 2). We then asked individuals with documented pathological skin picking to complete the SPRS and other relevant questionnaires on two occasions one week apart (Study 3). Exploratory (Study 1; n = 330) and confirmatory (Study 2; n = 144) factor analyses consistently supported a two-factor structure reflecting the 'liking' and 'wanting' constructs. Results from Study 3 (N = 36) indicated that the Wanting and the Liking scales had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Additionally, consistent with predictions, the Wanting scale, but not the Liking scale, was associated with picking urges the following week, greater cue-reactivity, and more picking-related routines/habits. These initial findings suggest that SPRS is a psychometrically sound measure of 'wanting' and 'liking' in pathological skin picking. The SPRS may facilitate research on reward processing anomalies in SPD and serve as a useful clinical instrument (e.g., to identify those at risk for cue-induced relapse).

  12. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlin, P J; Quéva, C; Koskinen, P J; Steingrímsson, E; Ayer, D E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Eisenman, R N

    1995-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) protein Max associates with members of the Myc family, as well as with the related proteins Mad (Mad1) and Mxi1. Whereas both Myc:Max and Mad:Max heterodimers bind related E-box sequences, Myc:Max activates transcription and promotes proliferation while Mad:Max represses transcription and suppresses Myc dependent transformation. Here we report the identification and characterization of two novel Mad1- and Mxi1-related proteins, Mad3 and Mad4. Mad3 and Mad4 interact with both Max and mSin3 and repress transcription from a promoter containing CACGTG binding sites. Using a rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay, we show that both Mad3 and Mad4 inhibit c-Myc dependent cell transformation. An examination of the expression patterns of all mad genes during murine embryogenesis reveals that mad1, mad3 and mad4 are expressed primarily in growth-arrested differentiating cells. mxi1 is also expressed in differentiating cells, but is co-expressed with either c-myc, N-myc, or both in proliferating cells of the developing central nervous system and the epidermis. In the developing central nervous system and epidermis, downregulation of myc genes occurs concomitant with upregulation of mad family genes. These expression patterns, together with the demonstrated ability of Mad family proteins to interfere with the proliferation promoting activities of Myc, suggest that the regulated expression of Myc and Mad family proteins function in a concerted fashion to regulate cell growth in differentiating tissues. Images PMID:8521822

  13. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Zhen-Yang

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403395), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 13JCYBJC39000), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation of China (Grant No. 104003020106), and the Fund for Scholars of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 2012QD21x).

  14. Mental representations of attachment figures facilitate recovery following upsetting autobiographical memory recall.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Emre; Zayas, Vivian; Günaydin, Gül; Hazan, Cindy; Kross, Ethan

    2012-08-01

    A growing literature shows that even the symbolic presence of an attachment figure facilitates the regulation of negative affect triggered by external stressors. Yet, in daily life, pernicious stressors are often internally generated--recalling an upsetting experience reliably increases negative affect, rumination, and susceptibility to physical and psychological health problems. The present research provides the first systematic examination of whether activating the mental representation of an attachment figure enhances the regulation of affect triggered by thinking about upsetting memories. Using 2 different techniques for priming attachment figure representations and 2 types of negative affect measures (explicit and implicit), activating the mental representation of an attachment figure (vs. an acquaintance or stranger) after recalling an upsetting memory enhanced recovery--eliminating the negative effects of the memory recall (Studies 1-3). In contrast, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure before recalling an upsetting memory had no such effect (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure after thinking about upsetting memories reduced negative thinking in a stream of consciousness task, and the magnitude of the attachment-induced affective recovery effects as assessed with explicit affect measures predicted mental and physical health in daily life (Study 3). Finally, a meta-analysis of the 3 studies (Study 4) showed that the regulatory benefits conferred by the mental representation of an attachment figure were weaker for individuals high on attachment avoidance. The implications of these findings for attachment, emotion regulation, and mental and physical health are discussed.

  15. MADS-box Transcription Factor OsMADS25 Regulates Root Development through Affection of Nitrate Accumulation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G.; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant’s responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice. PMID:26258667

  16. Sustained Mps1 activity is required in mitosis to recruit O-Mad2 to the Mad1–C-Mad2 core complex

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Laura; Tighe, Anthony; Santaguida, Stefano; White, Anne M.; Jones, Clifford D.; Musacchio, Andrea; Green, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Mps1 is an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this study, we describe a novel Mps1 inhibitor, AZ3146, and use it to probe the role of Mps1’s catalytic activity during mitosis. When Mps1 is inhibited before mitotic entry, subsequent recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2 to kinetochores is abolished. However, if Mps1 is inhibited after mitotic entry, the Mad1–C-Mad2 core complex remains kinetochore bound, but O-Mad2 is not recruited to the core. Although inhibiting Mps1 also interferes with chromosome alignment, we see no obvious effect on aurora B activity. In contrast, kinetochore recruitment of centromere protein E (CENP-E), a kinesin-related motor protein, is severely impaired. Strikingly, inhibition of Mps1 significantly increases its own abundance at kinetochores. Furthermore, we show that Mps1 can dimerize and transphosphorylate in cells. We propose a model whereby Mps1 transphosphorylation results in its release from kinetochores, thus facilitating recruitment of O-Mad2 and CENP-E and thereby simultaneously promoting checkpoint signaling and chromosome congression. PMID:20624899

  17. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  18. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground. ...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground. ...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or...

  7. Single-Event Upset and Snapback in Silicon-on-Insulator Devices and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    DODD,PAUL E.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; WALSH,DAVID S.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; HASH,GERALD L.; LOEMKER,RHONDA ANN; DRAPER,BRUCE L.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    The characteristics Of ion-induced charge collection and single-event upset are studied in SOI transistors and circuits with various body tie structures. Impact ionization effects including single-event snapback are shown to be very important. Focused ion microbeam experiments are used to find single-event snapback drain voltage thresholds in n-channel SOI transistors as a function of device width. Three-Dimensional device simulations are used to determine single-event upset and snapback thresholds in SOI SRAMS, and to study design tradeoffs for various body-tie structures. A window of vulnerability to single-event snapback is shown to exist below the single-event upset threshold. The presence of single-event snapback in commercial SOI SRAMS is confirmed through broadbeam ion testing, and implications for hardness assurance testing of SOI integrated circuits are discussed.

  8. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine(23) and arginine(24)) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins.

  9. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine23 and arginine24) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins. PMID:25096923

  10. Stem Cells and Niemann Pick Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Niemann Pick A disease causes a progressive accumulation of sphyngomyelin in several organs and the survival of the patients is usually limited to three years. We describe the outcome of a patient suffering from Niemann Pick A disease, who first underwent an haploidentical bone marrow transplantation, and then intrathecal and I.V injections of mesenchymal cells. Methods and Results: While the outcome of bone marrow transplantation was a complete failure, one month after the treatment with the mesenchymal cells the patient improved from the psychomotor and the parenchymal storage perspective. When hypersplenism was solved platelets rose quickly from 20,000 to 120,000/microliter. Conclusions: Therefore cellular therapy should be considered as a possible choice of treatment of NPA disease. PMID:24921025

  11. Drosophila Smad2 Opposes Mad Signaling during Wing Vein Development

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Veronika; Eivers, Edward; Choi, Renee H.; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    In the vertebrates, the BMP/Smad1 and TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathways execute antagonistic functions in different contexts of development. The differentiation of specific structures results from the balance between these two pathways. For example, the gastrula organizer/node of the vertebrates requires a region of low Smad1 and high Smad2 signaling. In Drosophila, Mad regulates tissue determination and growth in the wing, but the function of dSmad2 in wing patterning is largely unknown. In this study, we used an RNAi loss-of-function approach to investigate dSmad2 signaling during wing development. RNAi-mediated knockdown of dSmad2 caused formation of extra vein tissue, with phenotypes similar to those seen in Dpp/Mad gain-of-function. Clonal analyses revealed that the normal function of dSmad2 is to inhibit the response of wing intervein cells to the extracellular Dpp morphogen gradient that specifies vein formation, as measured by expression of the activated phospho-Mad protein. The effect of dSmad2 depletion in promoting vein differentiation was dependent on Medea, the co-factor shared by Mad and dSmad2. Furthermore, double RNAi experiments showed that Mad is epistatic to dSmad2. In other words, depletion of Smad2 had no effect in Mad-deficient wings. Our results demonstrate a novel role for dSmad2 in opposing Mad-mediated vein formation in the wing. We propose that the main function of dActivin/dSmad2 in Drosophila wing development is to antagonize Dpp/Mad signaling. Possible molecular mechanisms for the opposition between dSmad2 and Mad signaling are discussed. PMID:20442782

  12. Bayesian peak picking for NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yichen; Gao, Xin; Liang, Faming

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of the pick cutting hoads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telementry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder.

  14. Closed-Loop Performance Measures for Flight Controllers Subject to Neutron-Induced Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. Steven; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that atmospheric neutrons can produce single event upsets in digital flight control hardware. The phenomenon has been studied extensively at the chip level, and now system level experiments are underway. In this paper analytical closed-loop performance measures for the tracking error are developed for a plant that is stabilized by a recoverable computer system subject to neutron induced upsets. The underlying model is a Markov jump-linear system with process noise. The steady-state tracking error is expressed in terms of a generalized observability Gramian.

  15. Investigation of Single Events Upsets in Silicon and GaAs Structures Using Reaction Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    bar kilo pascal (kPa) 1.000 000 X E+2 barn meter2 (m2) 1.000 000 X E-28 British Thermal unit (thermochemical) joule (J) 1.054 350 X E+3 calorie...DISCUSSION - I PARAACTER FT 0 104a 2 PARAMETER FIT ’ 14• EUTRON DATA Proton and heavy ion upset measurement results am 0 PROTON DATA shown in Table H...model: circuits are deliberately designed not to upset in the natural environment at ground level. This environment includes thermal fluctuations as

  16. Upset welded 304L and 316L vessels for storage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of vessels for tritium storage tests were fabricated using upset welding. A solid-state resistance upset weld was used to join the two halves of each vessel at the girth. The vessels differ from production reservoirs in design, material, and fabrication process. One set was made from forged 304L stainless steel and the other from forged 316L stainless steel. Six vessels of each type were loaded with a tritium mix in November 1995 and placed in storage at 71 C. This memo describes and documents the fabrication of the twelve vessels.

  17. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  18. Causes of Formation and Ways of Elimination of Defects on the Internal Surface of Upset Tube Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, A. A.; Erpalov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Causes of formation of defects on the internal surface of oil tubes with ends formed by upsetting in SMS Meer hydraulic presses are considered. Interrelated requirements on billets and calibration of the equipment aimed at intensifying the upsetting process in one pass with growth of the wall thickening factor to about 1.85 are formulated.

  19. 'The verses of madness': schizophrenia and poetry.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Holloway, David; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2012-12-20

    In the early 19th century, Lombroso introduced the concept of hereditary taint to describe the coexistence of 'madness' and creativity. In a recent investigation, Rust et al reported a study designed to test the traditionally assumed relationship between creativity and schizophrenia. They uncovered an association between creative originality and the positive cognitive aspects of schizotypal thinking. Poetry is not only the 'product' of psychopathology but it can also be utilised as a form of therapy: "My name is David Holloway, I am a 33 year old poet/blogger with paranoid schizophrenia. A poet called Charles Bukowski has described poetry as the 'ultimate psychiatrist', and I am a firm believer in this. The strongest part of my personality is my belief in the power of love. My recovery has relied heavily on medication, diet and exercise. However it is the power of poetry that has been my true inspiration."

  20. Single event upset and hardening in 0.15 /spl mu/m antifuse-based field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.; Wong, W.; Wolday, S.; Cronquist, B.; McCollum, J.; Katz, R.; Kleyner, I.

    2003-12-01

    The single event effects and hardening of a 0.15 /spl mu/m antifuse FPGA, the AX device, were investigated by beam test and computer simulation. The beam test showed no permanent damage mode. Functional failures were observed and attributed to the upsets in a control logic circuit, the startup sequencer. Clock upsets were observed and attributed to the single event transients in the clock network. Upsets were also measured in the user flip-flop and embedded SRAM. The hardening technique dealing with each upset mode is discussed in detail. SPICE and three-dimensional mixed-mode simulations were used to determine the design rules for mitigating the multiple upsets due to glancing angle and charge sharing. The hardening techniques have been implemented in the newly fabricated RTAXS device. Preliminary heavy-ion-beam test data show that all the hard-wired hardening solutions are working successfully.

  1. Data and results of a laboratory investigation of microprocessor upset caused by simulated lightning-induced analog transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced composite aircraft designs include fault-tolerant computer-based digital control systems with thigh reliability requirements for adverse as well as optimum operating environments. Since aircraft penetrate intense electromagnetic fields during thunderstorms, onboard computer systems maya be subjected to field-induced transient voltages and currents resulting in functional error modes which are collectively referred to as digital system upset. A methodology was developed for assessing the upset susceptibility of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general-purpose microprocessor were studied via tests which involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning-induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080-based microcomputer from which upset error data were recorded. The application of Markov modeling to upset susceptibility estimation is discussed and a stochastic model development.

  2. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  3. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  4. Experimental comparison between upsetting characteristics of porous components prepared by Fe-based sintering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depczyński, W.; Miłek, T.; Nowakowski, Ł.

    2017-02-01

    The investigation has been undertaken to develop and study the upsetting characteristics of iron-based sintered porous components by using elemental powders through powder metallurgical techniques. The paper presents experimental results of forming Fe-based sintered porous samples and upsetting it by two methods. The first method involves upsetting between two flat plates (anvils). The second method is based on the deformation of the material in closed-die. The study compares the graphs of variation of the force vs. displacement. The aim of the article is to compare the experimental characteristics of upsetting process of samples with different porosities. Metallic porous structure was obtained as a result of sintering processes Fe-based powders mixtures with addition of copper catalyst and Fe (III) oxide as a space holder. The sintering was proceeded at the temperature of 1130OC and 50 min. long, in dissociated ammonia protective gas. Some samples were sintered with addition of powdered activated carbon to increase its porosity properties and change chemical composition.

  5. Fluoride-added Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets with increased electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, M.; Gabay, A. M.; Liu, J. F.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2009-04-01

    This work reports the effect of NdF3, DyF3, and CaF2 additions on the electrical resistivity and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B hot-pressed and die-upset permanent magnets. Composite magnets were synthesized from ground Pr14.5Fe79.5B6 melt-spun ribbons blended with 5wt% of fluoride fine powders and consolidated by hot pressing at 650°C, followed by die upsetting at 800°C. While CaF2 is stable at the processing temperatures, the rare earth atoms separate from their fluorides to a certain degree with the assistance of the Pr-rich phase from the magnet matrix. Addition of fluorides increased the resistivity of the hot-pressed specimens by more than 200%. The resistivity of the die-upset specimens measured perpendicularly to the direction of the applied pressure, which is also the direction of magnetization, is, however, only slightly increased compared to the magnet counterparts without the fluoride addition. The intrinsic coercivity of Pr14.5Fe79.5B6 die-upset specimens is increased from 14.5kOe to 15.3, 17.1, and 17.7kOe for the addition of CaF2, DyF3, and NdF3, respectively, at a slight expense of the residual flux.

  6. Single event upset vulnerability of selected 4K and 16K CMOS static RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, W. A.; Koga, R.; Blake, J. B.; Brucker, G.; Pandya, P.; Petersen, E.; Price, W.

    1982-01-01

    Upset thresholds for bulk CMOS and CMOS/SOS RAMS were deduced after bombardment of the devices with 140 MeV Kr, 160 MeV Ar, and 33 MeV O beams in a cyclotron. The trials were performed to test prototype devices intended for space applications, to relate feature size to the critical upset charge, and to check the validity of computer simulation models. The tests were run on 4 and 1 K memory cells with 6 transistors, in either hardened or unhardened configurations. The upset cross sections were calculated to determine the critical charge for upset from the soft errors observed in the irradiated cells. Computer simulations of the critical charge were found to deviate from the experimentally observed variation of the critical charge as the square of the feature size. Modeled values of series resistors decoupling the inverter pairs of memory cells showed that above some minimum resistance value a small increase in resistance produces a large increase in the critical charge, which the experimental data showed to be of questionable validity unless the value is made dependent on the maximum allowed read-write time.

  7. Single-Event Upset Testing of the Performance Semiconductor 1750A CMOS/ SOS Chip Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    In addition, long event upset test computer is a single - board computer made cables are more sensitive to electrical noise. by Silicon Composers and...microprocessors PACE I 750A chip set was individually irradiated by mov- mounted in a single - board computer running some ing each device into the beam

  8. Upsetting Others and Provoking Ridicule: Children's Reasoning about the Self-Presentational Consequences of Rule Violation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Robin; Bennett, Mark; Luke, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined children's understanding of the distinctive "self-presentational" impacts of moral and social-conventional rule violations. A sample of 80 children aged 7-8 and 9-10 years generated examples of interpersonal events that would upset others and events that would elicit social attention to the self. As expected, both age groups…

  9. Single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices - A summary of JPL test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized describe single event upset (bit-flips) for 60 device types having data storage elements. The data are from 15 acceleration tests with both protons and heavier ions. Tables are included summarizing the upset threshold data and listing the devices tested for heavy ion induced bit-flip and the devices tested with protons. With regard to the proton data, it is noted that the data are often limited to one proton energy, since the tests were usually motivated by the engineering requirement of comparing similar candidate devices for a system. It is noted that many of the devices exhibited no upset for the given test conditions (the maximum fluence and the maximum proton energy Ep are given for these cases). It is believed, however, that some possibility of upset usually exists because there is a slight chance that the recoil atom may receive up to 10 to 20 MeV of recoil energy (with more energy at higher Ep).

  10. Upsetting Others and Provoking Ridicule: Children's Reasoning about the Self-Presentational Consequences of Rule Violation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Robin; Bennett, Mark; Luke, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined children's understanding of the distinctive "self-presentational" impacts of moral and social-conventional rule violations. A sample of 80 children aged 7-8 and 9-10 years generated examples of interpersonal events that would upset others and events that would elicit social attention to the self. As expected, both age groups…

  11. Homeotic MADS-box genes encoding LeMADS-MC orthologues in wild tomato species (genus Solanum).

    PubMed

    Slugina, M A; Kochieva, E Z; Skryabin, K G; Shchennikova, A V

    2017-05-01

    New full-length genes encoding the LeMADS-MC transcription factor orthologues were identified and functionally characterized in wild tomato species S. cheesmaniae and S. habrochaites. A comparative analysis of the encoded proteins and LeMADS-MC of the cultivated tomato species S. lycopersicum revealed two major amino acid residues substitutions: V155E in the K-domain of ShaMADS-MC (S. habrochaites) and S80L in the I-region of SchMADS-MC (S. cheesmaniae). Structural differences of the C-terminal regions of MC and the canonical euAP1 proteins indicate possible chromosomal rearrangements in the Solanoideae subfamily, which, however, did not change the main known conserved euAP1 functions.

  12. Women's madness J Ussher Women's madness Harvester Wheatsheaf 342pp £13.50 0-7450-0832-1.

    PubMed

    1993-03-10

    Women's Madness: Misogyny or Mental Illness? is an extremely interesting book that examines the experiences of women with depression and the way that society deals with women's mental distress. It looks at two opposing viewpoints.

  13. Cold pressor pain in skin picking disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, under-recognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. There has been no examination as to whether individuals with SPD have different pain thresholds or pain tolerances compared to healthy counterparts. Adults with SPD were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity and functioning. All participants underwent the cold pressor test. Heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported pain were compared between SPD participants (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14). Adults with SPD demonstrated significantly dampened autonomic response to cold pressor pain as exhibited by reduced heart rate compared to controls (group x time interaction using repeated ANOVA F=3.258, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of overall pain tolerance (measured in seconds), recovery time, or blood pressure. SPD symptom severity was not significantly associated with autonomic response in the patients. In this study, adults with SPD exhibited a dampened autonomic response to pain while reporting pain intensity similar to that reported by the controls. The lack of an autonomic response may explain why the SPD participants continue a behavior that they cognitively find painful and may offer options for future interventions. PMID:28063396

  14. A case of combined Pick's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Lantos, P L

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of combined Pick's and Alzheimer's disease is rare, and over the years different authors have used different criteria to arrive at such a diagnosis. A case is reported of presenile dementia in which the histological changes of Pick's disease and Alzheimer's disease were mingled. The brain showed no focal atrophy, but the Pick changes were most numerous in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe. An antibody against the 155 kilodalton component of neurofilaments demonstrated not only neurofibrillary tangles and components of senile plaques, but also Pick's inclusions. Images PMID:6310050

  15. Coal/rock interface detection by sensitized pick, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. T. K.; Erkes, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to increase the operating margins of the detector for safe, reliable operation under difficult in-mine conditions the transmitted signal strength was increased to provide additional signal margin for in-mine conditions and the transmitter section was redesigned to reduce frequency pulling of the transmitter frequency with variations in antenna load. The linearity of the pick load SCO signal with true pick load was increased, and hysteresis effects were minimized. The sensitized pick hardware was ruggedized for rough inmine use. The sensitized pick and telemetry system provided excellent, high quality signals proportional to cutting load under all conditions experienced during testing.

  16. Self-reported stomach upset in travellers on cruise-based and land-based package holidays.

    PubMed

    Launders, Naomi J; Nichols, Gordon L; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years.

  17. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  18. Variability in the insect and plant adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the fungal genus metarhizium suggest plant adaptation as an evolutionary force.

    PubMed

    Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1α, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 5' EF-1α than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.

  19. MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met interaction with smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xueqin; Zhu, Beibei; Lou, Jiao; Li, Jiaoyuan; Shen, Na; Yang, Yang; Gong, Yajie; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Jing; Xia, Xiaoping; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has been established as an important mechanism of driving aneuploidy, which occurs at a high frequency in the colorectal tumorigenesis. Two important components of SAC are MAD1L1 and MAD2L1, which function together in an interactive manner to initiate the checkpoint signal. We hypothesize that genetic variants in the binding domains of MAD1L1 and MAD2L1 may modulate protein structures and eventually contribute to CRC susceptibility. A case-control study including 710 CRC cases and 735 controls was performed to examine MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met’s conferring susceptibility to CRC. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were applied to assess the effect of two functional variants on chromosomal instability (CIN). Significant associations with CRC risk were observed for MAD1L1 Arg558His (OR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.09–1.75) and MAD2L1 Leu84Met in a dominant model (OR = 1.48,95% CI: 1.09–2.01). Moreover, significant multiplicative gene-smoking interactions were found in MAD1L1 Arg558His (P = 0.019) and MAD2L184 Leu/Met (P = 0.016) to enhance CRC risk. Additionally, the frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells for MAD1L1 Arg558His polymorphism were significantly different in the exposed group (P = 0.013), but not in the control group. The study emphasized that MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met can significantly interact with smoking to enhance CRC risk, and the genetic effects of MAD1L1Arg558His on CIN need to be further clarified in follow-up studies. PMID:26183163

  20. Functional Characterization of OsMADS18, a Member of the AP1/SQUA Subfamily of MADS Box Genes1[w

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Fabio; Pařenicová, Lucie; Falasca, Giuseppina; Pelucchi, Nilla; Masiero, Simona; Ciannamea, Stefano; Lopez-Dee, Zenaida; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Colombo, Lucia; Kater, Martin M.

    2004-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors controlling flower development have been isolated and studied in a wide variety of organisms. These studies have shown that homologous MADS box genes from different species often have similar functions. OsMADS18 from rice (Oryza sativa) belongs to the phylogenetically defined AP1/SQUA group. The MADS box genes of this group have functions in plant development, like controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, determination of floral organ identity, and regulation of fruit maturation. In this paper we report the functional analysis of OsMADS18. This rice MADS box gene is widely expressed in rice with its transcripts accumulated to higher levels in meristems. Overexpression of OsMADS18 in rice induced early flowering, and detailed histological analysis revealed that the formation of axillary shoot meristems was accelerated. Silencing of OsMADS18 using an RNA interference approach did not result in any visible phenotypic alteration, indicating that OsMADS18 is probably redundant with other MADS box transcription factors. Surprisingly, overexpression of OsMADS18 in Arabidopsis caused a phenotype closely resembling the ap1 mutant. We show that the ap1 phenotype is not caused by down-regulation of AP1 expression. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that some of the natural partners of AP1 interact with OsMADS18, suggesting that the OsMADS18 overexpression phenotype in Arabidopsis is likely to be due to the subtraction of AP1 partners from active transcription complexes. Thus, when compared to AP1, OsMADS18 during evolution seems to have conserved the mechanistic properties of protein-protein interactions, although it cannot complement the AP1 function. PMID:15299121

  1. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  2. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-12-31

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  3. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  4. [Psychosis and the borders of madness].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The word "psychosis", designing a group of worse psychical pathologies, has been progressively substituted, since 1850, to the word "madness" in the psychiatric literature. Without any consensus on a precise etiology of all kinds of psychosis, there is a large convergence on a clinical diagnostic with one main symptom: the loss of a sens of reality. This loss is supposed to derive from an alteration of the body diagram of the subject. This alteration implies the non-separation between the subject and the word, and then, a blockage of any authentic communication with the Other. Being so blocked, the temporal perception impeaches the fulfilling of the subjectivity's usual goals. The loss of reality could also induce a delirium, which tries to rebuild another kind of relation with the world. The issue about psychosis brings us to that ultimate question, so what we need to root the psychical distortion in the ordinary perceptive life, because our life is frequently inhabited by dreams, phantasms, and moreover hallucinations. Therefore, we need to examine and to question the meaning and the legitimacy of the strict boarder currently established beetween reason and insanity.

  5. Mad about Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jargodzki, Christopher; Potter, Franklin

    2000-11-01

    Why is there eight times more ice in Antarctica than in the Arctic? Why can you warm your hands by blowing gently, and cool your hands by blowing hard? Why would a pitcher scuff a baseball?Which weighs more-a pound of feathers or a pound of iron? Let science experts Christopher Jargodzki and Franklin Potter guide you through the curiosities of physics and you'll find the answers to these and hundreds of other quirky conundrums. You'll discover why sounds carry well over water (especially in the summer), how a mouse can be levitated in a magnetic field, why backspin is so important when shooting a basketball, and whether women are indeed as strong as men. With nearly 400 questions and answers on everything from race cars to jumping fleas to vanishing elephants, Mad about Physics presents a comprehensive collection of braintwisters and paradoxes that will challenge and entertain even the brainiest of science lovers. Whether you're a physicist by trade or just want to give your brain a power workout, this collection of intriguing and unusual physics challenges will send you on a highly entertaining ride that reveals the relevance of physics in our everyday lives.

  6. Romantic fantasies of madness and objections to psychotropic medication.

    PubMed

    Tutter, Adele

    2009-06-01

    Many patients object to, and often refuse, psychotropic medications. The exploration-a "defense analysis"-of their objections brings attention to ubiquitous fantasies of madness, which may be feared and concealed as a source of shame, destruction, and loss, and also cherished and revered as a source of power, inspiration, and mystery. They are commonly illuminated when the prospect of taking medication threatens to expose, confirm, and defuse the fantasized hidden or latent madness. Conscious or unconscious, fantasies of madness can be deeply, appealingly romantic in nature, providing valuable narcissistic supplies while defending against their more humiliating and terrifying aspects. Drawing on personal dynamics, experiences, and identifications, they are thus ultimately and intimately linked to representations of the self. Significant romantic texts illustrate how split-off conceptualizations of madness function as an organizing repository for unacceptable and intolerable emotions, wishes, and impulses. Psychoanalysts may also object to the introduction of medication into an analytic treatment. The analyst's own fantasies around madness and medication may in some cases motivate enactments in which the talking cure is privileged and medication excluded from analytic treatment or from analytic process.

  7. Mapping bipolar worlds: lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Vera

    2012-03-01

    This article aims to advance our understanding of women's and men's experiences of negotiating bipolar 'madness' in society and space. It addresses gaps in the clinical literature on life with bipolar and geographic accounts of 'madness' and psycho-emotional distress by considering altered ways of being in place that bipolar 'madness' entails and how narrative sense is made of these. Conceptually, I build on Cosgrove's (2000) approach to psycho-emotional distress and geographic insights about being 'mad' in place. Methodologically and empirically, I draw on thematic narrative analysis of autobiographies of living with bipolar. Key findings include altered paradoxically (dis)embodied ways of being-in-place, 'fractured' or 'whole' senses of self and ways of relating to people/places, 'straddling' 'real' and 'delusional' worlds and bipolar ways of negotiating places are not straightforwardly 'irrational'. While narrative accounts most often invoke dominant discourses about bipolar, sometimes these are challenged through 'rescripting' and 'revaluing mad' identities and ways of being in place. In conclusion, key findings and avenues for future geographical research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. JWST NIRCam pick-off mirror grounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demroff, Howard; Mammini, Paul V.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Jones, Brian; Hu, Sidney; Dammann, Ron; Mathieson, James

    2013-09-01

    The optics train of the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes a pick-off mirror (POM) mounted in the focus and alignment mechanism (FAM). Over the course of the mission, the POM will have a narrow view of the L2 space environment. Charged particles will impinge and collect on the mirror surface increasing the possibility of arcing to the adjacent baffle. A technique to ground the POM and remove accumulated charge has been qualified and implemented on the flight instrument. This paper will provide an overview of the qualification process including cryogenic resistance measurements, vibration testing and optical surface error measurements. To measure the efficiency of this grounding technique, a POM engineering model was exposed to representative mission electron fluence and results with the POM grounded and ungrounded will be presented.

  9. Niemann-Pick type B in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Rita Gonçalves; Maia, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a rare group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with intracellular deposition of sphingomyelin. NPD type B is a milder form, generally later in onset, with a good prognosis for survival into adulthood and usually with no neurological abnormalities. The authors describe the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with unexplained pancytopenia and splenomegaly. He was admitted to emergency splenectomy due to pathological splenic rupture. The histological findings showed diffuse histiocytosis, suggesting lysosomal storage disease. The NPD was confirmed when residual activity of acid sphingomyelinase in peripheral blood leucocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts was detected. Besides lipid abnormalities, the patient also had lipid interstitial pneumonia. There is no treatment for NPD. Management is based on surveillance and supportive care. The patient has reached the sixth decade of life with no symptoms and, despite the pneumonia and splenectomy, he still has a fairly healthy life. PMID:25657196

  10. Modeling and assessing the influence of linear energy transfer on multiple bit upset susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Liu, Jie; Xi, Kai; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Gu, Song; Liu, Tian-Qi

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the metric of linear energy transfer (LET) on single event upset (SEU), particularly multiple bit upset (MBU) in a hypothetical 90-nm static random access memory (SRAM) is explored. To explain the odd point of higher LET incident ion but induced lower cross section in the curve of SEU cross section, MBUs induced by incident ions 132Xe and 209Bi with the same LET but different energies at oblique incidence are investigated using multi-functional package for single event effect analysis (MUFPSA). In addition, a comprehensive analytical model of the radial track structure is incorporated into MUFPSA, which is a complementation for assessing and interpreting MBU susceptibility of SRAM. The results show that (i) with the increase of incident angle, MBU multiplicity and probability each present an increasing trend; (ii) due to the higher ion relative velocity and longer range of δ electrons, higher energy ions trigger the MBU with less probability than lower energy ions.

  11. Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.

  12. Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts and emotional eating in family caregivers.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Megan; Steffen, Ann

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts was examined as a predictor of emotional eating by family caregivers of physically and cognitively impaired older adults. Adult women (N = 158) providing healthcare assistance for an older family member completed an online survey about caregiving stressors, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and emotional eating. A stress process framework was used as a conceptual model to guide selection of variables predicting emotional eating scores. A hierarchical multiple regression was conducted and the overall model was significant (R(2) = .21, F(4,153) = 10.02, p < .01); self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts was a significant predictor of caregivers' emotional eating scores after accounting for IADL, role overload, and depression scores. These findings replicate previous research demonstrating the relationship between managing cognitions about caregiving and behavioral responses to stressors, and point to the importance of addressing cognitive processes in efforts to improve caregiver health behaviors.

  13. The single event upset response of the analog devices, ADSP2100A, digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Seran, H.; Armbruster, P.; Adams, L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a radiation evaluation program carried out by ESTEC on the Analog Devices, ADSP2100A, which is a single chip microprocessor optimized for 12.5 Mips Digital Signal Processing (DSP). Single Event Upset/Latch-up (SEU/SEL) testing using Californium-252 was the primary aim of this program, however, accelerator heavy ion and proton SEU/SEL data as well as total ionizing dose data are also presented. The hardware design and software used will be described and details of the various tests and test facilities will be given. Finally, the authors report on the use of the SEU data for the calculation of expected in-orbit upset rates using the CREME suite of programs.

  14. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening.

  15. A new MADS-box gene (IbMADS10) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Lalusin, Antonio G; Nishita, Koichi; Kim, Sung-Hyung; Ohta, Masaru; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2006-01-01

    A new MADS-box gene designated as IbMADS10 was cloned and its expression was characterized from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Beniazuma. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors. IbMADS10 shares high amino acid sequence similarity with the DEFH28 of Antirrhinum majus (64%) and with BpMADS4 of Betula pendula (61%) of the SQUA subfamily. Southern blot analysis revealed that the IbMADS10 is present in one or low copy number in the sweet potato genome. The gene is specifically expressed in the pigmented tissues such as in the flower bud, in the pink and in red roots, and hence, it was speculated that the IbMADS10 gene might be correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato. RNA blot expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding for CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFTG carried out in the tissues where the IbMADS10 gene was expressed revealed similar transcript levels in all tissues where the IbMADS10 gene is highly expressed, indicating that the IbMADS10 gene is highly correlated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Another important aspect is the pigmented phenotypes of transgenic calli that ectopically express the IbMADS10 gene, thereby supporting its involvement in the developmental regulation of pigment formation. Tissue printing result further strengthens the hypothesis that the IbMADS10 gene is indeed involved in anthocyanin pigmentation in sweet potato. As the purpose of the IbMADS10 gene is pigmentation, its function, therefore, resembles that of the transparent testa (tt) genes of Arabidopsis.

  16. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  17. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  18. Niemann-Pick disease type A presenting as unilateral tremors.

    PubMed

    Vykuntaraju, K N; Lokanatha, Hemalatha; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    Niemann-Pick group of diseases are rare lysosomal storage disorders. The clinical phenotype is variable. We report a child who first time presented with tremors of tongue and tremors of one side of the body. On examination child had hemiparesis and hepatosplenomegaly. Bone marrow examination shows storage cells suggestive of Niemann-Pick cells and enzyme assay confirmed the diagnosis.

  19. Open-label escitalopram treatment for pathological skin picking.

    PubMed

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Jameson, Mariko; Loh, Rebecca; Deckersbach, Thilo; Wilhelm, Sabine; Dougherty, Darin D

    2007-09-01

    Pathological skin picking is characterized by dysfunctional, repetitive and excessive manipulation of the skin resulting in noticeable tissue damage. This study sought to assess the effectiveness of escitalopram in treating pathological skin picking. Twenty-nine individuals with pathological skin picking were enrolled in an 18-week, open-label trial of escitalopram. Study measures assessing skin picking severity and impact, anxiety, depression, and quality of life were given at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 18. The mean maximally tolerated dose was 25.0 mg (standard deviation=8.4). For the 19 study completers, pre-post-treatment analyses revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) on measures of skin picking severity and impact, quality of life, and self-rated anxiety and depression. Completer as well as intent-to-treat analyses indicated that approximately half of the sample satisfied full medication response criteria and one-quarter were partial medication responders. Correlational analyses indicated that changes in depression, anxiety, and quality of life co-occurred with reductions in skin picking severity but not impact. A high percentage of variance in severity, however, remained unexplained. These results suggest that escitalopram can be an effective agent in reducing pathological skin picking. The lack of medication response in a subset of our sample suggests the possibility of pathological skin picking subtypes.

  20. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  1. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  2. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  3. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  4. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Zhi; Guo, Juan-Juan; Liu, Dan-Mei; Li, Ai-Li; Fan, Ren-Chun; Mao, Long; Zhang, Xiang-Qi

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes are important transcription factors for plant development, especially floral organogenesis. Brachypodium distachyon is a model for biofuel plants and temperate grasses such as wheat and barley, but a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Brachypodium is still missing. We report here a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. We identified 57 MADS-box genes and classified them into 32 MIKC(c)-type, 7 MIKC*-type, 9 Mα, 7 Mβ and 2 Mγ MADS-box genes according to their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. Detailed gene structure and motif distribution were then studied. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that Brachypodium MADS-box genes distributed evenly across five chromosomes. In addition, five pairs of type II MADS-box genes were found on synteny blocks derived from whole genome duplication blocks. We then performed a systematic expression analysis of Brachypodium MADS-box genes in various tissues, particular floral organs. Further detection under salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions showed that some MADS-box genes may also be involved in abiotic stress responses, including type I genes. Comparative studies of MADS-box genes among Brachypodium, rice and Arabidopsis showed that Brachypodium had fewer gene duplication events. Taken together, this work provides useful data for further functional studies of MADS-box genes in Brachypodium distachyon.

  6. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  7. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  8. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  9. Characterizing SRAM Single Event Upset in Terms of Single and Double Node Charge Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. D.; Ball, D. R., II; Robinson, W. H.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Reed, R. A.; Black, D. A.; Warren, K. M.; Tipton, A. D.; Dodd, P. E.; hide

    2008-01-01

    A well-collapse source-injection mode for SRAM SEU is demonstrated through TCAD modeling. The recovery of the SRAM s state is shown to be based upon the resistive path from the p+-sources in the SRAM to the well. Multiple cell upset patterns for direct charge collection and the well-collapse source-injection mechanisms are then predicted and compared to recent SRAM test data.

  10. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-05-09

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention.

  11. [Madness in the German cinema (1913-1933].

    PubMed

    Aulas, J J

    1980-01-01

    During these twenty years, from 1913 to 1933, of the history of the German cinema, the cinematographic representation of madness varies according to the fluctuations of the social and economical background. The political and ideological chaos of the immediate post-war years was symbolized in the allegorical imagery of unreason in the expressionist cinema. The same equivalence, the same symbolization can be found in the cinema of the thirties when the crash of Wall-Street foretells a crisis like the former. On the contrary in the course of the so-called "relative stabilization" (1924-1929) the meaning of the representation of madness is totally different from the representation of the previous period. At this period of economical restoration, madness which could henceforth be cured on the psychoanalyst's couch (acc. G. W. Pabst's film: "Geheimnisse einer Seele") became the symbol of the absolute power rediscovered by Germany.

  12. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of pick cutting loads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telemetry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder. The design of components in the test data system were finalized, the required instruments were assembled, the instrument system was evaluated in an above-ground simulation test, and an underground test series to obtain tape recorded sensor data was conducted.

  13. Solid-state resistance upset welding: A process with unique advantages for advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Solid-state resistance upset welding is suitable for joining many alloys that are difficult to weld using fusion processes. Since no melting takes place, the weld metal retains many of the characteristics of the base metal. Resulting welds have a hot worked structure, and thereby have higher strength than fusion welds in the same mate. Since the material being joined is not melted, compositional gradients are not introduced, second phase materials are minimally disrupted, and minor alloying elements, do not affect weldability. Solid-state upset welding has been adapted for fabrication of structures considered very large compared to typical resistance welding applications. The process has been used for closure of capsules, small vessels, and large containers. Welding emphasis has been on 304L stainless steel, the material for current applications. Other materials have, however, received enough attention to have demonstrated capability for joining alloys that are not readily weldable using fusion welding methods. A variety of other stainless steels (including A-286), superalloys (including TD nickel), refractory metals (including tungsten), and aluminum alloys (including 2024) have been successfully upset welded.

  14. Monitoring single event upsets in SRAM-based FPGAs at the SuperKEKB interaction point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, R.; Tortone, G.; Perrella, S.; Izzo, V.; Aloisio, A.

    2017-07-01

    In February 2016, the SuperKEKB positron-electron high-luminosity collider of the KEK laboratory (Tsukuba, Japan) started being commissioned. A dedicated commissioning detector, named BEAST2, has been used to characterize beam backgrounds before the Belle2 detector was rolled into the beams and to provide tuning parameters for Monte Carlo simulations. BEAST2 consists of a fiberglass support structure and several sub-detectors mounted onto it, including time projection chambers (TPCs) and He-3 tubes. In this work, we present direct measurements of radiation-induced single event upsets in a SRAM-based FPGA device installed in BEAST2 at a distance of ~ 1 m from the beam interaction point. Our goal was to provide experimental results of the expected radiation-induced configuration upset rate and power consumption variation at Belle2 and at other experiments operating in similar radiation environments. Beam currents for both electron and positron rings spanned a range between 50 and 500 mA, therefore providing data about the FPGA operation in different radiation conditions. Even if the machine has not been providing collisions yet, as the beams were not focused to the interaction point, our results show a rate of 0.15 upsets/day averaged over the whole commissioning time frame. We had neither evidence of total dose effects on the FPGA power consumption nor of permanent damage to the device.

  15. Textured NdFeB HDDR magnets produced by die-upsetting and backward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutfleisch, O.; Kirchner, A.; Grünberger, W.; Hinz, D.; Nagel, H.; Thompson, P.; Chapman, J. N.; Müller, K. H.; Schultz, L.; Harris, I. R.

    1998-04-01

    The hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process was applied to produce isotropic, submicron 0022-3727/31/7/009/img6 powder in 500 g batches in a specially designed HDDR reactor. The hot pressing characteristics of the material were determined and it was shown that the material has an excellent stability against grain growth. The coercivity of 1000-1080 0022-3727/31/7/009/img7 is almost constant over a hot pressing temperature range of 700-0022-3727/31/7/009/img8, making the material highly suitable for subsequent hot deformation. Die-upset HDDR magnets were prepared in order to study the basic deformation behaviour. A remanence of 1.13 T in the axial direction and a coercivity of 0022-3727/31/7/009/img9 were achieved. Similar properties were obtained for the backward extruded magnets produced at 0022-3727/31/7/009/img10 and only a small decrease in alignment along the axial direction of the ring was found. Grain sizes were very uniform and on the submicron scale. Platelet-shaped grains were observed in the die-upset magnets. The formation of interaction domains, along the axial and radial directions for the die-upset and backward extruded magnets respectively, were established by high-resolution Kerr microscopy. The high degree of texture in the hot deformed HDDR magnets was also confirmed by Lorentz microscopy revealing continuous equispaced domains extending over the entire thinned sample with only small directional variations.

  16. Die-upset Pr-Fe-B-type magnets from melt-spun ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, C.D.; Brewer, E.G.; Mishra, R.K. ); Zhu, Y.; Welch, D.O. )

    1994-04-15

    In order to optimize the magnetic properties of die-upset Pr-Fe-B magnets, we have systematically altered alloy compositions, including partial substitution of cobalt and neodymium, and low-level additions of gallium. In general, the remanences of Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets were lower by [similar to]1 kG, and coercivities were higher by [similar to]4 kOe, than analogous Nd-Fe-B magnets. The microstructure of the Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets was similar to Nd-Fe-B magnets. Both systems are two phase, consisting of oriented flat platelet-shaped grains of 2-14-1 separated by a rare earth-rich intergranular phase. The intergranular phase is thicker for the Pr-Fe-B magnets, resulting in enhanced magnetic domain wall pinning and increased coercivity. Even higher coercivities were obtained with small amounts of cobalt substitution ([le]5 at. % of the transition metal) and by very low-level additions of gallium ([le]0.5 at. %). The largest remanence ([ital B][sub [ital r

  17. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    We present MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) that is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision that are based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  18. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina

    2016-01-01

    MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  19. John Locke on madness: redressing the intellectualist bias.

    PubMed

    Charland, Louis C

    2014-06-01

    Locke is famous for defining madness as an intellectual disorder in the realm of ideas. Numerous commentators take this to be his main and only contribution to the history of psychiatry. However, a detailed exegetical review of all the relevant textual evidence suggests that this intellectualist interpretation of Locke's account of madness is both misleading and incomplete. Affective states of various sorts play an important role in that account and are in fact primordial in the determination of human conduct generally. Locke's legacy in this domain must therefore be revised and the intellectualist bias that dominates discussions of his views must be redressed.

  20. [The making of madness: counterculture and anti-psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, William Vaz de

    2011-03-01

    The 1950s and especially the 1960s saw constant revisions of social values and customs, with young people's movements playing a major role, above all the so-called counter-culture. The powers-that-be categorized the behavior and attitudes of the movement's followers as constituting madness. This making of madness gave rise to a stream of thought known as anti-psychiatry, which calls into question the very essence of psychiatry. The present article criticizes the psychiatric models of that era and draws links between counter-culture movements and anti-psychiatry.

  1. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  2. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the orchid Erycina pusilla.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Chang, Wan-Jung; Chou, Ming-Lun; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Jeremy J W; Ko, Swee-Suak; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Orchids exhibit a range of unique flower shapes and are a valuable ornamental crop. MADS-box transcription factors are key regulatory components in flower initiation and development. Changing the flower shape and flowering time can increase the value of the orchid in the ornamental horticulture industry. In this study, 28 MADS-box genes were identified from the transcriptome database of the model orchid Erycina pusilla. The full-length genomic sequences of these MADS-box genes were obtained from BAC clones. Of these, 27 were MIKC-type EpMADS (two truncated forms) and one was a type I EpMADS. Eleven EpMADS genes contained introns longer than 10 kb. Phylogenetic analysis classified the 24 MIKC(c) genes into nine subfamilies. Three specific protein motifs, AG, FUL and SVP, were identified and used to classify three subfamilies. The expression profile of each EpMADS gene correlated with its putative function. The phylogenetic analysis was highly correlated with the protein domain identification and gene expression results. Spatial expression of EpMADS6, EpMADS12 and EpMADS15 was strongly detected in the inflorescence meristem, floral bud and seed via in situ hybridization. The subcellular localization of the 28 EpMADS proteins was also investigated. Although EpMADS27 lacks a complete MADS-box domain, EpMADS27-YFP was localized in the nucleus. This characterization of the orchid MADS-box family genes provides useful information for both orchid breeding and studies of flowering and evolution.

  3. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  4. Characterization of 10 MADS-box genes from Pyrus pyrifolia and their differential expression during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Nishitani, Chikako; Ban, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-10-10

    We cloned 10 Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) MIKC-type II MADS-box genes, and analyzed their expression during fruit development and ripening. PpMADS2-1 was APETALA (AP)1-like; PpMADS3-1 was FRUITFULL (FUL)/SQUAMOSA (SQUA)-like; PpMADS4-1 was AGAMOUS-like (AGL)6; PpMADS5-1 and PpMADS8-1 were SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS (SOC)-like; PpMADS9-1, PpMADS12-1, PpMADS14-1 and PpMADS16-1 were SEPALLATA (SEP)-like; while PpMADS15-1 was AGL/SHATTERPROOF (SHP)-like. Phylogenetic analysis showed their grouping into five major clades (and 10 sub-clades) that was consistent with their diverse functional types. Expression analysis in flower tissue revealed their distinct putative homeotic functional classes: A-class (PpMADS2-1, PpMADS3-1, PpMADS4-1, and PpMADS14-1), C-class (PpMADS15-1), E-class (PpMADS9-1, PpMADS12-1, and PpMADS16-1) and E (F)-class (PpMADS5-1 and PpMADS8-1). Differential gene expression was observed in different fruit tissues (skin, cortex and core) as well as in the cortex during the course of fruit development and ripening. Collectively, our results suggest their involvement in the diverse aspects of plant development including flower development and the course of fruit development and ripening. © 2013.

  5. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  6. The prevalence of pathologic skin picking in US adults.

    PubMed

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Koran, Lorrin M; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the potentially severe medical and psychosocial costs of pathologic skin picking (PSP), no large-sample, randomized investigation of its prevalence in a national population has been conducted. Two thousand five hundred and thirteen US adults were interviewed during the spring and summer of 2004 in a random-sample, national household computer-assisted phone survey of PSP phenomenology and associated functional impairment. Respondents were classified for subsequent analysis according to proposed diagnostic criteria. Of all respondents, 16.6% endorsed lifetime PSP with noticeable skin damage; 60.3% of these denied picking secondary to an inflammation or itch from a medical condition. One fifth to one quarter of those with lifetime PSP not related to a medical condition endorsed tension or nervousness before picking, tension or nervousness when attempting to resist picking, and pleasure or relief during or after picking. A total of 1.4% of our entire sample satisfied our criteria of picking with noticeable skin damage not attributable to another condition and with associated distress or psychosocial impairment. Pickers satisfying these latter criteria differed from other respondents in demographics (age, marital status) and both picking phenomenology and frequency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical characteristics and medical complications of pathologic skin picking.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to detail the phenomenology and medical consequences of pathologic skin picking (PSP). Sixty subjects (11.7% males) with PSP (mean+/-S.D.=33.7+/-11.6 years) were assessed. Subjects seen in a pharmacological study as well as those from an ongoing outpatient longitudinal study comprised this sample. Subjects were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity (using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders), clinical severity (using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale) and psychosocial interference due to picking (using the Sheehan Disability Scale). Clinical characteristic data, including time spent picking per day, sites picked and medical complications directly resulting from skin picking behavior, as well as family history, were also obtained. The mean age (+/-S.D.) of onset for PSP was 12.3+/-9.6 years. The face was the most common area picked. Subjects reported picking a mean of 107.6 min each day. Scarring, ulcerations and infections were common. Few had ever sought psychiatric treatment for their behavior. Current comorbid Axis I psychiatric conditions were found in 38.3% of the sample. Trichotillomania (36.7%), compulsive nail biting (26.7%), depressive disorder (16.7%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (15%) were the most common current comorbid conditions. PSP appears to be time consuming and frequently associated with medical complications. Research is needed to optimize patient care for individuals with this behavior.

  8. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in apple.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi; Dong, Qinglong; Ji, Zhirui; Chi, Fumei; Cong, Peihua; Zhou, Zongshan

    2015-01-25

    The MADS-box gene family is one of the most widely studied families in plants and has diverse developmental roles in flower pattern formation, gametophyte cell division and fruit differentiation. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding MADS-box genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 146 MADS-box genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six subgroups (MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα, Mβ, Mγ and Mδ) with the MADS-box genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple MADS-box genes were distributed across all 17 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the MADS-box domain, exon length, gene structure and motif compositions of the apple MADS-box genes were analysed. Moreover, the expression of all of the apple MADS-box genes was analysed in the root, stem, leaf, flower tissues and five stages of fruit development. All of the apple MADS-box genes, with the exception of some genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the MADS-box genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple MADS-box gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family.

  9. Targeted disruption of the MYC antagonist MAD1 inhibits cell cycle exit during granulocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, K P; McArthur, G A; Quéva, C; Hurlin, P J; Soriano, P; Eisenman, R N

    1998-01-01

    The switch from transcriptionally activating MYC-MAX to transcriptionally repressing MAD1-MAX protein heterodimers has been correlated with the initiation of terminal differentiation in many cell types. To investigate the function of MAD1-MAX dimers during differentiation, we disrupted the Mad1 gene by homologous recombination in mice. Analysis of hematopoietic differentiation in homozygous mutant animals revealed that cell cycle exit of granulocytic precursors was inhibited following the colony-forming cell stage, resulting in increased proliferation and delayed terminal differentiation of low proliferative potential cluster-forming cells. Surprisingly, the numbers of terminally differentiated bone marrow and peripheral blood granulocytes were essentially unchanged in Mad1 null mice. This imbalance between the frequencies of precursor and mature granulocytes was correlated with a compensatory decrease in granulocytic cluster-forming cell survival under apoptosis-inducing conditions. In addition, recovery of the peripheral granulocyte compartment following bone marrow ablation was significantly enhanced in Mad1 knockout mice. Two Mad1-related genes, Mxi1 and Mad3, were found to be expressed ectopically in adult spleen, indicating that functional redundancy and cross-regulation between MAD family members may allow for apparently normal differentiation in the absence of MAD1. These findings demonstrate that MAD1 regulates cell cycle withdrawal during a late stage of granulocyte differentiation, and suggest that the relative levels of MYC versus MAD1 mediate a balance between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation. PMID:9451002

  10. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  11. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  12. Primary stabbing "ice-pick" headache.

    PubMed

    Mukharesh, Loulwah O; Jan, Mohammed M S

    2011-10-01

    Primary stabbing "ice-pick" headache is rarely reported in children. It is characterized by transient, sharp stabbing pain that occurs within a localized area of the scalp for seconds. Five children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders Diagnostic Criteria, Second Edition. Ages at diagnosis ranged from 6-16 years (mean age, 9.8 years), with signs lasting for 3-12 months (mean, 6.5 months) before assessment. All children presented with recurrent daily to monthly headaches that were very brief, lasting for seconds. The headache was orbital in one child, temporal in one child, and occipital in three children. Three children manifested other associated migraine headache types, and two had a positive family history of migraine. Amitriptyline was prescribed to two patients because of headache frequency and severity. The signs gradually subsided in all patients during follow-up of 3 months to 5 years (mean, 27 months). Primary stabbing headache may occasionally occur in children with features different from those encountered in adults. The headache is less frequent and often occipital in location. Its signs respond well to amitriptyline. However, larger prospective pediatric studies are needed to describe this syndrome further.

  13. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking.

    PubMed

    Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder.

  14. Globalizing Education, Educating the Local: How Method Made Us Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Carney, Stephen; Ambrosius, Ulla; Lauder, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the authors' review of "Globalizing education, educating the local: how method made us mad," by Ian Stronach. In the opening chapter of their highly influential 1997 book "Education Research Undone: The Postmodern Embrace," Ian Stronach and Maggie MacLure draw upon the work of Derrida to argue for…

  15. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  16. Mad Rushes into the Future: The Overselling of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    Getting schools to leap onto the Information Highway is the latest in a series of corporate forays marked by ignorance, self-interest, and marketing madness. Educational implementation of computer-based technology is highly experimental, despite the billions spent annually. The competitive jockeying for position to build and fill the…

  17. Reviewing the Link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to…

  18. The "Mad Genius" Controversy: Implications for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the idea that "genius is akin to madness" and notes that studies of distinguished individuals suggest that mental instability is incompatible with the prolonged and goal-directed effort required for high achievement. The issue of emotional stability is examined from the perspective of childhood…

  19. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  20. Multi Media Madness--Improving Professional Development for Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Multi Media Madness (3Ms) was a faculty development program where participants were guided by mentors through the development of a multimedia project. Nine faculty participants attended a week long workshop session in June 2003 taught by three mentors. At the end of the workshop series, the participants submitted a project plan that was reviewed,…

  1. Myxedema madness complicating postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosán Allo, Yanina J; Rosmarin, Melanie; Urrutia, Agustina; Faingold, Maria Cristina; Musso, Carla; Brenta, Gabriela

    2015-08-01

    Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer.

  2. Power, Madness and Poverty: [An Article and Responses].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl R., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The lead article by H. Drummond examines the cultural context of psychosis and concludes that madness is deeply rooted in social and sexual inequality. The author, a psychiatrist, supports his argument with case studies, reports on the use of drugs with the psychotic, research on efforts to demonstrate that schizophrenia is a biological illness,…

  3. Reviewing the Link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to…

  4. Brain gangliosides in the presenile dementia of Pick.

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, P E; den Hartog Jager, W A; Maathuis, J; de Groot, P A; de Jong, J M; Bolhuis, P A

    1986-01-01

    Histochemical analysis of frontal and temporal lobes from four patients with Pick presenile dementia indicated intracellular and extracellular deposits of gangliosides. Thin layer chromatography of gangliosides disclosed the presence of an unknown ganglioside, a decrease of N-acetylgalactosamine-GDla and an increase of GTla and/or GD2 in white matter of Pick brain. Chromatography of gray matter and quantitation of the sialic acid content yielded results similar to controls. It is suggested that degradation and removal of gangliosides is incomplete in Pick disease. Images PMID:3746324

  5. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development.

  7. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  8. Upset Characterization of the PowerPC405 Hard-core Processor Embedded in Virtex-II Pro Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Allen, Gregory S.; Farmanesh, Farhad; George, Jeffrey; Petrick, David J.; Chayab, Fayez

    2006-01-01

    Shown in this presentation are recent results for the upset susceptibility of the various types of memory elements in the embedded PowerPC405 in the Xilinx V2P40 FPGA. For critical flight designs where configuration upsets are mitigated effectively through appropriate design triplication and configuration scrubbing, these upsets of processor elements can dominate the system error rate. Data from irradiations with both protons and heavy ions are given and compared using available models.

  9. Upset Characterization of the PowerPC405 Hard-core Processor Embedded in Virtex-II Pro Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Allen, Gregory S.; Farmanesh, Farhad; George, Jeffrey; Petrick, David J.; Chayab, Fayez

    2006-01-01

    Shown in this presentation are recent results for the upset susceptibility of the various types of memory elements in the embedded PowerPC405 in the Xilinx V2P40 FPGA. For critical flight designs where configuration upsets are mitigated effectively through appropriate design triplication and configuration scrubbing, these upsets of processor elements can dominate the system error rate. Data from irradiations with both protons and heavy ions are given and compared using available models.

  10. Kids Can Pick Up Nicotine on Their Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... HealthDay News) -- Everyone's heard about the dangers of secondhand smoke. Now, researchers say children can pick up nicotine ... Prevention. Previous research has shown that residue from secondhand smoke accumulates in dust, on home surfaces, on clothes ...

  11. Reprogrammable field programmable gate array with integrated system for mitigating effects of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Herath, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An integrated system mitigates the effects of a single event upset (SEU) on a reprogrammable field programmable gate array (RFPGA). The system includes (i) a RFPGA having an internal configuration memory, and (ii) a memory for storing a configuration associated with the RFPGA. Logic circuitry programmed into the RFPGA and coupled to the memory reloads a portion of the configuration from the memory into the RFPGA's internal configuration memory at predetermined times. Additional SEU mitigation can be provided by logic circuitry on the RFPGA that monitors and maintains synchronized operation of the RFPGA's digital clock managers.

  12. Upsets in Erased Floating Gate Cells with High-Energy Protons

    DOE PAGES

    Gerardin, Simone; Bagatin, Marta; Paccagnella, Alessandro; ...

    2016-12-09

    We discuss upsets in erased floating gate cells, due to large threshold voltage shifts, using statistical distributions collected on a large number of memory cells. The spread in the neutral threshold voltage appears to be too low to quantitatively explain the experimental observations in terms of simple charge loss, at least in SLC devices. The possibility that memories exposed to high energy protons and heavy ions exhibit negative charge transfer between programmed and erased cells is investigated, although the analysis does not provide conclusive support to this hypothesis.

  13. Single event upsets in semiconductor devices induced by highly ionising particles.

    PubMed

    Sannikov, A V

    2004-01-01

    A new model of single event upsets (SEUs), created in memory cells by heavy ions and high energy hadrons, has been developed. The model takes into account the spatial distribution of charge collection efficiency over the cell area not considered in previous approaches. Three-dimensional calculations made by the HADRON code have shown good agreement with experimental data for the energy dependence of proton SEU cross sections, sensitive depths and other SEU observables. The model is promising for prediction of SEU rates for memory chips exposed in space and in high-energy experiments as well as for the development of a high-energy neutron dosemeter based on the SEU effect.

  14. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM-Based FPGAs from the Xilinx Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G. M.; Yui, C. C.; Carmichael, C.; Koga, R.; George, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) upset rates in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) from the Xilinx Virtex 2 family have been tested for radiation effects on configuration memory, block RAM and the power-on-reset (POR) and SelectMAP single event functional interrupts (SEFIs). Dynamic testing has shown the effectiveness and value of Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) and partial reconfiguration when used in conjunction. Continuing dynamic testing for more complex designs and other Virtex 2 capabilities (i.e., I/O standards, digital clock managers (DCM), etc.) is scheduled.

  15. Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

  16. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM-Based FPGAs from the Xilinx Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G. M.; Yui, C. C.; Carmichael, C.; Koga, R.; George, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) upset rates in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) from the Xilinx Virtex 2 family have been tested for radiation effects on configuration memory, block RAM and the power-on-reset (POR) and SelectMAP single event functional interrupts (SEFIs). Dynamic testing has shown the effectiveness and value of Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) and partial reconfiguration when used in conjunction. Continuing dynamic testing for more complex designs and other Virtex 2 capabilities (i.e., I/O standards, digital clock managers (DCM), etc.) is scheduled.

  17. Upsets in Erased Floating Gate Cells With High-Energy Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Gerardin, S.; Bagatin, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.; Calabrese, M.; Chiavarone, L.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Schwank, J. R.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Dodds, N.; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss upsets in erased floating gate cells, due to large threshold voltage shifts, using statistical distributions collected on a large number of memory cells. The spread in the neutral threshold voltage appears to be too low to quantitatively explain the experimental observations in terms of simple charge loss, at least in SLC devices. The possibility that memories exposed to high energy protons and heavy ions exhibit negative charge transfer between programmed and erased cells is investigated, although the analysis does not provide conclusive support to this hypothesis.

  18. Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

  19. Comparison of photocurrent enhancement and upset enhancement in CMOS devices in a medium-energy x-ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, D.E.; Beezhold, W.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Counts, N.E. ); Knott, D.P. ); Freshman, C.L.; Conners, M.P. )

    1990-08-01

    Radiation-induced upset levels in SA3001 static random access memories (SRAM's) and SA 3246 clock integrated circuits (IC's) have been measured in a medium-energy flash X-ray environment (average photon energy {approximately}100 keV) where dose-enhancing effects are very important. By comparing device responses using a non-dose-enhancing ceramic package lid and a dose-enhancing Kovar/gold lid, dose-enhancement factors for photocurrent and upset were generated. The observed upset enhancement factors of 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 (SRAM) and 2.2 {plus minus} 0.2 (clock IC) are in excellent agreement with measurements of photocurrent enhancement factors (2.5 {plus minus} 0.5) in diodes processed with the same diffusions as the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) IC's irradiated in a steady-state X-ray environment. These results indicate that upset is dominated by the radiation-induced transient supply current in these IC's, and that steady-state diode photocurrent measurements are a good predictor of both photocurrent and upset enhancement for IC's made with this technology.

  20. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene.

  1. ZmMADS47 Regulates Zein Gene Transcription through Interaction with Opaque2

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenyi; Qi, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Feng, Ya’nan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Shanshan; Tang, Yuanping; Song, Rentao

    2016-01-01

    Zeins, the predominent storage proteins in maize endosperm, are encoded by multiple genes and gene families. However, only a few transcriptional factors for zein gene regulation have been functionally characterized. In this study, a MADS-box protein, namely ZmMADS47, was identified as an Opaque2 (O2) interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid screening. The N-terminal portion of ZmMADS47 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and its C-terminal portion contains a transcriptional activation domain (AD). Interestingly, the transcriptional activation activity is blocked in its full length form, suggesting conformational regulation of the AD. Molecular and RNA-seq analyses of ZmMADS47 RNAi lines revealed down regulation of α-zein and 50-kD γ-zein genes. ZmMADS47 binds the CATGT motif in promoters of these zein genes, but ZmMADS47 alone is not able to transactivate the promoters. However, when both O2 and ZmMADS47 are present, the transactivation of these promoters was greatly enhanced. This enhancement was dependent on the AD function of ZmMADS47 and the interaction between ZmMADS47 and O2, but it was independent from the AD function of O2. Therefore, it appears interaction with O2 activates ZmMADS47 on zein gene promoters. PMID:27077660

  2. Control of the spindle checkpoint by lateral kinetochore attachment and limited Mad1 recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Krefman, Nathaniel I.; Drubin, David G.; Barnes, Georjana

    2015-01-01

    We observed the dynamic recruitment of spindle checkpoint proteins Mad1 and Bub1 to detached kinetochores in budding yeast using real-time live-cell imaging and quantified recruitment in fixed cells. After induced de novo kinetochore assembly at one pair of sister centromeres, Mad1 appeared after the kinetochore protein Mtw1. Detached kinetochores were not associated with the nuclear envelope, so Mad1 does not anchor them to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Disrupting Mad1's NPC localization increased Mad1 recruitment to detached sister kinetochores. Conversely, increasing the number of detached kinetochores reduced the amount of Mad1 per detached kinetochore. Bub1 also relocalized completely from the spindle to detached sister centromeres after kinetochore assembly. After their capture by microtubules, Mad1 and Bub1 progressively disappeared from kinetochores. Sister chromatids that arrested with a lateral attachment to one microtubule exhibited half the Mad1 of fully detached sisters. We propose that detached kinetochores compete with alternate binding sites in the nucleus to recruit Mad1 and Bub1 from available pools that are small enough to be fully depleted by just one pair of detached kinetochores and that lateral attachment licenses Mad1 removal from kinetochores after a kinetic delay. PMID:26023090

  3. Visualization of Myc/Max/Mad family dimers and the competition for dimerization in living cells.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Asya V; Hu, Chang-Deng; Kerppola, Tom K

    2004-05-01

    Myc and Mad family proteins play opposing roles in the control of cell growth and proliferation. We have visualized the subcellular locations of complexes formed by Myc/Max/Mad family proteins using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. Max was recruited to different subnuclear locations by interactions with Myc versus Mad family members. Complexes formed by Max with Mxi1, Mad3, or Mad4 were enriched in nuclear foci, whereas complexes formed with Myc were more uniformly distributed in the nucleoplasm. Mad4 was localized to the cytoplasm when it was expressed separately, and Mad4 was recruited to the nucleus through dimerization with Max. The cytoplasmic localization of Mad4 was determined by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal located near the amino terminus. We compared the relative efficiencies of complex formation among Myc, Max, and Mad family proteins in living cells using multicolor BiFC analysis. Max formed heterodimers with the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZIP) domain of Myc (bMyc) more efficiently than it formed homodimers. Replacement of two amino acid residues in the leucine zipper of Max reversed the relative efficiencies of homo- and heterodimerization in cells. Surprisingly, Mad3 formed complexes with Max less efficiently than bMyc, whereas Mad4 formed complexes with Max more efficiently than bMyc. The distinct subcellular locations and the differences between the efficiencies of dimerization with Max indicate that Mad3 and Mad4 are likely to modulate transcription activation by Myc at least in part through distinct mechanisms.

  4. Visualization of Myc/Max/Mad Family Dimers and the Competition for Dimerization in Living Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Asya V.; Hu, Chang-Deng; Kerppola, Tom K.

    2004-01-01

    Myc and Mad family proteins play opposing roles in the control of cell growth and proliferation. We have visualized the subcellular locations of complexes formed by Myc/Max/Mad family proteins using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. Max was recruited to different subnuclear locations by interactions with Myc versus Mad family members. Complexes formed by Max with Mxi1, Mad3, or Mad4 were enriched in nuclear foci, whereas complexes formed with Myc were more uniformly distributed in the nucleoplasm. Mad4 was localized to the cytoplasm when it was expressed separately, and Mad4 was recruited to the nucleus through dimerization with Max. The cytoplasmic localization of Mad4 was determined by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal located near the amino terminus. We compared the relative efficiencies of complex formation among Myc, Max, and Mad family proteins in living cells using multicolor BiFC analysis. Max formed heterodimers with the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZIP) domain of Myc (bMyc) more efficiently than it formed homodimers. Replacement of two amino acid residues in the leucine zipper of Max reversed the relative efficiencies of homo- and heterodimerization in cells. Surprisingly, Mad3 formed complexes with Max less efficiently than bMyc, whereas Mad4 formed complexes with Max more efficiently than bMyc. The distinct subcellular locations and the differences between the efficiencies of dimerization with Max indicate that Mad3 and Mad4 are likely to modulate transcription activation by Myc at least in part through distinct mechanisms. PMID:15121849

  5. ‘Wanting’ and ‘liking’ skin picking: A validation of the Skin Picking Reward Scale

    PubMed Central

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P.; Houghton, David C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Lee, Han-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is often conceptualized as a behavioral addiction in which aberrant reward processing may play an important role. The current study sought to develop a self-report instrument – the Skin Picking Reward Scale (SPRS) – that measures how strongly skin picking is ‘liked’ (i.e., the degree of pleasurable feelings while receiving the reward) and ‘wanted’ (i.e., the degree of the motivation to seek the reward). Methods We administered the SPRS to individuals who endorsed excessive skin picking in online surveys and examined the scale’s factor structure (Studies 1 and 2). We then asked individuals with documented pathological skin picking to complete the SPRS and other relevant questionnaires on two occasions one week apart (Study 3). Results Exploratory (Study 1; n = 330) and confirmatory (Study 2; n = 144) factor analyses consistently supported a two-factor structure reflecting the ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ constructs. Results from Study 3 (N = 36) indicated that the Wanting and the Liking scales had adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Additionally, consistent with predictions, the Wanting scale, but not the Liking scale, was associated with picking urges the following week, greater cue-reactivity, and more picking-related routines/habits. Discussion These initial findings suggest that SPRS is a psychometrically sound measure of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ in pathological skin picking. The SPRS may facilitate research on reward processing anomalies in SPD and serve as a useful clinical instrument (e.g., to identify those at risk for cue-induced relapse). PMID:26690620

  6. Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Marie T

    2010-06-03

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a neurovisceral atypical lysosomal lipid storage disorder with an estimated minimal incidence of 1/120,000 live births. The broad clinical spectrum ranges from a neonatal rapidly fatal disorder to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. The neurological involvement defines the disease severity in most patients but is typically preceded by systemic signs (cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period or isolated spleno- or hepatosplenomegaly in infancy or childhood). The first neurological symptoms vary with age of onset: delay in developmental motor milestones (early infantile period), gait problems, falls, clumsiness, cataplexy, school problems (late infantile and juvenile period), and ataxia not unfrequently following initial psychiatric disturbances (adult form). The most characteristic sign is vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. The neurological disorder consists mainly of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and progressive dementia. Cataplexy, seizures and dystonia are other common features. NP-C is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations of either the NPC1 (95% of families) or the NPC2 genes. The exact functions of the NPC1 and NPC2 proteins are still unclear. NP-C is currently described as a cellular cholesterol trafficking defect but in the brain, the prominently stored lipids are gangliosides. Clinical examination should include comprehensive neurological and ophthalmological evaluations. The primary laboratory diagnosis requires living skin fibroblasts to demonstrate accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in perinuclear vesicles (lysosomes) after staining with filipin. Pronounced abnormalities are observed in about 80% of the cases, mild to moderate alterations in the remainder ("variant" biochemical phenotype). Genotyping of patients is useful to confirm the diagnosis in the latter patients and essential for future prenatal diagnosis. The differential diagnosis may include

  7. Excessive Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Phenomenological Aspects and Comorbid Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigren, Margareta; Heimann, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 37 individuals (ages 12-30) with Prader-Willi syndrome revealed two-thirds displayed skin picking with a frequency ranging from chronic to transient, episodic symptoms. Many individuals with skin picking also exhibited comorbid picking behaviors And individuals with excessive skin picking also had frequent tantrums and…

  8. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  9. High LET Single Event Upset Cross Sections For Bulk and SOI CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, F.D.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Dodd, P.E.; Rossi, P.

    2003-08-26

    Electronics in spacecraft and satellites are exposed to high-energy cosmic radiation. In addition, terrestrial radiation can also affect earth-based electronics. To study the effects of radiation upon integrated circuits and to insure the reliability of electronic devices, cosmic and terrestrial radiations are simulated with ion beams from particle accelerators. A new, higher Linear Energy Transfer (LET) acceleration system for heavy ions has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Heavy ions from a 6.5 MV EN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at 0.25 MeV/amu are injected into a two-stage Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which accelerates the ions to 1.9 MeV/amu. These ions together with those from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP Tandem have been used to measure single event upset (SEU) cross sections as a function of LET for both bulk and Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, Static Random Access Memories. The magnitudes of these cross sections indicate that the upsets in both the SOI and bulk parts are caused by OFF-drain strikes.

  10. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun

    2013-12-16

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

  11. Neutron induced single-word multiple-bit upset in SRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Ohlsson, M.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1999-12-01

    The Single-word Multiple-bit Upset (SMU) frequency for nine commercial Static Random Access Memories (SRAM) have been evaluated at eight different neutron energies: 0-11MeV, 14MeV, 22MeV, 35MeV, 45MeV, 75MeV, 96MeV, 160MeV. The SRAM types used at these experiments have sizes from 256Kbit up to 1Mbit, with date-codes ranging from 9209 up to 9809. The result showed a slightly rising dependence on the neutron energy. Also experiments at two neutron energies, 45MeV and 96MeV, were performed where the supply voltage influence on the SMU-rate was studied. Five device types were used at 96MeV and the supply voltage was changed between 5V, 3.3V and 2.5V. At 45MeV three devices at 5V and 3.3V were irradiated. The experiments showed a relation between the amount of total upset and SMU that indicates no clear supply voltage dependence.

  12. Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

  13. The board implementation of AVR microcontroller checking for single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lho, Young Hwan; Jang, Dae Jin; Seo, Kang Kuk; Jung, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Yup

    2005-12-01

    Radiation hardening parts are to be used for satellites and nuclear power plants due to various kinds of radiation particles in space and radiation environment. Here, our focus is to implement a testing board of AVR Microcontroller checking for Single Event Upsets (SEU); the effects of protons on the electronic devices. The SEU results form the level change of stored information due to photon radiation and temperature in the space environment. The impact of SEU on PLD (Programmable Logic Devices) technology is most apparent in SRAM/ROM/DRAM devices wherein the state of storage cell can be upset. In this research, a simple and powerful test technique is suggested, and the results are presented for the analysis and future reference. In our experiment, the proton radiation facility (having the energy of 30 MeV with a beam current of 20 uA in the cyclotron) available at KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences) has been applied on two kinds of commercially available SRAM and EEPROM.

  14. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  15. Uncertainty Modeling for Robustness Analysis of Control Upset Prevention and Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Kwatny, Harry; Chang, Bor-Chin; Balas, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems (developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery) need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope and under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. However, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models for representing system uncertainty can be very difficult for complex parameter-dependent systems. This paper describes a preliminary LFT modeling software tool which uses a matrix-based computational approach that can be directly applied to parametric uncertainty problems involving multivariate matrix polynomial dependencies. Several examples are presented (including an F-16 at an extreme flight condition, a missile model, and a generic example with numerous crossproduct terms), and comparisons are given with other LFT modeling tools that are currently available. The LFT modeling method and preliminary software tool presented in this paper are shown to compare favorably with these methods.

  16. Histone modification and signalling cascade of the dormancy-associated MADS-box gene, PpMADS13-1, in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) during endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    Dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes play an important role in endodormancy phase transition. We investigated histone modification in the DAM homolog (PpMADS13-1) from Japanese pear, via chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR, to understand the mechanism behind the reduced expression of the PpMADS13-1 gene towards endodormancy release. Our results indicated that the reduction in the active histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 4 contributed to the reduction of PpMADS13-1 expression towards endodormancy release. In contrast, the inactive histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 27 in PpMADS13-1 locus was quite low, and these levels were more similar to a negative control [normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG)] than to a positive control (AGAMOUS) in endodormancy phase transition. The loss of histone variant H2A.Z also coincided with the down-regulation of PpMADS13-1. Subsequently, we investigated the PpMADS13-1 signalling cascade and found that PpCBF2, a pear C-repeated binding factor, regulated PpMADS13-1 expression via interaction of PpCBF2 with the 5'-upstream region of PpMADS13-1 by transient reporter assay. Furthermore, transient reporter assay confirmed no interaction between the PpMADS13-1 protein and the pear FLOWERING LOCUS T genes. Taken together, our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying endodormancy phase transition in Japanese pear.

  17. Analysis of data on MADS recorder tape from the STS 51-L Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of data from the modular auxiliary data system (MADS) recorder tape from the STS 51-L Challenger following delivery from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Larue Forbes of CSC retrieves one of the MADS tapes for inputting into a nearby computer in the central data office (30336); Digital data from the MADS tape is sent from Larue Forbes terminal to a hard copy printer in another facility at JSC (30337); Carolyn Watson of Lockheed recieves a hard copy print-out of data from the MADS recorder as it is being sent form the termainal in JSC's central data office (30338); Stan Williams (left) of Lockheed and Luther D. Palmer of NASA are pictured with the MADS tape in JSC's central data office (30339); Larue Forbes of CSC prepares to put one of the MADS tape onto one of the central data office's computers (30340).

  18. Clinical events in mad honey poisoning: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Mehmet; Bostan, Habib; Kaya, Ali Osman; Bilir, Ozlem; Satiroglu, Omer; Kazdal, Hizir; Karadag, Zakir; Bozkurt, Engin

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the clinical findings of patients who admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. Three patients were female (9%) and the others male (91%). Median age of patients was 52 (42-68). The most frequently observed findings were sinus bradycardia (91%), nausea-vomiting (81.8%), and dizziness (78.8%). Average heart rate was 55.35 +/- 6.72 beats/min. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 77.86 +/- 16.64 mmHg and 46.42 +/- 12.30 mmHg, respectively. Mad honey poisoning is an important problem that is life-threatening in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  19. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  20. VLT-MAD observations of the core of 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. A.; Evans, C. J.; Mackey, A. D.; Gieles, M.; Alves, J.; Ascenso, J.; Bastian, N.; Longmore, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    We present H- and Ks-band imaging of three fields at the centre of 30 Doradus (30 Dor) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained as part of the Science Demonstration programme with the Multiconjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) at the Very Large Telescope. Strehl ratios of 15-30 per cent were achieved in the Ks band, yielding near-infrared images of this dense and complex region at unprecedented angular resolution at these wavelengths. The MAD data are used to construct a near-infrared luminosity profile for R136, the cluster at the core of 30 Dor. Using cluster profiles of the form used by Elson et al., we find the surface brightness can be fit by a relatively shallow power-law function (γ ~ 1.5-1.7) over the full extent of the MAD data, which extends to a radius of ~40arcsec (~10pc). We do not see compelling evidence for a break in the luminosity profile as seen in optical data in the literature, arguing that cluster asymmetries are the dominant source, although extinction effects and stars from nearby triggered star formation likely also contribute. These results highlight the need to consider cluster asymmetries and multiple spatial components in interpretation of the luminosity profiles of distant unresolved clusters. We also investigate seven candidate young stellar objects reported by Gruendl & Chu from Spitzer observations, six of which have apparent counterparts in the MAD images. The most interesting of these (053839.24-690552.3) appears related to a striking bow-shock-like feature, orientated away from both R136 and the Wolf-Rayet star Brey 75, at distances of 19.5 and 8arcsec (4.7 and 1.9pc in projection), respectively.

  1. Madness and sanity at the time of Indian independence.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok

    2016-01-01

    The backdrop of the Indian Independence offers glimpses of many 'metaphors of madness'. In this article, we explore this through a few instances, starting from 1857, around the time of the First War of Independence, to 1947, when India became an independent nation. Such metaphors have their parallels both in historical as well as in contemporary times, where instances of one man's imagination becoming another's concept of irrationality and insanity continue.

  2. Mad cows and Englishmen: the aftermath of a BSE scare

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, C

    1997-01-01

    The consumption of prime beef cuts is down, animals have been slaughtered by the thousand and 3 farmers have committed suicide as the mad-cow issue continues to cause concern in the United Kingdom. In this report from London, Caroline Richmond also notes that the royal colleges have published a report stating that chronic fatigue syndrome is a real illness and patients need help. PMID:9099178

  3. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Elitzur, Tomer; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Friedman, Haya

    2010-01-01

    Six MaMADS-box genes have been cloned from the banana fruit cultivar Grand Nain. The similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns, specifically in fruit and the induction during ripening and in response to ethylene and 1-MCP, suggest that some of these genes may participate in ripening. MaMADS1, 2, and 3, are highly expressed in fruit only, while the others are expressed in fruit as well as in other organs. Moreover, the suites of MaMADS-box genes and their temporal expression differ in peel and pulp during ripening. In the pulp, the increase in MaMADS2, 3, 4, and 5 expression preceded an increase in ethylene production, but coincides with the CO2 peak. However, MaMADS1 expression in pulp coincided with ethylene production, but a massive increase in its expression occurred late during ripening, together with a second wave in the expression of MaMADS2, 3, and 4. In the peel, on the other hand, an increase in expression of MaMADS1, 3, and to a lesser degree also of MaMADS4 and 2 coincided with an increase in ethylene production. Except MaMADS3, which was induced by ethylene in pulp and peel, only MaMADS4, and 5 in pulp and MaMADS1 in peel were induced by ethylene. 1-MCP applied at the onset of the increase in ethylene production, increased the levels of MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 in pulp, while it decreased MaMADS1, 3, 4, and 5 in peel, suggesting that MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 are negatively controlled by ethylene at the onset of ethylene production only in pulp. Only MaMADS2 is neither induced by ethylene nor by 1-MCP, and it is expressed mainly in pulp. Our results suggest that two independent ripening programs are employed in pulp and peel which involve the activation of mainly MaMADS2, 4, and 5 and later on also MaMADS1 in pulp, and mainly MaMADS1, and 3 in peel. Hence, our results are consistent with MaMADS2, a SEP3 homologue, acting in the pulp upstream of the

  4. Regulation of AURORA B function by mitotic checkpoint protein MAD2.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Medler, Kathryn F; Roberts, Stefan G E

    2016-08-17

    Cell cycle checkpoint signaling stringently regulates chromosome segregation during cell division. MAD2 is one of the key components of the spindle and mitotic checkpoint complex that regulates the fidelity of cell division along with MAD1, CDC20, BUBR1, BUB3 and MAD3. MAD2 ablation leads to erroneous attachment of kinetochore-spindle fibers and defective chromosome separation. A potential role for MAD2 in the regulation of events beyond the spindle and mitotic checkpoints is not clear. Together with active spindle assembly checkpoint signaling, AURORA B kinase activity is essential for chromosome condensation as cells enter mitosis. AURORA B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10 and serine 28 to facilitate the formation of condensed metaphase chromosomes. In the absence of functional AURORA B cells escape mitosis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes. In this study we report that silencing of MAD2 results in a drastic reduction of metaphase-specific histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 and serine 28. We demonstrate that this is due to mislocalization of AURORA B in the absence of MAD2. Conversely, overexpression of MAD2 concentrated the localization of AURORA B at the metaphase plate and caused hyper-phosphorylation of histone H3. We find that MAD1 plays a minor role in influencing the MAD2-dependent regulation of AURORA B suggesting that the effects of MAD2 on AURORA B are independent of the spindle checkpoint complex. Our findings reveal that, in addition to its role in checkpoint signaling, MAD2 ensures chromosome stability through the regulation of AURORA B.

  5. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  6. The petunia MADS box gene FBP11 determines ovule identity.

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, L; Franken, J; Koetje, E; van Went, J; Dons, H J; Angenent, G C; van Tunen, A J

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the wealth of information relating to genes regulating floral meristem and floral organ identity, only limited data are available concerning genes that are involved in determining and regulating the identity and development of an ovule. We have recently isolated the floral binding protein 11 (FBP11) MADS box gene from petunia and found that it is expressed exclusively in ovule primordia and subsequently in the ovules, suggesting a role for this gene in ovule formation. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a recombinant gene in which the full-size FBP11 cDNA was placed under the control of a strong cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic petunia plants expressing this chimeric gene have ovulelike structures on the adaxial side of the sepals and the abaxial side of the petals. Detailed morphological studies showed that these ovulelike structures are true ovules. RNA gel blot analysis was performed to investigate ectopic FBP11 expression in relation to the expression of the closely related FBP7 gene and the putative petunia class C-type homeotic genes FBP6 and pMADS3. Our results indicate that FBP11 represents an ovule identity gene. A new model describing the mode of action of FBP11 as an additional class D MADS box gene is presented. PMID:8535139

  7. Effects of Mad Honey on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Huseyin; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/g body weight/day via oral gavage for 8 days. According to results, the quantity of GTX-III found in the honey sample as 39.949 ± 0.020 μg GTX-III/g honey, and the biochemical analysis of the tested parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain) showed a significant elevation with increasing concentration of honey. In conclusion, the use of increasing concentrations of Rhododendron honey was seen as a source of enzymatic symptoms.

  8. Expression and genomic structure of the dormancy-associated MADS box genes MADS13 in Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) that differ in their chilling requirement for endodormancy release.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Saito, Toshihiro; Ubi, Banjamin Ewa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-06-01

    We isolated three dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes (MADS13-1, MADS13-2 and MADS13-3) and showed regulated expression concomitant with endodormancy establishment and release in the leaf buds of Japanese pear 'Kosui'. Comparative analysis between 'Kosui' and Taiwanese pear TP-85-119 ('Hengshanli'), a less dormant pear cultivar, showed reduction of MADS13-1 expression level in 'Hengshanli' earlier than in 'Kosui' towards endodormancy release, suggesting the possible relationship between chilling requirement and MADS13-1 expression. Application of hydrogen cyanamide accelerated endodormancy release with a reduction in MADS13 expression, whereas heat treatment in autumn inhibited endodormancy establishment without induction of MADS13 expression, indicating a close relationship between the MADS13 expression pattern and endodormancy phase transitions. Moreover, both the cis-acting regulatory elements and the methylation status in the 5' upstream region of the MADS13-1 gene were not largely different between 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli'. Genomic structures of MADS13-1 from 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli' revealed a 3218 bp insertion in the first intron of 'Hengshanli' that might be ascribed to the lower expression of MADS13-1tw; however, this insertion was also found in pear genotypes with a high chilling requirement. These results indicated that the low expression of MADS13-1 in 'Hengshanli' towards endodormancy release could not be explained by the identified cis-acting regulatory elements, the methylation status of the putative promoter or by intron insertion.

  9. Nonmedical factors associated with feather picking in pet psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Lori A; Hungerford, Laura

    2014-06-01

    A nested case-control study was performed to determine nonmedical risk factors associated with feather picking in psittacine birds. Forty-two case birds, reported by their owners to pick their feathers, and 126 unaffected birds were compared. The odds of feather picking were higher in 2 species categories, African grey parrots (Psitticus erithacus, adjusted odds ratio [ORadj = 8.4, P < .001) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, ORadj = 12.7, P < .001). The odds of feather picking also were higher for birds that were out of their cages more than 8 hours per day (ORadj = 7.4, P < .001) and for birds that had been taken in by the owner as a "rescue" (ORadj = 4.7, P < .01). The odds of feather picking decreased by almost 90% (ORadj = 0.1, P < .005) for birds that interacted with people at least 4 hours a day. These findings identify characteristics that practitioners may want to include when asking bird owners about behavioral history and may be useful in focusing future research regarding this behavior.

  10. Enhancement of the automatic onset time picking via wavelet thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said

    2013-04-01

    Since arrival time-picking is a critical step in the analysis of geophysical data, many time picking algorithms have been developed. Nowadays, the ''short-time-average through long-time-average trigger'' (STA/LTA) in different forms are the most commonly used. This study aims at improving this algorithm in the presence of high amplitude noise. The suggested method consists of denoising the seismic trace using the discrete wavelet transform. Therefore, the STA/LTA curve obtained from the denoised trace displays a faster build up at the position of the wave arrival, and the picking error is reduced. The application of this technique is first demonstrated on synthetic seismic traces with varying noise levels, then extended to uphole seismic traces recorded in the Algerian Sahara. The results show that the picked first arrivals are more accurate than those yielded by the standard STA/LTA algorithm and this method can tolerate high noise levels. Keywords: picking, first arrival, seismic wave, wavelet thresholding.

  11. The vocabulary of madness from Homer to Hippocrates. Part 1: the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota.

    PubMed

    Perdicoyianni-Paléologou, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, I examine the evolution of the concept of madness expressed by the various forms--verbal and nominal, simple and compound--of the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota in the archaic and classical periods. I point out how the divine madness is contrasted to pathological madness considered as a psychic and mental disease and foreseeable by doctors as well as curable by medications. This new procedure highlights rational knowledge of the Greeks about the cause and the medical care of madness.

  12. Concepts of madness in diverse settings: a qualitative study from the INTREPID project.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex; Padmavati, Ramachandran; Hibben, Maia; Oyewusi, Samuel; John, Sujit; Esan, Oluyomi; Patel, Vikram; Weiss, Helen; Murray, Robin; Hutchinson, Gerard; Gureje, Oye; Thara, Rangaswamy; Morgan, Craig

    2016-11-09

    In order to facilitate case identification of incident (untreated and recent onset) cases of psychosis and controls in three sites in India, Nigeria and Trinidad, we sought to understand how psychoses (or madness) were conceptualized locally. The evidence we gathered also contributes to a long history of research on concepts of madness in diverse settings. We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews to collect information about how informants in each site make sense of and respond to madness. A coding framework was developed and analyses of transcripts from the FGDs and interviews were conducted. Analyses suggest the following: a) disturbed behaviors are the primary sign of madness; b) madness is attributed to a wide range of causes; and, c) responses to madness are dictated by cultural and pragmatic factors. These findings are congruent with similar research that has been conducted over the past 50 years. The INTREPID research suggests that concepts about madness share similar features across diverse settings: a) terms for madness are often derived from a common understanding that involves disruptions in mental processes and capacities; b) madness is recognized mostly by disruptive behaviours or marked declines in functioning; c) causal attributions are varied; and, d) help-seeking is a complex process.

  13. The nucleoporin Nup153 affects spindle checkpoint activity due to an association with Mad1

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The nucleoporin Nup153 is known to play pivotal roles in nuclear import and export in interphase cells and as the cell transitions into mitosis, Nup153 is involved in nuclear envelope breakdown. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of Nup153 with the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad1 is important in the regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Overexpression of human Nup153 in HeLa cells leads to the appearance of multinucleated cells and induces the formation of multipolar spindles. Importantly, it causes inactivation of the spindle checkpoint due to hypophosphorylation of Mad1. Depletion of Nup153 using RNA interference results in the decline of Mad1 at nuclear pores during interphase and more significantly causes a delayed dissociation of Mad1 from kinetochores in metaphase and an increase in the number of unresolved midbodies. In the absence of Nup153 the spindle checkpoint remains active. In vitro studies indicate direct binding of Mad1 to the N-terminal domain of Nup153. Importantly, Nup153 binding to Mad1 affects Mad1's phosphorylation status, but not its ability to interact with Mad2. Our data suggest that Nup153 levels regulate the localization of Mad1 during the metaphase/anaphase transition thereby affecting its phoshorylation status and in turn spindle checkpoint activity and mitotic exit. PMID:21327106

  14. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed as the latest in a series of high-power laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion. In particular, the NIF will generate and amplify 192 laser beams and focus them onto a fusion fuel capsule the size of a BB. The energy deposited by the laser beams will raise the core temperature of the target to 100,OOO,OOO C, which will ignite the fusion fuel and produce a fusion energy output that is several times greater than the energy input. The ability to generate, condition, and focus 192 laser beams onto a target the size of a BB, requires precision optical hardware and instrumentation. One of the most critical pieces of optical hardware within the NIF is the Optics Module (OM), a mechanical apparatus which is responsible for optical focusing and frequency conversion of the laser beam to optimize the energy deposition at the fusion target. The OM contains two potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens. The functionality of the KDP crystals is extremely temperature sensitive. Small temperature changes on the order of 0.1 C can significantly alter the performance of these components. Consequently, to maximize NIF system availability and minimize beam conditioning problems, accurate temperature control of the OM optical components was deemed a necessity. In this study, an experimental OM prototype, containing mock frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens, was used determine the thermal stability provided by a prototype water temperature control system. More importantly, the OM prototype was used to identify and characterize potential thermal upsets and corresponding recovery times of the KDP crystals. The results of this study indicate that the water temperature control system is adequate in maintaining uniform steady-state temperatures within the OM. Vacuum pump-down and venting of the OM generated significant

  16. Nibbling and picking in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; Roberto, Christina A; White, Marney A

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the clinical utility of nibbling behavior, defined as eating in an unplanned and repetitious manner between meals and snacks without a sense of loss of control, in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Two-hundred seventeen (N = 217) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Nibbling frequency was examined in relation to current weight, eating disorder psychopathology and eating patterns. Results found that nibbling/picking was not related to body mass index, objective bulimic, subjective bulimic, or overeating episodes, food avoidance, sensitivity to weight gain, or any subscales of the EDE. However, nibbling/picking was significantly related to frequency of morning and afternoon snacking (r = .21, p = .002; r = .27, p < .001). The assessment of nibbling/picking behaviors among individuals with BED might not provide clinically significant information. © 2013.

  17. Kinetics of myc-max-mad gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in vivo: Differential regulation of mad family and stress-mediated induction of c-myc.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Itsaso; Lombard, Marie-Noëlle; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cañelles, Matilde; Leon, Javier

    2004-02-01

    Mad proteins (Mad1, Mxi1, Mad3, Mad4, Mnt/Rox) are biochemical and biological antagonists of c-Myc oncoprotein. Mad-Max dimers repress the transcription of the same target genes activated by Myc-Max dimers. Despite the critical role of Max and Mad proteins as modulators of c-Myc functions, there are no comparative data on their regulation in vivo. We carried out a systematic analysis of c-myc, max, and mad family expression in a model of synchronized cell proliferation in vivo in adult tissues, that is, rat hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. We confirmed the previously reported early peak of c-myc expression after hepatectomy but we show that it did not correlate with hepatocyte proliferation as it also occurred in sham-operated animals as a result of surgical stresses. A second peak of c-myc expression was observed later, at the time of the wave of DNA synthesis. No such expression was detected in sham-operated rat quiescent hepatocytes. max expression increased around 4-16 h after hepatectomy, before the peaks of c-myc and DNA synthesis. mxi1 and mad4 were slightly downregulated during liver regeneration. mnt/rox expression did not change. These expression patterns suggest a role of Myc-Max for efficient mitogenic response of hepatocytes. We also analyzed the effects of Myc and Max ectopic expression on the clonogenic growth of the rat hepatoma cells. Expression of c-Myc and Max increased clonogenic growth, whereas the reduction of c-Myc levels by an antisense vector decreased growth. The results suggest nonredundant roles for mad genes in hepatocyte proliferation and point to c-Myc as a putative target for anticancer therapy of liver cancer.

  18. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is Involved in Tuberous Root Initiation in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. Methods A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. Key Results IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Conclusions Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an

  19. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is involved in tuberous root initiation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-07-01

    The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an important integrator at the initiation of tuberization

  20. Application of RADSAFE to Model Single Event Upset Response of a 0.25 micron CMOS SRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Kevin M.; Weller, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Reed, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Massengill, Lloyd; Porter, Mark; Wilkerson, Jeff; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Adams, James

    2006-01-01

    The RADSAFE simulation framework is described and applied to model Single Event Upsets (SEU) in a 0.25 micron CMOS 4Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM). For this circuit, the RADSAFE approach produces trends similar to those expected from classical models, but more closely represents the physical mechanisms responsible for SEU in the SRAM circuit.

  1. Three MADS-box genes similar to APETALA1 and FRUITFULL from silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Turunen, Marja-Leena; Tikka, Liisa; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2001-05-01

    Despite intensive research on genetic regulation of flower development there are still only a few studies on the early phases of this process in perennial plants like trees. The aim of this study has been to identify genes that regulate early stages of inflorescence development in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and to follow the expression of these genes during development of the unisexual birch inflorescences. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of 3 cDNAs representing MADS-box genes designated BpMADS3, BpMADS4 and BpMADS5, all belonging to the AP1/SQUA group of plant MADS-box genes. According to RNA blot analysis, all 3 genes are active during the development of both male and female inflorescences. However, differences in patterns of expression suggest that they play different roles. BpMADS3 is most similar in sequence to AP1 and SQUA, but it seems to have the highest expression at late developmental stages. BpMADS4 is most similar in sequence to the Arabidopsis gene FRUITFULL, but is expressed, in addition to developing inflorescences, in shoots and roots. BpMADS5 is also similar to FRUITFULL; its expression seems to be inflorescence-specific and continues during fruit development. Ectopic expression of either BpMADS3, BpMADS4 or BpMADS5 with the CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco results in extremely early flowering. All of these birch genes seem to act early during the transition to reproductive phase and might be involved in the determination of the identity of the inflorescence or flower meristem. They could apparently be used to accelerate flowering in various plant species.

  2. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  3. Heavy-ion induced single-event upset in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic ray environment in space can affect the operation of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices via the phenomenon of Single Event Upset (SEU). In particular, heavy ions passing through an IC can induce sufficient integrated current (charge) to alter the state of a bistable circuit, for example a memory cell. The SEU effect is studied in great detail in both static and dynamic memory devices, as well as microprocessors fabricated from bipolar, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and N channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) technologies. Each device/process reflects its individual characteristics (minimum scale geometry/process parameters) via a unique response to the direct ionization of electron hole pairs by heavy ion tracks. A summary of these analytical and experimental SEU investigations is presented.

  4. Impact of Temporal Masking of Flip-Flop Upsets on Soft Error Rates of Sequential Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. M.; Mahatme, N. N.; Diggins, Z. J.; Wang, L.; Zhang, E. X.; Chen, Y. P.; Liu, Y. N.; Narasimham, B.; Witulski, A. F.; Bhuva, B. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    Reductions in single-event (SE) upset (SEU) rates for sequential circuits due to temporal masking effects are evaluated. The impacts of supply voltage, combinational-logic delay, flip-flop (FF) SEU performance, and particle linear energy transfer (LET) values are analyzed for SE cross sections of sequential circuits. Alpha particles and heavy ions with different LET values are used to characterize the circuits fabricated at the 40-nm bulk CMOS technology node. Experimental results show that increasing the delay of the logic circuit present between FFs and decreasing the supply voltage are two effective ways of reducing SE error rates for sequential circuits for particles with low LET values due to temporal masking. SEU-hardened FFs benefit less from temporal masking than conventional FFs. Circuit hardening implications for SEU-hardened and unhardened FFs are discussed.

  5. Die-upset Nd-Fe-Co-B magnets from blends of dissimilar ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, C. D.; Brewer, E. G.

    1994-11-01

    We prepared die-upset Nd-Fe-Co-B magnets from melt-spun ribbon powders which were a series of blends of two ribbon alloys. One alloy was always ternary Nd-Fe-B (no cobalt), and in the other cobalt replaced up to half of the iron. Differential scanning calorimeter measurements revealed that during hot working, the cobalt diffused across ribbon boundaries, effectively redistributing the transition metal concentration throughout the magnet. Instead of anomalies indicating the Curie temperatures of the two original ribbon compositions, we found a single transition consistent with the average cobalt concentration in the magnet. However, the transition was broader than expected, suggesting that the homogenization was incomplete. These results are new evidence of massive diffusion occurring between ribbons, changing the microstructure and facilitating the deformation of the otherwise rigid 2-14-1 magnet.

  6. Computational method to estimate Single Event Upset rates in an accelerator environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Faccio, F.

    2000-08-01

    We present a new method to estimate Single Event Upsets (SEU) in a hadron accelerator environment, which is characterized by a complicated radiation spectrum. Our method is based on first principles, i.e. an explicit generation and transport of nuclear fragments and detailed accounting for energy loss by ionization. However, instead of simulating also the behaviour of the circuit, we use a Weibull fit to experimental heavy-ion SEU data in order to quantify the SEU sensitivity of the circuit. Thus, in principle, we do not need to know details about the circuit and our method is almost free of adjustable parameters - we only need a reasonable guess for the Sensitive Volume (SV) size. We show by a comparison with experimental data that our method predicts the SEU cross sections for protons rather accurately. We then indicate with an example how our method could be applied to predict SEU rates at the forthcoming LHC experiments.

  7. The effect of yield strength on side-bonding upset welds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Perkins, M.A.

    1991-09-24

    During the course of 9{degree} tapered side-bonding resistance upset weld development at Mound, various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of yield strength on welds in 304L stainless steel. The results of these studies have concluded that at high yield strengths there may be a minor reduction in the length of Class 2 or better bond. Satisfactory welds have been produced with materials having yield strengths ranging from 36.0 to 141.0 ksi. However, when body yield strengths exceed 80.0 ksi a minor decrease in bond lengths begins. A significant inverse relationship between stem yield strength and bond length was shown to exist. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Heavy-ion induced single-event upset in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic ray environment in space can affect the operation of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices via the phenomenon of Single Event Upset (SEU). In particular, heavy ions passing through an IC can induce sufficient integrated current (charge) to alter the state of a bistable circuit, for example a memory cell. The SEU effect is studied in great detail in both static and dynamic memory devices, as well as microprocessors fabricated from bipolar, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and N channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) technologies. Each device/process reflects its individual characteristics (minimum scale geometry/process parameters) via a unique response to the direct ionization of electron hole pairs by heavy ion tracks. A summary of these analytical and experimental SEU investigations is presented.

  9. Computing in the presence of soft bit errors. [caused by single event upset on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that single-event-upsets (SEUs) due to cosmic rays are a significant source of single bit error in spacecraft computers. The physical mechanism of SEU, electron hole generation by means of Linear Energy Transfer (LET), it discussed with reference made to the results of a study of the environmental effects on computer systems of the Galileo spacecraft. Techniques for making software more tolerant of cosmic ray effects are considered, including: reducing the number of registers used by the software; continuity testing of variables; redundant execution of major procedures for error detection; and encoding state variables to detect single-bit changes. Attention is also given to design modifications which may reduce the cosmic ray exposure of on-board hardware. These modifications include: shielding components operating in LEO; removing low-power Schottky parts; and the use of CMOS diodes. The SEU parameters of different electronic components are listed in a table.

  10. Keep calm and carry on: Maintaining self-control when intoxicated, upset, or depleted

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Emery, Noah N.; Spelman, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested within-person associations between intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands and two forms of self-control failure, interpersonal conflict, and neglecting responsibilities. Effortful control was hypothesised to act as a buffer, reducing individual susceptibility to these within-person effects. In contrast, reactivity was hypothesised to potentiate the within-person associations. 274 young adults aged 18–27 (56% women, 93% white) completed experience sampling assessments for up to 49 days over the course of 1.3 years. Results indicated independent within-person effects of intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands on the outcomes. Hypothesised moderating effects of reactivity were not supported. Effortful control did not moderate the effects of self-control demands as expected. However, effortful control exhibited a protective effect when individuals were intoxicated or upset to reduce the likelihood of maladaptive behavioural outcomes. PMID:26264715

  11. A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for Single Event Upset (SEU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C.

    1984-01-01

    A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for single event upset was prepared to assist new experimenters in preparing and directing tests. How to estimate parts vulnerability and select an irradiation facility is described. A broad brush description of JPL equipment is given, certain necessary pre-test procedures are outlined and the roles and testing guidelines for on-site test personnel are indicated. Detailed descriptions of equipment needed to interface with JPL test crew and equipment are not provided, nor does it meet the more generalized and broader requirements of a MIL-STD document. A detailed equipment description is available upon request, and a MIL-STD document is in the early stages of preparation.

  12. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  13. Evaluating the Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) Method to Join magnesium Castings to Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Stephen D.

    2015-08-19

    This presentation discusses advantages and best practices for incorporating magnesium in automotive component applications to achieve substantial mass reduction, as well as some of the key challenges with respect to joining, coating, and galvanic corrosion, before providing an introduction and status update of the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense jointly sponsored Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) process development and evaluation project. This update includes sharing performance results of a benchmark evaluation of the self-pierce riveting (SPR) process for joining dissimilar magnesium (Mg) to aluminum (Al) materials in four unique coating configurations before introducing the UPJ concept and comparing performance results of the joints made with the UPJ process to those made with the SPR process.

  14. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  15. Evaluating system for SRAM-based FPGA single event upset rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunlong; Bao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    This paper takes static random-access-memory (SRAM)-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) as the research object. Attention is focused on the configuration memory of this kind of FPGA, and the research has been devoted to the contents of the configuration memory and the configuration circuit to manage its contents. The single event upset (SEU) happening in the configuration memory doesn't lead to a functional failure necessarily. The dynamic SEU is SEU which happens in the configuration memory and causes necessarily function failure. This paper introduces a test method of dynamic SUE rate for the SRAM-based FPGA by designing a FPGA with self-test function.

  16. Swift heavy ion induced single event upsets in high density UV-EPROM’s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiwale, S. S.; Shinde, N. S.; Kanjilal, D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2008-04-01

    A few high density UV-EPROM's (32Kb × 8) were irradiated with 5.41 MeV energy α-particles with fluences from 104 to 108 alphas/cm2 and 100 MeV nickel, iodine and silver ions for low fluences between 5 × 107 and 108 ions/cm2. The energy and ion species was selected on the basis of predicted threshold values of linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon. The program which was stored in the memory found to be changed from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 state, respectively. On the basis of changed states, the cross-sections (σ) were calculated to investigate the single event effects/upsets. No upset was observed in case of α-particle since it has very low LET, but the SEU cross-section found to be more in case of Iodine i.e. 2.29 × 10-3 cm2 than that of nickel, 2.12 × 10-3 cm2 and silver, 2.26 × 10-3. This mainly attributes that LET for iodine is more as compared to silver and nickel ions, which deposits large amount of energy near the sensitive node of memory cell in the form of electron-hole pairs required to change the state. These measured SEU cross-section were also compared with theoretically predicted values along with the Weibull distribution fit to the ion induced experimental SEU data. The theoretical predicted SEU cross-section 3.27 × 10-3 cm2 found to be in good agreement with the measured SEU cross-section.

  17. Characterization of Inorganic Biocarriers That Moderate System Upsets during Fixed-Film Biotreatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Don R.; Marshall, Leda C.; Miller, James G.; Chmurny, Alan B.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic matrices were developed for fixed-film bioreactors affording protection to microorganisms and preventing loss of bioreactor productivity during system upsets. These biocarriers, designated Type-Z, contain ion-exchange properties and possess high porosity and a high level of surface area, which provide a suitable medium for microbial colonization. Viable cell populations of 109/g were attainable, and scanning electron micrographs revealed extensive external colonization and moderate internal colonization with aerobic microorganisms. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were established with various biocarriers and colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and comparative studies were performed. The data indicated that bioreactors containing the Type-Z biocarriers were more proficient at removing phenol (1,000 ppm) than bioreactors established with Flexirings (plastic) and Celite R635 (diatomaceous earth) biocarriers. More significantly, these biocarriers were shown to moderate system upsets that affect operation of full-scale biotreatment processes. For example, subjecting the Type-Z bioreactor to an influent phenol feed at pH 2 for periods of 24 h did not decrease the effluent pH or reactor performance. In contrast, bioreactors containing either Celite or Flexirings demonstrated an effluent pH drop to ∼2.5 and a reduction in reactor performance by 75 to 82%. The Celite reactor recovered after 5 days, whereas the bioreactors containing Flexirings did not recover. Similar advantages were noted during either nutrient or oxygen deprivation experiments as well as alkali and organic system shocks. The available data suggest that Type-Z biocarriers represent an immobilization medium that provides an amenable environment for microbial growth and has the potential for improving the reliability of fixed-film biotreatment processes. Images PMID:16349386

  18. Tradeoffs in Flight Design Upset Mitigation in State of the Art FPGAs: Hardened by Design vs. Design Level Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Roosta, Ramin

    2004-01-01

    This presentation compares and contrasts the effectiveness and the system/designer impacts of the two main approaches to upset hardening: the Actel approach (RTSX-S and RTAX-S) of low-level (inside each flip-flop) triplication and the Xilinx approach (Virtex and Virtex2) of design-level triplication of both functional blocks and voters. The effectiveness of these approaches is compared using measurements made in conjunction with each of the FPGAs' manufacturer: for Actel, published data [1] and for Xilinx, recent results from the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium (note that the author is an active and founding member). The impacts involve Actel advantages in the areas of transistor-utilization efficiency and minimizing designer involvement in the triplication while the Xilinx advantages relate to the ability to custom tailor upset hardness and the flexibility of re-configurability. Additionally, there are currently clear Xilinx advantages in available features such as the number of I/O's, logic cells, and RAM blocks as well as speed. However, the advantage of the Actel anti-fuses for configuration over the Xilinx SRAM cells is that the latter need additional functionality and external circuitry (PROMs and, at least a watchdog timer) for configuration and configuration scrubbing. Further, although effectively mitigated if done correctly, the proton upset-ability of the Xilinx FPGAs is a concern in severe proton-rich environments. Ultimately, both manufacturers' upset hardening is limited by SEFI (single-event functional interrupt) rates where it appears the Actel results are better although the Xilinx Virtex2-family result of about one SEFI in 65 device-years in solar-min GCR (the more intense part of the galactic cosmic-ray background) should be acceptable to most missions

  19. Pick_sw: a program for interactive picking of S-wave data, version 2.00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program pick_sw is used to interactively pick travel times from S-wave data. It is assumed that the data are collected using 2 shots of opposite polarity at each shot location. The traces must be in either the SEG-2 format or the SU format. The program is written in the IDL and C programming languages, and the program is executed under the Windows operating system. (The program may also execute under other operating systems like UNIX if the C language functions are re-compiled).

  20. MADS-box genes in maize: Frequent targets of selection during domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 random loci from the maize genome and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using n...

  1. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity. PMID:25914445

  2. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.

  3. TRIP13PCH-2 promotes Mad2 localization to unattached kinetochores in the spindle checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian R.; Hwang, Tom; Chen, Pin-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint acts during cell division to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer. During checkpoint activation, Mad1 recruits Mad2 to kinetochores to generate a signal that delays anaphase onset. Yet, whether additional factors contribute to Mad2’s kinetochore localization remains unclear. Here, we report that the conserved AAA+ ATPase TRIP13PCH-2 localizes to unattached kinetochores and is required for spindle checkpoint activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. pch-2 mutants effectively localized Mad1 to unattached kinetochores, but Mad2 recruitment was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that the C. elegans orthologue of the Mad2 inhibitor p31(comet)CMT-1 interacts with TRIP13PCH-2 and is required for its localization to unattached kinetochores. These factors also genetically interact, as loss of p31(comet)CMT-1 partially suppressed the requirement for TRIP13PCH-2 in Mad2 localization and spindle checkpoint signaling. These data support a model in which the ability of TRIP13PCH-2 to disassemble a p31(comet)/Mad2 complex, which has been well characterized in the context of checkpoint silencing, is also critical for spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:26527744

  4. Expression of the mad gene during cell differentiation in vivo and its inhibition of cell growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Mad is a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor which can dimerize with the Max protein and antagonize transcriptional activation by the Myc-Max transcription factor heterodimer. While the expression of Myc is necessary for cell proliferation, the expression of Mad is induced upon differentiation of at least some leukemia cell lines. Here, the expression of the mad gene has been explored in developing mouse tissues. During organogenesis in mouse embryos mad mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and in the mantle layer of the developing brain. At later stages mad expression was detected in neuroretina, epidermis, and whisker follicles, and in adult mice mad was expressed at variable levels in most organs analyzed. Interestingly, in the skin mad was highly expressed in the differentiating epidermal keratinocytes, but not in the underlying proliferating basal keratinocyte layer. Also, in the gut mad mRNA was abundant in the intestinal villi, where cells cease proliferation and differentiate, but not in the crypts, where the intestinal epithelial cells proliferate. In the testis, mad expression was associated with the completion of meiosis and early development of haploid cells. In cell culture, Mad inhibited colony formation of a mouse keratinocyte cell line and rat embryo fibroblast transformation by Myc and Ras. The pattern of mad expression in tissues and its ability to inhibit cell growth in vitro suggests that Mad can cause the cessation of cell proliferation associated with cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:7896882

  5. Stable folding intermediates prevent fast interconversion between the closed and open states of Mad2 through its denatured state.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Lianghui; Wu, Chunfei; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Ge, Baosheng; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Different states of metamorphic proteins can interconvert under physiological conditions to realize corresponding functions. The mechanism behind the conversion is critical for understanding how these proteins work. We report a combined thermodynamic and kinetic study on the folding/unfolding process of the open and closed conformers of mitotic arrest deficient protein 2 (Mad2), a metamorphic protein. It has been observed that open Mad2 (O-Mad2) can convert to closed Mad2 (C-Mad2). Our results show that O-Mad2 and C-Mad2 have similar thermodynamic stability, which explains the presence of metamorphosis. The folding/unfolding kinetics suggest that the conversion between O-Mad2 and C-Mad2 would be much faster than that reported previously if this conversion goes through the denatured state (U) directly, i.e. through an O-Mad2-denatured state (U)-C-Mad2 (O-U-C) pathway. This inconsistency implies that there exist stable intermediates in between the native and denatured states of Mad2, which would either slow down the O-U-C interconversion or prevent it going through the denatured state.

  6. Why Not Rent a Truck to Pick Up Textbooks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Stephen K.; Tubbs, Randahl L.

    1979-01-01

    High freight costs stimulated the idea of renting a truck to pick up publisher textbook orders. Benefits, including lower cost per 100 pounds of freight and scheduling when there is room to receive cartons and crew to process the books, outweigh the problems encountered. (MLW)

  7. Point Picking and Distributing on the Disc and Sphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7333 July 2015 Point Picking and Distributing on ...and Distributing on the Disc and Sphere 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mary K Arthur 5d

  8. An Introduction to SPEAR (Seismogram Picking Error from Analyst Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, C. P.; Velasco, A. A.; Anderson, D.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2008-12-01

    A grassroots initiative began in February of 2008 at the University of Texas at El Paso to understand how seismologists measure earthquakes. The Seismogram Picking Error from Analyst Review (SPEAR) project is designed to be a forum where seismologists can propose, discuss and experimentally test theories on proper procedures to identify and measure seismic phases. We outline the history of seismogram analysis and explore areas of seismogram analysis that still need to be defined. The main concern for SPEAR, at this time, is the impact of picking errors produced by merging earthquake catalogs. Our initial effort has been to establish a common data set for seismologists to pick. The preliminary studies from this data set have shown that significant bias between authors of catalogs may exist. We provide techniques to ensure that these biases can be identified and correctly managed to provide accurate mergers of earthquake measurements. The overall goal of SPEAR is to provide a repository of information to aid seismologists in comparing and sharing measurements. We want to document in the repository and explore all aspects of the picking process, from the basics of learning how to read a seismogram to complex transformations and enhancements of signals. Your participation in SPEAR will aid the seismological community to close the knowledge gaps that exist in seismogram analysis.

  9. A case of progressive aphasia without dementia: "temporal" Pick's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Scheltens, P; Hazenberg, G J; Lindeboom, J; Valk, J; Wolters, E C

    1990-01-01

    We report a patient who suffered from progressive aphasia for nine years, before developing mild behavioural disturbances. Sequential computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging showed progressive bilateral temporal atrophy. The case is thought to be a temporal form of Pick's disease, in which isolated progressive aphasia was the only symptom over many years. Images PMID:2303835

  10. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. "Micro-robots" pick up a glass bead

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass bead and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  12. Systematic Approaches to Experimentation: The Case of Pick's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two 10th graders having an accumulated experience on problem-solving ancillary to the concept of area confronted the task to find Pick's formula for a lattice polygon's area. The formula was omitted from the theorem in order for the students to read the theorem as a problem to be solved. Their working is examined and emphasis is…

  13. A near fatal case of pathological skin picking.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel I; Garrison, Roger C; Thompson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Female, 51 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Patological skin picking Symptoms: Aphasia • headache • hemiparesis • incontinence - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Dermatology. Challenging differential diagnosis. Pathological skin picking (PSP) disorder is characterized by repetitive and compulsive picking of the skin resulting in tissue damage. PSP has been shown to affect 5.4% of a community sample, 4% of college students, and 2% of patients seen in a dermatology clinic. It can be associated with significant disfigurement. The diagnosis requires obtaining a careful history and high clinical suspicion. We report a previously healthy 51-year-old Caucasian female with a history of "acne" who presented with new onset right-sided hemiparesis, mild aphasia and an episode of incontinence. She had memory loss of the prior few days. She also complained of a four-day history of intense headaches and dizziness. CT and MRI of the head showed encephalomalacia involving the left frontal and parietal lobes. Further history from the patient revealed that the patient had been picking at her forehead with a sewing needle and later with a long knitting needle. PSP is a prevalent disorder, which can have potentially serious health consequences. Besides potential disfigurement and scarring, PSP can have significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment by clinicians are essential to prevent potentially fatal consequences.

  14. Iterative interferometry-based method for picking microseismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Naveed; Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.; Kaka, SanLinn I.; Liu, Entao; Raj, Anupama Govinda; McClellan, James H.

    2017-05-01

    Continuous microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing is commonly used in many engineering, environmental, mining, and petroleum applications. Microseismic signals recorded at the surface, suffer from excessive noise that complicates first-break picking and subsequent data processing and analysis. This study presents a new first-break picking algorithm that employs concepts from seismic interferometry and time-frequency (TF) analysis. The algorithm first uses a TF plot to manually pick a reference first-break and then iterates the steps of cross-correlation, alignment, and stacking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the relative first breaks. The reference first-break is subsequently used to calculate final first breaks from the relative ones. Testing on synthetic and real data sets at high levels of additive noise shows that the algorithm enhances the first-break picking considerably. Furthermore, results show that only two iterations are needed to converge to the true first breaks. Indeed, iterating more can have detrimental effects on the algorithm due to increasing correlation of random noise.

  15. Why Not Rent a Truck to Pick Up Textbooks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Stephen K.; Tubbs, Randahl L.

    1979-01-01

    High freight costs stimulated the idea of renting a truck to pick up publisher textbook orders. Benefits, including lower cost per 100 pounds of freight and scheduling when there is room to receive cartons and crew to process the books, outweigh the problems encountered. (MLW)

  16. The emerging importance of type I MADS box transcription factors for plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia; Grini, Paul E; Schnittger, Arp; Kater, Martin M

    2011-03-01

    Based on their evolutionary origin, MADS box transcription factor genes have been divided into two classes, namely, type I and II. The plant-specific type II MIKC MADS box genes have been most intensively studied and shown to be key regulators of developmental processes, such as meristem identity, flowering time, and fruit and seed development. By contrast, very little is known about type I MADS domain transcription factors, and they have not attracted interest for a long time. A number of recent studies have now indicated a key regulatory role for type I MADS box factors in plant reproduction, in particular in specifying female gametophyte, embryo, and endosperm development. These analyses have also suggested that type I MADS box factors are decisive for setting reproductive boundaries between species.

  17. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  18. Rituals of Madness in the Practices of Place.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Joel

    2016-03-01

    While completing a PhD in literature with a focus on the practices of physical and linguistic spaces, I was also working and sleeping (on call) at a dilapidated house in a poorer part of Bristol in case I was needed by one of five paranoid or clinically psychotic residents. I gave out medication in the morning, then went home to study in a small rented room. I began to see ritual everywhere--in my professors' routines; my own habits; the behaviours of the mentally ill patients. This paper is the story of a number of madnesses and the problems with reading ritual performance in everything we do.

  19. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  20. Space madness: the dreaded disease that never was.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Matthew H

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatrists working with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the late-1950s feared the worst of the men they examined to be America's first astronauts: that they would be impulsive, suicidal, sexually aberrant thrill-seekers. The examiners, though, were surprised - and a little disappointed - when tests revealed the would-be astronauts to be sane, poised professionals able to absorb extraordinary stresses. A Space Age malady with no incidence among human populations, 'space madness' is the stuff of Hollywood: a cultural manifestation of popular fears of a lonely, dehumanizing, and claustrophobic future among the stars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage.

  2. The inhibition of mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus by light is dependent on the MadA-MadB complex that acts in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Viplendra P S; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the Mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. Mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. In this analysis, the role of the light-sensing MadA-MadB complex in mating was tested. The MadA-MadB complex is homologous to the Neurospora crassa White Collar complex. Three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus or pheromone biosynthesis are transcriptionally-regulated by light and are controlled by MadA and MadB. This regulation acts through the plus partner, indicating that the inhibitory effect of light on mating is executed through only one of the two sexes. These results are an example whereby the mating types of fungi have acquired sex-specific properties beyond their role in conferring cell-type identity, and provide insight into how sex-determining chromosomal regions can expand the traits they control.

  3. Upset Simulation and Training Initiatives for U.S. Navy Commercial Derived Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Steven; Priest, James; Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Militarized versions of commercial platforms are growing in popularity due to many logistical benefits in the form of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts, established production methods, and commonality for different certifications. Commercial data and best practices are often leveraged to reduce procurement and engineering development costs. While the developmental and cost reduction benefits are clear, these militarized aircraft are routinely operated in flight at significantly different conditions and in significantly different manners than for routine commercial flight. Therefore they are at a higher risk of flight envelope exceedance. This risk may lead to departure from controlled flight and/or aircraft loss1. Historically, the risk of departure from controlled flight for military aircraft has been mitigated by piloted simulation training and engineering analysis of typical aircraft response. High-agility military aircraft simulation databases are typically developed to include high angles of attack (AoA) and sideslip due to the dynamic nature of their missions and have been developed for many tactical configurations over the previous decades. These aircraft simulations allow for a more thorough understanding of the vehicle flight dynamics characteristics at high AoA and sideslip. In recent years, government sponsored research on transport airplane aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack has produced a growing understanding of stall/post-stall behavior. This research along with recent commercial airline training initiatives has resulted in improved understanding of simulator-based training requirements and simulator model fidelity.2-5 In addition, inflight training research over the past decade has produced a database of pilot performance and recurrency metrics6. Innovative solutions to aerodynamically model large commercial aircraft for upset conditions such as high AoA, high sideslip, and ballistic damage, as well as capability to accurately

  4. [Ways of managing madness during the First Republic: the case of the state of Espírito Santo].

    PubMed

    Jabert, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the creation of institutions for managing madness and the 'mad' under the First Republic. By focusing specifically on the state of Espírito Santo, it analyzes how the government designed policies for dealing with the mad and asks whether this particular state's experience can validate hypotheses defended for the nation as a whole. The study also aims to demonstrate the complex relations between madness, society, medicine, and the State. A main discussion point is the process by which medicine was transformed into hegemonic knowledge and practice used to justify and validate government guardianship of the mad.

  5. AGL15, a MADS domain protein expressed in developing embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, G R; Perry, S E; Nichols, K W; Fernandez, D E

    1995-01-01

    To extend our knowledge of genes expressed during early embryogenesis, the differential display technique was used to identify and isolate mRNA sequences that accumulate preferentially in young Brassica napus embryos. One of these genes encodes a new member of the MADS domain family of regulatory proteins; it has been designated AGL15 (for AGAMOUS-like). AGL15 shows a novel pattern of expression that is distinct from those of previously characterized family members. RNA gel blot analyses and in situ hybridization techniques were used to demonstrate that AGL15 mRNA accumulated primarily in the embryo and was present in all embryonic tissues, beginning at least as early as late globular stage in B. napus. Genomic and cDNA clones corresponding to two AGL15 genes from B. napus and the homologous single-copy gene from Arabidopsis, which is located on chromosome 5, were isolated and analyzed. Antibodies prepared against overexpressed Brassica AGL15 lacking the conserved MADS domain were used to probe immunoblots, and AGL15-related proteins were found in embryos of a variety of angiosperms, including plants as distantly related as maize. Based on these data, we suggest that AGL15 is likely to be an important component of the regulatory circuitry directing seed-specific processes in the developing embryo. PMID:7549483

  6. BTA Magnet Field Map Archive and MAD Model

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn,J.W.

    2008-04-01

    This note publishes some and information that has resided in private files. The attached tables were provided by Joseph Skelly from his archives. They show magnetic field measurements versus excitation current for the Booster to AGS transfer line quadrupoles and dipoles based on field measurements [we believe] were done by the Magnet Division. Also given are Ed Blesser's fifth order fits of field versus current. The results are given in 'Tesla' or T-M/M. These tables are attached to provide an archive of this data. The MAD model of the BTA line does have the same values as shown in the attached fits so the transfer was correct. MAD uses as its 'gradient' for quads Tesla per meter normalized to rigidity [B-rho]. The model of the BTA line in use uses the T-M/M given in the tables divided by the length to give T M which is then normalized by Brho. Thus, the input to the model appears to be correct. The original model is also attached as part of a memo by Skelly describing it.

  7. Mad Honey Poisoning-Related Hypothermia: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Ali; Vuran, Hava Semra; Aksut, Nurhak; Karaca, Yunus; Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Mad honey-related intoxication frequently leads to bradycardia, hypotension, and syncope. Hypothermia is a potentially life-threatening condition if not identified early and treated appropriately. Three patients are reviewed. Patient 1 was a 66-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and faintness beginning 2 h after consuming honey. His temperature was 34°C, his blood pressure was 70/40 mm Hg, and his heart rate was 30 beats/min. Patient 2, a 57-year-old man, presented to the emergency department with headache, feeling cold, and faintness beginning 3 h after consuming honey. His temperature was 35°C, his blood pressure was 60/40 mm Hg, and his heart rate was 46 beats/min. Patient 3 was a 79-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and headache 2 h after consuming honey. Her temperature was 35°C, her blood pressure was 70/40 mm Hg, and her heart rate was 40 beats/min. All 3 patients were discharged in good condition after appropriate therapy. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Bradycardia and hypotension are frequently encountered in mad honey intoxication. However, intoxication accompanied by hypothermia has attracted little attention to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall timemore » in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).« less

  9. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).

  10. The MAD View on the Outskirts of Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; den Brok, M.; Fagioli, M.; Onodera, M.; Tacchella, S. MAD Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present the MUSE Atlas of Disks (MAD), a GTO program with the MUSE spectrograph on the ESO/VLT that is dedicated to the study of the optical spectroscopic properties of z = 0 disk galaxies on the star-forming `Main Sequence' at < 100 pc physical resolution. MUSE pointings on the MAD galaxies extend out to ~ 2 disk scale lengths, enabling to investigate the bulge and inner disk properties of galaxies with different outer disks. Here we specifically compare, at constant stellar-mass, the stellar population properties of the inner components in disks with down-bending (Type II) and up-bending (Type III) outer profiles. We highlight similarities in the inner stellar properties of such different hosts, which point at a universal inside-out growth of disks, as well as differences which suggest an additional role of stellar migration and/or gas accretion in the growth of disk galaxies with an outer up-bending profile, as expected from theoretical models.

  11. A MAD model for gamma-ray burst variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 s or so), in the context of a magnetically arrested disc (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disc. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the variable luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic time-scale defined by the free-fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and time-scales, and compare them to GRB observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time-scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. We also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse.

  12. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).

  13. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of the Phenomenology of Skin-Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica R.; Storch, Eric A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking…

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of the Phenomenology of Skin-Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica R.; Storch, Eric A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking…

  16. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla) promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  17. Overexpression of a MADS-Box Gene from Birch (Betula platyphylla) Promotes Flowering and Enhances Chloroplast Development in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco. PMID:23691043

  18. OsMADS26 Negatively Regulates Resistance to Pathogens and Drought Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Giang Ngan; Richaud, Frédérique; Parizot, Boris; Mai, Chung Duc; Bès, Martine; Bourrié, Isabelle; Meynard, Donaldo; Beeckman, Tom; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Manabu, Ishitani; Brugidou, Christophe; Nang Do, Vinh; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Gantet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Functional analyses of MADS-box transcription factors in plants have unraveled their role in major developmental programs (e.g. flowering and floral organ identity) as well as stress-related developmental processes, such as abscission, fruit ripening, and senescence. Overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa) MADS26 gene in rice has revealed a possible function related to stress response. Here, we show that OsMADS26-down-regulated plants exhibit enhanced resistance against two major rice pathogens: Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae. Despite this enhanced resistance to biotic stresses, OsMADS26-down-regulated plants also displayed enhanced tolerance to water deficit. These phenotypes were observed in both controlled and field conditions. Interestingly, alteration of OsMADS26 expression does not have a strong impact on plant development. Gene expression profiling revealed that a majority of genes misregulated in overexpresser and down-regulated OsMADS26 lines compared with control plants are associated to biotic or abiotic stress response. Altogether, our data indicate that OsMADS26 acts as an upstream regulator of stress-associated genes and thereby, a hub to modulate the response to various stresses in the rice plant. PMID:26424158

  19. Drosophila Dullard functions as a Mad phosphatase to terminate BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Hugo; Aleman, Abigail; Eivers, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration. We show that a hypomorphic Dullard allele or Dullard knockdown leads to increased Mad phosphorylation levels, while Dullard overexpression resulted in reduced Mad phosphorylations. Co-immunoprecipitation binding assays demonstrate phosphorylated Mad and Dullard physically interact, while mutation of Dullard’s phosphatase domain still allowed Mad-Dullard interactions but abolished its ability to regulate Mad phosphorylations. Finally, we demonstrate that linker and C-terminally phosphorylated Mad can be regulated by one of two terminating mechanisms, degradation by proteasomes or dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Dullard. PMID:27578171

  20. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  1. The effect of mad honey on testosterone levels of male rats.

    PubMed

    Tatli, O; Karaca, Y; Turkmen, S; Gulgen, G S; Sahin, A; Eryigit, U; Fazli, O; Karaguzel, E; Mentese, A; Orem, A; Cansu, A; Turedi, S; Gunduz, A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of mad honey on sexual performance. In traditional medicine in Turkey, mad honey is used to improve appetite, to heighten mental alertness, to reduce joint pain, to eliminate gastrointestinal system pains and to increase sexual performance. In this experimental animal study eighteen Sprague Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups, a control group, a normal honey group and a mad honey group. Rats in the treatment groups were given a daily dose of 80 mg/kg normal honey or mad honey throughout the 30-day study period. Total testosterone, free testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels were subsequently investigated from blood sera on day 30. Comparison of blood total testosterone levels among the groups revealed significantly higher levels in the mad honey group compared to the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.006, p = 0.00). Free testosterone levels were also significantly higher in the mad honey group than in the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.023, p = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were determined for other hormonal measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in both total and free testosterone levels in mad-honey group (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 16).

  2. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  3. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T.; Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup −12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30 μA.

  4. Generalized Fragment Picking in Rosetta: Design, Protocols and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gront, Dominik; Kulp, Daniel W.; Vernon, Robert M.; Strauss, Charlie E. M.; Baker, David

    2011-01-01

    The Rosetta de novo structure prediction and loop modeling protocols begin with coarse grained Monte Carlo searches in which the moves are based on short fragments extracted from a database of known structures. Here we describe a new object oriented program for picking fragments that greatly extends the functionality of the previous program (nnmake) and opens the door for new approaches to structure modeling. We provide a detailed description of the code design and architecture, highlighting its modularity, and new features such as extensibility, total control over the fragment picking workflow and scoring system customization. We demonstrate that the program provides at least as good building blocks for ab-initio structure prediction as the previous program, and provide examples of the wide range of applications that are now accessible. PMID:21887241

  5. [Therapies in the Niemann-Pick type C disease].

    PubMed

    Chabrol, B

    2010-06-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is a lysosomal storage disease affecting intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Several clinical forms have been described, with a possible onset at all ages of life from the neonatal period to adulthood. The therapeutic approach was symptomatic only until recently, depending on the disability presented by the patient. A global management is essential and often required, taking into account all the problems observed, and includes nutrition care, speech therapy, physiotherapy, psychological support, or psychiatric cares. Improved knowledge on the pathophysiology of Niemann-Pick type C disease has to consider specific therapeutic strategies, the therapeutic target is represented by the progressive brain damage characteristic of this disease. Recently, the use of miglustat allows a number of cases of disease stabilization. The onset of treatment and monitoring will be the best in a reference center expert in the disease.

  6. Pick to place trajectories in human arm training environment.

    PubMed

    Ziherl, Jaka; Podobnik, Janez; Sikic, Mario; Munih, Marko

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of trajectory planning in rehabilitation robotics. First were measured in healthy subject the pick to place trajectories while haptic robot is in zero impedance space. B-spline approximation is used to mathematically define the measured paths. This trajectory path serves as a central line for the rounding haptic tunnel. In addition to radial elastic and damping force an optional guidance force can be applied along the tunnel to reach the place point. The B-spline control points were observed around the robot and arm workspace. The trajectory path defined with B-splines is compared with minimum jerk and minimum torque defined trajectories. Finally are compared the pick to place movements with and without tunnel use in healthy subject and in stroke hemiplegic patient.

  7. Duplicated C-class MADS-box genes reveal distinct roles in gynostemium development in Cymbidium ensifolium (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Chen, You-Yi; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2011-03-01

    The orchid floral organs represent novel and effective structures for attracting pollination vectors. In addition, to avoid inbreeding, the androecium and gynoecium are united in a single structure termed the gynostemium. Identification of C-class MADS-box genes regulating reproductive organ development could help determine the level of homology with the current ABC model of floral organ identity in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized two C-class AGAMOUS-like genes, denoted CeMADS1 and CeMADS2, from Cymbidium ensifolium. These two genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their functional diversification during gynostemium development. Furthermore, the expression of CeMADS1 but not CeMADS2 was eliminated in the multitepal mutant whose gynostemium is replaced by a newly emerged flower, and this ecotopic flower continues to produce sepals and petals centripetally. Protein interaction relationships among CeMADS1, CeMADS2 and E-class PeMADS8 proteins were assessed by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Both CeMADS1 and CeMADS2 formed homodimers and heterodimers with each other and the E-class PeMADS protein. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CeMADS1 or CeMADS2 showed limited growth of primary inflorescence. Thus, CeMADS1 may have a pivotal C function in reproductive organ development in C. ensifolium. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  8. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  9. Characterization of System on a Chip (SoC) Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses Using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  10. Tetramer formation in Arabidopsis MADS domain proteins: analysis of a protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MADS domain proteins are transcription factors that coordinate several important developmental processes in plants. These proteins interact with other MADS domain proteins to form dimers, and it has been proposed that they are able to associate as tetrameric complexes that regulate transcription of target genes. Whether the formation of functional tetramers is a widespread property of plant MADS domain proteins, or it is specific to few of these transcriptional regulators remains unclear. Results We analyzed the structure of the network of physical interactions among MADS domain proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined the abundance of subgraphs that represent the connection pattern expected for a MADS domain protein heterotetramer. These subgraphs were significantly more abundant in the MADS domain protein interaction network than in randomized analogous networks. Importantly, these subgraphs are not significantly frequent in a protein interaction network of TCP plant transcription factors, when compared to expectation by chance. In addition, we found that MADS domain proteins in tetramer-like subgraphs are more likely to be expressed jointly than proteins in other subgraphs. This effect is mainly due to proteins in the monophyletic MIKC clade, as there is no association between tetramer-like subgraphs and co-expression for proteins outside this clade. Conclusions Our results support that the tendency to form functional tetramers is widespread in the MADS domain protein-protein interaction network. Our observations also suggest that this trend is prevalent, or perhaps exclusive, for proteins in the MIKC clade. Because it is possible to retrodict several experimental results from our analyses, our work can be an important aid to make new predictions and facilitates experimental research on plant MADS domain proteins. PMID:24468197

  11. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees.

  12. Empirical modeling of Single-Event Upset (SEU) in NMOS depletion-mode-load static RAM (SRAM) chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Smith, S. L.; Atwood, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of single-event upset (SEU) in static RAM (SRAM) chips fabricated using a family of high-performance NMOS (HMOS) depletion-mode-load process technologies, has been done. Empirical SEU models have been developed with the aid of heavy-ion data obtained with a three-stage tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The results of this work demonstrate a method by which SEU may be empirically modeled in NMOS integrated circuits.

  13. A transmission electron microscopy evaluation of solid-state upset welds in Type 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tosten, M.H.

    1995-09-08

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the microstructures at and near the weld interface in upset welded Type 304L stainless steel test samples. Two sample configurations were examined in this study; upset welded cylinders prepared using a commercial resistance welder and cylindrical shaped samples welded in a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulation device. The Gleeble samples evaluated were welded at 800 C, 900 C and 1,200 C with a 0.5 cm weld upset. The base microstructure of the samples varied with weld temperature. The lower temperature specimens contained a large free-dislocation density and distinct dislocation cells. The higher temperature specimens contained well-developed subgrains and a much lower free-dislocation density. The microstructure of the upset welded samples most closely resembled the 1,200 C Gleeble sample. No distinct bond line was observed by TEM in any of the specimens, i.e., diffusion and grain growth occurred across all weld interfaces. However, weld interfaces in both specimen configurations were characterized by the presence of 50--300 nm diameter particles spaced between 300 and 1,300 nm apart. Through the use of electron diffraction analysis and X-ray microanalysis two precipitate types were identified in both specimen configurations. A crystalline phase very similar to Mn{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and an amorphous phase enriched mainly in Si and Al were observed. Surface oxides and/or internal impurities may be sources for these precipitates. Future work will include a controlled study designed to determine the origin of the interface precipitates.

  14. Empirical modeling of Single-Event Upset (SEU) in NMOS depletion-mode-load static RAM (SRAM) chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Smith, S. L.; Atwood, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of single-event upset (SEU) in static RAM (SRAM) chips fabricated using a family of high-performance NMOS (HMOS) depletion-mode-load process technologies, has been done. Empirical SEU models have been developed with the aid of heavy-ion data obtained with a three-stage tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The results of this work demonstrate a method by which SEU may be empirically modeled in NMOS integrated circuits.

  15. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  16. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  17. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  18. Apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets in combinational logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Hass, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Cameron, Kelly B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets (or SEU) in combinational logic are used to prevent error propagation as a result of cosmic particle strikes to the combinational logic. The apparatus preferably includes a combinational logic block electrically coupled to a delay element, a latch and an output buffer. In operation, a signal from the combinational logic is electrically coupled to a first input of the latch. In addition, the signal is routed through the delay element to produce a delayed signal. The delayed signal is routed to a second input of the latch. The latch used in the apparatus for preventing SEU preferably includes latch outputs and a feature that the latch outputs will not change state unless both latch inputs are correct. For example, the latch outputs may not change state unless both latch inputs have the same logical state. When a cosmic particle strikes the combinational logic, a transient disturbance with a predetermined length may appear in the signal. However, a function of the delay element is to preferably provide a time delay greater than the length of the transient disturbance. Therefore, the transient disturbance will not reach both latch inputs simultaneously. As a result, the latch outputs will not permanently change state in error due to the transient disturbance. In addition, the output buffer preferably combines the latch outputs in such a way that the correct state is preserved at all times. Thus, combinational logic with protection from SEU is provided.

  19. Upset Resistance Welding of Carbon Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel Narrow Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozlati, Ashkaan; Movahedi, Mojtaba; Mohammadkamal, Helia

    2016-11-01

    Effects of welding current (at the range of 2-4 kA) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of upset resistance welds of AISI-1035 carbon steel to AISI-304L austenitic stainless steel rods were investigated. The results showed that the joint strength first increased by raising the welding current up to 3 kA and then decreased beyond it. Increasing trend was related to more plastic deformation, accelerated diffusion, reduction of defects and formation of mechanical locks at the joint interface. For currents more than 3 kA, decrease in the joint strength was mainly caused by formation of hot spots. Using the optimum welding current of 3 kA, tensile strength of the joint reached to 76% of the carbon steel base metal strength. Microstructural observations and microhardness results confirmed that there was no hard phase, i.e., martensite or bainite, at the weld zone. Moreover, a fully austenitic transition layer related to carbon diffusion from carbon steel was observed at the weld interface.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause tile voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. A method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause the voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. The method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  2. Fault Tolerance Implementation within SRAM Based FPGA Designs based upon Single Event Upset Occurrence Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technology is enabling the design community to consistently expand the amount of functionality that can be implemented within Integrated Circuits (ICs). As the number of gates placed within an FPGA increases, the complexity of the design can grow exponentially. Consequently, the ability to create reliable circuits has become an incredibly difficult task. In order to ease the complexity of design completion, the commercial design community has developed a very rigid (but effective) design methodology based on synchronous circuit techniques. In order to create faster, smaller and lower power circuits, transistor geometries and core voltages have decreased. In environments that contain ionizing energy, such a combination will increase the probability of Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and will consequently affect the state space of a circuit. In order to combat the effects of radiation, the aerospace community has developed several "Hardened by Design" (fault tolerant) design schemes. This paper will address design mitigation schemes targeted for SRAM Based FPGA CMOS devices. Because some mitigation schemes may be over zealous (too much power, area, complexity, etc.. . .), the designer should be conscious that system requirements can ease the amount of mitigation necessary for acceptable operation. Therefore, various degrees of Fault Tolerance will be demonstrated along with an analysis of its effectiveness.

  3. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  4. Texture evolution in upset-forged P/M and wrought tantalum: Experimentation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bingert, J.F.; Desch, P.B.; Bingert, S.R.; Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.

    1997-11-01

    Preferred orientations in polycrystalline materials can significantly affect their physical and mechanical response through the retention of anisotropic properties inherent to the single crystal. In this study the texture evolution in upset-forged PIM and wrought tantalum was measured as a function of initial texture, compressive strain, and relative position in the pressing. A <001>/<111> duplex fiber texture parallel to the compression axis was generally observed, with varying degrees of a radial component evident in the wrought material. The development of deformation textures derives from restricted crystallographic slip conditions that generate lattice rotations, and these grain reorientations can be modeled as a function of the prescribed deformation gradient. Texture development was simulated for equivalent deformations using both a modified Taylor approach and a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A comparison between the predicted evolution and experimental results shows a good correlation with the texture components, but an overly sharp prediction at large strains from both the Taylor and VPSC models.

  5. Noise impact of single-event upsets on an FPGA-based digital filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P; Graham, Paul S; Pratt, Brian H; Wirthlin, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are well-suited to DSP and digital communications applications. SRAM-based FPGAs, however, are susceptible to radiation-induced single-event upsets (SEUs) when deployed in space environments. These effects are often handled with the area and power-intensive TMR mitigation technique. This paper evaluates the effects of SEUs in the FPGA configuration memory as noise in a digital filter, showing that many SEUs in a digital communications system cause effects that could be considered noise rather than circuit failure. Since DSP and digital communications applications are designed to withstand certain types of noise, SEU mitigation techniques that are less costly than TMR may be applicable. This could result in large savings in area and power when implementing a reliable system. Our experiments show that, of the SEUs that affected the digital filter with a 20 dB SNR input signal, less than 14% caused an SNR loss of more than 1 dB at the output.

  6. Single Event Upset (SEU) testing of semiconductor components at the McMaster Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. A.; Almeida, F. J. D.; Comedi, D.; Stark, J. W.

    1991-03-01

    Single event upsets (SEU) occur when a single ionizing particle such as a cosmic ray passes through a microelectronic device, causing a random change in the logic state of a bistable circuit. The SEU phenomenon is of great interest since it is a source of errors and failures, notably on spaceborne microelectronic chips. A Van de Graaff accelerator was used to simulate the cosmic ray heavy ion linear energy transfer (LET) distribution found in earth orbit, and accelerator experiments were conducted in a dedicated facility for SEU testing of microelectronic devices. The first set of experiments set out to compare data obtained by two different SEU memory tester systems, and a second set attempted to compare data obtained using ions of different species and energy but the same LET, and to determine the accuracy of the concept of a constant SEU cross-section for a given LET. Observation of a fluence dependent SEU cross section and transient behavior led to a third set of experiments, designed to allow observation in more detail of the dynamics of these newly observed phenomena. The charge collection efficiency of detectors to high LET ions was also measured.

  7. Low energy proton induced single event upset in 65 nm DDR and QDR commercial SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, T. Q.; Maaz, K.; Luo, J.; Wang, B.; Yin, Y. N.; Ji, Q. G.; Sun, Y. M.; Hou, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of 65 nm commercial double data rate static random access memory (SRAM) and quad data rate SRAM was investigated by using proton beams with energies in the range of 0.15 MeV to 8.0 MeV. Experimental results show that a significant number of SEU occurrences can be triggered when the energy of incident proton is below 1 MeV. For the low energy protons, the SEU cross section measured in these SRAMs was found to increase with increasing proton energy, attaining a peak value, and then decreases as the proton energy was further increased. While in case of quad data rate SRAMs, it seems that they are more sensitive to SEU occurrences as compared with double data rate SRAMs. The bias voltage and data pattern dependence on SEU cross section induced by the low energy protons were also investigated in this work. In addition, the over-layer thickness of the SRAMs and the impact of degrader use in proton induced SEU test were also analyzed in detail. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate that the use of degrader in case of low energy proton induced SEU test results in a significant reduction of the SEU cross section.

  8. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2011-05-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression.

  9. Premature Ventricular Complex Causing Ice-Pick Headache

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    Ice pick headache is a momentary, transient, repetitive headache disorder and manifests with the stabbing pains and jolts. The exact mechanism causing this disease is unknown. Premature ventricular contractions are early depolarization of the ventricular myocardium and in the absence of a structural heart disease, it is considered to be a benign disease. In this report, we describe a male patient presenting with the symptom of momentary headache attacks accompanied with instant chest pain which is associated with premature ventricular contraction. PMID:28367337

  10. Pick-up and impact of flexible bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Hanna, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Picking up, laying down, colliding, rolling, and peeling are partial-contact interactions involving moving discontinuities. We examine the balances of momentum and energy across a moving discontinuity in a string, with allowance for injection or dissipation by singular supplies. We split the energy dissipation according to its invariance properties, discuss analogies with systems of particles and connections with the literature on shocks and phase transition fronts in various bodies, and derive a compatibility relation between supplies of momentum and translation-invariant energy. For a moving contact discontinuity between a string and a smooth rigid plane in the presence of gravity, we find a surprising asymmetry between the processes of picking up and laying down, such that steady-state kinks in geometry and associated jumps in tension are not admissible during pick-up. This prediction is consistent with experimental observations. We briefly discuss related problems including the falling folded chain, peeling of an adhesive tape, and the ;chain fountain;. Our approach is applicable to the study of impact and locomotion, and to systems such as moored floating structures and some musical instruments that feature vibrating string and cable elements interacting with a surface.

  11. Clinical correlates of symptom severity in skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2017-10-01

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) remains poorly understood with limited data regarding its underlying pathophysiology and appropriate treatment choices. One approach to refining our treatment of SPD might be to better understand the range of illness severity and the clinical associations with severity. 125 adults aged 18 to 65 with a primary, current DSM-5 diagnosis of SPD were assessed for the severity of their picking, using the Skin Picking Symptom Assessment Scale, and related mental health symptoms. To identify clinical and demographic measures associated with variation in disease severity, we utilized the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Greater SPD symptom severity was associated with higher Barratt attentional impulsiveness and motor impulsivity, higher Eysenck impulsivity, higher state anxiety/depression, having a current anxiety disorder, and having a lifetime substance use disorder. The present analysis is, to our knowledge, the most complete assessment of clinical variables and their relationship to illness severity in a sample of adults with SPD. Aspects of impulsivity and anxiety are both strongly associated with worse illness severity, and functional disability, in SPD. Treatment approaches should incorporate these as possible treatment targets when developing new treatment approaches to this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Single Event Upset Sensitivity of D-Flip Flop: Comparison of PDSOI With Bulk Si at 130 nm Technology Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leqing; Xu, Jialing; Fan, Shuang; Dai, Lihua; Bi, Dawei; Lu, Jian; Hu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Mengying; Zhang, Zhengxuan

    2017-01-01

    Single-event upsets are studied in digital storage cells in 130nm CMOS bulk Si and PDSOI technologies. The sensitivity of SEU to different technologies and hardening approaches is explored by using heavy-ion radiation experiments. Error numbers in D flip-flop chains are used to determine the impact of various cell designs and PDSOI hardening technique on upset sensitivity. Various flip-flops are designed and connected as shift-register chains, and the error numbers induced by irradiation are recorded to examine the effectiveness of the PDSOI technology. It was found that PDSOI technology has better performance in terms of upset robustness versus bulk Si at the 130nm technology node. The same design structure implemented in PDSOI technology has higher SEU threshold LET and much lower saturation cross section due to its full dielectric isolation structure which does not allow the charge generated in the substrate to be collected by the electrically active junctions in the thin top region of the device and reduces the sensitive volume of p-n junctions in the transistor. As shown in the experiment result, NRH_SOI (not radiation hardening SOI) saves about 25% area while having much lower SER versus DICE_Si, which means PDSOI still has obvious advantage at reducing SEU rate, even though its necessary body contact has to consume certain extra area.

  13. upSET, the Drosophila homologue of SET3, Is Required for Viability and the Proper Balance of Active and Repressive Chromatin Marks

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Zee, Barry M.; Wang, Charlotte I.; Park, Peter J.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by, these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5). Here, we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells that are mutant for upSET. We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone PTM quantification. To test whether this finding was consistent in the whole organism, we deleted the upSET coding sequence using CRISPR/Cas-9, which we found to be lethal in both sexes in flies. We were able to rescue this lethality using a tagged upSET transgene, and found that UpSET protein localizes to transcriptional start sites (TSS) of active genes throughout the genome. Misregulated heterochromatin is apparent by suppressed position effect variegation of the wm4 allele in heterozygous upSET-deleted flies. Using nascent-RNA sequencing in the upSET-mutant S2 lines, we show that this result applies to heterochromatin genes generally. Our findings support a critical role for UpSET in maintaining heterochromatin, perhaps by delimiting the active chromatin environment. PMID:28064188

  14. Resolved Stellar Populations with MAD: Preparing for the Era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Deep images in J, H and Ks filters using the Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) on the VLT have been made of a region of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. Our aim was to assess if accurate photometry could be carried out down to faint limits over the whole MAD field of view. In addition we tested how accurate a basic analysis of the properties of the stellar population could be made using the near-infrared MAD photometry, compared to the Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry. This study has implications for understanding the issues involved in Extremely Large Telescope imaging of resolved stellar populations.

  15. Jack Kerouac Revisited: "Madness" in On the Road Between Stigma and Glorification.

    PubMed

    Wigand, Moritz E; Rüsch, Nicolas; Becker, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    On the Road is a classic American novel that appeared at a time of great political, cultural, and psychiatric upheaval. Published almost 60 years ago, it still exerts great influence. We propose that the affirmative approach toward "madness" in the novel can enlighten our understanding of alternative perceptions of mental illness. The novel is analyzed with quantifying and narrative methods focusing on the concept of madness, which is a prominent theme in the novel. Stigma and glorification of madness can be found throughout the text. The positive sides and the pitfalls of an overly positive attitude toward mental illness and minority group members are discussed, including benevolent discrimination, recovery, and positive psychiatry.

  16. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking.

  17. Disgust, shame and the psychosocial impact of skin picking: Evidence from an online support forum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Suzy; Clarke, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the accounts of individuals who problematically pick their skin and explores their subjective experiences. In total, 100 problem disclosure statements were taken from posts made to a publicly accessible online skin picking support forum. These posts were systematically analysed using thematic analysis. Themes of disgust, shame and psychosocial avoidance dominated the analysis and appeared central to the experience of skin picking. Skin picking was shown to be a heterogeneous experience with a complex emotional profile. We argue that disgust, shame and related avoidance behaviour should be considered when conceptualising skin picking and considering treatment interventions.

  18. BeMADS1 is a key to delivery MADSs into nucleus in reproductive tissues-De novo characterization of Bambusa edulis transcriptome and study of MADS genes in bamboo floral development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bamboo Bambusa edulis has a long juvenile phase in situ, but can be induced to flower during in vitro tissue culture, providing a readily available source of material for studies on reproductive biology and flowering. In this report, in vitro-derived reproductive and vegetative materials of B. edulis were harvested and used to generate transcriptome databases by use of two sequencing platforms: Illumina and 454. Combination of the two datasets resulted in high transcriptome quality and increased length of the sequence reads. In plants, many MADS genes control flower development, and the ABCDE model has been developed to explain how the genes function together to create the different whorls within a flower. Results As a case study, published floral development-related OsMADS proteins from rice were used to search the B. edulis transcriptome datasets, identifying 16 B. edulis MADS (BeMADS). The BeMADS gene expression levels were determined qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Most BeMADS genes were highly expressed in flowers, with the exception of BeMADS34. The expression patterns of these genes were most similar to the rice homologs, except BeMADS18 and BeMADS34, and were highly similar to the floral development ABCDE model in rice. Transient expression of MADS-GFP proteins showed that only BeMADS1 entered leaf nucleus. BeMADS18, BeMADS4, and BeMADS1 were located in the lemma nucleus. When co-transformed with BeMADS1, BeMADS15, 16, 13, 21, 6, and 7 translocated to nucleus in lemmas, indicating that BeMADS1 is a key factor for subcellular localization of other BeMADS. Conclusion Our study provides abundant B. edulis transcriptome data and offers comprehensive sequence resources. The results, molecular materials and overall strategy reported here can be used for future gene identification and for further reproductive studies in the economically important crop of bamboo. PMID:24989161

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Study on the dose rate upset effect of partially depleted silicon-on-insulator static random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fa-Zhan; Liu, Meng-Xin; Guo, Tian-Lei; Liu, Gang; Hai, Chao-He; Han, Zheng-Sheng; Yang, Shan-Chao; Li, Rui-Bin; Lin, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Wei

    2008-12-01

    This paper implements the study on the Dose Rate Upset effect of PDSOI SRAM (Partially Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator Static Random Access Memory) with the Qiangguang-I accelerator in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology. The SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) chips are developed by the Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It uses the full address test mode to determine the upset mechanisms. A specified address test is taken in the same time. The test results indicate that the upset threshold of the PDSOI SRAM is about 1×108 Gy(Si)/s. However, there are a few bits upset when the dose rate reaches up to 1.58 × 109 Gy(Si)/s. The SRAM circuit can still work after the high level γ ray pulse. Finally, the upset mechanism is determined to be the rail span collapse by comparing the critical charge with the collected charge after γ ray pulse. The physical locations of upset cells are plotted in the layout of the SRAM to investigate the layout defect. Then, some layout optimizations are made to improve the dose rate hardened performance of the PDSOI SRAM.

  20. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-Hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-02-12

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity.

  1. Skin picking behaviors: An examination of the prevalence and severity in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Stephania L; Storch, Eric A; Berlanga, Lissette

    2009-04-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors such as skin picking have gained recent attention in the psychiatric literature. Prevalence of skin picking has not been well researched and is difficult to estimate; however, consequences of such behaviors can include severe medical complications and impaired social and occupational functioning. Given this, this study examined: (1) the prevalence and severity of skin picking in a nonclinical community sample, and (2) associations between skin picking and other measures of psychological functioning. Three hundred and fifty-four participants completed measures of psychological functioning and skin picking frequency and severity. A total of 62.7% endorsed some form of skin picking and 5.4% reported clinical levels of skin picking and associated distress/impact. Direct associations were found between skin picking and depressive, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, which may support the emotional regulation model of pathological skin picking. To establish proper diagnostic classification of pathological skin picking and optimize treatment planning and outcome, further investigation of functional relationships between skin picking and affective distress is needed.

  2. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  3. Improvement in Excoriation (Skin-Picking) with use of Risperidone in a Patient with Developmental Disability.

    PubMed

    Roi, Cody; Bazzano, Alessandra

    2017-03-22

    Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder present with a heterogeneous mix of features beyond the core symptoms of the disorder. These features can be emotional, cognitive or behavioral. Behavioral symptoms often include self-injury, and this may take the form of repetitive skin-picking. The prevalence of skin-picking disorder in Autism is unknown. Skin-picking may lead to significant medical and psychosocial complications. Recent data suggest that behavioral interventions may be more effective than medications at reducing skin-picking in neurotypical patients. In this case, an 11-year-old male with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, with self-injurious skin-picking, was treated with risperidone with complete resolution of skin-picking symptoms. risperidone has been approved for irritability and aggression in Autistic spectrum disorder, and may be a valuable treatment option for skin-picking in pediatric patients with developmental disabilities.

  4. The assessment of skin picking in adolescence: psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (German version).

    PubMed

    Gallinat, Christina; Keuthen, Nancy J; Stefini, Annette; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Skin picking disorder has received growing attention since the release of DSM-5, yet there are no evidence-based assessment instruments for adolescent samples. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (SPS-R, German version) in adolescents. A total of 76 adolescents (96% female) completed the SPS-R, the Clinical Psychological Diagnostic System (KPD-38), and a questionnaire assessing demographics and clinical characteristics online. The SPS-R had high internal consistency (α = 0.89) and significant small-to-medium correlations with reduced competence skills, psychological impairment, general life satisfaction, social support, and social problems on the KPD-38. Similar to prior findings for adults, an exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor model for the SPS-R in adolescents. Group comparisons failed to show significant differences on SPS-R scores between participants with and without dermatological conditions. The current results suggest that the SPS-R can be useful in adolescent samples as a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of skin picking severity. Future research investigating scale validity and factor structure in a clinical sample of adolescent skin pickers is warranted.

  5. Whatever happened to the 'mad, bad' scientist? Overturning the stereotype.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Roslynn D

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of myths relating to the pursuit of knowledge has perpetuated the archetype of the alchemist/scientist as sinister, dangerous, possibly mad and threatening to society's values. Shelley's Frankenstein provided imagery and a vocabulary universally invoked in relation to scientific discoveries and technological innovation. The reasons for the longevity of this seemingly antiquated, semiotic imagery are discussed. In the twenty-first century, this stereotype has been radically revised, even overturned. Scientists are now rarely objects of fear or mockery. Mathematicians, both real-life and fictional, are discussed here as being representative of scientists now depicted empathically. This article examines possible sociological reasons for this reversal; what the revisionist image suggests about society's changed attitudes to science; and what might be the substitute fears and sources of horror. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Geniuses of medical science: Friendly, open and responsible, not mad.

    PubMed

    Oscoz-Irurozqui, Maitane; Ortuño, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies based on biography analysis provide support for the notion that the prevalence of mental illness in the creative geniuses of art, literature and science is higher than it is in more ordinary folk. However, this relationship between madness and genius, which was also addressed by the classical philosophers, has been generalized to all branches of professional endeavour. Whilst it may hold true for illustrious personalities of the fine arts, we found that the relationship proves inappropriate to the biographies of ten individuals renowned in history for their innovative contributions to medical science. Furthermore, examination of these ten biographies invites the hypothesis that certain personality traits - especially, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to new experience - can act to enhance creativity and protect against mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Case Report on Myxedema Madness: Curable Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nimesh; Sharma, Prateek; Parmar, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Myxedema madness is a very rare but established entity. A psychotic patient having hypothyroid features should always be evaluated regarding same. A 30-year-old female without known significant past medical history had, for the past one and half year, continuous persecutory and referential delusions; second and third person auditory hallucinations, facial puffiness and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score of 41 on admission. Her thyroid profile was: Thyroid stimulating hormone - 63.71 mIU/L, Free tri iodo threonine (FT3) - 2.1 pg/ml, free tetra iodo thyronine (FT4) - 0.6 ng/ml with normal ultrasound-thyroid. Patient was started on thyroxin 100 μg with a low dose risperidone 2 mg. Risperidone was withdrawn over a week and the patient was discharged on thyroxin alone with BPRS score of 8 and absence of delusions and hallucinations. PMID:24701017

  8. A case report on myxedema madness: curable psychosis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nimesh; Sharma, Prateek; Parmar, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Myxedema madness is a very rare but established entity. A psychotic patient having hypothyroid features should always be evaluated regarding same. A 30-year-old female without known significant past medical history had, for the past one and half year, continuous persecutory and referential delusions; second and third person auditory hallucinations, facial puffiness and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score of 41 on admission. Her thyroid profile was: Thyroid stimulating hormone - 63.71 mIU/L, Free tri iodo threonine (FT3) - 2.1 pg/ml, free tetra iodo thyronine (FT4) - 0.6 ng/ml with normal ultrasound-thyroid. Patient was started on thyroxin 100 μg with a low dose risperidone 2 mg. Risperidone was withdrawn over a week and the patient was discharged on thyroxin alone with BPRS score of 8 and absence of delusions and hallucinations.

  9. How not to salt popcorn, and other mad experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-12-01

    For experimentally minded readers, the warning "don't try this at home" is a real killjoy. However, coming from Theo Gray, it is also a seriously good piece of advice. Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do At Home - But Probably Shouldn't is a catalogue of inventive and terrifying things that Gray, a columnist with the Popular Science website and co-founder of the company behind Mathematica software, has done in the name of science. The book features step-by-step instructions, safety guidance and background information for 55 different experiments that range from a liquid-mercury motor to a dry-ice cloud chamber. As these two examples show, some of the experiments are far safer than others, and many have no place whatsoever in your garden shed - at least not if you want to see the shed again afterwards.

  10. Opera and madness: Britten's Peter Grimes--a case study.

    PubMed

    Durà-Vilà, G; Bentley, D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, Britten's opera Peter Grimes (1945) is used as an illustrative case study through which to examine the depiction of psychiatric disorders in opera. It is argued that Peter Grimes is a powerful example of how opera, in the hands of a great composer, can become an invaluable tool for examining subjective human experience. After a brief discussion of opera as a vehicle to express emotions, various operas are drawn upon to provide a historical perspective and to demonstrate the long interconnection existing between opera and madness. An in-depth analysis of Peter Grimes, its background and central character, is then provided, in order to demonstrate how opera can elicit empathy for individuals affected by mental health problems.

  11. MADS and more: transcription factors that shape the plant.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter

    2011-01-01

    All major processes of life depend on differential gene expression, which is largely controlled by the activity of transcription factors (TFs). In plants many TFs are encoded by members of multigene families that expanded much more dramatically during land plant evolution than during the evolution of animals and fungi. Here we review typical features such as domain structure, DNA binding, and protein interactions of TFs from some families that have contributed to the development and evolution of plant-specific structures in especially important ways. Our survey includes the MADS-domain protein family involved in specifying meristem and organ identity; YABBY proteins controlling lamina outgrowth; TCP proteins controlling floral zygomorphy and apical dominance; and finally homeodomain proteins involved in stem-cell maintenance and many other processes. Common themes as well as interesting differences between these "molecular architects of plant body plans" will become apparent.

  12. Combination analysis of Bub1 and Mad2 expression in endometrial cancer: act as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Xu, De-Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Hao, Tian-Yu

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of Bub1 and Mad2 together in endometrial cancer. Sixty-three patients with endometrial cancer, including EECs and NEECs, were examined statistically. Bub1 and Mad2 in patient tissues were detected by indirect streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. 39 cases (61.9 %) were in clinical stage I, 17 cases (27 %) in stage II, 5 (7.9 %) in stage III and 2 cases (3.2 %) in stage IV. Bub1 positive and Mad2 positive rate were identified in 18 and 54 patients. The lower positive of Bub1 and higher positive rate of Mad2 were related to clinical stage and histological grade of endometrial cancer (P = 0.009, 0.002, respectively), especially in NEECs. The expression of Bub1 was negatively correlated with Mad2 and Mtp53 (both P < 0.05). The expression of Mad2 with Mtp53 was positively correlated (P < 0.05). Statistically significant difference between Bub1/Mad2 expression and survival was discovered in endometrial cancer. Specificity and sensitivity of combination between Bub1 negative and Mad2 positive cases were higher than those alone in NEEC subtype. Bub1 and Mad2 are associated with histological differentiation, clinical stage and decreased postoperative survival in endometrial cancer. The combination analysis of Bub1 and Mad2 might be the valuable prognostic, even diagnostic clinicopathologic factor which can be applicable in routine examination.

  13. Functional characterization of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 homologs from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wei, Jianghui; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Chengshe; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis flowering pathway, MADS-box genes encode transcription factors, with their structures and functions highly conserved in many species. In our study, two MADS-box genes GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cloned from upland cotton CCRI36 and transformed into Arabidopsis. GhSOC1 was additionally transformed into upland cotton. Comparative analysis demonstrated sequence conservation between GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 and genes of other plant species. Tissue-specific expression analysis of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 revealed spatiotemporal expression patterns involving high transcript levels in leaves, shoot apical buds, and flowers. In addition, overexpression of both GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, with GhMADS42 transgenic plants showing abnormal floral organ phenotypes. Overexpression of GhSOC1 in upland cotton also produced variations in floral organs. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that GhSOC1 could regulate GhMADS41 and GhMADS42, but not FLOWERING LOCUS T, by directly binding to the genes promoter. Finally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches were undertaken to better understand the interaction of GhSOC1 and other MADS-box factors. These experiments showed that GhSOC1 can interact with APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like proteins in cotton.

  14. Molecular modeling and expression analysis of a MADS-box cDNA from mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Sánchez, Magda A; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Hernandez-Navarro, Eduardo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2014-08-01

    MADS-box genes are a large family of transcription factors initially discovered for their role during development of flowers and fruits. The MADS-box transcription factors from animals have been studied by X-ray protein crystallography but those from plants remain to be studied. In this work, a MADS-box cDNA from mango encoding a protein of 254 residues was obtained and compared. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that the MADS-box transcription factor expressed in mango fruit (MiMADS1) belongs to the SEP clade of MADS-box proteins. MiMADS1 mRNA steady-state levels did not changed during mango fruit development and were up-regulated, when mango fruits reached physiological maturity as assessed by qRT-PCR. Thus, MiMADS1 could have a role during development and ripening of this fruit. The theoretical structural model of MiMADS1 showed the DNA-binding domain folding bound to a double-stranded DNA. Therefore, MiMADS1 is an interesting model for understanding DNA-binding for transcriptional regulation.

  15. C- and D-class MADS-box genes from Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) display functions in gynostemium and ovule development.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Yi; Lee, Pei-Fang; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wu, Wan-Lin; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lee, Yung-I; Liu, Ke-Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    Gynostemium and ovule development in orchid are unique developmental processes in the plant kingdom. Characterization of C- and D-class MADS-box genes could help reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying gynostemium and ovule development in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized a C- and a D-class gene, PeMADS1 and PeMADS7, respectively, from Phalaenopsis equestris. These two genes showed parallel spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their cooperation in gynostemium and ovule development. Furthermore, only PeMADS1 was ectopically expressed in the petals of the gylp (gynostemium-like petal) mutant, whose petals were transformed into gynostemium-like structures. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that neither PeMADS1 and PeMADS7 could form a homodimer or a heterodimer. An E-class protein was needed to bridge the interaction between these two proteins. A complementation test revealed that PeMADS1 could rescue the phenotype of the AG mutant. Overexpression of PeMADS7 in Arabidopsis caused typical phenotypes of the D-class gene family. Together, these results indicated that both C-class PeMADS1 and D-class PeMADS7 play important roles in orchid gynostemium and ovule development.

  16. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  17. C-terminal region of Mad2 plays an important role during mitotic spindle checkpoint in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav Kumar; Karade, Sharanbasappa Shrimant; Ranjan, Rajeev; Ahamad, Nafees; Ahmed, Shakil

    2017-02-01

    The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) protein is an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that interacts with Cdc20/Slp1 and inhibit its ability to activate anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In bladder cancer cell line the C-terminal residue of the mad2 gene has been found to be deleted. In this study we tried to understand the role of the C-terminal region of mad2 on the spindle checkpoint function. To envisage the role of C-terminal region of Mad2, we truncated 25 residues of Mad2 C-terminal region in fission yeast S.pombe and characterized its effect on spindle assembly checkpoint function. The cells containing C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit sensitivity towards microtubule destabilizing agent suggesting perturbation of spindle assembly checkpoint. Further, the C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit reduced viability in the nda3-KM311 mutant background at non-permissive temperature. Truncation in mad2 gene also affects its foci forming ability at unattached kinetochore suggesting that the mad2-∆CT mutant is unable to maintain spindle checkpoint activation. However, in response to the defective microtubule, only brief delay of mitotic progression was observed in Mad2 C-terminal truncation mutant. In addition we have shown that the deletion of two β strands of Mad2 protein abolishes its ability to interact with APC activator protein Slp1/Cdc20. We purpose that the truncation of two β strands (β7 and β8) of Mad2 destabilize the safety belt and affect the Cdc20-Mad2 interaction leading to defects in the spindle checkpoint activation.

  18. Characterisation and fate of grayanatoxins in mad honey produced from Rhododendron ponticum nectar.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Arzum Bahar; Yavuz, Recep; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2014-10-15

    Mad honey from Rhododendron ponticum nectar is produced in a large quantity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey and causes poisoning due to consumption of grayanatoxins (GTX I and III). There are a few studies about characterisation of GTXs in mad honey produced from R.ponticum. This study quantified basic properties including concentrations of GTX I and GTX III in mad honey samples collected in three consecutive years. Although the chemical composition of mad honey varied annually depending on the production year, mean GTX I and GTX III contents were estimated at 20.4±1.69 and 8.20±1.93mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of GTXs did not change significantly during storage of 6months.

  19. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment.

  20. The role of masseter muscle EMG during DISE to predict the effectiveness of MAD: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Marchese, M R; Scarano, E; Rizzotto, G; Grippaudo, C; Paludetti, G

    2016-12-01

    The use of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) increases the activity of the temporo-mandibular (TM) complex and masseter (MM) muscles with the risk of reducing treatment compliance. Predictors of treatment outcome are of importance in selecting patients who might benefit from MAD without side effects. The role of mandibular advancement (MA) during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is controversial. In three cases (BMI < 30) affected by non-severe OSAS (AHI < 30 e/h), we recorded the surface EMG signal of MM activity during DISE. At follow-up all cases improved the AHI, two cases that showed transient increase of MM activity did not suffer from changes of overjet and did not complain of discomfort with the use of MAD. The case that showed a continuing increase of MM activity reported TM discomfort without changes of dental occlusion. EMG of MM during DISE may contribute to ameliorate the selection of cases amenable to treatment with MAD.

  1. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Fiskum, Sandra K.

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  2. 'We are all a little mad in one or other particular'. The presentation of madness in the novels of Muriel Spark.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the presentation of madness in the novels of the great Scottish writer, Muriel Spark (1918-2006). In her work, there is a large cast of mad characters as well as a succession of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts. Spark suggests several explanations as to the origins of madness. We see mental disturbance conceived in terms of the supernatural, the religious and the Gothic. She also depicts insanity as a form of personality defect, eccentricity or mental enfeeblement. She drew on Romantic notions of the madman as a seer and speaker of truth. In her portrayal of psychiatrists, both the pill-prescribers and the psychoanalysts, Spark is frequently sceptical of the two: medication can erase positive qualities in an individual, and analysts can spout meaningless gibberish. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. "It Didn't Hurt a Bit" Kid: dental precursor to Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neuman.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-07-01

    Since 1956, Mad Magazine has featured the same unique character on virtually every cover: a grinning, freckle-faced, red-headed boy with a missing central incisor and enormous protruding ears. Known as "Alfred E. Neuman," the "What--Me Worry?" Kid, he has become one of the most widely recognized images in the modern Western world. Capturing the imagination of Mad readers, he is portrayed as a comical figure with contradictory characteristics: he is a likeable, inept, inspiring, mischievous, quintessential nerd.

  4. Cardiac Effects of Mad Honey Poisoning and Its Management in Emergency Department: A Review from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning occurs when honey containing grayanotoxin is digested. The most common clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning involve findings of digestive system irritation, severe bradycardia and hypotension and central nervous system reaction. In this review, we aimed to underline the cardiac effects of mad honey poisoning. We also aimed to raise the awareness of physicians about early diagnosis and treatment of this rare entity.

  5. MADS-box genes in plant ontogeny and phylogeny: Haeckel's 'biogenetic law' revisited.

    PubMed

    Theissen, G; Saedler, H

    1995-10-01

    Data currently accumulating with impressive speed indicate that the molecular evolution of MADS-box genes was a decisive aspect of the morphological evolution of plants. Studies on MADS-box genes in diverse plant species thus help us to understand the emergence of morphological novelties, such as the flower, in evolution. This furthers our understanding of the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny, which has been a controversial issue since Ernst Haeckel published his 'biogenetic law' more than a century ago.

  6. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development.

  7. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-09-01

    Conical pick is a widely used tool for cutting coal in mines. It has a cemented carbide tip inserted in a steel body. Cemented carbide has been in use for many years for coal/rock cutting because it has the optimum combination of hardness, toughness and resistance against abrasive wear. As coal/rock is a heterogeneous substance, the cutting tool has to undergo various obstructions at the time of excavation that cause the tool to wear out. The cracks and fractures developing in the cemented carbide limit the life of the tool. For a long time, different wear mechanisms have been studied to develop improved grades of cemented carbide with high wear resistance properties. The research is still continuing. Moreover, due to the highly unpredictable nature of coal/rock, it is not easy to understand the wear mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the wear mechanisms in four conical picks, which were used in a continuous miner machine for underground mining of coal. The wearing pattern of the conical pick indicates damage in its cemented carbide tip as well as the steel body. The worn out parts of the tools have been critically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) point analysis. Mainly four types of wear mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, plastic deformation, rock channel formation and crushing and cracking, have been detected. The presence of coal/rock material and their respective concentrations in the selected area of worn out surface were observed using the spectra generated by EDX analysis.

  8. Pick-up of cometary protons by the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, M.; Lazarus, A.J.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Goldstein, B.E.; Goldstein, R.; Neubauer, F.M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Shelley, E.G.

    1987-03-01

    The High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Giotto spacecraft measured the 3-dimensional distribution of picked-up cometary protons over a distance of approximately 8 million km upstream of the bow shock of Comet Halley. The protons were observed to be elastically scattered out of their original cycloidal trajectories such that they were nonuniformly distributed over a spherical shell in velocity space. The shell radius (relative to its expected radius) and thickness increased as the bow shock was approached. Downstream of the shock, the cometary protons could not be distinguished from the heated solar wind protons.

  9. Collision free pick up and movement of large objects

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.D.; McKee, G.R.

    1998-08-01

    An automated system is described for the sensor-based precision docking and manipulation of large objects. Past work in the remote handling of large nuclear waste containers is extensible to the problems associated with the handling of large objects such as coils of flat steel in industry. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing as described here are used to control the precision docking of large objects, and swing damped motion control of overhead cranes is used to control the position of the pick up device and suspended payload during movement. Real-time sensor processing and model-based control are used to accurately position payloads.

  10. MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end-resection

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Bayona, Sandra; Peuscher, Marieke H.; van der Torre, Jaco; Wevers, Brigitte A.; Orthwein, Alexandre; Durocher, Daniel; Jacobs, Jacqueline J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate repair of DNA lesions and the inhibition of DNA repair activities at telomeres are critical to prevent genomic instability. By fuelling the generation of genetic alterations and by compromising cell viability, genomic instability is a driving force in cancer and aging1, 2. Here we identify MAD2L2 (also known as MAD2B or REV7) through functional genetic screening as a novel factor controlling DNA repair activities at mammalian telomeres. We show that MAD2L2 accumulates at uncapped telomeres and promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated fusion of deprotected chromosome ends and genomic instability. MAD2L2 depletion causes elongated 3′ telomeric overhangs, implying that MAD2L2 inhibits 5′ end-resection. End-resection blocks NHEJ while committing to homology-directed repair (HDR) and is under control of 53BP1, RIF1 and PTIP3. Consistent with MAD2L2 promoting NHEJ-mediated telomere fusion by inhibiting 5′ end-resection, knockdown of the nucleases CTIP or EXO1 partially restores telomere-driven genomic instability in MAD2L2-depleted cells. Control of DNA repair by MAD2L2 is not limited to telomeres. MAD2L2 also accumulates and inhibits end-resection at irradiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and promotes end-joining of DSBs in multiple settings, including during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). These activities of MAD2L2 depend on ATM kinase activity, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1 and RIF1, but not on PTIP, REV1 and REV3, the latter two acting with MAD2L2 in translesion synthesis (TLS)4. Together our data establish MAD2L2 as a critical contributor to the control of DNA repair activity by 53BP1 that promotes NHEJ by inhibiting 5′ end-resection downstream of RIF1. PMID:25799990

  11. Function of the c-Myc antagonist Mad1 during a molecular switch from proliferation to differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Cultraro, C M; Bino, T; Segal, S

    1997-01-01

    Mad-Max heterodimers have been shown to antagonize Myc transforming activity by a mechanism requiring multiple protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. However, the mechanism by which Mad functions in differentiation is unknown. Here, we present evidence that Mad functions by an active repression mechanism to antagonize the growth-promoting function(s) of Myc and bring about a transition from cellular proliferation to differentiation. We demonstrate that exogenously expressed c-Myc blocks inducer-mediated differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells without disrupting the induction of endogenous Mad; rather, high levels of c-Myc prevent a heterocomplex switch from growth-promoting Myc-Max to growth-inhibitory Mad-Max. Cotransfection of a constitutive c-myc with a zinc-inducible mad1 results in clones expressing both genes, whereby a switch from proliferation to differentiation can be modulated. Whereas cells grown in N'N'-hexamethylene bisacetamide in the absence of zinc fail to differentiate, addition of zinc up-regulates Mad expression by severalfold and differentiation proceeds normally. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis reveals that Mad-Max complexes are in excess of Myc-Max in these cotransfectants. Moreover, we show that the Sin-binding, basic region, and leucine zipper motifs are required for Mad to function during a molecular switch from proliferation to differentiation. PMID:9111304

  12. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  13. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Embryo production by ovum pick up from live donors.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Crotti, G; Notari, C; Turini, P; Duchi, R; Lazzari, G

    2001-04-01

    Embryo production by in vitro techniques has increased steadily over the years. For cattle where this technology is more advanced and is applied more, the number of in vitro produced embryos transferred to final recipients was over 30,000 in 1998. An increasing proportion of in vitro produced embryos are coming from oocytes collected from live donors by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (ovum pick up, OPU). This procedure allows the repeated production of embryos from live donors of particular value and is a serious alternative to superovulation. Ovum pick up is a very flexible technique. It can be performed twice a week for many weeks without side effects on the donor's reproductive career. The donor can be in almost any physiological status and still be suitable for oocyte recovery. A scanner with a sectorial or convex probe and a vacuum pump are required. Collection is performed with minimal stress to the donor. An average of 8 to 10 oocytes are collected per OPU with an average production of 2 transferable embryos. The laboratory production of embryos from such oocytes does not differ from that of oocytes harvested at slaughter as the results after transfer to final recipients. For other species such as buffalo and horses OPU has been attempted similarly to cattle and data will be presented and reviewed. For small ruminants, laparotomy or laparoscopy seems the only reliable route so far to collect oocytes from live donors.

  15. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  16. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  17. Single-Event Upset (SEU) model verification and threshold determination using heavy ions in a bipolar static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) response of a bipolar low-power Schottky-diode-clamped TTL static RAM has been observed using Br ions in the 100-240 MeV energy range and O ions in the 20-100 MeV range. These data complete the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling for this device. The threshold for onset of SEU has been observed by the variation of energy, ion species and angle of incidence. The results obtained from the computer circuit-simulation modeling and experimental model verification demonstrate a viable methodology for modeling SEU in bipolar integrated circuits.

  18. Experimental determination of single-event upset (SEU) as a function of collected charge in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Malone, C. J.; Smith, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) in bipolar integrated circuits (ICs) is caused by charge collection from ion tracks in various regions of a bipolar transistor. This paper presents experimental data which have been obtained wherein the range-energy characteristics of heavy ions (Br) have been utilized to determine the cross section for soft-error generation as a function of charge collected from single-particle tracks which penetrate a bipolar static RAM. The results of this work provide a basis for the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling in bipolar ICs.

  19. Single-Event Upset (SEU) model verification and threshold determination using heavy ions in a bipolar static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) response of a bipolar low-power Schottky-diode-clamped TTL static RAM has been observed using Br ions in the 100-240 MeV energy range and O ions in the 20-100 MeV range. These data complete the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling for this device. The threshold for onset of SEU has been observed by the variation of energy, ion species and angle of incidence. The results obtained from the computer circuit-simulation modeling and experimental model verification demonstrate a viable methodology for modeling SEU in bipolar integrated circuits.

  20. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

  1. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme

  2. The encounter with God in myth and madness.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Oscar

    2007-07-03

    It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme that even an

  3. Evaluating the Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) Method to Join Magnesium Castings to Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Stephen

    2016-02-24

    This presentation discusses advantages and best practices for incorporating magnesium in automotive component applications to achieve substantial mass reduction, as well as some of the key challenges with respect to joining, coating, and galvanic corrosion, before providing an introduction and status update of the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense jointly sponsored Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) process development and evaluation project. This update includes sharing performance results of a benchmark evaluation of the self-pierce riveting (SPR) process for joining dissimilar magnesium (Mg) to aluminum (Al) materials in four unique coating configurations before introducing the UPJ concept and comparing performance results of the joints made with the UPJ process to those made with the SPR process. Key results presented include: • The benchmark SPR process can produce good joints in the MgAM60B-Al 6013 joint configuration with minimal cracking in the Mg coupons if the rivet is inserted from the Mg side into the Al side. • Numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the SPR process separated after only 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing due to fracture of the rivet as a result of hydrogen embrittlement • For the same joint configurations, UPJ demonstrated substantially higher pre-corrosion joint strengths and post-corrosion joint strengths, primarily because of the larger diameter protrusion compared to smaller SPR rivet diameter and reduced degradation due to accelerated corrosion exposure • As with the SPR process, numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the UPJ process also separated after 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing, but unlike the SPR experience, the UPJ joints experienced degradation of the boss and head because of galvanic corrosion of the Mg casting, not hydrogen embrittlement of the steel rivet. • In the configuration where both the Mg and Al were pretreated with Alodine 5200 prior to joining and the complete

  4. FinFET memory cell improvements for higher immunity against single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajit, Ahmed Sattar

    The 21st century is witnessing a tremendous demand for transistors. Life amenities have incorporated the transistor in every aspect of daily life, ranging from toys to rocket science. Day by day, scaling down the transistor is becoming an imperious necessity. However, it is not a straightforward process; instead, it faces overwhelming challenges. Due to these scaling changes, new technologies, such as FinFETs for example, have emerged as alternatives to the conventional bulk-CMOS technology. FinFET has more control over the channel, therefore, leakage current is reduced. FinFET could bridge the gap between silicon devices and non-silicon devices. The semiconductor industry is now incorporating FinFETs in systems and subsystems. For example, Intel has been using them in their newest processors, delivering potential saving powers and increased speeds to memory circuits. Memory sub-systems are considered a vital component in the digital era. In memory, few rows are read or written at a time, while the most rows are static; hence, reducing leakage current increases the performance. However, as a transistor shrinks, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects from radioactive particle strikes. If a particle hits a node in a memory cell, the content might flip; consequently, leading to corrupting stored data. Critical fields, such as medical and aerospace, where there are no second chances and cannot even afford to operate at 99.99% accuracy, has induced me to find a rigid circuit in a radiated working environment. This research focuses on a wide spectrum of memories such as 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, and DICE memory cells using FinFET technology and finding the best platform in terms of Read and Write delay, susceptibility level of SNM, RSNM, leakage current, energy consumption, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs). This research has shown that the SEU tolerance that 6T and 8T FinFET SRAMs provide may not be acceptable in medical and aerospace applications where there is a very high

  5. Integration of image analysis and robotics into a fully automated colony picking and plate handling system.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P; Watson, A; Davies, M; Stubbings, S

    1992-01-01

    We describe here the integration of image analysis and robotics to produce a fully automated colony picking/plate handling system. Biological tests were performed to verify its performance in terms of sterilisation and accuracy of picking. The machine was then used by a single operative to pick a 36,000 clone cDNA library in approximately 42 hrs over 5 days. Images PMID:1408762

  6. Pick-Up Ion Instabilities at Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This effort involved the analysis of low frequency waves as observed by the Galileo spacecraft near the Galilean moon, Io. Io is a significant source of material, especially SO2, and various products of dissociation, and further these atoms and molecules are readily ionized. The initial velocity of the ions is essentially that of the neutral species, i.e., the Keplerian velocity. The plasma, on the other hand is co-rotating, and there is a differential flow of the order 57 km/s between the plasma and the neutral particles. Thus pick-up ion instabilities are Rely to occur within the Jovian magnetosphere. Indeed, magnetometer observations from the Galileo spacecraft clearly show ion cyclotron waves that have been identified with a large variety of plasma species, such as O+, S++ (which has the same gyro-frequency as O+), S+, and SO2+. Typically, however, the dominant frequency is near the SO2+ gyro-frequency. The research effort was originally planned to be a team effort between Robert J. Strangeway as the Principal Investigator, and Debbie Huddleston, who was an Assistant Research Geophysicist at UCLA. Unfortunately, Dr. Huddleston took a position within Industry. The effort was therefore descoped, and Dr. Strangeway instead pursued a collaboration with Dr. Xochitl Blanco-Cano, of the Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This has proved to be a productive collaboration, with several papers and publications arising out of the effort. The magnetic field oscillations near lo generally fall into two types: ion cyclotron waves, with frequencies near an ion gyro-frequency, and lower frequency mirror-mode waves. The ion cyclotron waves are mainly transverse, and frequently propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The mirror-mode waves are compressional waves, and they have essentially zero frequency in the plasma rest frame. One of the purposes of our investigation is to understand what controls the types of wave modes that occur, since both

  7. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  8. A preliminary analysis of the phenomenology of skin-picking in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jessica R; Storch, Eric A; Woods, Douglas W; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2010-08-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking symptoms, anxiety symptoms, developmental functioning, symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and oppositionality, and quality of life. Results indicated that skin-picking was endorsed in 95.5% of youth. Direct associations of moderate strength were found between skin-picking severity and symptoms of anxiety, inattention, oppositionality, developmental functioning, and quality of life. Other descriptive data, such as areas picked, cutaneous factors, antecedents, and consequences related to skin-picking are reported. The prevalence and consequences associated with skin-picking in PWS indicate a greater need for clinician awareness of the behavior and interventions tailored to meet the needs of this population.

  9. The relationship between adolescents' academic stress, impulsivity, anxiety, and skin picking behavior.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2017-08-01

    Skin picking behavior involves an individual picking or biting their skin repeatedly. Although this behavior commonly occurs at a young age, little research has addressed its harmful effects among the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of South Korean adolescents who reported skin picking behavior. South Korean students aged 12-16 years participated (N=410, females=52.2%). They completed questionnaires that addressed skin picking behavior, academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. The survey was conducted in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from February-March 2016. Among participants, 66.8% reported that they had picked their skin and 15.4% did so currently. Skin picking was positively correlated with academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. Students who picked their skin more often displayed more anxiety, academic stress, and impulsivity. Future studies should address skin picking adolescents' characteristics, especially regarding anxiety and academic stress. Educational programs should be implemented to help adolescents decrease their anxiety and academic stress and prevent the worsening of skin picking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  11. Madness in blaise cendrars' novels: moravagine and company.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The literary work of Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), né Frédéric Sauser, one of the major French-speaking authors of the 20th century, is imbued with references to neuropsychiatry. This theme is a constant presence in his writing as a result of his involvement of the First World War and his personal experiences, which were punctuated with neurologic and psychiatric events. Cendrars' own particular ideas on the genesis of mental disorders went against the more traditional views on psychiatry. He remained skeptical about hysteria and did not subscribe to psychoanalysis. His ideas were enriched by his experience with the war-related neuropsychiatric problems developed by soldiers. He thus proposed the notion of 'pathological fear' surrounding these disorders. There are a number of characters suffering from 'borderline' mental disorders in Cendrars' work, including two shocking, mad murderers, Moravagine and Fébronio. The character Moravagine, a neurology patient suffering from a brain tumor, enabled Cendrars to delve into the grey areas that can exist between neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Fébronio, a real psychotic, enabled Cendrars to explore ethnopsychiatry. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  13. Jung, spirits and madness: lessons for cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the nature and meaning of 'dissociative,' 'altered' or unusual states ultimately turns on the meaning and definition of consciousness. The view of consciousness from the discipline of psychiatry is largely based on a biomedically endorsed, culturally specific perspective of 'normal' consciousness as an integrated pattern of quotidian relationships with the 'observable' physical world. This perspective underlies the nosology for mental disorders, particularly psychoses, suggesting irreconcilable difference in cognition and affect of persons with these diagnostic labels. This article reviews some theories of Carl Gustav Jung regarding the structure and content of human consciousness and their relationship to aspects of 'dementia praecox' or 'schizophrenia.' It traces the origin and development of these ideas in part to Jung's early contact with, and intense interest in spiritualists and spirits, to later influences comprised of his own altered states (dreams and fantasies) and his involvement with patients diagnosed as schizophrenic. Data on current Spiritist beliefs and healing practices focused on 'madness' (i.e. most often diagnosed as schizophrenia in mental health settings), are described to explore parallels with Jung's ideas on the structure and dynamics of the psyche. These parallels are of special interest because the experience of spirits is ubiquitous, not well explained and often rejected as meaningful by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Jung, however, offers a cogent explanation of spirit phenomena as manifestations of the unconscious. A concluding section suggests contributions to cultural psychiatry by Jung.

  14. Microbeam MAD Beamline for Challenging Protein Crystallography in TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. G.; Chao, C. H.; Chang, C. H.; Juang, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Chang, S. H.; Chang, C. F.; Chou, C. K.; Tseng, C. C.; Chiang, C. H.; Jean, Y. C.; Tang, M. T.; Chung, S. C.; Chang, S. L.

    2013-03-01

    The TPS-05A beamline is the first X-ray beamline at NSRRC built for micro protein crystallography experiment as well as one of the seven ID beamlines in phase I at the TPS synchrotron facility. A 2-meter in-vacuum undulator (IU22) serves as the photon source from which the harmonics #3 to #9 will provide brilliance of 1018-1020 photons s-1 mrad-2 mm-2 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 and photon flux of 1013-1014 photons s-1 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 in the required energy range of 5.7-20 keV (2.175-0.620 Å) to cover MAD phasing experiments at 1 Å and SAD phasing experiments at 2 Å. The beamline optics consists of a cryo-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM) and a pair of focusing K-B mirrors. Requirements from the user group include a target focus size of 50 μm × 50 μm (H × V) at the sample position, photon flux greater than 2 × 1012 photons s-1 at Se K-edge (0.9795 Å), pinholes for adjusting the beam size down to 5 μm. Calculation of heat load for the first optical element, i.e. the first crystal of DCM, is included in this paper.

  15. Electric field by pick-up ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Observations by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) showed increasing distortion of the solar wind flow as Rosetta approached the Sun, i.e., as the density of the newly born ions increased. This indicates azimuthal momentum transfer from the solar wind to the newly born ions because they are displaced by the solar wind electric field up to the ion gyroradius this the solar wind velocity, and conservation of the momentum (center of the mass) makes the solar wind to azimuthally shift by "counter action" of these pick-up ion motions. To understand this azimuthal momentum transfer, it is inevitable to model the electric field by the displacement of these pick-up ions and electrons. Although the E×B drift does not make charge separation when the scale size is larger than the ion gyroradius, ions and electrons move in the opposite direction to each other within the short distance up to a gyroradius, and therefore, the charge separation occurs. Thus, the newly-ionized neutrals (ion-electron pairs) create the electric field in the opposite (shielding) direction to the solar wind electric field (like the ionopause of Venus and Mars). However, such a newly induced "shielding" electric field will simultaneously be weakened by the solar wind electrons because the solar wind is also moved by this shielding electric field to reduce it, in the same way as the plasma oscillation (time scale of about 10-4 s). In other words, the solar wind tries to maintain the solar wind electric field as far as the momentum allows. These two opposite effects must be combined when modelling the azimuthal electric field, and resultant ion/electron motions within a gyroradius, like the case for ROSETTA. Furthermore, the effect of the induced electric field by the pick-up ions and electrons will be different when the newly born ions are created as the result of photo-ionization and of the charge exchange because the electron effect is different between them. In the presentation, we model the

  16. Is there a difference in mad honey poisoning between geriatric and non-geriatric patient groups?

    PubMed

    Yaylacı, S; Ayyıldız, O; Aydın, E; Osken, A; Karahalil, F; Varım, C; Demir, M V; Genç, A B; Sahinkus, S; Can, Y; Kocayigit, İ; Bilir, C

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the demographic, toxicological characteristics of the mad honey intoxication at ages 65 and above, to analyze the electrocardiographic parameters, and to compare with the mad honey intoxication at ages below 65 years. Eighty-two patients, who had been treated and followed-up between June 2013 and November 2014 in the Emergency Service of the Findikli State Hospital, Turkey, due to diagnosis of mad honey intoxication, were included in our observational study. Age, gender, toxicological characteristics, laboratory parameters, heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, laboratory analyses and electrocardiographic data of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Patients with known coronary artery disease, chronic renal failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, history of thyroid disease and electrolyte imbalance were not included in the study. Eighty-two (80.5% was male and the mean age was 53 ± 15 years) patients followed-up due to mad honey intoxication were included in our study. There were 64 (78%) patients aged below 65 years, and 18 (22%) patients aged 65 and above. The mean heart rate was 45 ± 7 beats/min, systolic blood pressure was 83 ± 12 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was 52 ± 9 mmHg on admission. The onset of symptoms of the patients was found as 0.84 hours on average after mad honey consumption, the average amount of honey consumed was 3.7 ± 1.1 tablespoons, and the mean recovery time of the symptoms was found to be 1.04 hours. The most common presenting symptoms were nausea-vomiting in 82 (100%) patients and dizziness in 73 (89%) patients. Patients were found to consume mad honey mostly for achieving a remission in gastrointestinal complaints (n=18, 22%), and for utilizing its blood pressure lowering properties (n=11, 13.4%), in addition to the dietary consumption. Looking at the heart rates of the patients on admission to the emergency service, 65 (79.3%) patients had normal sinus rhythm

  17. Feasibility of a neutron detector-dosemeter based on single-event upsets in dynamic random-access memories.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G W; August, R A; Campbell, A B; Nelson, M E; Price, J L; Guardala, N A; Moscovitch, M

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of a solid-state neutron detector/dosemeter based on single-event upset (SEU) effects in dynamic random-access memories (DRAMs), commonly used in computer memories. Such a device, which uses a neutron converter material to produce a charged particle capable of causing an upset, would be light-weight, low-power, and could be read simply by polling the memory for bit flips. It would have significant advantages over standard solid-state neutron dosemeters which require off-line processing for track etching and analysis. Previous efforts at developing an SEU neutron detector/dosemeter have suffered from poor response, which can be greatly enhanced by selecting a modern high-density DRAM chip for SEU sensitivity and by using a thin 10B film as a converter. Past attempts to use 10B were not successful because the average alpha particle energy was insufficient to penetrate to the sensitive region of the memory. This can be overcome by removing the surface passivation layer before depositing the 10B film or by implanting 10B directly into the chip. Previous experimental data show a 10(3) increase in neutron sensitivity by chips containing borosilicate glass, which could be used in an SEU detector. The results are presented of simulations showing that the absolute efficiency of an SEU neutron dosemeter can be increased by at least a factor of 1000 over earlier designs.

  18. Adaptive evolution in the Arabidopsis MADS-box gene family inferred from its complete resolved phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Castilla, León Patricio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplication is a substrate of evolution. However, the relative importance of positive selection versus relaxation of constraints in the functional divergence of gene copies is still under debate. Plant MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators key in various aspects of development and have undergone extensive duplications to form a large family. We recovered 104 MADS sequences from the Arabidopsis genome. Bayesian phylogenetic trees recover type II lineage as a monophyletic group and resolve a branching sequence of monophyletic groups within this lineage. The type I lineage is comprised of several divergent groups. However, contrasting gene structure and patterns of chromosomal distribution between type I and II sequences suggest that they had different evolutionary histories and support the placement of the root of the gene family between these two groups. Site-specific and site-branch analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) suggest that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these lineages. We found evidence for PDS along the branch leading to flowering time genes that have a direct impact on plant fitness. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in the MADS and K domains, suggesting that these played important roles in the acquisition of novel functions during MADS-box diversification. Detected sites are targets for further experimental analyses. We argue that adaptive changes in MADS-domain protein sequences have been important for their functional divergence, suggesting that changes within coding regions of transcriptional regulators have influenced phenotypic evolution of plants. PMID:14597714

  19. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Soybean MADS Genes Showing Potential Function in the Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKCC subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKCC subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKCC genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKCC genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS. PMID:23638026

  20. Functional conservation of MIKC*-Type MADS box genes in Arabidopsis and rice pollen maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Shaojie; Wu, Feng; Yan, Shuo; Lin, Xuelei; Du, Xiaoqiu; Chong, Kang; Schilling, Susanne; Theißen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

    2013-04-01

    There are two groups of MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS box genes, MIKC(C) type and MIKC* type. In seed plants, the MIKC(C) type shows considerable diversity, but the MIKC* type has only two subgroups, P- and S-clade, which show conserved expression in the gametophyte. To examine the functional conservation of MIKC*-type genes, we characterized all three rice (Oryza sativa) MIKC*-type genes. All three genes are specifically expressed late in pollen development. The single knockdown or knockout lines, respectively, of the S-clade MADS62 and MADS63 did not show a mutant phenotype, but lines in which both S-clade genes were affected showed severe defects in pollen maturation and germination, as did knockdown lines of MADS68, the only P-clade gene in rice. The rice MIKC*-type proteins form strong heterodimeric complexes solely with partners from the other subclade; these complexes specifically bind to N10-type C-A-rich-G-boxes in vitro and regulate downstream gene expression by binding to N10-type promoter motifs. The rice MIKC* genes have a much lower degree of functional redundancy than the Arabidopsis thaliana MIKC* genes. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the function of heterodimeric MIKC*-type protein complexes in pollen development has been conserved since the divergence of monocots and eudicots, roughly 150 million years ago.