Science.gov

Sample records for maeil human milk

  1. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of human milk fortifiers on bacterial growth in human milk.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Myla S; Codipilly, Champa N; Potak, Debra C; Schanler, Richard J

    2005-10-01

    As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC). TBCC did not differ between groups but declined from 0 to 72 hours, p<0.001. These data suggest that differences in iron content, or other nutrients in HMF, do not affect bacterial growth in human milk. Storage of fortified human milk at refrigerator temperature for 72 hours results in decreased bacterial growth. As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC).

  3. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitization to human milk.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, U; Swoboda, I; Quirce, S; de la Hoz, B; Ollert, M; Pauli, G; Valenta, R; Spitzauer, S

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to milk is one of the earliest manifestations of IgE-mediated allergies and affects about 2.5% of newborn children. Several reports indicate that milk-allergic patients may be sensitized also to human milk proteins. To analyse the specificity and possible biological relevance of IgE reactivity to human milk antigens in milk-allergic patients. The specificity of IgE reactivity to cow's milk and human milk antigens was analysed with sera from milk-allergic children and adults by IgE immunoblotting. IgE cross-reactivity between milk antigens was studied by immunoblot inhibition experiments. That IgE reactivity to human milk antigens is not due to alloreactivity or due to the transmission of foreign antigens into mother's milk was demonstrated through the analysis of milk samples from genetically unrelated mothers before and after intake of dietary milk products. The biological relevance of IgE reactivity to human milk was confirmed by skin testing. Results IgE antibodies to human milk were found in more than 80% of the tested milk-allergic patients. Cross-reactive IgE-reactive human antigens such as alpha-lactalbumin and non-cross-reactive human milk antigens were identified. Immediate-type skin reactions could be elicited with human milk samples in patients with IgE reactivity to human milk. IgE reactivity to human milk in milk-allergic patients can be due to cross- sensitization and genuine sensitization to human milk and may cause allergic symptoms. IgE-mediated sensitization to human milk is common in milk-allergic patients and may require diagnostic testing and monitoring.

  5. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  6. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  7. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  8. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Quality of human milk expressed in a human milk bank and at home.

    PubMed

    Borges, Mayla S; Oliveira, Angela M de M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Abdallah, Vânia O S

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the quality of the human milk expressed at home and at a human milk bank. This a retrospective, analytical, and observational study, performed by assessing titratable acidity records and the microbiological culture of 100 human milk samples expressed at home and at a human milk bank, in 2014. For the statistical analysis, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the chi-squared test were used. When comparing the two sample groups, no significant difference was found, with 98% and 94% of the samples being approved among those collected at the milk bank and at home, respectively. No main interaction effect between local and titratable acidity records (p=0.285) was observed, and there was no statistically significant difference between the expected and observed values for the association between the collection place and the microbiological culture results (p=0.307). The quality of human milk expressed at home and at the milk bank are in agreement with the recommended standards, confirming that the expression of human milk at home is as safe as expression at the human milk bank, provided that the established hygiene, conservation, storage, and transport standards are followed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Human milk proteins: key components for the biological activity of human milk.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Human milk contains a wide array of proteins that provide biologic activities ranging from antimicrobial effects to immunostimulatory functions. Proteins like lactoferrin, secretory IgA, kappa-casein, lactoperoxidase, haptocorrin, lactadherin and peptides formed from human milk proteins during digestion can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and therefore protect against infection. At the same time, proteins like lactoferrin, bile-salt stimulated lipase, haptocorrin, kappa-casein, and folate-binding protein can facilitate the absorption of nutrients in the neonatal gut. However, the proteins in human milk themselves also provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids to the growing infant. This suggests a highly adapted digestive system, which allows the survival of some proteins and peptides in the upper gastrointestinal tract, while still allowing amino acid utilization from these proteins further down in the gut. It is now possible to produce recombinant human milk proteins in transgenic plants and animals, which makes it possible to further study the bioactivity of these proteins. Provided these proteins can be produced in large scale at low cost, that they show biologic activity and pose no safety concerns, it may be possible to add some human milk proteins to infant diets, such as formula and complementary foods. Human milk proteins produced in rice or potatoes, for example, could be added without much purification, because these staples commonly are used in weaning foods. Thus, some qualities provided by human milk may be included into other diets, although it is highly unlikely that all unique components of human milk can be copied this way.

  12. Human milk and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aloka L; Kim, Jae H

    2018-02-01

    NEC is a multifactorial disease that occurs when multiple risk factors and/or stressors overlap, leading to profound inflammation and intestinal injury. Human milk feedings, both from the infant's mother and donor human milk, have been associated with reductions in NEC in preterm infants. This article will review the protective factors in human milk, clinical studies of human milk and NEC, and practices to enhance human milk use in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate nutrients for growth. A human milk fortifier (HMF) made from donor human milk has recently been introduced. However, limited data are available comparing the growth outcomes of this product with current fortifiers. We evalu...

  14. Cytokines in human milk.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Caries protective agents in human milk and bovine milk: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vabitha; Hegde, Amitha M; Nandan, S; Shetty, Suchetha

    2011-01-01

    To estimate Calcium and Phosphorus withdrawal from hydroxyapatite in the presence of bovine milk and human milk from which the following protective fractions namely Casein, Whey protein, Lactose and Milk fat have been individually removed and to compare the above protective fractions in human and bovine milk. Human milk obtained from lactating mothers in the labor ward of Kshema hospital was subjected to immediate analysis. Bovine milk was obtained from a local dairy. Equal quantities of human milk and bovine milk (1 ml) were separately subjected to the systematic removal of the four milk fractions. As each fraction was removed, the remaining milk samples were subjected to testing. Powdered hydroxyapatite from human dental enamel was subjected to demineralization with the addition of the milk sample under test for 20 minutes. This mixture was then centrifuged. Aliquots of the supernatant were taken for calcium and Phosphorus analysis using photospectrometry. Ten demineralization tests were similarly carried out for every milk fraction for both human and bovine milk separately. Equal samples of whole bovine milk and whole human milk were also subjected to similar testing. The calcium and phosphorus dissolution values were higher when the individual fractions were eliminated from both human milk/enamel samples and bovine milk/enamel samples as compared to the values obtained from whole human milk/whole bovine milk/enamel samples. Further higher calcium and phosphorus dissolution values were observed when the fractions were individually and separately removed from the whole human milk/enamel samples as compared to the corresponding values obtained when these fractions were removed from bovine milk/enamel samples. The evaluated milk fraction in bovine milk namely casein, whey protein, lactose and milk fat were individually more caries protective when compared to the corresponding fractions in human milk.

  16. Human milk banking guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  17. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  18. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  19. Cow's milk challenge through human milk evokes immune responses in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Suomalainen, H

    1999-10-01

    In order to measure the immune response evoked in breast-fed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) by cow's milk challenge through human milk, mothers were given increasing doses of cow's milk after they had been on a cow's milk elimination diet. Another objective was to study the secretion of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) into human milk before and during milk challenge in relation to the appearance of symptoms in infants. Seventeen asymptomatic mothers who had infants with challenge-proven CMA and 10 asymptomatic mothers who had healthy infants were recruited. Infants ranged in age from 1.8 to 9.4 months. A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISPOT) was used to assess the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting and specific antibody-secreting cells. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate different lymphocyte subpopulations among peripheral blood lymphocytes primed during provocation by cow's milk antigens. BLG levels were assessed in human milk before the challenge and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after the commencement of the challenge. All but one of the infants with CMA showed symptoms of CMA during cow's milk challenge through human milk. There was a significant rise in the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the IgA and IgG classes associated with a positive cow's milk challenge response, but the proportions of peripheral blood B cells bearing CD19, CD23, CD19 and 23, CD5, or CD19 and CD5 were comparable. BLG levels were comparable in both study groups. Most of the infants with CMA reacted to cow's milk challenge through human milk. Hypersensitivity reactions to food antigens through human milk may be more common than previously thought.

  20. Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Deborah L; Ewaschuk, Julia B; Unger, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Recent findings substantiate that the optimal method of nourishing preterm, very low birth weight infants (VLBW, born <1500 g) is through appropriately nutrient-enriched human milk, which is frequently provided as pasteurized donor milk. The availability of donor milk for VLBW infants during initial hospitalization continues to increase with the launch of new milk banks in North America. The majority of North American neonatal ICUs now have written policies governing the provision of donor milk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the risks and benefits of pasteurization of human milk and outcomes associated with its provision to VLBW preterm infants. Studies investigating the impact of collection, storage and pasteurization on the bacteriostatic, immunologic and nutritional aspects of human milk continue to be published, generally revealing a partial, but not complete reduction in bioactivity. Risk of contamination of pasteurized donor human milk with pathogenic agents is mitigated through pasteurization. New pasteurization methods aiming to maintain the safety of pooled human milk while better preserving bioactivity are under investigation. Provision of a human milk-derived diet to preterm VLBW infants is associated with improved outcomes.

  1. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  2. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    PubMed

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  4. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  6. Human Milk Handling and Storage Practices Among Peer Milk-Sharing Mothers.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Foster, Beatriz M; Carter, Shannon K; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2017-02-01

    Peer milk sharing, the noncommercial sharing of human milk from one parent or caretaker directly to another for the purposes of feeding a child, appears to be an increasing infant-feeding practice. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning against the practice, little is known about how people who share human milk handle and store milk and whether these practices are consistent with clinical safety protocols. Research aim: This study aimed to learn about the milk-handling practices of expressed human milk by milk-sharing donors and recipient caretakers. In this article, we explore the degree to which donors and recipients adhere to the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine clinical recommendations for safe handling and storage. Online surveys were collected from 321 parents engaged in peer milk sharing. Univariate descriptive statistics were used to describe the safe handling and storage procedures for milk donors and recipients. A two-sample t-test was used to compare safety items common to each group. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic correlates of milk safety practices within the sample group. Findings indicate that respondents engaged in peer milk sharing report predominantly positive safety practices. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any relationship between safety practices and sociodemographic characteristics. The number of safe practices did not differ between donors and recipients. Parents and caretakers who participate in peer human milk sharing report engaging in practices that should reduce risk of bacterial contamination of expressed peer shared milk. More research on this particular population is recommended.

  7. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    PubMed

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  8. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing <2 kg at birth. Duplicate samples were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR and by reference laboratory analysis including Kjeldahl for protein, Mojonnier for fat, and high-pressure liquid chromatography for lactose. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman scatter plots, and paired t tests were used to compare the two methods. No significant differences were detected between the macronutrient content of human milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. The effects of human milk fortification on nutrients and milk properties.

    PubMed

    Donovan, R; Kelly, S G; Prazad, P; Talaty, P N; Lefaiver, C; Hastings, M L; Everly, D N

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of fortification and storage on nutrients and properties of various human milk (HM) types. Mother's own milk (MOM) and pasteurized donor human milk (DHM; n=118) were analyzed pre- and post fortification with Enfamil and Similac human milk fortifier (EHMF and SHMF) before and after 24 h of refrigerated storage. Milk fortified with SHMF had significantly greater osmolality, pH and lipase activity than EHMF. Changes in protein, pH and osmolality following refrigerated storage differed between fortifiers. When milk type was factored into the analysis, protein and lipase activity changes in fresh MOM differed significantly from DHM and frozen MOM. Analysis of UNF HM found higher protein levels in preterm vs term samples and in MOM vs DHM. Nutrient composition of HM varies significantly by milk type. Although fortifiers enhance select nutrients, each has the potential to affect HM properties in a unique way and these affects may vary by milk type.

  10. Human Milk Banking-Facts and Issues to Resolve

    PubMed Central

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E.; Vermeulen, Marijn J.; van Vliet, Ineke; Kruger, Caroline; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother’s milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants. PMID:22254053

  11. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve.

    PubMed

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Vermeulen, Marijn J; van Vliet, Ineke; Kruger, Caroline; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2010-07-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants.

  12. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P < 0.05). The human milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the

  13. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  14. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  16. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk.

    PubMed

    Pastuszka, Robert; Barłowska, Joanna; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2016-12-31

    Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk) and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50%) than cow milk (about 20%), and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%), which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l) gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants). Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk) more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the '0' variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  18. Survey of Italian human milk banks.

    PubMed

    De Nisi, Giuseppe; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ambruzzi, Amalia M; Biasini, Augusto; Profeti, Claudio; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    At present, the Italian Association of Donor Human Milk Banks (Associazione Italiana Banche del Latte Umano Donato, AIBLUD) consists of 31 milk banks, whose management is based on Italian Guidelines. In 2013, AIBLUD performed a systematic survey to collect data on the activities of banks operating in Italy in the years previous to this date. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the operational procedures of Italian Human Milk Banks in order to identify both areas of strength and room for improvement. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain national data from the 28 banks active in the year 2012 in order to evaluate the number of donors, volume of human milk collected, and other information relating to the period 2007 to 2012. In all, 89% of the banks (25/28) responded to the survey. Data received primarily concerned the number of donors, volume of milk collected, and average amount of milk from each donor in the period 2007 to 2012. It was evident that in 2012 human milk banks collected a higher volume of milk than in 2007. Further, the average amount of milk from each donor was higher. Most of the milk banks were following the Italian Guidelines for traceability, control of donors, bacteriological checks, method of pasteurization, storage, thawing, type of containers, and utilization of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system. This survey identified both areas of strength and room for improvement in the Italian human milk banks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1–4(Fucα1–3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2′-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

  20. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  1. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R.; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column‐based phenol‐free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2397–2407, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25925799

  2. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei; Zhang, Jun

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years,more » peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk.« less

  3. Human milk glycoconjugates that inhibit pathogens.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    1999-02-01

    Breast-fed infants have lower incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and otitis media. The protection by human milk has long been attributed to the presence of secretory IgA. However, human milk contains large numbers and amounts of complex carbohydrates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, mucins, and especially oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides comprise the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk, and contain a myriad of structures. Complex carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides are synthesized by the many glycosyltransferases in the mammary gland; those with homology to cell surface glycoconjugate pathogen receptors may inhibit pathogen binding, thereby protecting the nursing infant. Several examples are reviewed: A fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits the diarrheagenic effect of stable toxin of Escherichia coli. A different fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits infection by Campylobacter jejuni. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and of enteropathogenic E. coli to their respective receptors is inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The 46-kD glycoprotein, lactadherin, inhibits rotavirus binding and infectivity. Low levels of lactadherin in human milk are associated with a higher incidence of symptomatic rotavirus in breast-fed infants. A mannosylated glycopeptide inhibits binding by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. A glycosaminoglycan inhibits binding of gp120 to CD4, the first step in HIV infection. Human milk mucin inhibits binding by S-fimbriated E. coli. The ganglioside, GM1, reduces diarrhea production by cholera toxin and labile toxin of E. coli. The neutral glycosphingolipid, Gb3, binds to Shigatoxin. Thus, many complex carbohydrates of human milk may be novel antipathogenic agents, and the milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides may be a major source of protection for breastfeeding infants.

  4. Physiological aspects of human milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Rodriguez-Palmero, M; Demmelmair, H; Fidler, N; Jensen, R; Sauerwald, T

    2001-11-01

    Human milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of feeding for all healthy newborn infants. The nutrient supply with human milk supports normal growth and development of the infant. Here the general characteristics of human milk lipids and recent knowledge on lactational physiology, composition and functional aspects of human milk lipids are discussed. Lipids in human milk represent the main source of energy for the breastfed baby and supply essential nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids (LA and ALA) are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids (AA and DHA). LC-PUFA serve as indispensable structural components of cellular membranes and are deposited to a considerable extent in the growing brain and the retina during perinatal development. The supply of preformed LC-PUFA with human milk lipids has been related to functional outcomes of the recipient infants such as visual acuity and development of cognitive functions during the first year of life. Recent stable isotope studies indicate that the major portion of milk PUFA is not derived directly from the maternal diet, but stems from endogenous body stores. Thus, not only the woman's current but also her long-term dietary intake is of marked relevance for milk fat composition.

  5. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    PubMed

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  6. Glycoconjugates in human milk: protecting infants from disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robyn; Cheah, Wai Yuen; Grinyer, Jasmine; Packer, Nicolle

    2013-12-01

    Breastfeeding is known to have many health benefits for a newborn. Not only does human milk provide an excellent source of nutrition, it also contains components that protect against infection from a wide range of pathogens. Some of the protective properties of human milk can be attributed to the immunoglobulins. Yet, there is another level of defense provided by the "sweet" protective agents that human milk contains, including free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Sugar epitopes in human milk are similar to the glycan receptors that serve as pathogen adhesion sites in the human gastrointestinal tract and other epithelial cell surfaces; hence, the milk glycans can competitively bind to and remove the disease-causing microorganisms before they cause infection. The protective value of free oligosaccharides in human milk has been well researched and documented. Human milk glycoconjugates have received less attention but appear to play an equally important role. Here, we bring together the breadth of research that has focused on the protective mechanisms of human milk glycoconjugates, with a particular focus on the glycan moieties that may play a role in disease prevention. In addition, human milk glycoconjugates are compared with bovine milk glycoconjugates in terms of their health benefits for the human infant.

  7. Fortification of human milk for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Radmacher, Paula G; Adamkin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including those of very low birth weight (<1500 g). It has both nutritional and anti-infective properties which are especially important for infants at risk for sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. When maternal milk is not available or the amount produced is not sufficient to meet daily needs, donor human milk may (should) be used in its place. However, donor human milk is generally term in quality and likely has insufficient protein to promote appropriate growth. Whether donor or mother's own milk, fortification of human milk is required to meet nutrient requirements for growth and development for these preterm infants who are at high risk for growth faltering during the hospital stay. There are multiple strategies and products that may be employed to support desired growth rates. The advent of human milk analyzers may be helpful in a more customized approach to fortification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human milk donation: what do you know about it?

    PubMed

    Woo, Katie; Spatz, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly endorses that human milk is species specific and the optimal nutrition for infants, and that banked human milk is a suitable alternative. After the death of an infant, breast milk often is disposed of without consideration of donation because the public and healthcare providers are unaware of human milk banks. In the United States, 10 human milk banks operate under strict guidelines established by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Donors are screened, and milk is pasteurized while preserving many of the beneficial components of breast milk. It is imperative that healthcare providers become educated regarding human milk banking because of the increase in informal sharing of breast milk via the Internet. Breast milk that has not been screened and treated has the risk of transmitting infections such as hepatitis and HIV. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the selection criteria for suitable donors and how to approach families when the death of an infant is imminent. Human milk banks are able to provide human milk to adopted, preterm, or ill infants whose mothers are unable to provide their own milk.

  9. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (< 1,500 g) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Improvement activities included antenatal consults with at-risk mothers, staff and parent education, a breast pump loaner program for uninsured/underinsured mothers, pump logs, establishment of a donor milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  10. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    PubMed

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  11. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  12. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Geller, L; Bencharitiwong, R; Sampson, H A

    2012-02-01

    Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5-15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by mothers strictly avoiding dietary milk remains unclear. © 2011 Blackwell

  14. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P < 0.05). The most frequent organic component in human milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P < 0.05). Both human milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  15. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-03-01

    Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children.

  16. Producing recombinant human milk proteins in the milk of livestock species.

    PubMed

    Bösze, Zsuzsanna; Baranyi, Mária; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant human proteins produced by the mammary glands of genetically modified transgenic livestock mammals represent a special aspect of milk bioactive components. For therapeutic applications, the often complex posttranslational modifications of human proteins should be recapitulated in the recombinant products. Compared to alternative production methods, mammary gland production is a viable option, underlined by a number of transgenic livestock animal models producing abundant biologically active foreign proteins in their milk. Recombinant proteins isolated from milk have reached different phases of clinical trials, with the first marketing approval for human therapeutic applications from the EMEA achieved in 2006.

  17. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  18. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  19. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  1. Composition and structure elucidation of human milk glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Giovanni V; Gabrielli, Orazio; Buzzega, Dania; Zampini, Lucia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Maccari, Francesca; Bertino, Enrico; Volpi, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    To date, there is no complete structural characterization of human milk glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) available nor do any data exist on their composition in bovine milk. Total GAGs were determined on extracts from human and bovine milk. Samples were subjected to digestion with specific enzymes, treated with nitrous acid, and analyzed by agarose-gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography for their structural characterization. Quantitative analyses yielded ∼7 times more GAGs in human milk than in bovine milk. In particular, galactosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS), were found to differ considerably from one type of milk to the other. In fact, hardly any DS was observed in human milk, but a low-sulfated CS having a very low charge density of 0.36 was found. On the contrary, bovine milk galactosaminoglycans were demonstrated to be composed of ∼66% DS and 34% CS for a total charge density of 0.94. Structural analysis performed by heparinases showed a prevalence of fast-moving heparin over heparan sulfate, accounting for ∼30-40% of total GAGs in both milk samples and showing lower sulfation in human (2.03) compared with bovine (2.28). Hyaluronic acid was found in minor amounts. This study offers the first full characterization of the GAGs in human milk, providing useful data to gain a better understanding of their physiological role, as well as of their fundamental contribution to the health of the newborn.

  2. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, K. M.; Geller, L.; Bencharitiwong, R.; Sampson, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. Objective To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Methods Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5–15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. Results A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by

  3. Epigenetic effects of human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Banderali, Giuseppe; Barberi, Salvatore; Radaelli, Giovanni; Lops, Alessandra; Betti, Federica; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-04-24

    A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life.

  4. Beta-lactoglobulin secretion in human milk varies widely after cow's milk ingestion in mothers of infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Sorva, R; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Juntunen-Backman, K

    1994-04-01

    Cow's milk proteins secreted in human milk may cause cow's milk allergy (CMA) even during exclusive breast-feeding. We studied beta-lactoglobulin levels in human milk of mothers of infants with CMA. We also studied intestinal absorption of macromolecules in the same mothers to see whether it is related to the secretion of beta-lactoglobulin in human milk. CMA was verified with oral challenge in 46 of 55 infants assessed. beta-Lactoglobulin levels were assessed in human milk from 53 of 55 mothers of the infants before (basal sample) and 1 and 2 hours after an oral cow's milk load, which was given after a 24-hour milk-free diet. beta-Lactoglobulin was determined by an ELISA with a detection limit of 0.002 microgram/L. The 6-hour urine recovery of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 was assessed after an oral load of PEG in 45 of 55 mothers. beta-Lactoglobulin was found in the 1- or 2-hour samples in 75% of the mothers. beta-Lactoglobulin levels were increased in the 1- or 2-hour samples as compared with the basal levels in about half of the mothers. The respective levels were decreased in one third of the mothers whose basal beta-lactoglobulin levels were higher than in the others. beta-Lactoglobulin was found in none of the three human milk samples in 15% of the mothers. After an oral load of a high-molecular-weight PEG 3000, the 6-hour urine recovery of PEG was similar in the mothers of the infants with CMA and the mothers of infants without CMA. Neither was the urinary recovery of PEG related to the beta-lactoglobulin levels in human milk. The results support the view that beta-lactoglobulin in human milk may contribute to, but does not alone explain, the development of CMA in breast-fed infants.

  5. The ethics of donor human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lois D W

    2006-01-01

    This case study of donor human milk banking and the ethics that govern interested parties is the first time the ethics of donor milk banking has been explored. Two different models of ethics and their direct impact on donor milk banking are examined: biomedical ethics and public health ethics. How these models and principles affect different aspects of donor human milk banking and the parties involved in the delivery of this service are elucidated. Interactions of parties with each other and how the quality and type of interaction affects the ethical delivery of donor milk banking services are described. Crystallization is at the heart of the qualitative methodology used. Writing as a method of inquiry, an integrative research review, and personal experience are the three methods involved in the crystallization process. Suggestions are made for improving access and knowledge of banked donor human milk, a valuable public health resource.

  6. The Host Defense Proteome of Human and Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hettinga, Kasper; van Valenberg, Hein; de Vries, Sacco; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; van Arendonk, Johan; Vervoort, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14). On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase) were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals. PMID:21556375

  7. Systematic Review of the Human Milk Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.

  8. Individualized protein fortification of human milk for preterm infants: comparison of ultrafiltrated human milk protein and a bovine whey fortifier.

    PubMed

    Polberger, S; Räihä, N C; Juvonen, P; Moro, G E; Minoli, I; Warm, A

    1999-09-01

    To improve the nutritional management of pre-term infants, a new individualized human milk fortification system based on presupplementation milk protein analyses was evaluated. In an open, prospective, randomized multicenter study, 32 healthy preterm infants (birth weights, 920-1750 g) were enrolled at a mean of 21 days of age (range, 9-36 days) when tolerating exclusive enteral feedings of 150 ml/kg per day. All infants were fed human milk and were randomly allocated to fortification with a bovine whey protein fortifier (n = 16) or ultrafiltrated human milk protein (n = 16). All human milk was analyzed for protein content before fortification with the goal of a daily protein intake of 3.5 g/kg. During the study period (mean, 24 days) daily aliquots of the fortified milk were obtained for subsequent analyses of the protein content. Both fortifiers were well tolerated, and growth gain in weight, length, and head circumference, as well as final preprandial concentrations of serum urea, transthyretin, transferrin, and albumin were similar in both groups. The ultimate estimated protein intake was equivalent in both groups (mean 3.1+/-0.1 g/kg per day). Serum amino acid profiles were similar in both feeding groups, except for threonine (significantly higher in the bovine fortifier group) and proline and ornithine (significantly higher in the human milk protein group). Protein analyses of the milk before individual fortification provides a new tool for an individualized feeding system of the preterm infant. The bovine whey protein fortifier attained biochemical and growth results similar to those found in infants fed human milk protein exclusively with the corresponding protein intakes.

  9. Human Newborns Prefer Human Milk: Conspecific Milk Odor Is Attractive Without Postnatal Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlier, Luc; Schaal, Benoist

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral responses of 3- to 4-day-old newborns to the odors of various human milk (HM) and formula milk (FM) were examined in paired-choice tests. When both stimuli were nonfamiliar, breast-fed, as well as bottle-fed, infants oriented their head and mouthed more vigorously to HM than to FM. When breast-fed infants were exposed to nonfamiliar HM…

  10. Chemical Contaminants in Raw and Pasteurized Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Cohen, Ronald S; Sakamoto, Pauline; Barr, Dana Boyd; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2018-05-01

    Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA). Human milk was analyzed raw and pasteurized for these chemicals using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the POPs and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for non-POPs. Within the different chemical classes, PBDE47, PCB153, ppDDE, and MEHHP (phthalate metabolite) had the highest median concentrations and were observed in all samples. We also observed chlorpyrifos and BPA in all samples and permethrin in 90% of the samples tested. Only two chemicals, chlorpyrifos and permethrin, were susceptible to substantial degradation from pasteurization, a standard method for processing donated human milk. We detected 19 of 23 chemicals in all of our prepasteurized milk and 18 of 23 chemicals in all of our pasteurized milk. Pasteurization did not affect the presence of most of the chemicals. Future research should continue to explore human milk for potential chemical contamination and as a means to surveil exposures among women and children.

  11. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Specifically, we examine milk sharing social networks, donor compensation, the prevalence of anonymous milk sharing interactions, recipients' concerns about specific milk sharing risks, and lay screening behaviors. Data on human milk sharing practices were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Chi-square analyses were used to test the association between risk perception and screening practices. A total of 867 (661 donors, 206 recipients) respondents were included in the analyses. Most (96.1%) reported sharing milk face-to-face. Only 10% of respondents reported giving or receiving milk through a non-profit human milk bank, respectively. There were no reports of anonymous purchases of human milk. A small proportion of recipients (4.0%) reported that their infant had a serious medical condition. Screening of prospective donors was common (90.7%) but varied with social relationship and familiarity. Likewise, concern about specific milk sharing risks was varied, and risk perception was significantly associated (P-values = 0.01 or less) with donor screening for all risk variables except diet. Understanding lay perceptions of milk sharing risk and risk reduction strategies that parents are using is an essential first step in developing public health interventions and clinical practices that promote infant safety. © 2015 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William H; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood caries, although direct experimental evidence is lacking. We used our desalivated rat model because the approach mimics the situation found in infants, whereby the flow of saliva is interrupted through mechanical effects of a nipple. The animals received basic nutrition by gavage, and the fluids being tested were available ad libitum. Thus, the only substances that came in contact with teeth were the test fluids. The investigation continued for 14 days. Cola, sucrose, and honey were by far the most cariogenic. In addition, cola and honey induced considerable erosion. Human milk was significantly more cariogenic than cow milk probably because of its lower mineral content and higher level of lactose. Our data show that the use of honey, cola, and sucrose water in nursing bottles should be discouraged. Although human milk is more cariogenic than cow milk, it is no more cariogenic than are common infant formulas. Protracted exposure to human milk or formula through allowing an infant to sleep on the nipple should be discouraged, and the need for oral hygiene after tooth eruption should be emphasized.

  13. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant.

  15. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MS ALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MS ALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MS ALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of

  16. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MSALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. Practical applications : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a

  17. Human milk is the feeding strategy to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis!

    PubMed

    Maffei, Diana; Schanler, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred diet for preterm infants as it protects against a multitude of NICU challenges, specifically necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants who receive greater than 50% of mother's own milk (MOM) in the 2 weeks after birth have a significantly decreased risk of NEC. An additional factor in the recent declining rates of NEC is the increased utilization of donor human milk (DHM). This creates a bridge until MOM is readily available, thus decreasing the exposure to cow milk protein. Preterm infants are susceptible to NEC due to the immaturity of their gastrointestinal and immune systems. An exclusive human milk diet compensates for these immature systems in many ways such as lowering gastric pH, enhancing intestinal motility, decreasing epithelial permeability, and altering the composition of bacterial flora. Ideally, preterm infants should be fed human milk and avoid bovine protein. A diet consisting of human milk-based human milk fortifier is one way to provide the additional nutritional supplements necessary for adequate growth while receiving the protective benefits of a human milk diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in mature milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  19. Fortifying fresh human milk with commercial powdered human milk fortifiers does not affect bacterial growth during 6 hours at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Telang, Sucheta; Berseth, Carol Lynn; Ferguson, Paul W; Kinder, Julie M; DeRoin, Mark; Petschow, Bryon W

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the growth of resident aerobic mesophilic flora and added Enterobacter sakazakii in fresh, unfortified human milk; fresh human milk fortified with two commercial powdered fortifiers differing in iron content; and infant formula prepared from powder. Eight mothers provided preterm breast milk samples. Breast milk samples were divided into three aliquots: unfortified, fortified with fortifier containing 1.44 mg iron/14 kcal, and fortified with fortifier containing 0.4 mg iron/14 kcal. Aliquots of formula were prepared. Breast milk and formula aliquots were divided into two test samples. Half were inoculated with low amounts of E sakazakii; half were not. All test samples were maintained at room temperature (22 degrees C), serially diluted, and plated onto agars after 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C and enumerated. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. P<.05 was considered significant. There were no differences in colony counts of aerobic bacteria among uninoculated or among inoculated human milk samples at any time; counts did not increase significantly over 6 hours. There were no differences in colony counts of E sakazakii among inoculated human milk samples at any time; counts did not increase significantly over 6 hours. Aerobic bacteria and E sakazakii colony counts from infant formula did not increase significantly over 6 hours. During 6 hours at 22 degrees C, fresh human milk and formula had negligible bacterial growth; fortifying human milk with powdered fortifiers did not affect bacterial growth.

  20. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Peroni, Diego G.; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S.; Van’t Land, Belinda; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T.; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Warner, John O.

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. PMID:28817095

  1. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Munblit, Daniel; Peroni, Diego G; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S; Van't Land, Belinda; Gay, Melvin C L; Kolotilina, Anastasia; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Boyle, Robert J; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Warner, John O

    2017-08-17

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development.

  2. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  3. Considerable variation in the concentration of osteopontin in human milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Schack, L; Lange, A; Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Christensen, B; Petersen, T E; Sørensen, E S

    2009-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional bioactive protein that is implicated in numerous biological processes such as bone remodeling, inhibition of ectopic calcification, and cellular adhesion and migration, as well as several immune functions. Osteopontin has cytokine-like properties and is a key factor in the initiation of T helper 1 immune responses. Osteopontin is present in most tissues and body fluids, with the highest concentrations being found in milk. In the present study, ELISA for human and bovine milk OPN were developed and OPN concentration in human breast milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas was measured and compared. The OPN concentration in human milk was measured to approximately 138 mg/L, which corresponds to 2.1% (wt/wt) of the total protein in human breast milk. This is considerably higher than the corresponding OPN concentrations in bovine milk (approximately 18 mg/L) and infant formulas (approximately 9 mg/L). Moreover, bovine milk OPN is shown to induce the expression of the T helper 1 cytokine IL-12 in cultured human lamina propria mononuclear cells isolated from intestinal biopsies. Finally, the OPN concentration in plasma samples from umbilical cords, 3-mo-old infants, and pregnant and nonpregnant adults was measured. The OPN level in plasma from 3-mo-old infants and umbilical cords was found to be 7 to 10 times higher than in adults. Thus, the high levels of OPN in milk and infant plasma suggest that OPN is important to infants and that ingested milk OPN is likely to induce cytokine production in neonate intestinal immune cells.

  4. Leucocytes in human milk and lymphocyte subsets in cow's milk-allergic infants.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Kirsi-Marjut; Suomalainen, Hanna

    2002-08-01

    The breast-fed infant ingests an average of 108 leucocytes per day, with breast-feeding often continuing for several months. The precise role of human milk leucocytes is still unresolved. Breast-feeding has been recommended for infants at high risk of allergy to prevent or delay the development of food allergies and atopic eczema. However, studies dealing with distinct immunologic factors in the mother's milk, and their effect on health status or development of allergies in the infant, are scarce. We evaluated the relationship between the cellular composition of human milk and the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. Leucocyte subsets in the breast-fed infants were also measured. The study population comprised 61 breast-feeding mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine mothers each had a cow's milk-allergic infant, 10 had an infant with atopic dermatitis without CMA, and 12 mothers had a healthy infant. Leucocyte subsets in mothers' milk were counted using a light microscope and confirmed by flow cytometry. In infants, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry and were correlated with the health status of the breast-fed infant and leucocyte composition of the mother's milk. Human milk was found to be a non-homogenous morphological entity. In the milk of mothers of infants with CMA, the proportion of macrophages was significantly smaller than in the mothers with infants without CMA (p = 0.036, t-test). Mothers with high proportions of neutrophils in their milk (> 20%) had significantly more often infants with CMA than did those with low proportions of neutrophils (p = 0.02; Fischer's exact test). Eosinophils comprising > 1% of milk cells were only detected in the mothers who had infants with CMA. Furthermore, the proportions of CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with the proportion of milk macrophages and negatively with the percentage of milk neutrophils and eosinophils. The proportions of total B cells and

  5. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products.

  6. [Breast is best--human milk for premature infants].

    PubMed

    Riskin, Arieh; Bader, David

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition for preterm babies is aimed at achieving expected intrauterine growth and accretion of nutrients. Early trophic feedings should be started as soon as possible for gastrointestinal priming. Mother's (breast) milk is the best food for preterm babies. Its advantages are in host defence, nutritional components and suitability for gut absorption, as well as its psychological and developmental value. The limitations of human milk for preterm babies, mainly in protein and minerals, can be compensated for by using powdered human milk fortifier. Sucking skills usually mature around 34 weeks, corrected gestational age. Thus, small preemies are initially fed by orogastric tubes, meaning that expressed breast milk is used. Support of lactation in mothers of preemies mandates protection of the mother and child bonding process and early skin to skin contact ("kangeroo care"). Methods for storage of expressed breast milk and the recommended length of storage are discussed. Milk bank mandates pasteurization and freezing of the donors' milk. Most of the nutritional and immunological advantages of human milk are preserved after such treatments. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants, that were acquired from mother's expressed breast milk, are not uncommon, and require further attention.

  7. The use of human milk and breastfeeding in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Schanler, R J; Hurst, N M; Lau, C

    1999-06-01

    Human milk is beneficial in the management of premature infants. The beneficial effects generally relate to improvements in host defenses, digestion, and absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, neurodevelopment, and maternal psychological well-being. The use of fortified human milk generally provides the premature infant adequate growth, nutrient retention, and biochemical indices of nutritional status when fed at approximately 180 mL/kg/day compared with unfortified human milk. Human milk can only support the needs of the premature infant if adequate milk volumes are produced. Intensive efforts at lactation support are desirable. Therefore, neonatal centers should encourage the feeding of fortified human milk for premature infants along with skin-to-skin contact as a reasonable method to enhance milk production and promote success with early breastfeeding, while potentially facilitating the development of an enteromammary response.

  8. Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk.

    PubMed

    Mung, Dorothea; Li, Liang

    2018-02-25

    There is an increasing demand for donor human milk to feed infants for various reasons including that a mother may be unable to provide sufficient amounts of milk for their child or the milk is considered unsafe for the baby. Selling and buying human milk via the Internet has gained popularity. However, there is a risk of human milk sold containing other adulterants such as animal or plant milk. Analytical tools for rapid detection of adulterants in human milk are needed. We report a quantitative metabolomics method for detecting potential milk adulterants (soy, almond, cow, goat and infant formula milk) in human milk. It is based on the use of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS platform to profile the metabolome of an unknown milk sample, followed by multivariate or univariate comparison of the resultant metabolomic profile with that of human milk to determine the differences. Using dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome, we could detect an average of 4129 ± 297 (n = 9) soy metabolites, 3080 ± 470 (n = 9) almond metabolites, 4256 ± 136 (n = 18) cow metabolites, 4318 ± 198 (n = 9) goat metabolites, 4444 ± 563 (n = 9) infant formula metabolites, and 4020 ± 375 (n = 30) human metabolites. This high level of coverage allowed us to readily differentiate the six different types of samples. From the analysis of binary mixtures of human milk containing 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75% other type of milk, we demonstrated that this method could be used to detect the presence of as low as 5% adulterant in human milk. We envisage that this method could be applied to detect contaminant or adulterant in other types of food or drinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of the first human milk bank in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Wu, Tsung-Zu; Fang, Li-Jung

    2013-02-01

    The benefits of feeding human milk to infants, even in prematurity, have been well documented. Well-organized donor milk processing has made the milk bank a good source of nutrition for premature or sick infants if their own mother's milk is not sufficient or suitable. The Taipei City Hospital Milk Bank was established in 2005 and is the first nonprofit human milk bank to operate in Taiwan. The milk bank has adopted standards of practice laid down by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America and United Kingdom Association for Milk Banking. The clinical characteristics of the eligible milk donors, the recipients, and the donor milk were reviewed retrospectively. In the past 6 years, 816 eligible donors donated a total or 13,900 L (mean 17.03 L/donor) of breast milk. The mean age of these donors was 31.3 years, and 79.7% of them had college education. Most had term delivery (91.2%), with mean birth weight of their babies being 3120 g; 68.9% of the donors were primiparas. A total of 551 infants had received bank milk, with these indications: prematurity (65.4%), malabsorption (7.6%), feeding intolerance (7.2%), maternal illness (5.1%) and post-surgery (4.6%). The pass rate of raw donor milk was around 72.1%. The most common reasons to discard raw milk were Gram-negative rods contamination (72.8%) and ≥10 colony-forming units/mL of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.3%). Only 0.63% of donor milk post pasteurization showed bacterial growth. Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Historical Aspects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides1234

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on important observations regarding infant health around 1900 when breastfeeding was not considered a matter of importance. The discovery of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and their relevance for health and disease was an important milestone leading to a decrease in infant mortality in the first year of life. At the same time, pediatricians realized that the fecal composition of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants differed. Observations indicated that this difference is linked to milk composition, particularly due to the milk carbohydrate fraction. Circa 1930, a human milk carbohydrate fraction called gynolactose was identified. This was the starting point of research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). In the following years, the first HMO were identified and their functions investigated. Studies after 1950 focused on the identification of various HMO as the bifidus factor in human milk. In the following 30 years, a tremendous amount of research was done with regard to the characterization of individual HMO and HMO patterns in milk. In this short introduction to the history of HMO research, which ends circa 1980, some outstanding scientists in pediatrics and chemistry and their pioneering contributions to research in the field of HMO are presented. PMID:22585922

  11. Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Joseph S.; McNamara, Kelly A.; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Geraghty, Sheela R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). RESULTS: Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >104 colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = −0.36 [95% confidence interval: −0.55 to −0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs. PMID:24144714

  12. Human Milk Proresolving Mediators Stimulate Resolution of Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    Human milk contains nutrients and bioactive products relevant to infant development and immunological protection. Here, we investigated the pro-resolving properties of milk using human milk lipid mediator isolates (HLMI) and determined their impact on resolution programs in vivo and with human macrophages. HLMI reduced maximum neutrophil numbers (14.6±1.2×106 to 11.0±1.0×106 cells/exudate) and shortened the resolution interval (Ri; 50% neutrophil reduction) 54% compared to peritonitis. Using rigorous liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics, we demonstrated that human milk possesses a proresolving LM-SPM signature profile, containing specialized proresolving mediators (SPM; e.g. resolvins, protectins, maresins and lipoxins) at bioactive levels (pico-nanomolar concentrations) that enhanced human macrophage efferocytosis and bacterial containment. SPM identified in human milk included D-series resolvins, (e.g. Resolvin (Rv) D1, RvD2, RvD3, AT-RvD3 and RvD4), Protectin (PD)1, Maresin (MaR)1, E-series resolvins (e.g. RvE1, RvE2 and RvE3) and lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4). Of the SPM identified in human milk, RvD2 and MaR1 (50 ng/mouse) individually shortened Ri ~75%. Milk from mastitis gave higher LTB4 and prostanoids and lower SPM levels. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human milk has pro-resolving actions via comprehensive LM-SPM profiling, describing a potentially novel mechanism in maternal-infant biochemical imprinting. PMID:26462421

  13. Human milk proresolving mediators stimulate resolution of acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Hildur; Orr, Sarah K; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N

    2016-05-01

    Human milk contains nutrients and bioactive products relevant to infant development and immunological protection. Here, we investigated the proresolving properties of milk using human milk lipid mediator isolates (HLMIs) and determined their impact on resolution programs in vivo and with human macrophages. HLMIs reduced the maximum neutrophil numbers (14.6±1.2 × 10(6)-11.0±1.0 × 10(6) cells per exudate) and shortened the resolution interval (Ri; 50% neutrophil reduction) by 54% compared with peritonitis. Using rigorous liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics, we demonstrated that human milk possesses a proresolving LM-specialized proresolving mediator (LM-SPM) signature profile, containing SPMs (e.g. resolvins (Rv), protectins (PDs), maresins (MaRs), and lipoxins (LXs)) at bioactive levels (pico-nanomolar concentrations) that enhanced human macrophage efferocytosis and bacterial containment. SPMs identified in human milk included D-series Rvs (e.g., RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, AT-RvD3, and RvD4), PD1, MaR1, E-series Rvs (e.g. RvE1, RvE2, and RvE3), and LXs (LXA4 and LXB4). Of the SPMs identified in human milk, RvD2 and MaR1 (50 ng per mouse) individually shortened Ri by ∼75%. Milk from mastitis gave higher leukotriene B4 and prostanoids and lower SPM levels. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human milk has proresolving actions via comprehensive LM-SPM profiling, describing a potentially novel mechanism in maternal-infant biochemical imprinting.

  14. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Marjan; Cossey, Veerle; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence favours the use of human milk for the feeding of preterm newborns based on its many beneficial effects. Despite the many benefits, human milk has been associated as a possible vehicle of transmission for a number of infections. Although pasteurization of human milk can diminish the risk of neonatal infection, it also significantly reduces the concentrations of immunological components in human milk due to thermal damage. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk, we aimed to compare the capacity of raw and pasteurized human milk to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, a single milk sample was collected from ten healthy lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into two aliquots; one aliquot was pasteurized, while the other was kept raw. Both aliquots were inoculated either with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 °C during 8 h. Viable colony counts from the inoculated samples were performed at regular time points to compare the bacterial growth in both forms of breast milk. Relative to the tryptic soy broth control sample, both raw and pasteurized milk samples exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Compared with the raw portion, growth inhibition was significantly lower in the pasteurized milk at every time point beyond T0 (after 2, 4 and 8 h of incubation) (p = 0.0003 for E. coli and p < 0.0001 for S. aureus). Our study shows that pasteurization adversely affects the antibacterial properties of human milk.

  16. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-04

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  17. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  18. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.001) indicated that at 1 h there was no difference in the effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  19. Milk kinship is not an obstacle to using donor human milk to feed preterm infants in Muslim countries.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Aliaa; Buffin, Rachel; Sanlaville, Damien; Picaud, Jean-Charles

    2016-05-01

    The development of human milk banks in Muslim countries is challenging because of the tradition of milk kinship. In other countries, this tradition imposes restrictions on Muslim mothers with regard to donating their milk or receiving donor milk for their preterm baby. However, Muslim law does allow the use of donated human milk under certain conditions, for example if it comes from a single known donor or is pooled from the milk of at least three donors. Muslim parents need to be made aware that human milk banks can be used for preterm babies if strict conditions are met. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lording, Roslyn J

    2006-11-01

    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. This history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.

  1. Transfer of interferon alfa into human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A R; Hale, T W; Mock, R E

    2000-08-01

    Originally assumed to be antiviral substances, the efficacy of interferons in a number of pathologies, including malignancies, multiple sclerosis, and other immune syndromes, is increasingly recognized. This study provides data on the transfer of interferon alfa (2B) into human milk of a patient receiving massive intravenous doses for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Following an intravenous dose of 30 million IU, the amount of interferon transferred into human milk was only slightly elevated (1551 IU/mL) when compared to control milk (1249 IU/mL). These data suggest that even following enormous doses, interferon is probably too large in molecular weight to transfer into human milk in clinically relevant amounts.

  2. Cariogenicity and acidogenicity of human milk, plain and sweetened bovine milk: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Gupta, Pranjali

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the acidogenicity and cariogenicity of human breast milk and plain and sweetened packaged bovine milk. First all milk specimens were inoculated with a cariogenic strain of Streptococcus mutans (SM). The culture pH and number of colony forming units (cfus) was assessed. Second, the buffer capacity of all milk specimens was evaluated by mixing with acid. Finally, enamel windows were created on extracted primary maxillary incisors and colonized with SM. Enamel demineralization and caries progression were assessed visually, histologically, and radiographically at the end of twelve weeks. Plain and sweetened packaged bovine milk (BM) supported greater bacterial growth and caused more fermentation than human breast milk (HBM). The buffer capacity values for plain and sweetened bovine milk were highest; HBM, however had poor buffering capacity. The progression of the carious lesions into the dentin was most severe for the sweetened bovine milk. HBM and plain bovine milk are relatively cariogenic in an in vitro caries model in the absence of saliva. However, supplementation with sugar exponentially enhances the cariogenic potential of the natural milk.

  3. Active transport of cimetidine into human milk.

    PubMed

    Oo, C Y; Kuhn, R J; Desai, N; McNamara, P J

    1995-11-01

    Most xenobiotics are transferred from blood into breast milk by passive diffusion. However, an active transport mechanism has been speculated for cimetidine, and the purpose of this study was to characterize cimetidine transfer into human milk. Twelve healthy lactating volunteers received single oral doses of 100, 600, and 1200 mg cimetidine in a randomized, crossover design on 3 different days. Blood and milk specimens were collected and assayed for cimetidine. In vitro measurements, including skim to whole milk concentration ratio, milk pH, and free fractions in serum and milk were used for a diffusion model prediction of milk to serum concentration ratio of cimetidine; the mean milk/serum ratio (+/- SD) was 1.05 +/- 0.18. The observed milk/serum ratio (5.77 +/- 1.24) was 5.5 times higher than the milk/serum ratio predicted by diffusion. The observed milk/serum ratio for the three dosing regimens were not significantly different from one another. Time of peak concentration (tmax) in milk (3.3 +/- 0.7 hours) displayed a delay compared with serum tmax (1.7 +/- 0.6 hours). Oral clearance for 1200 mg cimetidine dose (0.47 +/- 0.11 L/hr/kg) was significantly lower compared with oral clearance values for 100 and 600 mg cimetidine doses (0.59 +/- 0.11 and 0.57 +/- 0.13 L/hr/kg, respectively). The maternal dose of cimetidine ingested by a suckling infant based on body weight was estimated to be 6.7%, which appears to be safe under normal conditions. This study provides the first definitive evidence of an active transport system for drug transfer into human milk, which may have broader consequences for the suckling infant.

  4. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.

  5. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  6. Heat susceptibility of interleukin-10 and other cytokines in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Untalan, Peter B; Keeney, Susan E; Palkowetz, Kimberly H; Rivera, Audelio; Goldman, Armond S

    2009-09-01

    Holder pasteurization renders donor human milk safe for consumption. Because human milk reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, we tested whether Holder pasteurization affects certain factors in human milk that protect the intestines: epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, erythropoietin (EPO), and interleukin (IL)-10. Donor human milk from a milk bank was examined. The aqueous phase of 17 samples of donor term human milk (mean duration of lactation, 8 +/- 3.5 months) was examined before and after Holder pasteurization. In the case of IL-10, lesser degrees of pasteurization were also evaluated. The agents were quantified using enzyme immunoassays. The function of IL-10 was also tested. Concentrations of EGF and IL-10 were markedly lower than previously reported values in human milk from earlier phases of lactation. Holder pasteurization significantly reduced the concentrations of EPO and IL-10, whereas lesser degrees of heating increased the detection of IL-10. The immunosuppression of T-cell proliferation by human milk, thought to be attributed to IL-10 alone, persisted after Holder pasteurization. Holder pasteurization greatly decreased concentrations of EPO and IL-10 in human milk. These decreases may impact the ability of human milk to protect against necrotizing enterocolitis. Evidence of possible binding of IL-10 to other proteins in human milk was also found. Experiments to test whether Holder pasteurization affects the function of IL-10 in human milk produced evidence for an agent in human milk other than IL-10 that inhibits T-cell proliferation and resists Holder pasteurization.

  7. Human milk inactivates pathogens individually, additively, and synergistically.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Charles E

    2005-05-01

    Breast-feeding can reduce the incidence and the severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in the suckling neonate by providing additional protective factors to the infant's mucosal surfaces. Human milk provides protection against a broad array of infectious agents through redundancy. Protective factors in milk can target multiple early steps in pathogen replication and target each step with more than one antimicrobial compound. The antimicrobial activity in human milk results from protective factors working not only individually but also additively and synergistically. Lipid-dependent antimicrobial activity in milk results from the additive activity of all antimicrobial lipids and not necessarily the concentration of one particular lipid. Antimicrobial milk lipids and peptides can work synergistically to decrease both the concentrations of individual compounds required for protection and, as importantly, greatly reduce the time needed for pathogen inactivation. The more rapidly pathogens are inactivated the less likely they are to establish an infection. The total antimicrobial protection provided by human milk appears to be far more than can be elucidated by examining protective factors individually.

  8. Cariogenic potential of stored human milk--an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Amitha M; Vikyath, Rani

    2007-01-01

    Human milk samples collected from ten lactating mothers in the K. S. Hegde Medical Hospital, Mangalore were divided into five different parts and stored at different temperatures for varying durations. The pH, buffer capacity and growth of Streptococcus mutans were assessed in each of these samples. There was a fall in pH of human milk stored at various temperatures. The buffer capacity of human milk increased with duration of storage. There was an increase in Streptococcus colony count in stored human milk proportional to the duration of storage and it increased more rapidly in case of milk stored at higher temperatures (0 degrees C - 4 degrees C) compared to the milk stored in the freezer (-19 degrees C). Milk samples stored at room temperature for 6 hours and in the freezer at -19 degrees C for 2 weeks were found to be relatively safe.

  9. Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2010-02-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low-molecular-weight trimer to the high-molecular-weight octodecamer (18 mer). Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high-molecular-weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breast-fed infant was observed and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breast-feeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breast-fed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of oligosaccharides in milk specimens from humans and twelve other species.

    PubMed

    Warren, C D; Chaturvedi, P; Newburg, A R; Oftedal, O T; Tilden, C D; Newburg, D S

    2001-01-01

    Human milk contains large amounts of many oligosaccharides, most of which are fucosylated; several inhibit pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and toxins that cause disease in humans. Although bovine milk is known to have much less and many fewer types of oligosaccharides, no studies heretofore have indicated whether the amount or complexity of human milk oligosaccharides is unique to our species. Toward this end, a comparison was made of the major individual oligosaccharides in milk specimens from a variety of species, including the great apes. The neutral compounds, which represent the bulk of oligosaccharides in human milk, were isolated, perbenzoylated, resolved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and detected at 229nm. Ambiguous structures were determined by mass spectrometry. All milk specimens contained lactose, although levels were quite low in bear and kangaroo milk. The types of oligosaccharides in milk specimens from the primates resembled those of human milk, but the amounts, especially of the larger molecules, were markedly lower. The relative amounts of oligosaccharides in the bonobo changed over the course of lactation, as they do in humans. Marine mammals generally had few oligosaccharides in their milk other than 2'-fucosyllactose. Grizzly and black bear milk specimens contained a wide range of oligosaccharides, many of which had novel, fucosylated structures. Milk specimens from humans, bears, and marsupials had the greatest quantity of, and the most complex, neutral oligosaccharides. Although human milk contained more oligosaccharide than did milk specimens from the other species studied, the presence of appreciable amounts of complex oligosaccharides was not unique to humans. This finding suggests that in animal milk specimens, as in human milk, neutral fucosylated oligosaccharides potentially offer protection from pathogens to offspring with immature immune systems.

  11. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  12. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of /sup 64/Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added /sup 64/Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating themore » use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods.« less

  13. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    PubMed Central

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R.; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  14. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting.

    PubMed

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  15. Transfer of Low Dose Aspirin Into Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Datta, Palika; Rewers-Felkins, Kathleen; Kallem, Raja Reddy; Baker, Teresa; Hale, Thomas W

    2017-05-01

    Aspirin has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties and is frequently used by pregnant and lactating women. However, its transfer in human milk when administered at low dose has not been reported. Research aim: This study aimed to evaluate the transfer of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite, salicylic acid, into human milk following the use of low dose aspirin. In this study, milk samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours from seven breastfeeding women after a steady-state daily dose of 81 mg of aspirin. Milk levels of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylsalicylic acid levels were below the limit of quantification (0.61 ng/ml) in all the milk samples, whereas salicylic acid was detected at very low concentrations. The average concentration of salicylic acid observed was 24 ng/ml and the estimated relative infant dose was 0.4%. Acetylsalicylic acid transfer into milk is so low that it is undetectable even by highly sophisticated methodology. Salicylic acid does appear in the human milk in comparatively low amounts, which are probably subclinical in infants. Thus, the daily use of an 81-mg dose of aspirin should be considered safe during lactation.

  16. TGF-β2, a Protective Intestinal Cytokine, Is Abundant in Maternal Human Milk and Human-Derived Fortifiers but Not in Donor Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron A.; Johnson, Marney C.; Vasquez, Margarita M.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study compared cytokines (in particular transforming growth factor [TGF]-β2) and lactoferrin in maternal human milk (MHM), human-derived milk fortifier (HDMF), and donor human milk (DHM). Materials and Methods: MHM was randomly collected from breastfeeding mothers who had no infectious illness at the time of milk expression. HDMF and DHM were products derived from human milk processed by Holder pasteurization. MHM samples were collected at different times (early/late) and gestations (preterm/term). Lactoferrin was analyzed by western blotting, and cytokines were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Significance was determined using analysis of variance. Results: In the 164 samples analyzed, TGF-β2 concentrations in HDMF and preterm MHM (at all collection times) were fivefold higher than in DHM (p<0.05). Early preterm MHM had levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18, 11-fold higher than DHM (p<0.05). IL-6 in DHM was 0.3% of the content found in MHM. IL-18 was fourfold higher in early MHM versus late MHM regardless of gestational age (p<0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in DHM was 6% of that found in MHM. Conclusions: Pasteurization decreases concentrations of most cytokines and lactoferrin in DHM. TGF-β2, a protective intestinal cytokine, has comparable concentrations in HDMF to MHM despite pasteurization. PMID:23869537

  17. Serum phenylalanine in preterm newborns fed different diets of human milk.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Débora M; Serafin, Paula O; Palhares, Durval B; Tavares, Luciana V M; Grance, Thayana R S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate phenylalanine plasma profile in preterm newborns fed different human milk diets. Twenty-four very-low weight preterm newborns were distributed randomly in three groups with different feeding types: Group I: banked human milk plus 5% commercial fortifier with bovine protein, Group II: banked human milk plus evaporated fortifier derived from modified human milk, Group III: banked human milk plus lyophilized fortifier derived from modified human milk. The newborns received the group diet when full diet was attained at 15 ± 2 days. Plasma amino acid analysis was performedon the first and last day of feeding. Comparison among groups was performed by statistical tests: one way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test using SPSS software, version 20.0 (IBM Corp, NY, USA), considering a significance level of 5%. Phenylalanine levels in the first and second analysis were, respectively, in Group I: 11.9 ± 1.22 and 29.72 ± 0.73; in Group II: 11.72 ± 1.04 and 13.44 ± 0.61; and in Group III: 11.3 ± 1.18 and 15.42 ± 0.83 μmol/L. The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Does low IgA in human milk predispose the infant to development of cow's milk allergy?

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Laine, S T; Järvenpää, A L; Suomalainen, H K

    2000-10-01

    We sought a relationship between total and cow's milk-specific IgA levels in colostrum and human milk and subsequent development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. The study included 87 nursing mothers and their infants (age, 2 d to 7 mo), followed prospectively up to 1 y. At 1 y, 48 mothers (69% with an atopic constitution) had an infant with CMA, verified by clinical cow's milk challenge, eight (38% with an atopic constitution) had a baby who had had protracted infantile colic but no CMA (disease control group), and 31 (23% with an atopic constitution) had a healthy infant. Total breast-milk IgA was measured by radial immunodiffusion, and IgA antibodies to cow's milk were measured by ELISA during the breast-feeding period. The levels of total and cow's milk-specific IgA antibodies in colostrum and human milk were significantly lower in the mothers whose baby later developed CMA [estimated third day value, 0.38 g/L (95% confidence interval, 0. 24-0.82)] than in the ones whose infant remained healthy or had had infantile colic but not CMA [0.82 g/L (95% confidence interval, 0. 99-1.51); p < 0.05]. The infants developed CMA significantly more often if the concentration of total IgA antibodies in milk was <0.25 g/L, when measured between 6 d and 4 wk postpartum [sensitivity, 0. 55; specificity, 0.92; odds ratio, 14.7 (95% confidence interval, 3. 1-70.2); p < 0.001]. The levels of cow's milk-specific IgA positively correlated with the levels of total IgA but not with the development of CMA in the infant. The levels of total or cow's milk-specific IgA did not correlate with maternal atopy. IgA antibodies in colostrum and human milk may prevent antigen entry at the intestinal surface of the breast-fed infant. A low IgA content in human milk may lead to defective exclusion of food antigens and thus predispose an offspring to develop food allergies.

  19. Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Human Milk Feeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Parker, Leslie A; Neu, Josef

    2017-03-01

    This article summarizes evidence regarding whether a donor human milk (DHM) and/or an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and the dose of human milk (HM) necessary to reduce the risk of NEC in premature infants. Additional research regarding protection afforded by DHM and EHM is necessary as well as research elucidating the exact dose of HM necessary for NEC risk reduction. Research is also needed to determine whether there is a dose-dependent effect of DHM, a combination of mother's own milk and DHM, and an EHM diet on NEC incidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behind human milk and breastfeeding: not only food.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo; Pepaj, Orsiol; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2017-12-26

    After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not. A key point is represented by unmeasurable environmental and psycho-affective factors. So, it may be simplistic to consider human milk only as a nutrient; since it encompasses much more. The aim of our commentary is to review clinical studies about breastfeeding, analysing its consequences on the neuro-developmental achievement, growth and risk of obesity within a holistic view.

  1. Variation of Metabolite and Hormone Contents in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-03-01

    Animal studies show that the lactation period contributes to metabolic programming of the offspring and that oral leptin and insulin show bioactivity. Stage of lactation, duration of gestation, maternal body composition, and maternal diet seem to influence the concentrations of small molecules in human milk. Variability of small molecule concentrations seems higher in preterm milk than in term milk. Insulin in human milk shows concentrations similar to plasma. Leptin concentration is lower in milk than in plasma and reflects maternal body mass index. Early in lactation, leptin could contribute to mediating the association between maternal and infant body composition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Storage of Unfed and Leftover Pasteurized Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ting; Perrin, Maryanne T; Allen, Jonathan C; Osborne, Jason; Jones, Frances; Fogleman, April D

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of storage on bacterial growth and immunological activity of pasteurized human milk and leftover pasteurized human milk that has been exposed to the microflora in an infant's mouth. Eighteen mother-infant dyads participated in two separate studies. Mother's milk was pasteurized, and each baby was fed 1 to 2 ounces. Pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk were stored at room (24°C) and refrigerated temperatures (4°C). After storage, milk was analyzed for bacteria, total protein, lysozyme activity, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) activity. In pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk stored in the refrigerator for 7 days, total aerobic bacteria do not increase significantly and total protein and bioactive proteins are stable. At room temperature, there is a significant increase in total aerobic bacteria in leftover pasteurized milk during 12 hours of storage (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in total protein and SIgA activity in pasteurized milk during 12 hours of storage (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). When stored in the refrigerator, pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk may be stored for at least 7 days when considering the variables studied. Caution should be used when storing pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk at room temperature to prevent an increase in bacterial growth and a decrease in total protein and SIgA activity.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY EVALUATION METHOD IN HUMAN MILK BY ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY-ASSAY VALIDATION FOR HUMAN MILK. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the development of a toxicity evaluation method for dioxins in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was reported. A total of 17 human milk samples were tested by ELISA and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess whether the E...

  4. Establishing an integrated human milk banking approach to strengthen newborn care

    PubMed Central

    DeMarchis, A; Israel-Ballard, K; Mansen, Kimberly Amundson; Engmann, C

    2017-01-01

    The provision of donor human milk can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among vulnerable infants and is recommended by the World Health Organization as the next best option when a mother's own milk is unavailable. Regulated human milk banks can meet this need, however, scale-up has been hindered by the absence of an appropriate model for resource-limited settings and a lack of policy support for human milk banks and for the operational procedures supporting them. To reduce infant mortality, human milk banking systems need to be scaled up and integrated with other components of newborn care. This article draws on current guidelines and best practices from human milk banks to offer a compilation of universal requirements that provide a foundation for an integrated model of newborn care that is appropriate for low- and high-resource settings alike. PMID:27831549

  5. Establishing an integrated human milk banking approach to strengthen newborn care.

    PubMed

    DeMarchis, A; Israel-Ballard, K; Mansen, Kimberly Amundson; Engmann, C

    2017-05-01

    The provision of donor human milk can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among vulnerable infants and is recommended by the World Health Organization as the next best option when a mother's own milk is unavailable. Regulated human milk banks can meet this need, however, scale-up has been hindered by the absence of an appropriate model for resource-limited settings and a lack of policy support for human milk banks and for the operational procedures supporting them. To reduce infant mortality, human milk banking systems need to be scaled up and integrated with other components of newborn care. This article draws on current guidelines and best practices from human milk banks to offer a compilation of universal requirements that provide a foundation for an integrated model of newborn care that is appropriate for low- and high-resource settings alike.

  6. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk-Potential Benefits for Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to be involved in the better outcomes of breast-fed infants compared with those fed infant formula. Bovine milk proteins or protein fractions may be able to provide some of these benefits and may, therefore, be used for preterm infants. Recombinant human milk proteins are likely to exert bioactivities similar to those of the native human milk proteins, but considerable research is needed before they can be used in routine care of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haibo; Rajesan, Ratheishan; Harper, Patricia; Kim, Richard B; Lonnerdal, Bo; Yang, Mingdong; Uematsu, Satoko; Hutson, Janine; Watson-MacDonell, Jo; Ito, Shinya

    2005-01-01

    During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4. However, human milk is known to contain higher concentrations of environmental pollutants than infant formula, which are potent CYP1A inducers. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying this apparent contradiction, we characterized CYP1A and CYP3A4 induction by human milk and cow milk-based infant formula. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1/1A2 were significantly induced by cow milk-based formula, but not by human milk, in HepG2 cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that cow milk-based formula but not human milk activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) significantly. The cotreatment of 3,4-dimethoxyflavone, an AhR antagonist, abolished the formula-induced CYP1A expression. In addition, AhR activation by dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, a potent AhR agonist, was significantly suppressed by infant formula and even more by human milk. In contrast, CYP3A4 mRNA expression was only mildly induced by formula and human milk. Consistently, neither formula nor human milk substantially activated pregnane X receptor (PXR). Effects of whey and soy protein-based formulas on the AhR–CYP1A and the PXR–CYP3A4 pathways were similar to those of cow milk-based formula. In conclusion, infant formula, but not human milk, enhances in vitro CYP1A expression via an AhR-mediated pathway, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the increased caffeine elimination in formula-fed infants. PMID:15997229

  8. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Rajesan, Ratheishan; Harper, Patricia; Kim, Richard B; Lonnerdal, Bo; Yang, Mingdong; Uematsu, Satoko; Hutson, Janine; Watson-MacDonell, Jo; Ito, Shinya

    2005-09-01

    During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4. However, human milk is known to contain higher concentrations of environmental pollutants than infant formula, which are potent CYP1A inducers. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying this apparent contradiction, we characterized CYP1A and CYP3A4 induction by human milk and cow milk-based infant formula. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1/1A2 were significantly induced by cow milk-based formula, but not by human milk, in HepG2 cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that cow milk-based formula but not human milk activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) significantly. The cotreatment of 3,4-dimethoxyflavone, an AhR antagonist, abolished the formula-induced CYP1A expression. In addition, AhR activation by dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, a potent AhR agonist, was significantly suppressed by infant formula and even more by human milk. In contrast, CYP3A4 mRNA expression was only mildly induced by formula and human milk. Consistently, neither formula nor human milk substantially activated pregnane X receptor (PXR). Effects of whey and soy protein-based formulas on the AhR-CYP1A and the PXR-CYP3A4 pathways were similar to those of cow milk-based formula. In conclusion, infant formula, but not human milk, enhances in vitro CYP1A expression via an AhR-mediated pathway, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the increased caffeine elimination in formula-fed infants.

  9. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  10. [Guidelines for multivitamin administration in fortified human milk prepared for preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Rigourd, V; Dridi Brahim, I; Smii, S; Razafimahefa, H; Quetin, F; Leroy, E; Pichon, C; Giuseppi, A; Berthier, L; Pommeret, B; Serreau, R

    2017-02-01

    To reach nutritional standards, human milk has to have 2g/dL of protein. In 2013, Lafeber stated that when human milk is fortified up to 2g/dL, it may increase its osmolality up to 500 mOsm/kg. He also warned that care must be taken when adding a drug or vitamins to human milk. We studied, for the first time, the impact of adding multivitamins (ADEC) on human fortified milk osmolality. The osmolality of 36 pasteurized, fortified human milk samples was measured. The amount of milk required as a solvent to maintain osmolality below 500 mOsm/kg was then determined. The osmolality of 2mL of fortified human milk reached up to 750 mOsm/kg when the multivitamins ADEC was added. The osmolality decreased proportionately as the solution was diluted and if vitamins are added in two half-doses each time. It is only with 20mL of milk that the osmolality lowers to its initial rate of 430 mOsm/kg. The stronger the milk's fortification is, the greater impact it has on the milk's osmolality. New nutritional recommendations for premature infants are needed. In the meantime, when the fortified milk intake is under 20mL, it is preferable to extend parenteral intakes with fat-soluble vitamins or reduce doses of vitamins in milk. Also, we should use enriched human milk as a fortifier and be cautious with indiscriminate fortification or when adding drugs and electrolyte solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Promote the Growth of Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, K. M.; Preuss, J.; Nissan, C.; Davlin, C. A.; Williams, J. E.; Shafii, B.; Richardson, A. D.; McGuire, M. K.; Bode, L.

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:22562995

  12. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk

    PubMed Central

    Thurl, Stephan; Munzert, Manfred; Boehm, Günther; Matthews, Catherine; Stahl, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Context Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. Objective The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search on oligosaccharide concentrations in human milk was performed in 6 electronic databases: BIOSIS, Current Contents Search, Embase, Lancet Titles, MEDLINE and PubMed. Study Selection The initial search resulted in 1363 hits. After the elimination of duplicates, the literature was screened. The application of strict inclusion criteria resulted in 21 articles selected. Data Extraction Oligosaccharide concentrations, both mean values and single values, reported in the literature were sorted by gestational age, secretor status of mothers, and defined lactation periods. Results Mean concentrations, including confidence limits, of 33 neutral and acidic oligosaccharides reported could be calculated. Concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk show variations that are dependent on both the secretor type of the mother and the lactation period as examined by analyses of variance. In addition, large interlaboratory variations in the data were observed. Conclusions Worldwide interlaboratory quantitative analyses of identical milk samples would be required to identify the most reliable methods of determining concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. The data presented here contribute to the current knowledge about the composition and quantities of oligosaccharides in human milk and may foster greater understanding of the biological functions of these compounds. PMID:29053807

  13. Growth and development of premature infants fed predominantly human milk, predominantly premature infant formula, or a combination of human milk and premature formula.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Deborah L; Jacobs, Joan; Hall, Robert; Adamkin, David; Auestad, Nancy; Castillo, Marcella; Connor, William E; Connor, Sonja L; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Hartmann, E Eugenie; Janowsky, Jeri; Lucas, Alan; Margeson, Dean; Mena, Patricia; Neuringer, Martha; Ross, Gail; Singer, Lynn; Stephenson, Terence; Szabo, Joanne; Zemon, Vance

    2003-10-01

    In a recent meta-analysis, human milk feeding of low birth-weight (LBW) infants was associated with a 5.2 point improvement in IQ tests. However, in the studies in this meta-analysis, feeding regimens were used (unfortified human milk, term formula) that no longer represent recommended practice. To compare the growth, in-hospital feeding tolerance, morbidity, and development (cognitive, motor, visual, and language) of LBW infants fed different amounts of human milk until term chronologic age (CA) with those of LBW infants fed nutrient-enriched formulas from first enteral feeding. The data in this study were collected in a previous randomized controlled trial assessing the benefit of supplementing nutrient-enriched formulas for LBW infants with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Infants (n = 463, birth weight, 750-1,800 g) were enrolled from nurseries located in Chile, the United Kingdom, and the United States. If human milk was fed before hospital discharge, it was fortified (3,050-3,300 kJ/L, 22-24 kcal/oz). As infants were weaned from human milk, they were fed nutrient-enriched formula with or without arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (3,300 kJ/L before term, 3,050 kJ/L thereafter) until 12 months CA. Formula fed infants were given nutrient-enriched formula with or without added arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (3,300 kJ/L to term, 3,050 kJ/L thereafter) until 12 months CA. For the purposes of this evaluation, infants were categorized into four mutually exclusive feeding groups: 1) predominantly human milk fed until term CA (PHM-T, n = 43); 2) >/= 50% energy from human milk before hospital discharge (>/= 50% HM, n = 98); 3) < 50% of energy from human milk before hospital discharge (< 50% HM, n = 203); or 4) predominantly formula fed until term CA (PFF-T, n = 119). PFF-T infants weighed approximately 500 g more at term CA than did PHM-T infants. This absolute difference persisted until 6 months CA. PFF-T infants were also longer (1.0-1.5 cm) and

  14. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditionsmore » is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.« less

  15. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  16. Human papillomavirus DNA detected in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sarkola, Marja; Rintala, Marjut; Grénman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina

    2008-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing of 223 breast milk samples 3 days postpartum was performed with polymerase chain reaction, hybridization, and sequencing. HPV-16-DNA was detected in 4.0% of the samples. HPV carriage in the breast milk was not correlated with mother's oral or cervical HPV-status or the demographic data. Oral HPV-infection of the spouse at month 6 and 12 postpartum was statistically significantly associated with HPV carriage in the breast milk.

  17. Branched-chain fatty acid composition of human milk and the impact of maternal diet: the Global Exploration of Human Milk (GEHM) Study.

    PubMed

    Dingess, Kelly A; Valentine, Christina J; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Davidson, Barbara S; Woo, Jessica G; Summer, Suzanne; Peng, Yongmei M; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; McMahon, Robert J; Brenna, J Thomas; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2017-01-01

    An understudied component of the diet, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are distinctive saturated fatty acids that may have an important influence on health. Human-milk fatty acid composition is known to differ worldwide, but comparative data are lacking on BCFAs. We tested the hypotheses that concentrations of BCFAs in human milk differ between populations and are associated with maternal diet. We surveyed the BCFA composition of samples collected as part of a standardized, prospective study of human-milk composition. Mothers were enrolled from 3 urban populations with differing diets: Cincinnati, Ohio; Shanghai, China; and Mexico City, Mexico. Enrollment was limited to healthy mothers of term singleton infants. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of milk from all women with samples at postpartum week 4 (n = 359; ∼120 women/site). Fatty acids were extracted from milk by using a modified Bligh-Dyer technique and analyzed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tobit regression. For Cincinnati mothers, 24-h diet recalls were analyzed in relation to the individual BCFA concentrations measured in milk samples. Total BCFAs in milk differed by site, with the highest concentration in Cincinnati followed by Mexico City and Shanghai (mean ± SE: 7.90 ± 0.41, 6.10 ± 0.36, and 4.27 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, respectively; P < 0.001). Site differences persisted after delivery mode, maternal age, and body mass index were controlled for. The individual concentrations of iso-14:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0, anteiso-15:0, and anteiso-17:0 also differed between sites. Milk concentrations of iso-14:0 and anteiso-15:0 were associated with maternal intake of dairy; iso-16:0 was associated with maternal intakes of dairy and beef. BCFA concentrations in milk at 4 wk postpartum differed between mothers from Cincinnati, Shanghai, and Mexico City. Variations in human-milk BCFAs are influenced by diet. The impact of BCFAs on infant health warrants investigation.

  18. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  19. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    PubMed

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P < .001). These results indicate that iron concentration in milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  20. Alterations in the host defense properties of human milk following prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Akinbi, Henry; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Auer, Christine; Ma, Yan; Pullum, Derek; Kusano, Ryosuke; Reszka, Krzysztof J; Zimmerly, Kira

    2010-09-01

    Preterm infants are often fed pasteurized donor milk or mother's milk that has been stored frozen for up to 4 weeks. Our objectives were to assess the impact of pasteurization or prolonged storage at -20 degrees C on the immunologic components of human milk and the capability of the different forms of human milk to support bacterial proliferation. The concentrations and activities of major host defense proteins in the whey fractions of mother's milk stored for 4 weeks at -20 degrees C or pasteurized human donor milk were compared with freshly expressed human milk. Proliferation of bacteria incubated in the 3 forms of human milk was assessed. Relative to freshly expressed human milk, the concentrations of lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and secretory immunoglobulin A were reduced 50% to 82% in pasteurized donor milk and the activities of lysozyme and lactoperoxidase were 74% to 88% lower (P < 0.01). Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in pasteurized donor milk was enhanced 1.8- to 4.6-fold compared with fresh or frozen human milk (P < 0.01). The immunomodulatory proteins in human milk are reduced by pasteurization and, to a lesser extent, by frozen storage, resulting in decreased antibacterial capability. Stringent procedure to minimize bacterial contamination is essential during handling of pasteurized milk.

  1. Experiences of Women Who Donated Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen

    2018-03-01

    To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of activin A and follistatin in human milk.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Stefano; Calonaci, Giulia; Florio, Pasquale; Lombardi, Ilaria; De Felice, Claudio; Bagnoli, Franco; Petraglia, Felice

    2002-09-01

    Activin A is a dimeric protein member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family: it is synthesized by a variety of organs and follistatin is an activin-binding protein. A sensitive and specific assays for bioactive dimeric activin A and follistatin have recently allowed to measure these proteins in blood and other biological fluids, giving a new insights into their possible physiological role. Since human breast is able to produce activin A, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it and follistatin are measurable in breast milk of women during lactation. Concentrations of activin A and follistatin were measured in milk samples collected at 3, 5 and 30 days after delivery by using specific and sensitive two-site ELISAs. For the first time the presence of immunoreactive activin A and follistatin in human milk has been shown; no significant different concentration between the third and the fifth day after delivery was found. Furthermore, no difference of activin A and follistatin concentration between the whole and the skim milk or between spontaneous delivery and cesarean section was found. Milk activin A and follistatin concentrations after 1 month of lactation were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Activin A and follistatin are present in human milk in high concentrations in the first week of lactation, while decrease after a month suggesting a possible role as growth factors in human milk.

  3. An on-line database for human milk composition in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Understanding human milk composition is critical for setting nutrient recommended intakes (RNIs) for both infants and lactating women. However, nationwide human milk composition remains unavailable in China. Through cross-sectional study, human milk samples from 11 provinces in China were collected and their compositions were analyzed. Nutritional and health status of the lactating women and their infants were evaluated through questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical indicators. A total of 6,481 breast milk samples including colostrum (1,859), transitional milk (1,235) and mature milk (3,387) were collected. Contents of protein, fat, lactose, total solid and energy of more than 4,500 samples were analyzed using a human milk analyzer. About 2,000 samples were randomly selected for 24 mineral analyses. Free B-vitamins including thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal, pyridomine, pyridoxamine, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), biotin and pantothenic acid were analyzed in 1,800 samples. Amino acids (~800) and proteins (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-casein, and lactoferrin) were analyzed. In addition, serum retinol and carotenoids, 25(OH)D, vitamin B-12, folic acid, ferritin and biochemical indicators (n=1,200 to 2,000) were analysed in the lactating women who provided the breast milk. Ongoing work: Fatty acids (C4-C24), fatsoluble vitamins and carotenoids, are on-going analysis. A regional breast milk compositional database is at an advanced stage of development in China with the intention that it be available on-line.

  4. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk.

    PubMed

    Thurl, Stephan; Munzert, Manfred; Boehm, Günther; Matthews, Catherine; Stahl, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations. A comprehensive literature search on oligosaccharide concentrations in human milk was performed in 6 electronic databases: BIOSIS, Current Contents Search, Embase, Lancet Titles, MEDLINE and PubMed. The initial search resulted in 1363 hits. After the elimination of duplicates, the literature was screened. The application of strict inclusion criteria resulted in 21 articles selected. Oligosaccharide concentrations, both mean values and single values, reported in the literature were sorted by gestational age, secretor status of mothers, and defined lactation periods. Mean concentrations, including confidence limits, of 33 neutral and acidic oligosaccharides reported could be calculated. Concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk show variations that are dependent on both the secretor type of the mother and the lactation period as examined by analyses of variance. In addition, large interlaboratory variations in the data were observed. Worldwide interlaboratory quantitative analyses of identical milk samples would be required to identify the most reliable methods of determining concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. The data presented here contribute to the current knowledge about the composition and quantities of oligosaccharides in human milk and may foster greater understanding of the biological functions of these compounds. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Oxidative status of human milk and its variations during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Almansa, Inmaculada; Jareño, Enrique; Bosch-Morell, Francisco; Romero, Francisco J; Silvestre, Dolores

    2004-01-01

    Breastfeeding and human milk are widely accepted as optimal for human infants' nutrition. Nowadays lifestyle often makes it difficult to maintain or even initiate human lactation. This situation is mostly related to the workload of women away from home. New approaches are needed to enable maternal lactation under these circumstances. Human breastmilk storage for differed use is one possibility. The aim of this study was to assess changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and in the concentration of the lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), when human milk was kept refrigerated or frozen. Thirty-two human milk samples were assayed for GPx activity and MDA concentration. Samples were divided in three aliquot portions, the first to be immediately analysed, the second to be refrigerated at 4 degrees C and analysed 24 h thereafter, and the third to be frozen at -20 degrees C and assayed after 10 days. GPx activity was significantly decreased in refrigerated and in frozen milk, when compared to their control samples. MDA was increased only in refrigerated milk but not in frozen samples. Thus, freezing seems better than refrigeration in order to prevent lipid peroxidation in stored human milk samples.

  6. Effect of evaporation and pasteurization in the biochemical and immunological composition of human milk.

    PubMed

    Braga, Lucylea P M; Palhares, Durval B

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effects of evaporation and pasteurization of human milk on its biochemical and immunological composition and on its osmolarity. The samples of mature human milk were categorized into four study groups: in natura human milk, pasteurized human milk, human milk evaporated at 70% of the baseline volume and human milk pasteurized and evaporated at 70%, with 12 different samples of milk in each group. The samples were used to determine the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein, fat, lactose, immunoglobulin A and osmolarity. The pasteurization of human milk did not show statistically significant changes in the concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein, fat, lactose, or in osmolarity; however, it showed remarkable reduction in the mean concentration of immunoglobulin A. Evaporation had a mean increase of 38% in the concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein, fat and lactose and mean reduction of 45% in the concentration of immunoglobulin A, without significant change in osmolarity in unprocessed milk. By evaporation at 70% of the baseline value of human milk, it is possible to obtain human milk that meets the nutritional requirements recommended for preterm infants, except for calcium and phosphorus.

  7. Leptin expression in human mammary epithelial cells and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Smith-Kirwin, S M; O'Connor, D M; De Johnston, J; Lancey, E D; Hassink, S G; Funanage, V L

    1998-05-01

    Leptin has recently been shown to be produced by the human placenta and potentially plays a role in fetal and neonatal growth. Many functions of the placenta are replaced by the mammary gland in terms of providing critical growth factors for the newborn. In this study, we show that leptin is produced by human mammary epithelial cells as revealed by RT/PCR analysis of total RNA from mammary gland and immunohistochemical staining of breast tissue, cultured mammary epithelial cells, and secretory epithelial cells present in human milk. We also verify that immunoreactive leptin is present in whole milk at 30- to 150-fold higher concentrations than skim milk. We propose that leptin is secreted by mammary epithelial cells in milk fat globules, which partition into the lipid portion of breast milk.

  8. Bovine milk as a source of functional oligosaccharides for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Angela M; Barile, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that function as selective growth substrates for specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal system. Bovine milk is a potentially excellent source of commercially viable analogs of these unique molecules. However, bovine milk has a much lower concentration of these oligosaccharides than human milk, and the majority of the molecules are simpler in structure than those found in human milk. Specific structural characteristics of milk-derived oligosaccharides are crucial to their ability to selectively enrich beneficial bacteria while inhibiting or being less than ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. Thus, if bovine milk products are to provide human milk-like benefits, it is important to identify specific dairy streams that can be processed commercially and cost-effectively and that can yield specific oligosaccharide compositions that will be beneficial as new food ingredients or supplements to improve human health. Whey streams have the potential to be commercially viable sources of complex oligosaccharides that have the structural resemblance and diversity of the bioactive oligosaccharides in human milk. With further refinements to dairy stream processing techniques and functional testing to identify streams that are particularly suitable for enriching beneficial intestinal bacteria, the future of oligosaccharides isolated from dairy streams as a food category with substantiated health claims is promising.

  9. The Importance of Human Milk for Immunity in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Erin D; Richard, Caroline; Larsen, Bodil M; Field, Catherine J

    2017-03-01

    The immune system of preterm infants is immature, placing them at increased risk for serious immune-related complications. Human milk provides a variety of immune protective and immune maturation factors that are beneficial to the preterm infant's poorly developed immune system. The most studied immune components in human milk include antimicrobial proteins, maternal leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, oligosaccharides, gangliosides, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. There is growing evidence that these components contribute to the lower incidence of immune-related conditions in the preterm infant. Therefore, provision of these components in human milk, donor milk, or formula may provide immunologic benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An exclusively human milk diet reduces necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kenneth; Carroll, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that feeding an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet to premature infants reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) associated with enteral feeding. An observational study for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age was performed in a single neonatal intensive care unit. An EHM diet prospectively eliminated bovine-based artificial milk, including bovine-based fortifier, through 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). The clinical data from a 2.5-year interval of the EHM diet were compared with data from the previous 6.5 years for similar infants who received bovine-based milk products before 33 weeks PMA. In the EHM diet cohort, 148 of 162 infants (91%) received EHM through 33 weeks PMA. In order to achieve an EHM diet, 140 of 162 infants (86%) received their own mother's milk, and 98 of 162 infants (60%) received donor human milk. The EHM cohort was also fed a human milk-based fortifier to truly eliminate bovine products. The distribution of NEC onset in the EHM cohort was significantly different from that in the control cohort for the day of onset (p=0.042) and the PMA at onset (p=0.011). In the control cohort, NEC onset after Day 7 of life occurred in 15 of 443 infants (3.4%), significantly more than in the EHM cohort where NEC occurred in two of 199 infants (1%) (p=0.009). Changing to an EHM milk diet through 33 weeks PMA reduced the incidence of NEC associated with enteral feeding.

  11. Human Milk for Ill and Medically Compromised Infants: Strategies and Ongoing Innovation.

    PubMed

    DiLauro, Sara; Unger, Sharon; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The use of human milk (mother's own milk and/or donor milk) in ill or medically compromised infants frequently requires some adaptation to address medical diagnoses and/or altered nutrition requirements. This tutorial describes the nutrition and immunological benefits of breast milk as well as provides evidence for the use of donor milk when mother's own milk is unavailable. Several strategies used to modify human milk to meet the medical and nutrition needs of an ill or medically compromised infant are reviewed. These strategies include (1) the standard fortification of human milk to support adequate growth, (2) the novel concept of target fortification in preterm infants, (3) instructions on how to alter maternal diet to address cow's milk protein intolerance and/or allergy in breast milk-fed infants, and (4) the removal and modification of the fat in breast milk used in infants diagnosed with chylothorax. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Ensuring Safety in Donor Human Milk Banking in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ben T

    2017-03-01

    The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors. These risks and benefits define the clinical responsibility of DHMBS and their social responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    PubMed

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    PubMed

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (<50%; n = 34) and high (>/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed human milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  16. Necessity of human milk banking in Japan: Questionnaire survey of neonatologists.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Sakurai, Motoichiro; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    If their own mother's milk (OMM) is not available, another mother's milk may be used for extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. Human milk is a bodily fluid, however, therefore we have assumed that other mother's milk is currently seldom given to infants despite its superiority to formula. Although the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics have recommended using donor human milk (DHM) from a human milk bank (HMB) in the case that OMM is not available, there is no HMB in Japan. To assess whether other mother's milk is used for ELBW infants and whether an HMB is necessary in Japan, we surveyed neonatal intensive care units (NICU) via questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent by email to members of the Japanese Neonatologist Association who are responsible for NICU. In total, 126 completed questionnaires (70.7%) were returned and analyzed. One-fourth of NICU give other mother's milk to ELBW infants. The first choice of nutrition is OMM, but other mother's milk or formula is given to infants at 19% of NICU if OMM is unavailable. Approximately three-fourths of NICU would like an HMB. Although human milk contains contagious agents and authorities do not recommend giving other mother's milk as a substitute for OMM, other mother's milk is still a choice in NICU in Japan. Many neonatologists, however, would prefer a safer alternative, that is, DHM obtained from an accredited HMB. A well-regulated HMB should be established and safe DHM should be available for all preterm infants if necessary. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Prevalence of Use of Human Milk in US Advanced Care Neonatal Units

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all preterm infants receive human milk. The objective of this study was to describe the use of human milk in advanced care neonatal units of US maternity hospitals. METHODS: We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s national Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey from 2007, 2009, and 2011 to analyze 2 questions to describe the prevalence of US advanced care (special/level 2 or intensive/level 3) neonatal units routinely providing human milk to infants, and the use of any donor milk in these units. RESULTS: In 2011, 30.8% of maternity hospitals reported that most infants (≥90%) were routinely provided human milk in advanced care units, compared with 26.7% in 2009 and 21.2% in 2007 (trend P < .001). States in the Northwest and Northeast had a higher prevalence of hospitals routinely providing human milk to ≥90% of infants in advanced care units. In 2011, 22.0% of maternity hospitals providing advanced care used banked donor milk, compared with 14.4% in 2009 and 11.5% in 2007 (trend P < .001). Most of this increase occurred in intensive care units (25.1% 2007 vs 45.2% 2011; trend P < .001). There was substantial geographic variation in the prevalence of advanced care units using donor milk; generally the prevalence was higher in the West and in states with a milk bank in the state or a neighboring state. CONCLUSIONS: The use of human milk in US advanced care neonatal units is increasing; however, only one-third of these units are routinely providing human milk to most infants. PMID:23669517

  18. Can we define an infant's need from the composition of human milk?

    PubMed

    Stam, José; Sauer, Pieter Jj; Boehm, Günther

    2013-08-01

    Human milk is recommended as the optimal nutrient source for infants and is associated with several short- and long-term benefits for child health. When accepting that human milk is the optimal nutrition for healthy term infants, it should be possible to calculate the nutritional needs of these infants from the intake of human milk. These data can then be used to design the optimal composition of infant formulas. In this review we show that the composition of human milk is rather variable and is dependent on factors such as beginning or end of feeding, duration of lactation, diet and body composition of the mother, maternal genes, and possibly infant factors such as sex. In particular, the composition of fatty acids in human milk is quite variable. It therefore seems questionable to estimate the nutritional needs of an infant exclusively from the intake of human milk. The optimal intake for infants must be based, at least in part, on other information-eg, balance or stable-isotope studies. The present recommendation that the composition of infant formulas should be based on the composition of human milk needs revision.

  19. Branched-chain fatty acid composition of human milk and the impact of maternal diet: the Global Exploration of Human Milk (GEHM) Study1

    PubMed Central

    Dingess, Kelly A; Valentine, Christina J; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Davidson, Barbara S; Woo, Jessica G; Summer, Suzanne; Peng, Yongmei M; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; McMahon, Robert J; Brenna, J Thomas; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2017-01-01

    Background: An understudied component of the diet, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are distinctive saturated fatty acids that may have an important influence on health. Human-milk fatty acid composition is known to differ worldwide, but comparative data are lacking on BCFAs. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that concentrations of BCFAs in human milk differ between populations and are associated with maternal diet. Design: We surveyed the BCFA composition of samples collected as part of a standardized, prospective study of human-milk composition. Mothers were enrolled from 3 urban populations with differing diets: Cincinnati, Ohio; Shanghai, China; and Mexico City, Mexico. Enrollment was limited to healthy mothers of term singleton infants. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of milk from all women with samples at postpartum week 4 (n = 359; ∼120 women/site). Fatty acids were extracted from milk by using a modified Bligh-Dyer technique and analyzed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tobit regression. For Cincinnati mothers, 24-h diet recalls were analyzed in relation to the individual BCFA concentrations measured in milk samples. Results: Total BCFAs in milk differed by site, with the highest concentration in Cincinnati followed by Mexico City and Shanghai (mean ± SE: 7.90 ± 0.41, 6.10 ± 0.36, and 4.27 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, respectively; P < 0.001). Site differences persisted after delivery mode, maternal age, and body mass index were controlled for. The individual concentrations of iso-14:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0, anteiso-15:0, and anteiso-17:0 also differed between sites. Milk concentrations of iso-14:0 and anteiso-15:0 were associated with maternal intake of dairy; iso-16:0 was associated with maternal intakes of dairy and beef. Conclusions: BCFA concentrations in milk at 4 wk postpartum differed between mothers from Cincinnati, Shanghai, and Mexico City. Variations in human-milk BCFAs are influenced by diet. The

  20. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in Canadian human milk: 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Casey, Valerie A; Breton, François; Sun, Wing-Fung; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2017-10-01

    Human milk was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Maternal - Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study that was initiated to establish Canadian national estimates of maternal and infant exposure to a broad suite of environmental contaminants (e.g., persistent organic pollutants [POPs], trace elements, phthalates, etc.). Among the 1017 human milk samples collected, 298 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency concentrations (WHO TEQ 2005 ) for PCDD/F+dioxin-like (DL) PCB ranged from 2.2pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid to 27pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid. The relative contribution of PCDDs to the overall WHO TEQ 2005 (PCDD/F+DL PCB) has decreased from earlier investigations into POP levels in Canadian human milk. Significantly higher PCB concentrations were observed in milk from women born in Europe relative to those born in Canada (p<0.001), in contrast to results for the PCDD/Fs (p=0.496). Age was found to significantly impact milk ∑PCB concentrations (p=0.018), with elevated concentrations observed in milk from women >30years relative to those <30years of age. While this trend was also observed for the PCDD/Fs, this relationship was impacted by parity. WHO TEQ 2005 concentrations were significantly higher in milk from primiparous women (p=0.019) and those >30years relative to those <30years of age (p<0.001). No significant differences were associated with education level or pre-pregnancy body mass index. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations have continued to decline in Canadian human milk since the last sampling of human milk was performed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium contamination of early human milk.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, R; Paszkowski, T; Radomański, T; Szkoda, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of cadmium was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in colostrum samples obtained from 110 women on the 4th postpartum day. Detectable amounts of cadmium were found in 95% of the examined samples and the geometric mean of the determined values was 0.002 mg/kg. In 3 cases (2.7%, the examined neonates received via mother's milk an amount of cadmium exceeding the maximum daily intake level for this metal. Maternal age, parity and place of residence did not affect the determined cadmium levels of milk. Cadmium content in the early human milk of current smokers did not differ significantly from that of nonsmoking mothers.

  2. Human Milk Blocks DC-SIGN–Pathogen Interaction via MUC1

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Nathalie; Kessen, Sabine F. M.; Van Der Voorn, J. Patrick; Appelmelk, Ben J.; Jeurink, Prescilla V.; Knippels, Leon M. J.; Garssen, Johan; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of breastfeeding are well-recognized and include both immediate neonatal protection against pathogens and long-term protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. Although several proteins have been identified to have anti-viral or anti-bacterial effects like secretory IgA or lactoferrin, the mechanisms of immune modulation are not fully understood. Recent studies identified important beneficial effects of glycans in human milk, such as those expressed in oligosaccharides or on glycoproteins. Glycans are recognized by the carbohydrate receptors C-type lectins on dendritic cell (DC) and specific tissue macrophages, which exert important functions in immune modulation and immune homeostasis. A well-characterized C-type lectin is dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which binds terminal fucose. The present study shows that in human milk, MUC1 is the major milk glycoprotein that binds to the lectin domain of DC-SIGN and prevents pathogen interaction through the presence of Lewis x-type oligosaccharides. Surprisingly, this was specific for human milk, as formula, bovine or camel milk did not show any presence of proteins that interacted with DC-SIGN. The expression of DC-SIGN is found in young infants along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Our data thus suggest the importance of human milk glycoproteins for blocking pathogen interaction to DC in young children. Moreover, a potential benefit of human milk later in life in shaping the infants immune system through DC-SIGN cannot be ruled out. PMID:25821450

  3. [Satellite center of human milk: Analysis of cost reduction].

    PubMed

    Affumicato, L; Sánchez Tamayo, T; Espinosa Fernandez, M G; Peña Caballero, M; Ruiz Morcillo, C E; Acebes Tosti, R; Salguero García, E

    Donor milk is the second best alternative for a newborn after the mother's own milk, especially when the baby is a premature or a sick child since this milk has the advantage of protecting against necrotizing enterocolitis. There are currently 13 milk banks in Spain, however this is not sufficient to supply all Spanish neonatal units with donor milk. In order to bring donor milk to the babies in Neonatal Unit of the Regional University Hospital of Malaga, a Satellite Centre (CS) was created in 2012, depending on the Milk Bank of Virgen de las Nieves Hospital in Granada. Assessing the efficiency of a SC compared to an independent milk bank. A study of cost minimization is used for the analysis. The cost of the implementation of the SC is calculated and compared to the cost of the implementation of the Milk Bank of Virgen de las Nieves of Granada. Additionally, the maintenance cost per year of the 2 models is compared, taking into account the running phase from June, 2012 through August 2015 in the SC. A SC implies savings of 88,852 Euro in equipment, and 24,572 Euro per year in maintenance compared to an independent milk bank. The efficiency of the SC is due to a better use of resources. A distribution network model of donor human milk, consisting of milk banks and SC, makes it possible to equally supply human milk to premature infants with a reduced cost. Copyright © 2018 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: A Novel Pasteurization Method for Donor Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Holder pasteurization (milk held at 62.5°C for 30 minutes) is the standard treatment method for donor human milk. Although this method of pasteurization is able to inactivate most bacteria, it also inactivates important bioactive components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate ultraviolet irradiation as an alternative treatment method for donor human milk. Human milk samples were inoculated with five species of bacteria and then UV-C irradiated. Untreated and treated samples were analysed for bacterial content, bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and fatty acid profile. All five species of bacteria reacted similarly to UV-C irradiation, with higher dosages being required with increasing concentrations of total solids in the human milk sample. The decimal reduction dosage was 289±17 and 945±164 J/l for total solids of 107 and 146 g/l, respectively. No significant changes in the fatty acid profile, BSSL activity or ALP activity were observed up to the dosage required for a 5-log10 reduction of the five species of bacteria. UV-C irradiation is capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk to the requirements of milk bank guidelines with no loss of BSSL and ALP activity and no change of FA.

  6. The macronutrients in human milk change after storage in various containers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Huei; Lin, Ming-Chih

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage, freezing, and thawing, that are performed by lactating working mothers and breast milk banks. We evaluated the impact of various containers on the nutrient concentrations in human milk. A total of 42 breast milk samples from 18 healthy lactating mothers were collected. A baseline macronutrient concentration was determined for each sample. Then, the breast milk samples were divided and stored in nine different commercial milk containers. After freezing at -20°C for 2 days, the milk samples were thawed and analyzed again. A midinfrared human milk analyzer (HMA) was used to measure the protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents. There was a significant decrease in the fat content following the storage, freezing, and thawing processes, ranging from 0.27-0.30 g/dL (p=0.02), but no significant decrease in energy content (p=0.069) was noted in the nine different containers. There were statistically significant increases in protein and carbohydrate concentrations in all containers (p=0.021 and 0.001, respectively), however there were no significant differences between the containers in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, or energy contents. Human milk, when subjected to storage, freezing, and thawing processes, demonstrated a significant decrease in fat content (up to 9% reduction) in various containers. It is better for infants to receive milk directly from the mother via breastfeeding. More studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of milk storage on infant growth and development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    PubMed

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  9. Nisin-Producing Lactococcus lactis Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ribotyping, and green fluorescent protein-based nisin bioassay revealed that 6 of 20 human milk samples contained nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis bacteria. This suggests that the history of humans consuming nisin is older than the tradition of consuming fermented milk products. PMID:15294850

  10. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  11. Validation of mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient analysis of human milk.

    PubMed

    Parat, S; Groh-Wargo, S; Merlino, S; Wijers, C; Super, D M

    2017-07-01

    Human milk has considerable variation in its composition. Hence, the nutrient profile is only an estimate and can result in under- or over-estimation of the intake of preterm infants. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is an evolving technique for analyzing human milk but needs validation before use in clinical practice. Human milk samples from 35 mothers delivering at 35 weeks to term gestation were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR spectroscopy and by standard laboratory methods using Kjeldahl assay for protein, Mojonnier assay for fat and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for lactose. MIR analysis of the macronutrients in human milk correlated well with standard laboratory tests with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.997 for fat, 0.839 for protein and 0.776 for lactose. Agreement between the two methods was excellent for fat, and moderate for protein and lactose (P<0.001). This methodological paper provides evidence that MIR spectroscopy can be used to analyze macronutrient composition of human milk. Agreement between the methodologies varies by macronutrient.

  12. [Clinical impact of opening a human milk bank in a neonatal unit].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Román, S; Bustos-Lozano, G; López-Maestro, M; Rodríguez-López, J; Orbea-Gallardo, C; Samaniego-Fernández, M; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of donor human milk compared with artificial formulas have been well demonstrated; nevertheless the impact in the clinical practice of opening a human milk bank within a neonatal unit has not yet been studied. The main aim of this study was to analyze the impact on the clinical practice of opening a human milk bank in a neonatal unit to provide donor human milk for preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age. A before and after study was designed, with the intervention being the opening a human milk bank. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age born in the Hospital 12 Octubre from July to December 2005 and January to June 2008 (firsts 6 months after opening the human milk bank) were included. After opening the human milk bank, enteral feedings were started 31h before (P<.001), 100ml/kg/day were achieved 59.5h before (P<.001) and 150 ml/kg/day 52 h before (P=.002). Enteral feedings were never started LM with artificial formula, the exposure to formula in the first 15 days of life was reduced from 50% to 16.6%, and it's consumption during the first 28 days of life was significantly reduced. There was a higher consumption of own mother's milk during the hospital stay, and a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge (54% vs 40%). The availability of donor human milk has led to quicker progression with enteral feedings and earlier withdrawal of parenteral nutrition. It has reduced the exposure to artificial formulas, and has also increased the intake of own mother's milk during the hospital stay and the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan] in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Dayan, A D

    2007-01-01

    Triclosan is an established bacteriostatic compound widely used in topical and dental preparations. Its pharmacokinetics and toxicology have been extensively studied in humans and animals. It is known to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and across the skin. A recent report noted its occurrence in human breast milk and this has now been further investigated. Sixty two unselected samples of human milk from Breast Milk Banks in California and Texas have been analysed for triclosan; the concentration ranged from 0 to 2100 microg/kg lipid. A risk assessment of triclosan in human milk has been made, based on a conservative calculation of exposure of neonates and experimental toxicity test results. The broad set of reproduction toxicity tests of triclosan includes a 2-generation study in the rat, in which there was considerable exposure of dams and pups to triclosan throughout fetal development and up to sexual maturity in the F2 generation, and a further study in which pups of dosed dams were followed to weaning. They established an oral NOAEL for pups of 50 mg/kg/d. The maximum exposure of babies via breast milk calculated using very conservative additive assumptions is approximately 7.4 microg/kg/d. The 'Margin of Exposure' between the NOAEL and that calculated in breast fed babies is approximately 6760-fold. It is concluded that there is no evidence to indicate that the presence of a miniscule amount of triclosan in breast milk presents a risk to babies.

  14. Enteral Feeding with Human Milk Decreases Time to Discharge in Infants following Gastroschisis Repair.

    PubMed

    Gulack, Brian C; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Burgess, Terrance; Robinson, Sybil; Muhammad, Abdurrauf; Zhang, Angela; Davis, Adrienne; Morton, Robert; Chu, Vivian H; Arnold, Christopher J; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of enteral feeding with human milk on the time from initiation of feeds to discharge after gastroschisis repair through review of a multi-institutional database. Infants who underwent gastroschisis repair between 1997 and 2012 with data recorded in the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse were categorized into 4 groups based on the percentage of days fed human milk out of the number of days fed enterally. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to determine the adjusted effect of human milk on the time from initiation of feeds to discharge. Among 3082 infants, 659 (21%) were fed human milk on 0% of enteral feeding days, 766 (25%) were fed human milk on 1%-50% of enteral feeding days, 725 (24%) were fed human milk on 51%-99% of enteral feeding days, and 932 (30%) were fed human milk on 100% of enteral feeding days. Following adjustment, being fed human milk on 0% of enteral feeding days was associated with a significantly increased time to discharge compared with being fed human milk on 100% of enteral feeding days (hazard ratio [HR] for discharge per day, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.40-0.52). The same was found for infants fed human milk on 1%-50% of enteral feeding days (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.32-0.41) and for infants fed human milk on 51%-99% of enteral feeding days (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.46-0.57). The use of human milk for enteral feeding of infants following repair of gastroschisis significantly reduces the time to discharge from initiation of feeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants Fed Human Milk: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Beatrice E; Vohr, Betty R

    2017-03-01

    The neurodevelopmental benefits of breast milk feedings for preterm infants have been controversial. However, the effect on preterm infant neurodevelopment is sustained into childhood. The effects of breast milk feeding during the neonatal period and the duration of breastfeeding display effects on cognition into adolescence. The volume of breast milk received is a key factor in these effects. Additionally, emerging studies support the effects of human milk on structural brain development, such as increased white matter development and increased cortical thickness. The components of breast milk thought to mediate improved cognitive outcomes include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and human milk oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Linxi; Zhao, Aihua; Zhang, Yinan; Chen, Tianlu; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the components present in human breast milk (HM), research on the differences of chemical metabolites between HM, bovine milk (BM) and formula milk (FM) is limited. This study was to explore the chemical diversity of HM, BM and FM by metabolomic approaches. GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS were applied to investigate the metabolic compositions in 30 HM samples, 20 FM samples and 20 BM samples. Metabolite profiling identified that most of the non-esterified fatty acids, which reflected the hydrolysis of triglycerides, were much more abundant in HM than those in FM and BM, except for palmitic acid and stearic acid. The levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates were much higher in FM and BM than those in HM. Each type of milk also showed its unique composition of free amino acids and free carbohydrates. In conclusion, higher levels of non-esterified saturated fatty acids with aliphatic tails <16 carbons, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower levels of TCA intermediates are characteristic of HM, as compared with FM and BM. The content of non-esterified fatty acids may reflect the hydrolysis of triglycerides in different milk types. PMID:27999311

  17. Buying human milk via the internet: just a click away.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; McNamara, Kelly A; Dillon, Chelsea E; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J; Keim, Sarah A

    2013-12-01

    For past centuries, infants have been fed the milk of mothers who are not their own by latching to another woman's breast. Today, the majority of lactating women use electric pumps to extract milk from their breasts; thus, an infant now may be fed another woman's milk via a bottle or cup. The Internet is an emerging avenue to acquire pumped human milk. The purpose of our study was to participate in and describe the process of buying milk via the Internet. Our goal is to help those involved with the clinical care, research, and public health policy of mothers and infants better understand that families may be buying milk in this way. We anonymously bought 102 human milk samples via the Internet. We characterized the outside box, packing materials, milk container, temperature and condition of the milk, and cost. We bought 2,131 ounces of milk at a total cost of $8,306. Eighty-nine percent of the milk arrived above the recommended frozen temperature of -20°C; 45% of it was even above the recommended refrigerator temperature (4°C). The mean surface temperature of the milk samples in each shipment was correlated with the cost of shipping, time in transit, and condition of the milk containers. The prevalence and potential risks of this practice currently are unknown. Research related to milk quality and infant outcomes related to milk buying via the Internet is urgently needed.

  18. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor–Mediated Inflammation12

    PubMed Central

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2′-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3′-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. PMID:26773018

  19. Comparison of macronutrient contents in human milk measured using mid-infrared human milk analyser in a field study vs. chemical reference methods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Zhenyu; Ren, Yiping; Duan, Yifan; Gao, Huiyu; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Yin, Shian

    2017-01-01

    Macronutrient contents in human milk are the common basis for estimating these nutrient requirements for both infants and lactating women. A mid-infrared human milk analyser (HMA, Miris, Sweden) was recently developed for determining macronutrient levels. The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy and precision of HMA method with fresh milk samples in the field studies with chemical methods with frozen samples in the lab. Full breast milk was collected using electric pumps and fresh milk was analyzed in the field studies using HMA. All human milk samples were thawed and analyzed with chemical reference methods in the lab. The protein, fat and total solid levels were significantly correlated between the two methods and the correlation coefficient was 0.88, 0.93 and 0.78, respectively (p  <  0.001). The mean protein content was significantly lower and the mean fat level was significantly greater when measured using HMA method (1.0 g 100 mL -1 vs 1.2 g 100 mL -1 and 3. 7 g 100 mL -1 vs 3.2 g 100 mL -1 , respectively, p  <  0.001). Thus, linear recalibration could be used to improve mean estimation for both protein and fat. There was no significant correlation for lactose between the two methods (p  >  0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total solid concentration (12.2 g 100 mL -1 vs 12.3 g 100 mL -1 , p  >  0.05). Overall, HMA might be used to analyze macronutrients in fresh human milk with acceptable accuracy and precision after recalibrating fat and protein levels of field samples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Unpasteurized Shared Human Milk Use in Pediatric Inpatients: Health and Ethical Implications.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Kimberly H; Sussman-Karten, Karen; Kamin, Daniel; Huh, Susanna Y

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence supporting the health benefits of human milk, particularly in the preterm population, has led to rising demand for donor human milk in NICUs and pediatric hospitals. There are no previous reports describing the use of unpasteurized shared human milk (USHM) in the hospital setting, but the use of USHM solicited from community donors through social networks appears to be common. Many pediatric hospitals permit inpatients to receive breast milk that has been screened and pasteurized by a human milk banking organization and will provide pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) only to infants who are preterm or have specific medical conditions. These policies are designed to minimize potential adverse effects from improperly handled or screened donor milk and to target patients who would experience the greatest benefit in health outcomes with donor milk use. We explore the ethical and health implications of 2 cases of medically complex infants who did not meet criteria in our tertiary care hospital for the use of PDHM from a regulated human milk bank and were incidentally found to be using USHM. These cases raise questions about how best to balance the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and patient autonomy in the provision of PDHM, a limited resource. Health care staff should ask about USHM use to provide adequate counseling about the risks and benefits of various feeding options in the context of an infant's medical condition. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Associated morbidities to congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a relationship to human milk.

    PubMed

    Froh, Elizabeth B; Spatz, Diane L

    2012-08-01

    The majority of what is known in the recent literature regarding human milk studies in the neonatal intensive care setting is specific to term and/or preterm infants (including very-low-birth-weight preterm infants). However, there is a lack of human milk and breastfeeding literature concerning infants with congenital anomalies, specifically infants diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). By applying human milk research conducted among other populations of infants, this article highlights how human milk may have a significant impact on infants with CDH. Recent human milk studies are reviewed and then applied to the CDH population in regard to respiratory and gastrointestinal morbidities, as well as infection and length of stay. In addition, clinical implications of these relationships are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  5. Improved outcomes of feeding low birth weight infants with predominantly raw human milk versus donor banked milk and formula.

    PubMed

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the benefits of treating low birth weight infants predominantly with mother's own raw milk and early initiation of breastfeeding (raw human milk/breast-fed infants), in comparison to feeding only with donor banked milk (until the third week of life) and afterwards a preterm formula until hospital discharge (donor banked/formula-fed infants). One hundred and ninety-two predominantly raw human milk-fed infants (70% of raw and 30% of donor milk) were matched to 192 donor/formula-fed ones (on 1:1 ratio). Aggressive nutrition policy and targeted fortification of human milk were implemented in both groups. The two groups show similar demographic and perinatal characteristics. Predominantly raw milk-fed infants regained earlier their birth weight, suffered less episodes of feeding intolerance and presented a higher body length and head circumference at discharge (p < 0.001). Those treated mainly with their mothers' milk were able to initiate breastfeeding almost 2 weeks earlier compared to those fed with donor milk who achieved to be bottle-fed later on post-conceptual age (p < 0.001). Infants being breastfed until the 8th month of life conducted less visits for a viral infection to a pediatrician compared to those in the other group (p < 0.001). Feeding predominantly with mother's raw milk seems to result in optimal neonatal outcomes.

  6. Human Milk and Matched Serum Demonstrate Concentration of Select miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wenyi; Dasgupta, Santanu; Corradi, John; Sauter, Edward R

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancers (PABCs), especially those diagnosed after childbirth, are often aggressive, with a poor prognosis. Factors influencing PABC are largely unknown. Micro(mi)RNAs are present in many human body fluids and shown to influence cancer development and/or growth. In six nursing mothers, we determined if breast cancer-associated miRNAs were (1) detectable in human breast milk and (2) if detectable, their relative expression in milk fractions compared to matched serum. We evaluated by quantitative PCR the expression of 11 cancer-associated miRNAs (10a-5p, 16, 21, 100, 140, 145, 155, 181, 199, 205, 212) in breast milk cells, fat and supernatant (skim milk), and matched serum. miRNA expression was detectable in all samples. For 10/11 miRNAs, mean relative expression compared to control (ΔCt) values was lowest in milk cells, the exception being miR205. Relative concentration was highest in the skim fraction of milk for all miRNAs. Expression was higher in skim milk than matched serum for 7/11 miRNAs and in serum for 4/11 miRNAs. miR205 expression was higher in all milk fractions than in matched serum. In conclusion, the expression of breast cancer-associated miRNAs is detectable in human breast milk and serum samples. The concentration is highest in skim milk, but is also detectable in milk fat and milk cells.

  7. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  8. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: A Novel Pasteurization Method for Donor Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Holder pasteurization (milk held at 62.5°C for 30 minutes) is the standard treatment method for donor human milk. Although this method of pasteurization is able to inactivate most bacteria, it also inactivates important bioactive components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate ultraviolet irradiation as an alternative treatment method for donor human milk. Methods Human milk samples were inoculated with five species of bacteria and then UV-C irradiated. Untreated and treated samples were analysed for bacterial content, bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and fatty acid profile. Results All five species of bacteria reacted similarly to UV-C irradiation, with higher dosages being required with increasing concentrations of total solids in the human milk sample. The decimal reduction dosage was 289±17 and 945±164 J/l for total solids of 107 and 146 g/l, respectively. No significant changes in the fatty acid profile, BSSL activity or ALP activity were observed up to the dosage required for a 5-log10 reduction of the five species of bacteria. Conclusion UV-C irradiation is capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk to the requirements of milk bank guidelines with no loss of BSSL and ALP activity and no change of FA. PMID:23840820

  9. Human milk for preterm infants: why, what, when and how?

    PubMed

    Menon, Gopi; Williams, Thomas C

    2013-11-01

    A mother's expressed breast milk (MEBM) is overall the best feed for her preterm baby during the neonatal period, and is associated with improved short-term and long-term outcomes. Neonatal services should commit the resources needed to optimise its use. The place of banked donor expressed breast milk (DEBM) is less clear, but it probably has a role in reducing the risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants at particularly high risk. There is considerable variation in the composition of human milk and nutrient fortification is often needed to achieve intrauterine growth rates. Human milk can transmit potentially harmful micro-organisms, and pasteurisation, which denatures some of the bioactive factors, is the only known way of preventing this. This is carried out for DEBM but not MEBM in the UK. Future research on human milk should focus on (a) critical exposure periods, (b) understanding better its bioactive properties, (c) the role of DEBM and (d) nutritional quality assurance.

  10. Establishment of an evaluation model for human milk fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Hua; Mai, Qing-Yun; Qin, Xiao-Li; Yang, Bo; Wang, Zi-Lian; Chen, Hai-Tian

    2010-01-13

    Fatty acid composition and distribution of human milk fat (HMF), from mothers over different lactating periods in Guangzhou, China, were analyzed. The universal characteristics were consistent with previously reported results although the fatty acid content was within a different range and dependent on the local population (low saturated fatty acid and high oleic acid for Guangdong mothers' milk fat). Based on the composition of the total and sn-2 fatty acids of mature milk fat, an efficient evaluation model was innovatively established by adopting the "deducting score" principle. The model showed good agreement between the scores and the degree of similarity by assessing 15 samples from different sources including four samples of HMF, eight samples of human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs) and infant formulas, and three samples of fats and oils. This study would allow for the devolvement of individual human milk fat substitutes with different and specific fatty acid compositions for local infants.

  11. Buying Human Milk via the Internet: Just a Click Away

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly A.; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Joseph S.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: For past centuries, infants have been fed the milk of mothers who are not their own by latching to another woman's breast. Today, the majority of lactating women use electric pumps to extract milk from their breasts; thus, an infant now may be fed another woman's milk via a bottle or cup. The Internet is an emerging avenue to acquire pumped human milk. The purpose of our study was to participate in and describe the process of buying milk via the Internet. Our goal is to help those involved with the clinical care, research, and public health policy of mothers and infants better understand that families may be buying milk in this way. Subjects and Methods: We anonymously bought 102 human milk samples via the Internet. We characterized the outside box, packing materials, milk container, temperature and condition of the milk, and cost. Results: We bought 2,131 ounces of milk at a total cost of $8,306. Eighty-nine percent of the milk arrived above the recommended frozen temperature of −20°C; 45% of it was even above the recommended refrigerator temperature (4°C). The mean surface temperature of the milk samples in each shipment was correlated with the cost of shipping, time in transit, and condition of the milk containers. Conclusions: The prevalence and potential risks of this practice currently are unknown. Research related to milk quality and infant outcomes related to milk buying via the Internet is urgently needed. PMID:23971685

  12. Consumption of human milk glycoconjugates by infant-associated bifidobacteria: mechanisms and implications

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Daniel; Dallas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a rich source of nutrients and energy, shaped by mammalian evolution to provide all the nutritive requirements of the newborn. In addition, several molecules in breast milk act as bioactive agents, playing an important role in infant protection and guiding a proper development. While major breast milk nutrients such as lactose, lipids and proteins are readily digested and consumed by the infant, other molecules, such as human milk oligosaccharides and glycosylated proteins and lipids, can escape intestinal digestion and transit through the gastrointestinal tract. In this environment, these molecules guide the composition of the developing infant intestinal microbiota by preventing the colonization of enteric pathogens and providing carbon and nitrogen sources for other colonic commensals. Only a few bacteria, in particular Bifidobacterium species, can gain access to the energetic content of milk as it is displayed in the colon, probably contributing to their predominance in the intestinal microbiota in the first year of life. Bifidobacteria deploy exquisite molecular mechanisms to utilize human milk oligosaccharides, and recent evidence indicates that their activities also target other human milk glycoconjugates. Here, we review advances in our understanding of how these microbes have been shaped by breast milk components and the strategies associated with their consumption of milk glycoconjugates. PMID:23460033

  13. Quantification of total cholesterol in human milk by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beggio, Maurizio; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Golay, Pierre-Alain; Lee, Le Ye; Giuffrida, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Human milk provides the key nutrients necessary for infant growth and development. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a method to analyze the cholesterol content in liquid human milk samples along lactation. Direct saponification of the sample using ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution under cold conditions was applied and unsaponifiable matter was separated by centrifugation. Cholesterol was converted into its trimethylsilyl ether and the derivative analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Cholesterol was quantified using epicoprostanol as internal standard. The method is suitable for the determination of cholesterol in only 0.3 g of human milk. It has been validated showing good repeatability (CV(r) < 15%) and intermediate reproducibility (CV(iR) < 15%). The method was used to analyze human milk obtained from five mothers collected at day 30(±3), 60 (±3) and 120 (±3) after delivery. The cholesterol content in human milk slightly decreased from 13.1 mg/100 g at 1 month to 11.3 mg/100 g 120 days after delivery. The method can also be used to determine desmosterol, an intermediate in cholesterol synthesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk-derived Extracellular Vesicles Unveils a Novel Functional Proteome Distinct from Other Milk Components*

    PubMed Central

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J.C.; Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte – 't Hoen, Esther N.M.; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Maarten Altelaar, A.F.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Wauben, Marca H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Because of the difficulty in separating EV from other milk components, an in-depth analysis of the proteome of human milk-derived EV is lacking. In this study, an extensive LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed of EV that had been purified from breast milk of seven individual donors using a recently established, optimized density-gradient-based EV isolation protocol. A total of 1963 proteins were identified in milk-derived EV, including EV-associated proteins like CD9, Annexin A5, and Flotillin-1, with a remarkable overlap between the different donors. Interestingly, 198 of the identified proteins are not present in the human EV database Vesiclepedia, indicating that milk-derived EV harbor proteins not yet identified in EV of different origin. Similarly, the proteome of milk-derived EV was compared with that of other milk components. For this, data from 38 published milk proteomic studies were combined in order to construct the total milk proteome, which consists of 2698 unique proteins. Remarkably, 633 proteins identified in milk-derived EV have not yet been identified in human milk to date. Interestingly, these novel proteins include proteins involved in regulation of cell growth and controlling inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that milk-derived EVs could support the newborn's developing gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Overall, this study provides an expansion of

  15. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk-derived Extracellular Vesicles Unveils a Novel Functional Proteome Distinct from Other Milk Components.

    PubMed

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Maarten Altelaar, A F; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-11-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Because of the difficulty in separating EV from other milk components, an in-depth analysis of the proteome of human milk-derived EV is lacking. In this study, an extensive LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed of EV that had been purified from breast milk of seven individual donors using a recently established, optimized density-gradient-based EV isolation protocol. A total of 1963 proteins were identified in milk-derived EV, including EV-associated proteins like CD9, Annexin A5, and Flotillin-1, with a remarkable overlap between the different donors. Interestingly, 198 of the identified proteins are not present in the human EV database Vesiclepedia, indicating that milk-derived EV harbor proteins not yet identified in EV of different origin. Similarly, the proteome of milk-derived EV was compared with that of other milk components. For this, data from 38 published milk proteomic studies were combined in order to construct the total milk proteome, which consists of 2698 unique proteins. Remarkably, 633 proteins identified in milk-derived EV have not yet been identified in human milk to date. Interestingly, these novel proteins include proteins involved in regulation of cell growth and controlling inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that milk-derived EVs could support the newborn's developing gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Overall, this study provides an expansion of

  16. Dietary intake and human milk residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in two Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxin; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Lu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xuejun; Wong, Minghung

    2009-07-01

    Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs, including alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and delta-HCH) in human milk of two populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China were studied. In addition to human milk samples from 76 women, 271 composite food samples covering major food categories were also collected for HCH analysis. The food consumption and social-demographic characteristics of the studied populations were investigated and dietary intakes of HCHs of the milk donors on an individual basis were calculated. The dependences of HCH concentration in the human milk on food consumption, dietary intake of HCHs, and demographic characteristics were studied. It was found that beta-HCH dominated the HCHs detected in the human milk. Although there were dramatic declines in HCHs in the human milk compared to historical data, the current levels (312 +/- 377 ng/g fat and 360 +/- 235 ng/g fat as the means and standard deviations for Beijing and Shenyang, respectively) were still much higher than those reported in other cities within China and around the world. It was revealed that the residual level of HCHs in the human milk was positively correlated (p < 0.001) to the quantities of food consumption. Milk, oil, vegetables, and fruits contributed a large portion of HCHs intake in Beijing, while cereals, milk, vegetables, oil, and meat were the most important dietary intake sources of HCHs in Shenyang. Both daily dietary intake of HCHs (p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI, body weight divided by the squared height) (p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with human milk HCHs. A nonlinear model was developed to predict the residues of HCHs in human milk using both dietary intake and BMI as independent variables. Potential risk of the HCH exposure of breastfed infants is discussed.

  17. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. [Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk].

    PubMed

    Lukoyanova, O L; Borovik, T E

    The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

  19. Eosinophil cationic protein in human milk is associated with development of cow's milk allergy and atopic eczema in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Osterlund, Pamela; Smedberg, Tanja; Hakulinen, Arja; Heikkilä, Hannele; Järvinen, Kirsi-Marjut

    2004-02-01

    The precise role of leukocytes and mediators in human milk is still unresolved. Eosinophils are uncommonly detected in human milk and their presence has previously been associated with maternal atopy and development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in human milk and to compare the levels with development of allergic diseases in breast-fed infants. Altogether 94 breast-feeding mothers (58 atopic, 36 nonatopic) with their babies were prospectively followed from birth for development of CMA or atopic dermatitis. Colostrum and mature milk samples (at 3 mo of lactation), together with mother's peripheral blood samples, were collected. Milk and blood leukocyte content was evaluated with a light microscope. ECP concentration in human milk was measured by commercial UniCAP method. By the end of a 2-y follow-up, 51 mothers had an infant with CMA, 24 had an infant with atopic dermatitis, and 19 had a healthy infant. ECP concentration in milk was under the detection limit (2 microg/L) in all the mothers with a healthy infant, whereas detectable levels were found in 27% of mothers with a CMA infant and in 42% of those with a baby with atopic dermatitis. Measurable ECP in milk was detected in 26% of the atopic and 25% of the nonatopic mothers. Presence of ECP in human milk is associated with development of CMA and atopic dermatitis in the breast-fed infant, but has no direct association with the maternal atopy.

  20. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  1. A mixed-methods observational study of human milk sharing communities on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Allen, Jonathan C; Fogleman, April

    2014-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration discourages the casual sharing of human milk because of the risk of pathogen transmission. No information is currently available on the prevalence of this practice. The purpose of this mixed-methods observational study is to describe the size and activity of online milk sharing communities. Data for 3 months were extracted from nine public Facebook pages that facilitate the exchange of human milk. The numbers of participants, interactions, and comments were analyzed. We observed 954 individuals participating in milk sharing. The number of interactions per individual ranged from none to 16 (mean, 1.74 ± 1.65). Top reasons that participants requested milk included "lactation problems" (69.4%) and "child health problems" (48.5%). Nearly half of donors were offering 100 ounces or more, which is the minimum to be eligible to donate to nonprofit milk banks. Milk sharing networks in the United States are active, with thousands of individuals participating in the direct exchange of raw human milk. Public health issues include increasing the supply of pasteurized donor milk for fragile infants, increasing breastfeeding support, and helping milk sharing families appropriately manage risks.

  2. Human Milk Plasmalogens Are Highly Enriched in Long-Chain PUFAs.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, Sara; Dyer, Roger A; Keller, Bernd O; Elango, Rajavel; Innis, Sheila M

    2016-11-01

    Human milk contains unique glycerophospholipids, including ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens (Pls-PEs) in the milk fat globule membrane, which have been implicated in infant brain development. Brain Pls-PEs accumulate postnatally and are enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid (FA) composition of Pls-PEs in milk is poorly understood because of the analytical challenges in separating Pls-PEs from other phospholipids in the predominating presence of triacylglycerols. The variability of Pls-PE FAs and the potential role of maternal diet remain unknown. Our primary objectives were to establish improved methodology for extracting Pls-PEs from human milk, enabling FA analysis, and to compare FA composition between Pls-PEs and 2 major milk phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Our secondary objective was to explore associations between maternal DHA intake and DHA in milk phospholipids and variability in phospholipid-DHA within a woman. Mature milk was collected from 25 women, with 4 providing 3 milk samples on 3 separate days. Lipids were extracted, and phospholipids were removed by solid phase extraction. Pls-PEs were separated by using normal-phase HPLC, recovered and analyzed for FAs by GLC. Diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Pls-PE concentration in human milk was significantly higher in LC-PUFAs than phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, including arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA. The mean ± SD concentration of AAs in Pls-PEs was ∼2.5-fold higher than in phosphatidylethanolamine (10.5 ± 1.71 and 3.82 ± 0.92 g/100 g, respectively). DHA in Pls-PEs varied across women (0.95-6.51 g/100 g), likely independent of maternal DHA intake. Pls-PE DHA also varied within a woman across days (CV ranged from 9.8% to 28%). Human milk provides the infant with LC-PUFAs from multiple lipid pools, including a source from Pls-PEs. The

  3. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  4. Effect of Human Milk and its Components on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Allison, L M; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Yang, Z; Eckert, G; Gregory, R L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of human breast milk and its components on the nutritional aspect of the caries process due to Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm formation. Human breast milk was collected from 11 mothers during 3-9 months postpartum. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, a 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with dilutions of human breast milk and several major components of human breast milk, lactose, lactoferrin, IgA, and bovine casein in sterile 96-well flat bottom microtiter plates for 24 hours. The biofilms were fixed, washed, stained with crystal violet, and extracted. Absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth mass. Dilutions 1:10-1:2,560 of the human breast milk samples increased biofilm formation by 1.5-3.8 fold compared to the control. Lactoferrin decreased biofilm formation significantly in all dilutions (average milk concentration of 3 mg/ml). Lactose had no effect at average breast milk concentrations (60 mg/ml) except at its lowest concentration (15 mg/ml) where it was increased. IgA significantly decreased biofilm formation at its highest concentration of 2,400 μg/ml (average milk concentration 600 μg/ml). Casein caused significantly increased biofilm formation at all concentrations tested above the average milk content (2.3 mg/ml). The results of this study demonstrate an increase in S. mutans biofilm formation by human breast milk 3-9 months post partum. Among its major components, only casein significantly increased biofilm formation among the concentrations analyzed. Lactose had no effect except at 15 mg/ml. Lactoferrin and IgA significantly decreased S. mutans biofilm formation at their highest concentrations. This information expands the current knowledge regarding the nutritional influence of breastfeeding and validates the necessity to begin an oral hygiene regimen once the first tooth erupts.

  5. A Liberation Health Approach to Examining Challenges and Facilitators of Peer-to-Peer Human Milk Sharing.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Rebecca J; Karandikar, Sharvari

    2018-04-01

    Human milk sharing between peers is a common and growing practice. Although human milk has been unequivocally established as the ideal food source for infants, much stigma surrounds the practice of human milk sharing. Furthermore, there is little research examining peer-to-peer human milk sharing. Research Aim: We used the liberation health social work model to examine the experiences of mothers who have received donated human milk from a peer. Research questions were as follows: (a) What challenges do recipient mothers experience in peer-to-peer human milk sharing? (b) What supports do recipient mothers identify in peer-to-peer human milk sharing? Researchers conducted in-depth interviews with mothers ( N = 20) in the United States and Canada who were recipients of peer-to-peer human milk sharing. Researchers independently reviewed transcripts and completed open, axial, and selective coding. The authors discussed conflicts in theme identification until agreement was reached. Challenges to peer-to-peer human milk sharing were (a) substantial effort required to secure human milk; (b) institutional barriers; (c) milk bank specific barriers; and (d) lack of societal awareness and acceptance of human milk sharing. Facilitators included (a) informed decision making and transparency and (b) support from healthcare professionals. Despite risks and barriers, participants continued to pursue peer-to-peer human milk sharing. Informed by a liberation health framework, healthcare professionals-rather than universally discouraging human milk sharing between peers-should facilitate open dialogue with parents about the pros and cons of this practice and about screening recommendations to promote safety and mitigate risk.

  6. Bovine Milk as a Source of Functional Oligosaccharides for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; Barile, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that function as selective growth substrates for specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal system. Bovine milk is a potentially excellent source of commercially viable analogs of these unique molecules. However, bovine milk has a much lower concentration of these oligosaccharides than human milk, and the majority of the molecules are simpler in structure than those found in human milk. Specific structural characteristics of milk-derived oligosaccharides are crucial to their ability to selectively enrich beneficial bacteria while inhibiting or being less than ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. Thus, if bovine milk products are to provide human milk–like benefits, it is important to identify specific dairy streams that can be processed commercially and cost-effectively and that can yield specific oligosaccharide compositions that will be beneficial as new food ingredients or supplements to improve human health. Whey streams have the potential to be commercially viable sources of complex oligosaccharides that have the structural resemblance and diversity of the bioactive oligosaccharides in human milk. With further refinements to dairy stream processing techniques and functional testing to identify streams that are particularly suitable for enriching beneficial intestinal bacteria, the future of oligosaccharides isolated from dairy streams as a food category with substantiated health claims is promising. PMID:22332060

  7. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  8. Cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors in human milk: the 1997 update.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, R P; Goldman, A S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted over the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breast-feeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult due to its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. Nevertheless, a host of bioactive substances including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of the immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk over the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system.

  9. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Schanler, Richard J; Blanco, Cynthia L; Sullivan, Sandra; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Dudell, Golde; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Lucas, Alan; Abrams, Steven

    2013-12-01

    To compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human milk. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. The authors studied extremely preterm infants whose mothers did not provide their milk. Infants were fed either BOV or an exclusive human milk diet of pasteurized donor human milk and HUM. The major outcome was duration of parenteral nutrition. Secondary outcomes were growth, respiratory support, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Birth weight (983 vs 996 g) and gestational age (27.5 vs 27.7 wk), in BOV and HUM, respectively, were similar. There was a significant difference in median parenteral nutrition days: 36 vs 27, in BOV vs HUM, respectively (P = .04). The incidence of NEC in BOV was 21% (5 cases) vs 3% in HUM (1 case), P = .08; surgical NEC was significantly higher in BOV (4 cases) than HUM (0 cases), P = .04. In extremely preterm infants given exclusive diets of preterm formula vs human milk, there was a significantly greater duration of parenteral nutrition and higher rate of surgical NEC in infants receiving preterm formula. This trial supports the use of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid composition analysis of milk fats from different mammalian species: potential for use as human milk fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Yuanfa; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2013-07-24

    The lipid compositions of commercial milks from cow, buffalo, donkey, sheep, and camel were compared with that of human milk fat (HMF) based on total and sn-2 fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid, and phospholipid fatty acid compositions and melting and crystallization profiles, and their degrees of similarity were digitized and differentiated by an evaluation model. The results showed that these milk fats had high degrees of similarity to HMF in total fatty acid composition. However, the degrees of similarity in other chemical aspects were low, indicating that these milk fats did not meet the requirements of human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs). However, an economically feasible solution to make these milks useful as raw materials for infant formula production could be to modify these fats, and a possible method is blending of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) enriched fats and minor lipids based on the corresponding chemical compositions of HMF.

  11. Structures and application of oligosaccharides in human milk.

    PubMed

    Kobata, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Comparative study of the oligosaccharide profiles of individual human milk revealed the presence of three different patterns. Four oligosaccharides containing the Fucalpha1-2Gal group were missing in the milk of non-secretor, and three oligosaccharides containing the Fucalpha1-4GlcNAc group were missing in the milk of Lewis negative individuals. Disappearance of some major oligosaccharides in these samples led to the finding of five novel minor oligosaccharides, which were hidden under the missing oligosaccharides. Following these studies, structures of many novel milk oligosaccharides were elucidated. At least 13 core oligosaccharides were found in these oligosaccharides. By adding alpha-fucosyl residues and sialic acid residues to these core oligosaccharides, more than one hundred oligosaccharides were formed. All these oligosaccharides contain lactose at their reducing termini. This evidence, together with the deletion phenomena found in the milk oligosaccharides of non-secretor and Lewis negative individuals, suggested that the oligosaccharides are formed from lactose by the concerted action of glycosyltransferases, which are responsible for elongation and branching of the Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the surface of epithelial cells. Therefore, oligosaccharides in human milk could include many structures, starting from the Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of various glycoconjugates. Many lines of evidence recently indicated that virulent enteric bacteria and viruses start their infection by binding to particular sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the target cell surfaces. Therefore, milk oligosaccharides could be useful for developing drugs, which inhibit the infection of bacteria and viruses.

  12. Determination of Hyaluronan Molecular Mass Distribution in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; De La Motte, Carol A.; Cowman, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection, via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size-specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from twenty unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employingion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size, and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M ≤ 20 kDa, M ≈20-60 kDa, and M ≈ 60-110 kDa comprised an average of 1.5%, 1.4% and 2% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M≥110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from thirteen samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of ∼440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low M HA components. PMID:25579786

  13. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  14. Human Milk Processing: A Systematic Review of Innovative Techniques to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Donor Milk.

    PubMed

    Peila, Chiara; Emmerik, Nikki E; Giribaldi, Marzia; Stahl, Bernd; Ruitenberg, Joost E; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 minutes (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and nonthermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using Medline, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CAB Abstracts, with no restriction in publication date was performed. Search terms included: human, breast, donor, or banked milk, breastmilk, breast fed, breastfed, breastfeed; HTST, Flash, High Pressure, UV, ultrasonic or nonthermal; process, pasteuris, pasteuriz. Only primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, providing or not a comparison with holder pasteurized human milk, provided that the pasteurization technique was clearly described, and not intended for domestic use. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant. Two examined both High Pressure Processing and High-Temperature-Short-Time pasteurization; 10 only examined High Pressure Processing; 10 only examined High-Temperature-Short-Time; 2 articles examined ultraviolet irradiation; 2 articles examined (thermo-)ultrasonic processing. The results indicate that data about safety for microbiological control are still scarce for most of the novel technologies, and that consensus on processing conditions is necessary for nonthermal technologies, before any conclusions on the qualitative and nutritional advantages of these techniques can be drawn.

  15. Direct quantification of fatty acids in human milk by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Goeuriot, Sebastien; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2013-04-05

    Human milk provides the key nutrients necessary for the infants' growth and development. The fatty acid composition of human milk has been extensively studied over the last 20 years and the results obtained by analyzing the fatty acid profile followed by lipid extraction and expressing data as g per 100g of fatty acids. The main drawback is that normalizing data set does not give any information on the amount of fatty acid mother's milk and therefore the level of intake by the infant. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a direct method to analyze the fatty acid content in liquid human milk samples. Hydrochloric acid in a solution of methanol was selected as the catalyst and methyl undecanoate (11:0) as the internal standard together with tritridecanoin (13:0 TAG) to monitor transesterification performance. The separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was performed using a 100 m highly polar capillary column and a certified calibration mixture used to calculate experimental response factors. The method is suitable to quantify fatty acids in human milk from a 250 μL sample and allow expression of the data in mg of fatty acids per deciliter of human milk as well as weight % of fatty acids. The method has been validated and show a good repeatability [CV(r)<15% and CV(r)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ] and a good intermediate reproducibility [CV(iR)<15% and CV(iR)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ]. The method was applied to analyze human milk samples obtained from 50 mothers 4 weeks post partum and the data are provided in absolute and relative quantity. These results show that the inter-individual variability of the fatty acid content in human milk is of prime importance and such information cannot be captured with normalized data sets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Downey, Eimear; O’Mahony, James A.; O’Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C. Anthony; Kelly, Alan L.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5–7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. PMID:27213440

  17. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Downey, Eimear; O'Mahony, James A; O'Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C Anthony; Kelly, Alan L; Bertram, Hanne C

    2016-05-19

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5-7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery.

  18. Human milk antibacterial factors: the effect of temperature on defense systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Allen, J C

    2001-01-01

    Bovine milk will eventually spoil at refrigeration temperatures, but endogenous or exogenous pathogenic or spoilage bacteria in human milk stored for delayed feeding will die. We investigated the mechanism for these antibacterial properties and their response to high-tempertature, short-time (HTST, 72 degrees C-75 degrees C, 15 sec) and low-temperature long-time (LTLT, 65 degrees C, 30 min) pasteurization. Nonpathogenic Listeria innocua (10(6) cfu/mL) was inoculated into raw and processed bovine and human milk; bacterial plate counts twice weekly determined antibacterial activities. Up to 99% of L. innocua were killed and further growth was inhibited in raw and pasteurized human milk for at least 60 days at 4 degrees C. Reactive IgA antibodies against Listeria antigens were demonstrated by enzyme immunoassay in some human milk samples; sIgA activity against Escherichia coli O antigens was significantly decreased by heat treatments (raw, 1.8; HTST, 1.1; LTLT, 1.3 activity units). Adding human lactoferrin (0.5-20 mg/mL) to the Listeria inoculum (approximately 10(7) cfu/mL) in 1% peptone water did not inhibit bacterial growth.

  19. Human milk as a protective factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinglan; Zhang, Li; Tang, Jun; Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi; Xiong, Tao; Mu, Dezhi

    2018-06-15

    To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study. A total of 17 cohort studies and 5 RCTs involving 8661 preterm infants met our inclusion criteria. The ORs and 95% CIs of six groups were as follows: 0.78 (0.68 to 0.88) for exclusive human milk versus exclusive formula group, 0.77 (0.68 to 0.87) for exclusive human milk versus mainly formula group, 0.76 (0.68 to 0.87) for exclusive human milk versus any formula group, 0.78 (0.68 to 0.88) for mainly human milk versus exclusive formula group, 0.83 (0.69 to 0.99) for mainly human milk versus mainly formula group and 0.82 (0.73 to 0.93) for any human milk versus exclusive formula group. Notably, subgroup of RCT alone showed a trend towards protective effect of human milk on BPD but no statistical significance. Both exclusive human milk feeding and partial human milk feeding appear to be associated with lower risk of BPD in preterm infants. The quality of evidence is low. Therefore, more RCTs of this topic are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Human breast milk immunology: a review.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, K; Michie, C; Opara, E; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been shown to enhance the development of the immune system of the newborn as well as provide protection against enteric and respiratory infections. It has been suggested that implementation of breast feeding programs has the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. Human milk is a bodily fluid which, apart from being an excellent nutritional source for the growing infant, also contains a variety of immune components such as antibodies, growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial compounds, and specific immune cells. These help to support the immature immune system of the newborn baby, and protect it against infectious risks during the postnatal period while its own immune system matures. This article reviews some of the factors in human breast milk that give it these important properties.

  1. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.; Cappellini, E.; Fischer, R.; Trachsel, C.; Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, N.; Craig, O. E.; Swallow, D. M.; Fotakis, A.; Christensen, R. J.; Olsen, J. V.; Liebert, A.; Montalva, N.; Fiddyment, S.; Charlton, S.; Mackie, M.; Canci, A.; Bouwman, A.; Rühli, F.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Collins, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15th century CE. PMID:25429530

  2. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    PubMed

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-11-27

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE.

  3. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  4. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    PubMed

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the alterations caused by nutrient deficiency can be reverted by adequate nutritional repletion. To perform comparative studies between human and cow milks in order to evaluate the impact of both milks on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells affected in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein free diet for 21 days. Malnourished mice received cow or human milk (CM or HM) for 7 or 14 consecutive days. During the period of administration of milk, the mice consumed the protein free diet ad libitum. The malnourished control (MNC) group received only protein free diet whereas the wellnourished control (WNC) mice consumed the balanced conventional diet. Both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. Human milk was less effective than cow milk to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, human milk was more effective than cow milk to increase the number of leukocytes (WNC: 6.90 ± 1.60a; MNC: 2.80 ± 0.90b; CM 7d: 3.74 ± 1.10b; HM 7d: 7.16 ± 1.90a; CM 14d: 4.35 ± 1.20b; HM 14d: 6.75 ± 1.20a (109/L); p < 0.05) and lymphocytes (WNC: 5.80 ± 0.36a; MNC: 1.80 ± 0.40b; CM 7d: 2.50 ± 0.30b; HM 7d: 4.20 ± 0.50c; CM 14d: 3.30 ± 0.31d; HM 14d: 4.70 ± 0.28c (109/L); p < 0.05) in peripheral blood. Both milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only human milk normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Human milk banking and milk kinship: Perspectives of mothers in a Muslim country.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ramazan; Ak, Muharrem; Ozer, Ali; Dogan, Derya Gumus; Elkiran, Ozlem

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and views of mothers regarding infant feeding, breast milk, wet-nursing, milk kinship and human milk banks. This descriptive cross-sectional study was composed of 1042 mothers who delivered at two different hospitals in Turkey. Almost half of the participating mothers, 49.9%, agreed with the establishment of alternative HMBs in Turkey. Only 7.7% of the mothers in this study expressed views in favour of the establishment of Western-style HMBs. Approximately half of the mothers (42.4%) indicated that they were against the establishment of any kind of HMBs in Turkey. Only 9.2% of the mothers in this study stated that they would volunteer to donate their breast milk to the Western-style HMBs, and only 6.9% of the mothers approved obtaining milk from this type of HMB. Finally, 44.2% of the mothers stated that they would donate their breast milk to the alternative HMBs, and 31.9% of the mothers approved obtaining milk from this type of HMB. This is the first study conducted among mothers in a Muslim community about issues such as infant feeding, breast milk, wet-nursing, milk kinship and HMBs. The majority of the mothers in this study are against the establishment of Western-style HMBs, whereas they have a more positive response to an alternative HMB when their religious concerns are relieved. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-12-15

    This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of freezing on the bactericidal activity of human milk.

    PubMed

    Takci, Sahin; Gulmez, Dolunay; Yigit, Sule; Dogan, Ozlem; Dik, Kezban; Hascelik, Gulsen

    2012-08-01

    Storage of human milk by freezing has been recommended for long-term storage. The present study analyzed the bactericidal activity of human milk on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determined the changes in bactericidal activity following freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month and 3 months. Forty-eight milk samples were collected from 48 lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into 10 aliquots. Two of the samples were processed immediately and the others were stored at both -20°C and -80°C until analysis after 1 month and 3 months of freezing. All of the fresh milk samples showed bactericidal activity against E coli and P aeruginosa. Freezing at -20°C for 1 month did not cause statistically significant alteration in bactericidal activity (P > 0.017), whereas storage for 3 months lowered the degree of bactericidal activity significantly (P < 0.017) against E coli. Bactericidal activity was protected when the samples were stored at -80°C. There was no statistically significant difference in the bactericidal activity of human milk against E coli between freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month (P > 0.017); however, when milk was stored for 3 months, -80°C was significantly more protective (P < 0.017). Freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month and 3 months did not cause any significant change in bactericidal activity against P aeruginosa (P > 0.05). Storage by freezing at -80°C is more appropriate to keep bactericidal capacity of stored human milk >1 month if affordable and available, especially in intensive care settings.

  8. Human milk use in Australian hospitals, 1949-1985.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Virginia

    2012-07-01

    This paper will draw mainly on the experiences of fourteen women to explore the use of expressed human milk by hospitals in Australia from the postwar period through to 1985. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of common practices before the decline of human milk banking and other uses of expressed breastmilk in Australian hospitals, thus providing a source for future comparison against the more rigorous, uniform practices being instituted in the new milk banks of the early-21st century. The ten mothers included were a convenience sample drawn from the author's networks, with recruitment continuing till a range of hospital types and a majority of states were included. Three of the mothers also had experience as trainee midwives and midwives, and four midwives contributed their experiences as staff members, only. The hospitals ranged from large teaching hospitals to small private hospitals and were in metropolitan, regional and country locations. The practices included routine expression and expression for specific purposes, whether for the mother's own baby or to donate. Some hospitals pooled the donor milk for premature or sick babies.

  9. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Lois DW

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults. PMID:17164001

  10. Human-Based Human Milk Fortifier as Rescue Therapy in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Demonstrating Intolerance to Bovine-Based Human Milk Fortifier.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amanjot; Fast, Sharla; Bonnar, Kari; Baier, Ronald John; Narvey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To describe the results of utilizing a human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMHMF) as rescue therapy to meet nutritional requirements in very low birth weight and preterm infants demonstrating feeding intolerance to bovine-based human milk fortifier (BHMF) in the Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting. At two Level III NICUs in Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a rescue protocol was implemented to provide HMHMF for infants demonstrating intolerance to BHMF. To qualify for rescue, infants were required to experience two episodes of significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with fortification with BHMF. A case series report was conducted retrospectively examining the success of rescue therapy, growth rates, protein, and calorie intakes before and after initiation of HMHMF in seven infants. Seven infants (birth weight 723 ± 247 g, gestation 25.3 ± 3.4 weeks) were treated with rescue fortification with HMHMF. All infants were transitioned off parenteral nutrition (PN) without relapse of GI symptoms. Growth rate, protein, and calorie intakes improved with the use of HMHMF. Very low birth weight and preterm infants with GI intolerance to BHMF were successfully rescued with use of HMHMF. Improvements in growth were achieved without need for supplementation with PN through achievement of sufficient enteral calorie and protein intakes.

  11. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  12. Galectins are human milk glycan receptors

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Alexander J; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    The biological recognition of human milk glycans (HMGs) is poorly understood. Because HMGs are rich in galactose we explored whether they might interact with human galectins, which bind galactose-containing glycans and are highly expressed in epithelial cells and other cell types. We screened a number of human galectins for their binding to HMGs on a shotgun glycan microarray consisting of 247 HMGs derived from human milk, as well as to a defined HMG microarray. Recombinant human galectins (hGal)-1, -3, -4, -7, -8 and -9 bound selectively to glycans, with each galectin recognizing a relatively unique binding motif; by contrast hGal-2 did not recognize HMGs, but did bind to the human blood group A Type 2 determinants on other microarrays. Unlike other galectins, hGal-7 preferentially bound to glycans expressing a terminal Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) sequence, a motif that had eluded detection on non-HMG glycan microarrays. Interactions with HMGs were confirmed in a solution setting by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and hapten inhibition experiments. These results demonstrate that galectins selectively bind to HMGs and suggest the possibility that galectin–HMG interactions may play a role in infant immunity. PMID:26747425

  13. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation.

  14. Tobacco Metabolites and Caffeine in Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Rogers, Lynette; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Augustine, Molly; Keim, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. Materials and Methods: We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols. Results: No sellers indicated smoking in their advertisement. Many of the milk samples (58%) had detectable nicotine or cotinine; four (4%) of the samples had nicotine or cotinine levels high enough to indicate active smoking. Twelve (12%) sellers said in their advertisements that they specifically limit (4%) or avoid (8%) caffeine entirely. Five (5%) of the samples had caffeine levels consistent with consuming at least 1 cup of coffee 2 hours prior to milk expression. Detectable amounts of caffeine were found in almost all of the samples (97%). Conclusions: In 102 milk samples, we detected evidence of active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, and almost ubiquitous caffeine consumption. Buyers of human milk on the Internet should be aware that advertisements do not always include accurate information as to what substances may be present. Sellers may misrepresent their health behaviors or be unaware of lifestyle factors that can lead to exposure to nicotine and caffeine. PMID:26394021

  15. Production of transgenic-cloned pigs expressing large quantities of recombinant human lysozyme in milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Liu, Shen; Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast-milk components.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis E A; Stewart, Paul W; Chilongozi, David A; Leu, Szu-Yun; Kazembe, Peter N; Banda, Topia; Dzinyemba, Willard; Joshi, Priya; Cohen, Myron S; Fiscus, Susan A

    2003-10-15

    We conducted the present study to determine which of the 4 components of breast milk (whole milk, skim milk, lipid layer, and breast-milk cells) had the highest sensitivity and concentration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA burden and to determine biological correlates to these factors. The probability of detection of HIV (sensitivity) and the concentration of HIV-1 RNA were both associated with the choice of milk component, CD4(+) cell count, concentration of blood serum HIV-1 RNA, and the presence of breast inflammation. Whole milk demonstrated higher sensitivity and mean concentration than any other single component. Sensitivity was enhanced by analyzing all 4 components of breast milk.

  17. Do thawing and warming affect the integrity of human milk?

    PubMed

    Handa, D; Ahrabi, A F; Codipilly, C N; Shah, S; Ruff, S; Potak, D; Williams, J E; McGuire, M A; Schanler, R J

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the integrity of the human milk (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors and nutrients) subjected to thawing, warming, refrigeration and maintenance at room temperature. Mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit donated freshly expressed milk. A baseline sample was stored at -80 °C and the remainder of the milk was divided and stored for 7 days at -20 °C. The milk was then subjected to two methods of thawing and warming: tepid water and waterless warmer. Thawed milk also was refrigerated for 24 h prior to warming. Lastly, warmed milk was maintained at room temperature for 4 h to simulate a feeding session. Samples were analyzed for pH, bacterial colony counts, total fat and free fatty acids, and the content of protein, secretory IgA and lactoferrin. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t test. There were no differences between processing methods and no changes in fat, protein, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A with processing steps. Milk pH and bacterial colony counts declined while free fatty acids rose with processing. Refrigeration of thawed milk resulted in greater declines in pH and bacteria and increases in free fatty acids. Bacterial colony counts and free fatty acids increased with maintenance at room temperature. The integrity of the milk was affected similarly by the two thawing and warming methods. Thawing and warming change the integrity of previously frozen human milk, but not adversely. Concerns about maintaining warmed milk at room temperature need to be explored.

  18. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of UV-C Pasteurization on Bacteriostatic Properties and Immunological Proteins of Donor Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Methods Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. Results The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (p<0.001). The retention of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme after UV-C irradiation was 89%, 87%, and 75% respectively, which were higher than Holder treated with 49%, 9%, and 41% respectively. Conclusion UV-C irradiation of human milk preserves significantly higher levels of immunological proteins than Holder pasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk. PMID:24376898

  20. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (p<0.001). The retention of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme after UV-C irradiation was 89%, 87%, and 75% respectively, which were higher than Holder treated with 49%, 9%, and 41% respectively. UV-C irradiation of human milk preserves significantly higher levels of immunological proteins than Holder pasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  1. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    PubMed

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  2. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (p<0.0001). The FoneAstra FH pasteurisation system does not negatively affect oligosaccharides in human milk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Passage of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, into human milk.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, J; Terui, K; Hosoi, K; Ueno, K; Yokoyama, Y; Hayakari, M

    2016-10-01

    We measured the levels of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, in human milk after the administration of irinotecan to assess the potential risks when women treated with irinotecan nurse their infants. Human milk was collected for 6 days starting on the day after irinotecan was administered. The levels of irinotecan and SN-38 in human milk were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irinotecan was detected on Days 2 and 3 but not after Day 4. A strong signal indicating the presence of SN-38 was detected on Day 2 and the signal was readily detected until Day 7, indicating that SN-38 remained in human milk. Intravenously administered CPT-11 continues to pass into human milk over a prolonged period in the form of its active metabolite, SN-38. The relationship between administration of CPT-11 and SN-38 exposure and toxicity is still not well defined, so patients should avoid nursing their infants while they are being treated with CPT-11. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human Milk Bacterial and Glycosylation Patterns Differ by Delivery Mode.

    PubMed

    Hoashi, Marina; Meche, Lawrence; Mahal, Lara K; Bakacs, Elizabeth; Nardella, Deanna; Naftolin, Frederick; Bar-Yam, Naomi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Mammals have evolved to nourish their offspring exclusively with maternal milk for around half of the lactation period, a crucial developmental window. In view of oral-breast contact during lactation and the differences in oral microbiota between cesarean section (C-section) and vaginally delivered infants, we expected differences in milk composition by delivery mode. We performed a cross-sectional study of banked human milk and found changes related to time since delivery in bacterial abundance and glycosylation patterns only in milk from women who delivered vaginally. The results warrant further research into the effects of delivery mode on milk microbes, milk glycosylation, and postpartum infant development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The knowns and unknowns of human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized control trials is limited. Human milk banks (HMBs) must have a risk management system to maintain a safe product especially as many operate in an unregulated environment. To ensure safety, the HMB in Australia has committed to meet the appropriate standards recommended in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices (Blood and Tissues) and models risk management during processing on Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) requirements. There is scope to continually reevaluate the screening of donors and quality standards recommended during HMB. This will be most effective if strong networks of HMBs are developed with regional reference laboratories to encourage compliance with safety guidelines. Further research and development is needed to refine technology for treating donor milk such as thermal ultrasound and ultraviolet light, aimed at the retention of full bioactivity. HMB networks will facilitate collection of evidence for refining HMB practice which should translate to improved outcomes for preterm and sick infants. Cost effectiveness is most likely when HMBs are associated with large neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The human milk oligosaccharides are not affected by pasteurization and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Kim, Jaehan; Song, Seunghyun; Park, Suyeon; Kang, Nam Mi

    2017-11-06

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery. The samples were treated with Holder pasteurization and freeze-drying. HMOs profiles were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and compared between samples collected before and after the treatments. Human milk samples showed significantly different HMO patterns between mothers. However, HMOs were not affected by lactation periods within 3 weeks after delivery (r 2  = 0.972-0.999, p < .001). Moreover, both of pasteurization and freeze-drying were found not to affect HMO patterns in a correlation analysis (r 2  = 0.989-0.999, p < .001). HMO patterns were found not to be affected by pasteurization and freeze-drying of donor milks. We hope that introducing freeze-drying to the human milk banks would be encouraged by the present study. However, the storage length without composition changes of HMOs after freeze-drying needs to be evaluated in the further studies.

  8. Development of Human Breast Milk Microbiota-Associated Mice as a Method to Identify Breast Milk Bacteria Capable of Colonizing Gut.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxin; Lu, Huifang; Feng, Zhou; Cao, Jie; Fang, Chao; Xu, Xianming; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Human breast milk is recognized as one of multiple important sources of commensal bacteria for infant gut. Previous studies searched for the bacterial strains shared between breast milk and infant feces by isolating bacteria and performing strain-level bacterial genotyping, but only limited number of milk bacteria were identified to colonize infant gut, including bacteria from Bifidobacterium , Staphylococcus , Lactobacillus , and Escherichia / Shigella . Here, to identify the breast milk bacteria capable of colonizing gut without the interference of bacteria of origins other than the milk or the necessity to analyze infant feces, normal chow-fed germ-free mice were orally inoculated with the breast milk collected from a mother 2 days after vaginal delivery. According to 16S rRNA gene-based denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina sequencing, bacteria at >1% abundance in the milk inoculum were only Streptococcus (56.0%) and Staphylococcus (37.4%), but in the feces of recipient mice were Streptococcus (80.3 ± 2.3%), Corynebacterium (10.0 ± 2.6 %), Staphylococcus (7.6 ± 1.6%), and Propionibacterium (2.1 ± 0.5%) that were previously shown as dominant bacterial genera in the meconium of C-section-delivered human babies; the abundance of anaerobic gut-associated bacteria, Faecalibacterium , Prevotella , Roseburia , Ruminococcus , and Bacteroides , was 0.01-1% in the milk inoculum and 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces; the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was below the detection limit of Illumina sequencing in the milk but at 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces. The human breast milk microbiota-associated mouse model may be used to identify additional breast milk bacteria that potentially colonize infant gut.

  9. Neonatal protection by an innate immune system of human milk consisting of oligosaccharides and glycans.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2009-04-01

    This review discusses the role of human milk glycans in protecting infants, but the conclusion that the human milk glycans constitute an innate immune system whereby the mother protects her offspring may have general applicability in all mammals, including species of commercial importance. Infants that are not breastfed have a greater incidence of severe diarrhea and respiratory diseases than those who are breastfed. In the past, this had been attributed primarily to human milk secretory antibodies. However, the oligosaccharides are major components of human milk, and milk is also rich in other glycans, including glycoproteins, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids. These milk glycans, especially the oligosaccharides, are composed of thousands of components. The milk factor that promotes gut colonization by Bifidobacterium bifidum was found to be a glycan, and such prebiotic characteristics may contribute to protection against infectious agents. However, the ability of human milk glycans to protect the neonate seems primarily to be due to their inhibition of pathogen binding to their host cell target ligands. Many such examples include specific fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycans that inhibit specific pathogens. Most human milk oligosaccharides are fucosylated, and their production depends on fucosyltransferase enzymes; mutations in these fucosyltransferase genes are common and underlie the various Lewis blood types in humans. Variable expression of specific fucosylated oligosaccharides in milk, also a function of these genes (and maternal Lewis blood type), is significantly associated with the risk of infectious disease in breastfed infants. Human milk also contains major quantities and large numbers of sialylated oligosaccharides, many of which are also present in bovine colostrum. These could similarly inhibit several common viral pathogens. Moreover, human milk oligosaccharides strongly attenuate inflammatory processes in the intestinal mucosa. These

  10. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, < 10th percentile) at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving < 75% (−0.6 vs, -0.4, p = 0.03). Protein and caloric supplementation beyond standard human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  11. Enteral Feeding With Human Milk Decreases Time to Discharge in Infants Following Gastroschisis Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gulack, Brian C.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Clark, Reese H.; Burgess, Terrance; Robinson, Sybil; Muhammad, Abdurrauf; Zhang, Angela; Davis, Adrienne; Morton, Robert; Chu, Vivian H.; Arnold, Christopher J.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective We reviewed a multi-institutional database to assess the effect of enteral feeding with human milk on duration from initiation of feeds to discharge after gastroschisis repair. Study design Infants who had gastroschisis repair between 1997 and 2012 with data recorded in the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse were categorized into 4 groups based on the percentage of days they were fed human milk out of the number of days they were fed enterally. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to determine the adjusted effect of human milk on duration from initiation of feeds to discharge. Results Of 3082 infants, 659 (21%) were fed human milk on 0% of enteral feeding days, 766 (25%) on 1–50% of enteral feeding days, 725 (24%) on 51–99% of enteral feeding days, and 932 (30%) on 100% of enteral feeding days. Following adjustment, being fed human milk on 0% of enteral feeding days was associated with a significantly increased time to discharge compared with being fed human milk on 100% of enteral feeding days (HR for discharge per day: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.40–0.52). The same was found for infants fed human milk on 1–50% of enteral feeding days (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.32–0.41) and for infants fed human milk on 51–99% of enteral feeding days (HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.46–0.57). Conclusion The use of human milk for enteral feeding of infants following repair of gastroschisis significantly reduces the time to discharge from initiation of feeds. PMID:26703875

  12. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. © 2013.

  13. Human milk 90K (Mac-2 BP): possible protective effects against acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Fornarini, B; Iacobelli, S; Tinari, N; Natoli, C; De Martino, M; Sabatino, G

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six children fed human milk were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age to assess the effect of milk 90K, a secreted glycoprotein with immune-stimulatory properties, on development of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The level of human milk 90K was inversely related to episodes of ARI (r = - 0.34; P = 0.001). The average 90K level in human milk fed to children who did not develop ARI was significantly higher than in milk fed to children in whom infection occurred on multiple occasions (156.6 +/- 144.8 microg/ml versus 70.9 +/- 92.3 microg/ml; P = 0.001). These data suggest that the protective effects of human milk against ARI may be due in part to immune maturation effects by secreted 90K.

  14. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus in Human Milk Are Inactivated by Holder Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Hamilton Spence, Erin; Huff, Monica; Shattuck, Karen; Vickers, Amy; Yun, Nadezda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-05-01

    Potential donors of human milk are screened for Ebola virus (EBOV) using standard questions, but testing for EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV) is not part of routine serological testing performed by milk banks. Research aim: This study tested the hypothesis that EBOV would be inactivated in donor human milk (DHM) by standard pasteurization techniques (Holder) used in all North American nonprofit milk banks. Milk samples were obtained from a nonprofit milk bank. They were inoculated with EBOV (Zaire strain) and MARV (Angola strain) and processed by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Plaque assays for EBOV and MARV were performed to detect the presence of virus after pasteurization. Neither EBOV nor MARV was detectable by viral plaque assay in DHM or culture media samples, which were pasteurized by the Holder process. EBOV and MARV are safely inactivated in human milk by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Screening for EBOV or MARV beyond questionnaire and self-deferral is not needed to ensure safety of DHM for high-risk infants.

  16. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin in term and preterm human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Kierson, Jennifer A; Dimatteo, Darlise M; Locke, Robert G; Mackley, Amy B; Spear, Michael L

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are present in significant quantities in term and preterm human breast milk, and to identify their source. Samples were collected from 10 mothers who delivered term infants and 10 mothers who delivered preterm infants. Estimated fat content was measured. Ghrelin and CCK levels were measured in whole and skim breast milk samples using radioimmunoassays (RIA). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using RNA from human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) and mammary gland with primers specific to ghrelin. The median ghrelin level in whole breast milk was 2125 pg/ml, which is significantly higher than normal plasma levels. There was a direct correlation between whole milk ghrelin levels and estimated milk fat content (r=0.84, p<0.001). Both the mammary gland and hMECs produced ghrelin. While CCK was detected in some samples, levels were insignificant. Infant gestational age, birthweight, maternal age, and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Ghrelin, but not CCK, is present in breast milk. Since the mammary gland produces ghrelin message, and ghrelin levels in breast milk are higher than those found in plasma, we conclude that ghrelin is produced and secreted by the breast.

  17. Advances in Analysis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2012-01-01

    Oligosaccharides in human milk strongly influence the composition of the gut microflora of neonates. Because it is now clear that the microflora play important roles in the development of the infant immune system, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are studied frequently. Milk samples contain complex mixtures of HMO, usually comprising several isomeric structures that can be either linear or branched. Traditionally, HMO profiling was performed using HPLC with fluorescence or UV detection. By using porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography MS, it is now possible to separate and identify most of the isomers, facilitating linkage-specific analysis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis allows fast profiling, but does not allow isomer separation. Novel MS fragmentation techniques have facilitated structural characterization of HMO that are present at lower concentrations. These techniques now facilitate more accurate studies of HMO consumption as well as Lewis blood group determinations. PMID:22585919

  18. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk than plasma TG, 2) during a high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet than high-fat (H-FAT) diet, and 3) during feeding than fasting. Seven healthy, lactating women were studied on two isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets. On one occasion, subjects received diets containing H-FAT or H-CHO diet for 1 wk. Incorporation of 13C from infused [U-13C]glucose into FA and glycerol was measured using GC-MS and gene expression in RNA isolated from milk fat globule using microarrays. Incorporation of 13C2 into milk FA increased with increased FA chain length from C2:0 to C12:0 but progressively declined in C14:0 and C16:0 and was not detected in FA>C16. During feeding, regardless of diets, enrichment of 13C2 in milk FA and 13C3 in milk glycerol were ∼3- and ∼7-fold higher compared with plasma FA and glycerol, respectively. Following an overnight fast during H-CHO and H-FAT diets, 25 and 6%, respectively, of medium-chain FA (MCFA, C6–C12) in milk were derived from glucose but increased to 75 and 25% with feeding. Expression of genes involved in FA or glycerol synthesis was unchanged regardless of diet or fast/fed conditions. The human MG is capable of de novo lipogenesis of primarily MCFA and glycerol, which is influenced by the macronutrient composition of the maternal diet. PMID:24496312

  19. Antioxidative Activity of Colostrum and Human Milk: Effects of Pasteurization and Storage.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Vesna; Ranković-Janevski, Milica; Spasić, Snežana; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Djurović, Dijana; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Spasojević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20°C. Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate before use.

  20. Premature Infants have Lower Gastric Digestion Capacity for Human Milk Proteins than Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Demers-Mathieu, Veronique; Qu, Yunyao; Underwood, Mark A; Borghese, Robyn; Dallas, David Charles

    2018-05-01

    Whether premature infants have lower gastric protein digestive capacity than term infants and the extent to which human milk proteases contribute to overall gastric digestion are unknown and were investigated in this study. Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 16 preterm (24-32 wk gestational age) and 6 term (38-40 wk gestational age) mother-infant pairs within a range of 5 to 42 days postnatal age. For each pair, an aliquot of human milk was adjusted to pH 4.5 and incubated for 2 hours at 37 °C to simulate the gastric conditions without pepsin (milkinc). Their gastric protein digestion capacity was measured as proteolysis (free N-terminals) and protease activities. Two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post hoc test was applied to compare measurements between preterm and term infants as well as among human milk, milkinc, and gastric samples. Measurements of gastric protein digestion were significantly lower in preterm infants than term infants. Overall milk protease activity did not differ between human milk samples from term- and preterm-delivering mothers. As protease activity did not increase with simulated gastric incubation, milk proteases likely contributed minimally to gastric digestion. Preterm infants have lower gastric protein digestion capacity than term infants, which could impair nutrient acquisition. Human milk proteases contribute minimally to overall gastric digestion. The limited activity of milk proteases suggests that these enzymes cannot compensate for the premature infant's overall lower gastric protein digestion.

  1. Evidence that human milk isolated cyclophilin B corresponds to a truncated form.

    PubMed

    Mariller, C; Allain, F; Kouach, M; Spik, G

    1996-03-07

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a member of the cyclophilin family (cyclosporin A-binding proteins) with specific N- and C-terminal extensions. In contrast to cyclophilin A, CyPB owns a signal sequence leading to its translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum. CyPB was reported to be present in human blood and milk, suggesting it is secreted. For this purpose, CyPB was purified to homogeneity from human milk and compared to recombinant CyPB expressed in E. coli. Ion spray mass spectrometry revealed that CyPB secreted in human milk exhibits a lower molecular mass than the one expected. Identification of phenylalanine as the C-terminus amino-acid residue of human milk CyPB indicates that the difference in molecular mass may be explained by the absence of the five C-terminal amino-acid residues AIAKE. These results suggest that in the sequence VEKPFAIAKE known to be responsible for retention of CyPB in the endoplasmic reticulum, the sequence AIAKE is more particularly necessary. Our findings raise the possibility that the CyPB may be processed to promote its release. As recombinant CyPB was shown to bind specifically to Jurkat cells, a lymphoblastic T-cell line, we then wanted to investigate the binding of human milk CyPB to these cells. Despite lacking the five C-terminal amino-acid residues, human milk CyPB is able to inhibit the binding of recombinant CyPB to Jurkat T cells.

  2. Human Milk Warming Temperatures Using a Simulation of Currently Available Storage and Warming Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Virozub, Alexander; Mimouni, Francis B.

    2015-01-01

    Human milk handling guidelines are very demanding, based upon solid scientific evidence that handling methods can make a real difference in infant health and nutrition. Indeed, properly stored milk maintains many of its unique qualities and continues to be the second and third best infant feeding alternatives, much superior to artificial feeding. Container type and shape, mode of steering, amount of air exposure and storage temperature may adversely affect milk stability and composition. Heating above physiological temperatures significantly impacts nutritional and immunological properties of milk. In spite of this knowledge, there are no strict guidelines regarding milk warming. Human milk is often heated in electrical-based bottle warmers that can exceed 80°C, a temperature at which many beneficial human milk properties disappear. High temperatures can also induce fat profile variations as compared with fresh human milk. In this manuscript we estimate the amount of damage due to overheating during warming using a heat flow simulation of a regular water based bottle warmer. To do so, we carried out a series of warming simulations which provided us with dynamic temperature fields within bottled milk. We simulated the use of a hot water-bath at 80°C to heat bottled refrigerated milk (60ml and 178 ml) to demonstrate that large milk portions are overheated (above 40°C). It seems that the contemporary storage method (upright feeding tool, i.e. bottle) and bottle warming device, are not optimize to preserve the unique properties of human milk. Health workers and parents should be aware of this problem especially when it relates to sick neonates and preemies that cannot be directly fed at the breast. PMID:26061694

  3. Human milk intake in preterm infants and neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Collins, Carmel T; Sullivan, Thomas R; Simmer, Karen; Gillman, Matthew W; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-10-01

    The effect of human milk intake on neurodevelopment in preterm infants is uncertain. We analyzed data from 611 participants in the DHA for Improvement of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes study, enrolled at ≤33 wk gestation from five Australian perinatal centers. The main exposures were (i) average daily human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization and (ii) total duration of human milk intake before and after discharge. Outcomes were Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition Mental (MDI), and Psychomotor (PDI) Development Indexes. Adjusting for confounders in linear regression, human milk intake was not associated with higher MDI (0.2 points per 25 ml/kg/d; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6, 1.0) or PDI (-0.3 points; 95% CI: -1.1, 0.4). Longer duration of human milk intake was also not associated with MDI (0.1 points per month; 95% CI: -0.2, 0.3) or PDI (-0.2 points per month; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.01) scores, except in infants born 29-33 wk gestation (n = 364, MDI 0.3 points higher per additional month, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6). We found no associations of human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization with neurodevelopment at 18 mo corrected age.

  4. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-03-16

    There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  5. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. Methodology/Principal Findings We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Conclusions/Significance Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale. PMID:21436886

  6. Nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier from donkey milk in feeding preterm infants: study protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-01-09

    Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born <1500 g and <32 weeks of gestational age were randomized to receive for 21 days either a combination of control bovine milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from

  7. Adequacy of human milk viscosity to respond to infants with dysphagia: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Mariangela Bartha de Mattos; de ALMEIDA, João Aprígio Guerra; MOREIRA, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; NOVAK, Franz Reis

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal nutrition is an important subject in health in the short, medium and long term. In preterm newborns, nutrition assumes a predominant role for the child's overall development. Babies with uncoordinated swallowing or respiration may not have the necessary oral abilities to suck the mother's breast and will need to implement different feeding practices; one of them is changing the consistency of the milk offered. Objectives Determine viscosity variations of untreated human and pasteurized milk without and with thickening to adapt the diet to the needs of dysphagic infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Cara Unit (NICU). Material and Methods The authors altered the viscosity of natural infant powdered milk and, after thickening, determined and adopted a thickening standard for human milk. Untreated human and pasteurized milk was thickened in concentrations of 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% and the viscosity were determined every 20 minutes for a period of 60 minutes at a temperature of 37ºC. Results The infant lactose formula thickened at concentrations of 2% and 3% produced viscosities of 8.97cP and 27.73 cP, respectively. The increases were significantly different after 1 hour. Inversely, untreated human milk at 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% produced diminished viscosity over time; the changes were more accentuated in the first 20 minutes. In pasteurized human milk, the 2% concentration had no variation in viscosity, but with the 3%, 5% and 7% concentrations, there was a significant decrease in the first 20 minutes with stability observed in the subsequent times. Conclusion In powdered milk, the viscosity increases over time; the viscosity in human milk diminishes. The results point out the importance not only of considering the concentration of the thickener but also the time being administered after its addition to effectively treat dysphagic infants. PMID:22230987

  8. Association of metabolic acidosis with bovine milk-based human milk fortifiers.

    PubMed

    Cibulskis, C C; Armbrecht, E S

    2015-02-01

    To compare the incidence of metabolic acidosis and feeding intolerance associated with powdered or acidified liquid human milk fortifier (HMF). This retrospective study evaluated infants ⩽ 32 weeks gestational age or ⩽ 1500 g birth weight who received human milk with either powdered or acidified liquid HMF (50 consecutively born infants per group). Primary outcomes tracked were metabolic acidosis (base excess less than -4 mmol l(-1) or bicarbonate less than 18 mmol l(-1)), feeding intolerance (gastric residual > 50% feed volume, > 3 loose stools or emesis per day, abdominal tenderness or distention), necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset infection, death, length of hospital stay and ability to remain on HMF. Demographics, feeding practices, growth parameters and laboratory data were also collected. Significantly more infants who received acidified liquid HMF developed metabolic acidosis (P < 0.001). Base excess and bicarbonate were both significantly decreased after HMF addition in the liquid HMF group (base excess P = 0.006, bicarbonate P < 0.001). More infants were switched off liquid HMF due to metabolic acidosis or feeding intolerance than those on powdered HMF (P < 0.001). Despite increased protein intake in the liquid HMF group (P = 0.009), both groups had similar enteral caloric intakes with no difference in growth rates between the two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the other primary outcomes. Infants receiving acidified liquid human milk fortifier were more likely to develop metabolic acidosis and to be switched off HMF than those who received powdered HMF. Growth in the liquid HMF group was no different than the powdered group, despite higher protein intake.

  9. [The significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in nutrition of newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Lis-Kuberka, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena

    2015-07-22

    Human milk is extremely complex secretion rich in biologically active glycoconjugates including free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans. Alpha1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk are component of the innate immune system and provide an additional defense for infants. Participation of fucosylated glycotopes in the inhibition of infections caused by some bacteria and/or viruses rely on blocking of lectin-receptors of pathogen. Free fucosylated glycoconjugates present in milk are recognized and bound by the lectin-receptors of bacteria and/or viruses, and prevent pathogens adhesion to host epithelial cells and development of infection. So far, the efficacy of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the inhibition of adhesion has been confirmed for Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Rotaviruses, HIV, and Noroviruses. In this process the secretor/nonsecretor status of mother plays an important role. This is particularly important for the women who are nonsecretors and whose milk does not contain α1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates and has reduced anti-microbial properties. Fucosylated glycoconjugates of milk are also one of the energy sources for physiological bacterial flora (Bifidobacterium), and have a positive impact on the intestinal peristalsis, and indirectly stimulate the central nervous system of infants. Furthermore, compared to human milk, the content of fucosylated glycoconjugates of cow’s milk is very low and does not provide adequate protection. This fact is particularly important in terms of nutrition and should be taken into consideration when artificial mixtures based on cows’ milk are used. The paper presents the current state of knowledge on human milk glycoconjugates, particularly on α1-2-fucosylated free oligosaccharides and glycoproteins, and discusses the significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the nutrition of newborns and infants.

  10. The consequence of phototherapy exposure on oxidative stress status of expressed human milk.

    PubMed

    Unal, Sezin; Demirel, Nihal; Yaprak Sul, Deniz; Ulubas Isik, Dilek; Erol, Sara; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2017-09-04

    There exists evidence that phototherapy can disturb the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. If phototherapy is continued during tube feeding in preterms, expressed human milk is subjected to phototherapy lights for about 20 min per feeding. We aimed to investigate the effects of phototherapy lights on oxidative/antioxidative status of expressed human milk. Milk samples of 50 healthy mothers were grouped as control and phototherapy and exposed to 20 min of day-light and phototherapy light, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity (mmol-Trolox equiv/L) and total oxidant status (mmol-H 2 O 2 /L) in expressed human milk samples were measured. Levels of antioxidant capacity of the expressed human milks in the phototherapy group were lower than those of the control group [mmol-Trolox equiv/L; median (interquartile-range): 1.30 (0.89-1.65) and 1.77 (1.51-2.06), p: < .001]. Levels of oxidant status were similar in both groups. We demonstrated that phototherapy decreased antioxidant capacity of expressed human milk without any alteration in oxidative status. We think that this observation is important for the care of very low birth weighted infants who have limited antioxidant capacity and are vulnerable to oxidative stress. It may be advisable either to turn off the phototherapy or cover the tube and syringe to preserve antioxidant capacity of human milk during simultaneous tube feeding and phototherapy treatment.

  11. Enzymes in human milk

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; German, J. Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function intact, milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that when released as peptides exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory, which could contribute to the infant’s competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother’s milk have been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant’s stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant’s own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease based peptide release system. PMID:28346930

  12. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Carbohydrate phenotyping of human and animal milk glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Anki; Kacskovics, Imre; Breimer, Michael E; Hammarström, Lennart; Holgersson, Jan

    2005-03-01

    Breast-milk has a well-known anti-microbial effect, which is in part due to the many different carbohydrate structures expressed. This renders it a position as a potential therapeutic for treatment of infection by different pathogens, thus avoiding the drawbacks of many antibiotics. The plethora of carbohydrate epitopes in breast-milk is known to differ between species, with human milk expressing the most complex one. We have investigated the expression of protein-bound carbohydrate epitopes in milk from man, cow, goat, sheep, pig, horse, dromedary and rabbit. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and the presence of carbohydrate epitopes on milk proteins were analysed by Western blotting using different lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibodies. We show that ABH, Lewis (Le)x, sialyl-Lex, Lea, sialyl-Lea and Leb carbohydrate epitopes are expressed mainly on man, pig and horse milk proteins. The blood group precursor structure H type 1 is expressed in all species investigated, while only pig, dromedary and rabbit milk proteins carry H type 2 epitopes. These epitopes are receptors for Helicobacter pylori (Leb and sialyl-Lex), enteropathogenic (H type 1, Lea and Lex) and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (heat-stable toxin; H type 1 and 2), and Campylobacter jejuni (H type 2). Thus, milk from these animals or their genetically modified descendants could have a therapeutic effect by inhibiting pathogen colonization and infection.

  14. Endogenous Human Milk Peptide Release Is Greater after Preterm Birth than Term Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C; Smink, Christina J; Robinson, Randall C; Tian, Tian; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hettinga, Kasper A; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of naturally occurring milk peptides are present in term human milk. Preterm milk is produced before complete maturation of the mammary gland, which could change milk synthesis and secretion processes within the mammary gland, leading to differences in protein expression and enzymatic activity, thereby resulting in an altered peptide profile. Objective: This study examined differences in peptides present between milk from women delivering at term and women delivering prematurely. Methods: Nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry was employed to identify naturally occurring peptides and compare their abundances between term and preterm human milk samples at multiple time points over lactation. Term milk samples were collected from 8 mothers and preterm milk was collected from 14 mothers. The 28 preterm and 32 term human milk samples were divided into 4 groups based on day of collection (<14, 14–28, 29–41, and 42–58 d). Results: Preterm milk peptide counts, ion abundance, and concentration were significantly higher in preterm milk than term milk. Bioinformatic analysis of the cleavage sites for peptides identified suggested that plasmin was more active in preterm milk than term milk and that cytosol aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase B2 likely contribute to extensive milk protein breakdown. Many identified milk peptides in both term and preterm milk overlapped with known functional peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory peptides. Conclusion: The high protein degradation by endogenous proteases in preterm milk might attenuate problems because of the preterm infant’s immature digestive system. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127. PMID:25540406

  15. Quantification of hexanal as an index of lipid oxidation in human milk and association with antioxidant components

    PubMed Central

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Hexanal, a secondary product of lipid oxidation, was identified as the major volatile aldehyde generated from lipid peroxidation in human milk. Hexanal was quantified in human milk using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/flame ionization detection that required correction for recovery based on the fat content of human milk. Alpha-tocopherol was the only tocopherol isomer in human milk found to be significantly correlated with hexanal (R = −0.374, p<0.05) and the total antioxidant capacity of human milk (ORACFl (R = 0.408, p<0.01)). Ascorbic acid content was negatively correlated (R = −0.403, p<0.05) with hexanal, but not to ORACFl in human milk. The effect of Holder pasteurization on oxidative status of human milk was determined using multiple parameters that included, hexanal level and malondialdehyde as markers of lipid oxidation, vitamins C and E content and antioxidant capacity (e.g. ORACFl). Pasteurization did not affect the oxidative status of milk as measured by hexanal level, ORACFl and malondialdehyde content. We conclude that hexanal is a sensitive and useful chemical indicator for assessing peroxidation reactions in human milk and that alpha tocopherol and ascorbic acid are two key antioxidant components in milk that contribute to protection against oxidation of milk lipids. PMID:22128211

  16. Vitamin E concentration in human milk and associated factors: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mayara S R; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla D S

    2014-01-01

    To systematize information about vitamin E concentration in human milk and the variables associated with this composition in order to find possible causes of deficiency, supporting strategies to prevent it in postpartum women and infants. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 that assayed alpha-tocopherol in human milk of healthy women by high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated. The keywords used were "vitamin E", "alpha-tocopherol", "milk, human", "lactation", and equivalents in Portuguese, in the BIREME, CAPES, PubMed, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, HighWire Press, Ingenta, and Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases. Of the 41 publications found on the subject, 25 whose full text was available and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The alpha-tocopherol concentrations found in milk were similar in most populations studied. The variable phase of lactation was shown to influence vitamin E content in milk, which is reduced until the mature milk appears. Maternal variables parity, anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status, and habitual dietary intake did not appear to affect the alpha-tocopherol levels in milk. However, the influence of the variables maternal age, gestational age, biochemical nutritional status in alpha-tocopherol, and maternal supplementation with vitamin E had conflicting results in the literature. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in milk decreases during lactation, until the mature milk appears. To confirm the influence of some maternal and child variables on milk vitamin E content, further studies with adequate design are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation.

    PubMed

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 10(6) bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, "planktonic" state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system.

  18. Benefits of donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Occhi, Luciana; Coscia, Alessandra; Tonetto, Paola; Marchino, Federica; Fabris, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    It's undoubted that optimum nutrition for term infants is breastfeeding, exclusive for the first six months, then followed by a complementary diet and carried on, if possible, for the first year of life or even more. During the last decades several data confirmed the great advantages of fresh mother's milk use also for feeding very low and extremely low birthweight preterm infants. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Pasteurization partially affects nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk, however it is known that pasteurized milk maintains some biological properties and clinical benefits. The substantial benefits of mother's own milk feeding of preterm infants are supported by strong evidence. However, there is increasing evidence also on specific benefits of donor breast milk. Future research is needed to compare formula vs. nutrient fortified donor breast milk, to compare formula and DM as supplements to maternal milk rather than as sole diet and to compare effects of different methods of heat treatments on donor human milk quality.

  19. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p < 0.0001; β = -104.1, 95% CI = -151.4; -56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  20. Detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human alpha-lactalbumin gene: implications for human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Kelleher, Shannon L; Nemeth, Jennifer F; Yachetti, Stephen; Kuhlman, Charles F; Jackson, Joan G; Davis, Anne M; Lien, Eric L; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-05-01

    Variability in the protein composition of breast milk has been observed in many women and is believed to be due to natural variation of the human population. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present throughout the entire human genome, but the impact of this variation on human milk composition and biological activity and infant nutrition and health is unclear. The goals of this study were to characterize a variant of human alpha-lactalbumin observed in milk from a Filipino population by determining the location of the polymorphism in the amino acid and genomic sequences of alpha-lactalbumin. Milk and blood samples were collected from 20 Filipino women, and milk samples were collected from an additional 450 women from nine different countries. alpha-Lactalbumin concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and milk samples containing the variant form of the protein were identified with both HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS). The molecular weight of the variant form was measured by MS, and the location of the polymorphism was narrowed down by protein reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood, and the polymorphism location and subject genotype were determined by amplifying the entire coding sequence of human alpha-lactalbumin by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. A variant form of alpha-lactalbumin was observed in HPLC chromatograms, and the difference in molecular weight was determined by MS (wild type=14,070 Da, variant=14,056 Da). Protein reduction and digestion narrowed the polymorphism between the 33rd and 77th amino acid of the protein. The genetic polymorphism was identified as adenine to guanine, which translates to a substitution from isoleucine to valine at amino acid 46. The frequency of variation was higher in milk from China, Japan and Philippines, which suggests that this polymorphism is most prevalent in Asia. There are SNPs in the genome for human milk proteins and their

  1. Bacteria and Bioactivity in Holder Pasteurized and Shelf-Stable Human Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Historically, Holder pasteurization has been used to pasteurize donor human milk available in a hospital setting. There is extensive research that provides an overview of the impact of Holder pasteurization on bioactive components of human milk. A shelf-stable (SS) human milk product, created using retort processing, recently became available; however, to our knowledge, little has been published about the effect of retort processing on human milk. Objective: We aimed to assess the ability of retort processing to eliminate bacteria and to quantify the difference in lysozyme and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) activity between Holder pasteurized (HP) and SS human milk. Methods: Milk samples from 60 mothers were pooled. From this pool, 36 samples were taken: 12 samples were kept raw, 12 samples were HP, and 12 samples were retort processed to create an SS product. All samples were analyzed for total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bacillus cereus, sIgA activity, and lysozyme activity. Raw samples served as the control. Results: One raw sample and 3 HP samples contained B. cereus at the time of culture. There were no detectable bacteria in SS samples at the time of culture. Raw samples had significantly greater lysozyme and sIgA activity than HP and SS samples (P < 0.0001). HP samples retained significantly more lysozyme and sIgA activity (54% and 87%, respectively) than SS samples (0% and 11%, respectively). Conclusions: Human milk processed using Holder pasteurization should continue to be screened for the presence of B. cereus. Clinicians should be aware of the differences in the retention of lysozyme and sIgA activity in HP and SS products when making feeding decisions for medically fragile or immunocompromised infants to ensure that patients are receiving the maximum immune protection. PMID:29955718

  2. Pilot study on growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers in very low birth weight preterm infants fed human milk fortified with either human milk fortifier or post discharge formula.

    PubMed

    Khorana, Meera; Jiamsajjamongkhon, Chanin

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an important aspect in the care of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Human milk fortified with human milk fortifiers (HMF) is best for enteral feeding of premature infants. HMF is expensive and not easily available in Thailand. Post discharge formula (PDF) has been routinely used to fortify human milk at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) but there is lack of supportive data regarding efficacy and safety. To study and compare anthropometrics, biochemical markers and complications in VLBW infants fed human milk fortified with either HMF or PDF. This was a prospective, randomized pilot study conducted in the neonatal unit of QSNICH from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2011. Very low birth weight neonates, whose mothers had adequate breast milk within 96 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study and received parenteral nutrition and enteral feeding as per protocol. Once the babies were feeding 100 cc/kg/day of human milk, they were randomly divided into two groups: the human milk fortified group (HMF group) and the post discharge formula fortified group (PDF group). Body weight was recorded daily while head circumference and length were recorded weekly. Hematocrit, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including phosphorus and calcium), alkaline phosphatase and albumin were checked at the beginning of the study (feeding 100 cc/kg/day), 3 weeks later and when on full oral breast feeding or reached a weight of 2,000 grams, which ever came first. Thirty-eight infants were enrolled in the study but eventually only 33 remained (18 in HMF group, 15 in PDF group). Both groups had similar baseline demographic data, nutritional management, postnatal morbidities and length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in growth parameters and serum biochemical markers between the groups. Definite NEC was not different between the groups. Other complications of prematurity including osteopenia of

  3. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk.

  4. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Lim; Cho, Jung Yoon; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Eun Young; Park, Sung Ae; Kim, In Young; Choi, Yong Sung; Bae, Chong Woo; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking.

  5. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking. PMID:27709856

  6. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing <1500 g or those who have severe intestinal disorders. Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Reporting needs for studies of environmental chemicals in human milk.

    PubMed

    Bates, Michael N; Selevan, Sherry G; Ellerbee, Susan M; Gartner, Lawrence M

    2002-11-22

    Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many countries, but few have been conducted in the United States. These studies are useful for monitoring population trends in exposure to chemicals, for research into the determinants of environmental chemicals in milk and relationships between the levels found and the health status of the women and their infants, and for risk assessment. This article provides practical advice on data and information reporting for such studies. Participation in these studies comes at a difficult time for the breast-feeding mothers, so it is important that the mothers support the study and its goals. A key goal of any study of environmental chemicals in human milk must be to ensure that the breast-feeding process is not disrupted by unwarranted concerns about harm to the infant from chemicals in human milk. Therefore, it is essential that reporting of information be a two-way process. Information needs to be supplied to participating mothers before, during, and after their participation in the study. Information supplied before participation is necessary to satisfy the ethical requirement for informed consent; information supplied during participation includes advice on expressing, collecting, and storing milk samples, and how to avoid sample contamination; and information supplied to each participant at the end of the study includes a report of their individual results and a summary of study results and outcomes generally. The key instrument for obtaining data from the participants is the study questionnaire. This needs to be prepared in accordance with principles of good questionnaire development, and preferably should be interviewer administered. The questionnaire content will vary according to the objectives of the study. Although studies of environmental chemicals in human milk are logistically complex and demanding, they are practicable and, with careful planning and execution, yield important data.

  8. Fatty acid profile in milk from goats, Capra aegagrus hircus, exposed to perchlorate and its relationship with perchlorate residues in human milk.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiuqiong; Smith, Ernest E; Kirk, Andrea B; Liu, Fujun; Boylan, Lee Mallory; McCarty, Michael E; Hart, Sybil; Dong, Linxia; Cobb, George P; Jackson, W Andrew; Anderson, Todd A

    2007-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk are vital for normal growth and development of infant mammals. Changes in fatty acid composition were observed in milk fat from goats dosed with perchlorate (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight/day) for 31 days, but the effect was not persistent. Adaptation may be induced in these goats to compensate for the perchlorate effect. In an analysis of fatty acid composition in human milk samples, a weak negative correlation was observed between perchlorate concentrations and total PUFA in 38 human milk samples.

  9. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (<35 years) mothers. Seventy-two lactating mothers (38 older, 34 younger) of newborns were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  10. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  11. Comparison of Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Women From Cambodia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang; Liu, Ge; Whitfield, Kyly C; Kroeun, Hou; Green, Timothy J; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao J

    2018-05-01

    Human milk is a rich source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are postulated to be important for brain development. There is a lack of data on the human milk fatty acid composition of Cambodian women compared with data from Western women. Research Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the human milk fatty acid composition of women living in Cambodia and compare it with that of women living in Australia. Human milk samples from Cambodian ( n = 67) and Australian ( n = 200) mothers were collected at 3 to 4 months postpartum. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using capillary gas chromatography followed by Folch extraction with chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v), and fat content was measured gravimetrically. Compared with Australian participants, human milk from Cambodian participants contained a significantly lower level of total fat (2.90 vs. 3.45 g/dL, p = .028), lower percentages of linoleic acid (9.30% vs. 10.66%, p < .0001) and α-linolenic acid (0.42% vs. 0.95%, p < .0001), but higher percentages of arachidonic acid (0.68% vs. 0.38%, p < .0001) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.40% vs. 0.23%, p < .0001). Differences in human milk fatty acid composition between Cambodian and Australian participants may be explained by differences in the dietary patterns between the two populations.

  12. Bile salt-stimulated lipase of human milk: characterization of the enzyme from preterm and term milk

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, L.M.; Hamosh, P.; Hamosh, M.

    1986-03-01

    The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) of human milk is an important digestive enzyme in the newborn whose pancreatic function is immature. Milk from mothers delivering premature infants (preterm milk) has similar levels of BSSL activity to that of mothers of term infants (term milk). This study has determined whether the BSSL in preterm milk has the same characteristics as that in term milk. Milk samples were collected during the first 12 wk of lactation from seven mothers of infants born at 26-30 wk (very preterm, VPT), 31-37 wk (preterm, PT) and 37-42 wk (term, T) gestation. BSSL activity was measuredmore » using /sup 3/H-triolein emulsion as substrate. Time course, bile salt and enzyme concentration, pH and pH stability were studied, as well as inhibition of BSSL by eserine. The characteristics of BSSL from preterm and term milk were identical as were comparisons between colostrum and mature milk BSSL. BSSL from all milk sources had a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum (pH 7.3-8.9), was stable at low pH for 60 min, and was 95-100% inhibited by eserine (greater than or equal to 0.6 mM). BSSL activity, regardless of enzyme source, was bile-salt dependent and was stimulated only by primary bile salts (taurocholate, glycocholate). The data indicate that the BSSL in milks of mothers delivering as early as 26 wk gestation is identical to that in term milk.« less

  13. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  14. Leptin is present in human milk and is related to maternal plasma leptin concentration and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Houseknecht, K L; McGuire, M K; Portocarrero, C P; McGuire, M A; Beerman, K

    1997-11-26

    Leptin is elevated during pregnancy and may be involved in the regulation of milk production in women. Immunoreactive leptin was quantified in human milk by modified radioimmunoassay. Leptin concentration was higher in whole vs. skim milk fractions; however, leptin concentration was not correlated with percentage milk fat. Leptin concentrations in whole and skim milk were correlated with maternal plasma leptin concentrations, maternal body weight, body mass index, and tricep skinfold thickness, but not with plasma insulin concentration. These data provide the first evidence for the presence of leptin in human milk in the range of concentrations found in human plasma and indicate that the concentration of leptin in milk reflects maternal adiposity. Determining the biological role(s) of milk-borne leptin could add to our understanding of neonatal metabolism and the mechanisms underlying the development of body fat and obesity in humans.

  15. Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Rotavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells.

    PubMed

    Laucirica, Daniel R; Triantis, Vassilis; Schoemaker, Ruud; Estes, Mary K; Ramani, Sasirekha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood. Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains. Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells). Oligosaccharides were added at different time points in the infectivity assays. Infections in the absence of oligosaccharides served as controls. Results: When compared with infections in the absence of glycans, all oligosaccharides substantially reduced the infectivity of both human rotavirus strains in vitro; however, virus strain-specific differences in effects were observed. Compared with control infections, the maximum reduction in G1P[8] infectivity was seen with 2'FL when added after the onset of infection (62% reduction, P < 0.01), whereas the maximum reduction in G2P[4] infectivity was seen with the mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL when added during infection (73% reduction, P < 0.01). The mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL at the same ratio as is present in breast milk was more potent in reducing G2P[4] infectivity (73% reduction, P < 0.01) than when compared with 3'SL (47% reduction) or 6'SL (40% reduction) individually. For all oligosaccharides the reduction in infectivity was mediated by an effect on the virus and not on the cells. Conclusions: Milk oligosaccharides reduce the infectivity of human rotaviruses in MA104 cells, primarily through an effect on the virus. Although breastfed infants are directly protected, the addition of specific

  16. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis--incidences in milk and milk products, their isolation, enumeration, characterization, and role in human health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), excreted in the feces and milk, is reported to be not easily inactivated by pasteurization and thermal treatments as other bacteria infecting humans and animals do. The D values of all MAP strains tested were considerably higher than those published for other pathogens. Culturing techniques for this organism are labor intensive. Although an increasing amount of scientific evidence suggests that this organism can be responsible for at least some cases of Crohn's disease (CD), there is controversy about MAP being a cause of CD in humans. In general, although some studies have described an association between the presence of MAP and CD, the role of Mycobacterium species and MAP in the etiology of this human disease remains unestablished. Although published reports indicate that it may not be completely inactivated by pasteurization of milk, the effectiveness of increasing the time or temperature in the pasteurization process has not been established and hence any potential benefit to human health cannot be determined. This article summarizes the incidences of MAP in milk and milk products with respect to human health and brief discussion of various serological as well as molecular techniques used for their isolation, enumeration, and characterization. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C.; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 106 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, “planktonic” state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. PMID:27148183

  18. Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Altaye, Mekibib; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Martin, Lisa J; Dubert-Ferrandon, Alix; Newburg, David S; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2009-06-01

    Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin's oligomeric form. This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother-infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother-infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up. Monthly milk samples (n = 1,379) up to 6 months were assayed for adiponectin by radioimmunoassay. Infant weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length Z-scores up to 6 months of age were calculated using World Health Organization standards. Repeated-measures analysis was conducted. The structural form of human milk adiponectin was assessed by western blot. In the population studies, initial milk adiponectin was 24.0 +/- 8.6 microg/L and did not differ by cohort. Over the first 6 months, higher milk adiponectin was associated with lower infant weight-for-age Z-score (-0.20 +/- 0.04, p < 0.0001) and weight-for-length Z-score (-0.29 +/- 0.08, p = 0.0002) but not length-for-age Z-score, adjusted for covariates, with no difference by cohort. By western blot, human milk adiponectin was predominantly in the biologically active high-molecular-weight form. Our data suggest milk adiponectin may play a role in the early growth and development of breastfed infants.

  19. A Quality Improvement Project to Decrease Human Milk Errors in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Kachoria, Rashmi; Dail, James; Green, Jasmine; Walls, Krista; McClead, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Ensuring safe human milk in the NICU is a complex process with many potential points for error, of which one of the most serious is administration of the wrong milk to the wrong infant. Our objective was to describe a quality improvement initiative that was associated with a reduction in human milk administration errors identified over a 6-year period in a typical, large NICU setting. We employed a quasi-experimental time series quality improvement initiative by using tools from the model for improvement, Six Sigma methodology, and evidence-based interventions. Scanned errors were identified from the human milk barcode medication administration system. Scanned errors of interest were wrong-milk-to-wrong-infant, expired-milk, or preparation errors. The scanned error rate and the impact of additional improvement interventions from 2009 to 2015 were monitored by using statistical process control charts. From 2009 to 2015, the total number of errors scanned declined from 97.1 per 1000 bottles to 10.8. Specifically, the number of expired milk error scans declined from 84.0 per 1000 bottles to 8.9. The number of preparation errors (4.8 per 1000 bottles to 2.2) and wrong-milk-to-wrong-infant errors scanned (8.3 per 1000 bottles to 2.0) also declined. By reducing the number of errors scanned, the number of opportunities for errors also decreased. Interventions that likely had the greatest impact on reducing the number of scanned errors included installation of bedside (versus centralized) scanners and dedicated staff to handle milk. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) less in PMNL exposed to whole human colostrum or colostral lipid than in non-lipid-exposed cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  1. Expression and secretion of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in murine mammary glands and human milk.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masamoto; Dorschner, Robert A; Stern, Lauren J; Lin, Kenneth H; Gallo, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian milk possesses inherent antimicrobial properties that have been attributed to several diverse molecules. Recently, antimicrobial peptides that belong to the cathelicidin gene family have been found to be important to the mammalian immune response. This antimicrobial is expressed in several tissues and increased in neonatal skin, possibly to compensate for an immature adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that the mammary gland could produce and secrete cathelicidin onto the epithelial surface and into milk. Human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 mRNA was detected in human milk cells by PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated an increase in relative expression levels at 30 and 60 d after parturition. Immunohistochemistry of mouse breast tissue identified the murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in lobuloacinar and ductules. Western blot analysis of human milk showed that LL-37 was secreted and present in the mature peptide form. The antimicrobial activity of LL-37 against Staphylococcus aureus, group A Streptococcus, and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O29 in the human milk ionic environment was confirmed by solution colony-forming assay using synthetic peptide. These results indicate that cathelicidin is secreted in mammary gland and human milk, has antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can contribute to the anti-infectious properties of milk.

  2. The knowns and unknowns of human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The PREM Bank has been providing pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM) to very preterm for the past 3 years. It is the first human milk bank (HMB) to operate in Australia in over 20 years. Our community has rapidly embraced the concept of human milk banking, with both donations and demand for PDHM exceeding expectations. Providing PDHM in 'exceptional circumstances' where a mothers' own milk is unavailable is supported by the WHO and UNICEF. We submit that neonatal intensive care is an exceptional circumstance. Although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomised control trial (RCT) is limited, the latest systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotising enterocolitis with PDHM as opposed to artificial formula. Study design and ethical issues may limit future evidence from RCT. We therefore support the ongoing use of PDHM in neonatal care, where provided by an appropriately managed HMB. Internationally many HMBs operate unregulated, and this is also the case in Australia. To ensure safety the PREM Bank has committed to meet the appropriate standards recommended in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices (Blood and Tissues) in Australia and models risk management during processing on Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) requirements. There is scope to continually re-evaluate the screening of donors and quality standards recommended during HMB. This will be most effective if strong networks of HMBs are developed with regional reference laboratories to encourage compliance with safety guidelines. HMB networks will facilitate collection of evidence for refining HMB practice and improving outcomes for preterm and sick infants.

  3. Antioxidative probiotic fermented goats' milk decreases oxidative stress-mediated atherogenicity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kullisaar, Tiiu; Songisepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Kersti; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2003-08-01

    The increasing interest in a healthy diet is stimulating innovative development of novel scientific products in the food industry. The viable lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products, such as yoghurt, have been associated with increased lactose tolerance, a well-balanced intestinal microflora, antimicrobial activity, stimulation of the immune system and antitumoural, anticholesterolaemic and antioxidative properties in human subjects. Recently, we have studied a human Lactobacillus spp. strain that possesses antioxidative activity. The aim of the present pilot study was to develop goats' milk fermented with the human antioxidative lactobacilli strain, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, and to test the effect of the fermented probiotic goats' milk on oxidative stress markers (including markers for atherosclerosis) in human blood and urine and on the gut microflora. Twenty-one healthy subjects were assigned to two treatment groups: goats' milk group and fermented goats' milk group (150 g/d) for a period of 21 d. Consumption of fermented goats' milk improved anti-atherogenicity in healthy subjects: it prolonged resistance of the lipoprotein fraction to oxidation, lowered levels of peroxidized lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, 8-isoprostanes and glutathione redox ratio, and enhanced total antioxidative activity. The consumption of fermented goats' milk also altered both the prevalence and proportion of lactic acid bacteria species in the gut microflora of the subjects. We conclude that the goats' milk fermented with our special antioxidative lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 exhibits anti-atherogenic effects.

  4. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Human Milk From Mothers of Preterm Compared With Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Treumuth, Sirli; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-05-01

    Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used. The presence of the mecA gene, icaA gene of the ica-operon, IS 256, and ACME genetic elements was determined by PCR. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates had higher counts of staphylococci but lower species diversity. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates more often contained Staphylococcus epidermidis mecA (32.7% vs. 2.6%), icaA (18.8% vs. 6%), IS 256 (7.9% vs. 0.9%), and ACME (15.4% vs. 5.1%), as well as Staphylococcus haemolyticus mecA (90.5% vs. 10%) and IS 256 (61.9% vs. 10%). The overall distribution of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) types and sequence types was similar between the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates, but a few mecA-IS 256-positive MLVA types colonized only mothers of preterm neonates. Maternal hospitalization within 1 month postpartum and the use of an arterial catheter or antibacterial treatment in the neonate increased the odds of harboring mecA-positive staphylococci in human milk. Limiting exposure of mothers of preterm neonates to the hospital could prevent human milk colonization with more pathogenic staphylococci.

  5. Effect of human milk prostaglandins and lactoferrin on respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Grover, M; Giouzeppos, O; Schnagl, R D; May, J T

    1997-03-01

    The effect of lactoferrin and prostaglandins E and F2 alpha on the growth of rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture was investigated. Lactoferrin inhibited the growth of respiratory syncytial virus at a concentration tenfold lower than that normally present in human milk. The prostaglandins had no effect on either virus growth, even at a concentration of 100-fold more than that found in human milk. Lactoferrin may have some antiviral properties in human milk in addition to its known antibacterial functions.

  6. Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pięt, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Wilczak, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L -1 ), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L -1 ), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L -1 ), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L -1 ) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L -1 . Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.

  7. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y

    2017-03-01

    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). Human breast milk at different weeks postpartum stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p < 0.05). Such stimulation had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  8. Effect of the PiAstra Benchtop Flash-Heating Pasteurizer on Immune Factors of Donor Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Reimers, Penny; King, Tracy; Schmidt, Stefan; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2018-05-01

    PiAstra is a simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization temperature monitoring system designed using Raspberry Pi technology for the pasteurization of human milk. This study analyzed the effect of the PiAstra FH method on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and lactoferrin activity). Donor milk samples (N = 45) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA and lactoferrin activity were compared to their unpasteurized controls using the Student's t test. The PiAstra FH method retained 34.2% of IgA (p < 0.0001) and 40.4% of lactoferrin activity (p < 0.0001) when compared to unpasteurized controls. The retention of IgA by the PiAstra is similar to previous FH studies, while retention of lactoferrin activity was higher than previous FH studies. The high-technology, low-cost PiAstra system, which is able to retain vital immune components of human milk, provides safe donor milk for low-resourced settings. This enables the use of pasteurized donor milk when human milk is not available, potentially saving vulnerable infant lives.

  9. Improving Growth for Infants ≤1250 Grams Receiving an Exclusive Human Milk Diet.

    PubMed

    Huston, Robert K; Markell, Andrea M; McCulley, Elizabeth A; Gardiner, Stuart K; Sweeney, Sean L

    2018-02-16

    An exclusive human milk diet (EHM) fortified with human milk-based fortifier decreases necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to maternal milk supplemented with preterm formula and bovine fortifier (PTF). Growth has been less with EHM and also maternal milk supplemented with donor human milk and bovine fortifier (HMBF). The objective was to evaluate the effect of a standardized feeding protocol on the growth of infants ≤1250 g birth weight supported with EHM and HMBF. The effect on the incidence of NEC was also evaluated. A retrospective study of growth before and after implementation of a feeding protocol for infants who received either EHM or HMBF. Primary outcomes were weight, length, and head circumference gain velocities from birth to discharge. The incidence of NEC was also recorded. Analysis of covariance for 379 total infants showed that earlier day of life for fortification to 24 Kcal/oz was associated with increased weight gain (p = 0.0166) and length gain (p = 0.0064). Implementation of the feeding protocol was associated with increased head circumference gain (p = 0.006). EHM was associated with decreased incidence of NEC (p = 0.0302). Implementation of a standardized feeding protocol including earlier fortification of maternal milk was associated with improved growth for infants receiving human milk feedings. EHM significantly decreased NEC. Earlier fortification had no effect on NEC. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Quantification of lactose content in human and cow's milk using UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fusch, Gerhard; Choi, Arum; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    A sensitive, accurate, and specific quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for lactose measurement of cow's and human milk and validated with cow's milk samples certified by an external laboratory. The new method employs only a dilution of raw cow's and human milk for simple preparation with no need to remove protein and fat prior to analysis with UPLC-MS/MS. It was operated in negative mode to detect lactose molecules and labeled (13)C(12)-lactose with the highest sensitivity. The principle advantages of the new LC-MS/MS method were: completed lactose determination in 5 min, absolute recovery of 97-107%, lower limit of detection <5 ng/L, and 99% linearity over the concentration range of 0.7-4.4 mg/L for both cow's and human milk. The mean lactose concentration of 51 human milk samples was measured as 56.8 ± 5.5 g/L ranging from 43 to 65 g/L. The described method represents validated lactose analysis with high accuracy and precision for a routine lactose determination in raw human milk. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  12. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Human Milk Mucin 1 and Mucin 4 Inhibit Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion of Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhuoteng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogen binding to host receptors and their consumption by infants is associated with reduced risk of disease. Salmonella infection is more frequent among infants than among the general population, but the incidence is lower in breast-fed babies, suggesting that human milk could contain components that inhibit Salmonella. This study aimed to test whether human milk per se inhibits Salmonella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and, if so, to identify the milk components responsible for inhibition. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SL1344) invasion of FHs 74 Int and Caco-2 cells were the models of human intestinal epithelium infection. Internalization of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate–labeled SL1344 into intestinal cells was measured by flow cytometry to quantify infection. Human milk and its fractions inhibited infection; the inhibitory activity localized to the high molecular weight glycans. Mucin 1 and mucin 4 were isolated to homogeneity. At 150 μg/L, a typical concentration in milk, human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibited SL1344 invasion of both target cell types. These mucins inhibited SL1344 invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, mucins may prove useful as a basis for developing novel oral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that inhibit infant diseases caused by Salmonella and related pathogens. PMID:22718031

  14. Quantitation of human milk proteins and their glycoforms using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Kailemia, Muchena J; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Parker, Evan A; Hong, Qiuting; Sabia, Rocchina; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2017-01-01

    Human milk plays a substantial role in the child growth, development and determines their nutritional and health status. Despite the importance of the proteins and glycoproteins in human milk, very little quantitative information especially on their site-specific glycosylation is known. As more functions of milk proteins and other components continue to emerge, their fine-detailed quantitative information is becoming a key factor in milk research efforts. The present work utilizes a sensitive label-free MRM method to quantify seven milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, α1-antitrypsin, and lysozyme) using their unique peptides while at the same time, quantifying their site-specific N-glycosylation relative to the protein abundance. The method is highly reproducible, has low limit of quantitation, and accounts for differences in glycosylation due to variations in protein amounts. The method described here expands our knowledge about human milk proteins and provides vital details that could be used in monitoring the health of the infant and even the mother. Graphical Abstract The glycopeptides EICs generated from QQQ.

  15. Quantitation of human milk proteins and their glycoforms using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jincui; Kailemia, Muchena J.; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Parker, Evan A.; Hong, Qiuting; Sabia, Rocchina; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; German, J. Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Human milk plays a substantial role in the child growth, development and determines their nutritional and health status. Despite the importance of the proteins and glycoproteins in human milk, very little quantitative information especially on their site-specific glycosylation is known. As more functions of milk proteins and other components continue to emerge, their fine-detailed quantitative information is becoming a key factor in milk research efforts. The present work utilizes a sensitive label-free MRM method to quantify seven milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, α1-antitrypsin, and lysozyme) using their unique peptides while at the same time, quantifying their site-specific N-glycosylation relative to the protein abundance. The method is highly reproducible, has low limit of quantitation, and accounts for differences in glycosylation due to variations in protein amounts. The method described here expands our knowledge about human milk proteins and provides vital details that could be used in monitoring the health of the infant and even the mother. PMID:27796459

  16. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in Finnish foods: human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, E L; Piironen, V; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P; Salminen, K

    1985-01-01

    Individual tocopherols and tocotrienols in human milk, mother's milk substitutes and other infant formulas have been determined by an HPLC method. 107 human milk samples (23 colostral, 22 transitional and 62 mature) obtained from six healthy mothers throughout the lactation were found to contain all the tocopherols, although delta-tocopherol occurred only in traces. A high content of alpha-tocopherol was found in colostrum (average 1.90 +/- 1.62 (SD) mg/100 g), as compared with transitional (0.65 +/- 0.22 mg/100 g) and mature milk (0.47 +/- 0.16 mg/100 g). The content of beta-tocopherol averaged 0.05 +/- 0.03, 0.02 +/- 0.01 and 0.02 +/- 0.01 and gamma-tocopherol 0.11 +/- 0.09, 0.07 +/- 0.04 and 0.07 +/- 0.04 mg/100 g in colostral, transitional and mature milk respectively. The alpha-tocopherol equivalents thus were 1.93, 0.66 and 0.49 mg/100 g; their ratios to the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids meet the nutritional need of the newborn and young infant: 5.7, 2.1 and 1.4 mg/g in colostral, transitional and mature milk. Mother's milk substitutes and gruel and porridge powders are enriched with tocopherol acetate to vitamin E levels similar to or higher than those in human milk: substitutes contained on average 1.4 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents/100 g and reconstituted powders 1.1 mg/100 g. The ratio of vitamin E to polyunsaturated fatty acids of these infant formulas was higher than the recommended value of 0.6 mg/g. The average values for alpha-tocopherol equivalents in fruit-berry and meat-vegetable infant formulas were 0.46 and 0.38 mg/100 g.

  17. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  18. Cariogenic potential of cows', human and infant formula milks and effect of fluoride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Peres, Regina Celia Rocha; Coppi, Luciane Cristina; Volpato, Maria Cristina; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cariogenicity of cows', human and infant formula milks, supplemented or not with fluoride, in rats. Sixty female Wistar rats were desalivated and infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715.Animals were divided into six groups: group 1, sterilised deionised distilled water (SDW; negative control); group 2, 5 % sucrose added to SDW (positive control); group 3, human milk; group 4, cows' milk; group 5, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with SDW; group 6, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with 10 parts per million F and SDW. At day 21 the animals were killed and their jaws removed to quantify total cultivable microbiota, Strep. sobrinus and dental caries. The concentration of carbohydrate and fluoride in the milks was analysed. The Kruskal-Wallis test (alpha = 5 %) was used to analyse the data. The caries score by the milk formula was as high as that provoked by sucrose. Regarding smooth-surface caries, human milk was statistically more cariogenic than cows' milk, which did not differ from the SDW and the Ninho(R) with fluoride (P>0.05). Groups 2-6 showed higher Strep. sobrinus counts when compared with the negative control group (P < 0.05) but no statistically significant difference was found among them (P>0.05). HPLC analysis showed that infant formula had 9.3 % sucrose and 3.6 % reducing sugars. The infant formula should be considered cariogenic due to the sugars found in it, but fluoride supplementation reduced its cariogenic effect. The human milk was more cariogenic than the cows' milk but not as much as the formula milk.

  19. Polyamine levels in breast milk are associated with mothers' dietary intake and are higher in preterm than full-term human milk and formulas.

    PubMed

    Atiya Ali, M; Strandvik, B; Sabel, K-G; Palme Kilander, C; Strömberg, R; Yngve, A

    2014-10-01

    Polyamine intake from milk is considered essential for post-natal maturation of the immune system and small intestine. The present study aimed to determine polyamine content in human milk after preterm delivery and the association with mothers' dietary intake. In comparison, the polyamine levels were compared with those in term breast milk and some corresponding formulas. Transitional breast milk was collected from 40 mothers delivering after 24-36 weeks of gestation, and from 12 mothers delivering after full term. Food intake was assessed in mothers delivering preterm babies using a 3-day diary. Polyamines were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The dietary intake of polyamines was significantly associated with breast milk content but weaker for spermine than for spermidine and putrescine. Total polyamine level was higher in preterm than term milk and lower in the corresponding formulas. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents [mean (SEM)] in preterm milk were 165.6 (25), 615.5 (80) and 167.7 (16) nmol dL⁻¹, respectively, with the levels of putrescine and spermidine being 50% and 25% higher than in term milk. The content of spermine did not differ. Dietary intake of polyamines has an impact on the content in breast milk. The difference between human milk after preterm and term delivery might be considered when using donor human milk for preterm infants. The corresponding formulas had lower contents. Further studies are important for determining the relationship between tissue growth and maturation and optimal intake. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Identification and quantification of innate immune system mediators in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Armogida, Sheila A; Yannaras, Niki M; Melton, Alton L; Srivastava, Maya D

    2004-01-01

    Breast-feeding decreases the risk of breast cancer in mothers and infection, allergy, and autoimmunity in infants. The presence of mediators of the innate immune system in human milk, including soluble defensins, cathelicidins, and toll-like receptors (TLRs), has not been researched thoroughly. The whey fractions of colostrum and transitional and mature milk (n = 40) from normal mothers (n = 18) and from mothers with autoimmune or allergic diseases (n = 22) were analyzed for defensins by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for defensins, TLRs, and cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) by cells in breast milk was determined by semiquantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In whey, human neutrophil-derived a-defensin 1 (HNP-1) and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) were present in the highest concentrations (median, 33.0 and 31.3 microg/mL, respectively), human alpha-defensin 6 (HD-6) was present in moderate amounts (3.1 microg/mL), and HD-5 and HBD-1 were present in the lowest concentrations (2.4 and 1.7 microg/mL, respectively). There was great variability of defensin levels between subjects, but there was no relation to autoimmune or allergic diagnosis. HNP-1, HD-5, and HD-6 were present in significantly higher levels in colostrum than in mature milk. Regarding defensin mRNA expression in the breast milk cells, 95% of the samples (n = 41) were positive for HBD-1, 68% were positive for HD-5, 22% were positive for HBD-3, 15% were positive for HBD-2, 5% were positive for HBD-4, and 2% were positive for HD-6; 88% (14/16) were positive for HNP-1. Breast milk cells also expressed mRNA for TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9, CD14, and LL-37. Human breast milk contains high concentrations of multiple defensin proteins and cells in breast milk express mRNA for these defensins, multiple TLRs, and LL-37. The innate immune system in breast milk is complex and likely provides protection

  1. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  2. Got bacteria? The astounding, yet not-so-surprising, microbiome of human milk.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    Contrary to long-held dogma, human milk is not sterile. Instead, it provides infants a rich source of diverse bacteria, particularly microbes belonging to the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. Very little is known about factors that influence variation in the milk microbiome among women and populations, although time postpartum, delivery mode, and maternal factors such as diet and antibiotic use might be important. The origins of the bacteria in milk are thought to include the maternal gastrointestinal tract (via an entero-mammary pathway) and through bacterial exposure of the breast during nursing. Currently, almost nothing is known about whether variation in microbe consumption by the infant via human milk and that of the mammary gland, itself, impacts short-term and/or long-term infant and maternal health although several studies suggest this is likely. We urge the clinical and public health communities to be patient, however, in order to allow human milk and lactation researchers to first understand what constitutes 'normal' in terms of the milk microbiome (as well as factors that impact microbial community structure) prior to jumping the gun to investigate if and how this important source of microbes impacts maternal and infant health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-05-06

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow's milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5-1.8 g/100 g), very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68-0.83 g/100 g). Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  4. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cibelle Iáskara do Vale; Dametto, Juliana Fernandes Dos Santos; Oliveira, Janaína Cavalcanti Costa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the initial Dornic acidity in raw human milk, after pasteurization and after heating and dilution of a dietary supplement for preterm infants. A quantitative, descriptive, and experimental study was carried out with a convenience sample at the human milk bank at a Brazilian public maternity, with specialized care for pregnant women and newborns at risk. The eligibility criteria for the study sample included 93 frozen raw human milk in suitable containers with volumes ≥100mL and initial Dornic acidity ≤8° Dornic (°D). Milk acidity of human milk was measured in four stages: in raw human milk (initial); after pasteurization; after the heating of pasteurized milk and dilution of the supplement; and after thirty minutes of supplementation. The initial acidity was 3.8°D±1.3 (95% CI: 3.56-4.09) with no significant difference in Dornic acidity in pasteurized milk, which was 3.6°D±1.2 (95% CI: 3.36-3.87). The dilution of the supplement in pasteurized milk that was heated significantly increased mean Dornic acidity to 18.6°D±2.2 (95% CI: 18.18-19.11), which remained high after thirty minutes of supplementation at 17.8°D±2.2 (95% CI: 17.36-18.27), considering p<0.05. The study observed no significant differences in Dornic acidity of raw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Immunoglobulin A and Protein Content of Low-Fat Human Milk Prepared for the Treatment of Chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Michelle; Waterhouse, Chris C M; Lyon, Andrew W; Fenton, Tanis R

    2017-12-14

    Several case studies report successful recovery from chylothorax while infants were fed low-fat human milk. The reported growth rates were inadequate despite milk supplementation with added medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs). The objective was to determine the effect that various human milk fat separating methods, refrigerated centrifuge, room temperature centrifuge, and refrigeration have on the loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and protein in the preparation of low-fat human milk. Protein and IgA were measured in 31 samples of reduced-fat human milk. Reduced-fat breastmilk samples were prepared by separating the fat using 3 methods (refrigerated centrifuge, room temperature centrifuge, and a refrigeration method), followed by lower fat milk extraction by syringe. The refrigeration method decreased IgA concentration by 17% (P = .035) while centrifugation and fat removal from the human milk samples led to a 38% decline in IgA concentration in both the nonrefrigerated and refrigerated centrifuge samples (P < .0001 for both). Protein declined by 11% with refrigeration and fat removal (P < .0001) while centrifugation and fat removal decreased protein concentration by 31% (P < .0001) in both nonrefrigerated centrifuge and refrigerated centrifuge samples. Preparing low-fat human milk for patients with chylothorax decreased the IgA and protein contents. As well as fat (in the form of MCTs), protein likely needs to be supplemented for infants fed low-fat human milk to support adequate growth. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Effects of human milk and formula on postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Wright, C J; Atkinson, F S; Ramalingam, N; Buyken, A E; Brand-Miller, J C

    2015-08-01

    Consumption of formula in place of human milk may produce differences in postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia that contribute to metabolic programming in the first year of life. The objective of the current study was to determine glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to human milk compared with a typical commercial formula, and then compare 11 other formulas. On separate mornings in random order, 10 healthy breastfeeding mothers consumed 25 g available carbohydrate portions of their own milk, a formula and reference food (25 g glucose on two occasions). In the second study, 10 different healthy subjects consumed 25 g available carbohydrate portions of 11 different commercial formulas and three reference foods (25 g glucose on three occasions). Fingerpick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h, and the glycaemic index (GI) and insulin index determined according to a standardised protocol. There were no significant differences in postprandial glycaemia or insulinaemia after human milk vs a typical formula (P = 0.3). Both produced a low GI (mean ± s.e.m.: 38 ± 7 vs 34 ± 7, respectively) and high insulin index (87 ± 14 vs 94 ± 16). The GI and insulin indices of the other formulas ranged from 18 ± 3 to 67 ± 6 and 53 ± 9 to 209 ± 33, respectively. Human milk and a typical formula elicit similar postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, but there is a wide range of responses to other formulas.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of bifidobacterial strains from infant's faeces and human milk: are bifidobacteria being sustainably shared during breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Makino, H; Martin, R; Ishikawa, E; Gawad, A; Kubota, H; Sakai, T; Oishi, K; Tanaka, R; Ben-Amor, K; Knol, J; Kushiro, A

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be one of the most important beneficial intestinal bacteria for infants, contributing to the priming of the mucosal immune system. These microbes can also be detected in mother's milk, suggesting a potential role of human milk in the colonisation of infant's gut. However, little is known about the timing of bacteria appearance in human milk, and whether human milk is the first source of inoculation. Here, we investigated whether specific strains are shared sustainably between maternal milk and infant's gut. Faecal samples and human milk were collected from 102 healthy mother-infant pairs (infant's faeces: meconium, 7, 30 days of age; mother's milk: once before delivery, colostrum, 7, 30 days after delivery). Bifidobacterial strains were isolated from these samples, and were discriminated by means of multilocus sequencing typing. No bifidobacteria were detected from human milk collected before delivery, or colostrum. Strains were isolated only from human milk samples obtained 7 days after birth or later. On the other hand, bifidobacterial strains were obtained from infant's faeces throughout the study period, sometimes as early as the first day of life (meconium). We have found that bifidobacterial species belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum could be identified as monophyletic between infant's faeces and their mother's milk. These strains were confirmed to be sustainably shared between maternal milk and infant's gut. Moreover, monophyletic strains were isolated at the same time point or earlier from infant's faeces than from human milk, and none were isolated earlier from human milk than from infant's faeces. Although it remains unclear whether human milk is the first source of microbes for infants, our results confirm that human milk is a reservoir of bifidobacteria, and specific strains are shared between infant's intestine and human milk during breastfeeding.

  8. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  9. Investigation on bisphenol A levels in human milk and dairy supply chain: A review.

    PubMed

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain. Despite the reported levels are generally below the fixed limits, breast milk is considered a continuous low-level exposure to endocrine-active compounds for infants. In addition, BPA residues are detected in milk and dairy products posing a risk to human health. BPA enters into milk chain via multiple pathways at various points during milk production (e.g., PVC tubing used during the milking process, transfer from bulk milk to storage tanks, during milk processing). To prevent or mitigate this hazard, a specific TDI for infants is recommended and evaluation of risk factors at each phase of the dairy supply chain, in the quality systems, is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical analysis of human milk treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate, an alkyl sulfate microbicide that inactivates human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sandra Urdaneta; Wigdahl, Brian; Neely, Elizabeth B; Berlin, Cheston M; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne; Lin, Hung-Mo; Howett, Mary K

    2006-02-01

    Reduction of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through human milk is needed. Alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, have little to no toxicity, and are inexpensive. The authors have reported that treatment of HIV-1-infected human milk with < or = 1% (10 mg/mL) SDS for 10 minutes inactivates cell-free and cell-associated virus. The SDS can be removed with a commercially available resin after treatment without recovery of viral infectivity. In this article, the authors report results of selective biochemical analyses (ie, protein, immunoglobulins, lipids, cells, and electrolytes) of human milk subjected to SDS treatment and removal. The SDS treatment or removal had no significant effects on the milk components studied. Therefore, the use of alkyl sulfate microbicides to treat milk from HIV-1-positive women may be a simple, practical, and nutritionally sound way to prevent or reduce transmission of HIV-1 while still feeding with mother's own milk.

  11. State of the science: use of human milk and breast-feeding for vulnerable infants.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Human milk is the preferred form of nutrition for all infants including those born preterm or otherwise ill. However, without the commitment of knowledgeable healthcare providers to ensure success during mother-infant separation, many infants fail to receive their mother's own milk. Care of the mother-infant dyad during infant illness requires vigilant monitoring of the lactation experience and the commitment of healthcare providers to take a family through the step-by-step process needed to ensure positive outcomes related to the use of human milk and breast-feeding for vulnerable infants. The science tells us that human milk is the best form of nutrition for all infants. As practitioners we must be doing everything in our power to make sure the infants we care for are able to receive their mother's own milk.

  12. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  13. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Blans, Kristine; Hansen, Maria S; Sørensen, Laila V; Hvam, Michael L; Howard, Kenneth A; Möller, Arne; Wiking, Lars; Larsen, Lotte B; Rasmussen, Jan T

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated. In this study, we present two isolation approaches accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV-marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides and presents a phospholipid profile differing from milk fat globules surrounded by epithelial cell plasma membrane. Moreover, the milk EV fractions are enriched in RNA with distinct and diverging profiles from milk fat globules. Collectively, our data supports that successful milk EV isolation can be accomplished in few steps without the use of ultracentrifugation, as the presented isolation approaches based on SEC effectively isolates EV in both human and bovine milk.

  14. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Blans, Kristine; Hansen, Maria S.; Sørensen, Laila V.; Hvam, Michael L.; Howard, Kenneth A.; Möller, Arne; Wiking, Lars; Larsen, Lotte B.; Rasmussen, Jan T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated. In this study, we present two isolation approaches accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV-marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides and presents a phospholipid profile differing from milk fat globules surrounded by epithelial cell plasma membrane. Moreover, the milk EV fractions are enriched in RNA with distinct and diverging profiles from milk fat globules. Collectively, our data supports that successful milk EV isolation can be accomplished in few steps without the use of ultracentrifugation, as the presented isolation approaches based on SEC effectively isolates EV in both human and bovine milk. PMID:28386391

  15. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Yahvah, Katherine M; Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-08-01

    Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations. Concentrations of maternal cells were determined using microscopy, and somatic cell counts were enumerated. Microbial ecologies were characterized using culture-independent methods. Absolute and relative concentrations of maternal cells were mostly consistent within each woman as were relative abundances of bacterial genera, and there were many apparent relationships between these factors. For instance, relative abundance of Serratia was negatively associated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.47, p < .0001) and neutrophil concentration ( r = -.38, p < .0006). Concentrations of several oligosaccharides were correlated with maternally derived cell types as well as somatic cell counts; for example, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose were inversely correlated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.64, p = .0082; r = -.52, p = .0387, respectively), and relative abundance of Staphylococcus was positively associated with total oligosaccharide concentration ( r = .69, p = .0034). Complex relationships between milk nutrients and bacterial community profile, maternal cells, and milk oligosaccharides were also apparent. These data support the possibility that profiles of maternally derived cells, nutrient concentrations, and the microbiome of human milk might be interrelated.

  16. The lipid fraction of human milk initiates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Rie; Nagata, Eiko; Satake, Eiichiro; Sano, Shinichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Kitsuta, Kazunobu; Nakashima, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past decade. Despite evidence that human milk lowers the risk of childhood obesity, the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the direct effect of human milk on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with donated human milk only or the combination of the standard hormone mixture; insulin, dexamethasone (DEX), and 3-isobututyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Furthermore, the induction of preadipocyte differentiation by extracted lipids from human milk was tested in comparison to the cells treated with lipid extracts from infant formula. Adipocyte differentiation, specific genes as well as formation of lipid droplets were examined. We clearly show that lipids present in human milk initiate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In contrast, this effect was not observed in response to lipids present in infant formula. The initiation of preadipocyte differentiation by human milk was enhanced by adding the adipogenic hormone, DEX or insulin. The expression of late adipocyte markers in Day 7 adipocytes that have been induced into differentiation with human milk lipid extracts was comparable to those in control cells initiated by a standard adipogenic hormone cocktail. These results demonstrate that human milk contains bioactive lipids that can initiate preadipocyte differentiation in the absence of the standard adipogenic compounds via a unique pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  18. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Danielle G; Hovey, Russell C; Hartono, Stella R; Hinde, Katie; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Ventimiglia, Frank; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Lee, Joyce W S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Silva, Pedro Ivo; Korf, Ian; Medrano, Juan F; Barry, Peter A; German, J Bruce

    2013-12-12

    Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation.

  19. Analysis of the influence of pasteurization, freezing/thawing, and offer processes on human milk's macronutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alan Araujo; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Pimenta, Hellen Porto; Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-08-01

    The macronutrient concentrations of human milk could be influenced by the various processes used in human milk bank. To determine the effect of various process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) on the macronutrient concentration of human milk. The samples of donated fresh human milk were studied before and after each process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) until their delivery to newborn infants. Fifty-seven raw human milk samples were analyzed in the first step (pasteurization) and 228 in the offer step. Repeated measurements of protein, fat and lactose amounts were made in samples of human milk using an Infrared analyzer. The influence of repeated processes on the mean concentration of macronutrients in donor human milk was analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVA, using R statistical package. The most variable macronutrient concentration in the analyzed samples was fat (reduction of 59%). There was a significant reduction of fat and protein mean concentrations following pasteurization (5.5 and 3.9%, respectively). The speed at which the milk was thawed didn't cause a significant variation in the macronutrients concentrations. However, the continuous infusion delivery significantly reduced the fat concentration. When the influence of repeated processes was analyzed, the fat and protein concentrations varied significantly (reduction of 56.6% and 10.1% respectively) (P<0.05). Lactose didn't suffer significant reductions in all steps. The repeated processes that donor human milk is submitted before delivery to newborn infants cause a reduction in the fat and protein concentration. The magnitude of this decrease is higher on the fat concentration and it needs to be considered when this processed milk is used to feed preterm infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja; Kleemann, Johannes; Müller, Jutta; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August; Meissner, Markus; Valesky, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk) without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk) and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids. PMID:26134630

  1. Lymphatic fatty acids from rats fed human milk and formula containing coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Roche, M E; Clark, R M

    1994-06-01

    Human milk and infant formula containing coconut/soy oil were infused into the duodenum of rats to determine the incorporation of capric, lauric, myristic and palmitic acids into lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG). The proportion of capric and lauric acids in the lymphatic TAG reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet. Based on positional analysis, it appears that more than 50% of the capric and lauric acids could have been absorbed from the intestine as sn-2 monoacylglycerols. In the rats fed human milk, 50% of palmitic acid in lymphatic TAG was in the sn-2 position. Because of the nonrandom distribution of palmitic acid in the lymphatic TAG, the nonspecific lipase in human milk, i.e., bile salt-stimulated lipase, did not appear to be a factor in milk lipid digestion.

  2. Validation of a dilute and shoot method for quantification of 12 elements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry in human milk and in cow milk preparations.

    PubMed

    Dubascoux, Stéphane; Andrey, Daniel; Vigo, Mario; Kastenmayer, Peter; Poitevin, Eric

    2018-09-01

    Nutritional information about human milk is essential as early human growth and development have been closely linked to the status and requirements of several macro- and micro-elements. However, methods addressing whole mineral profiling in human milk have been scarce due in part to their technical complexities to accurately and simultaneously measure the concentration of micro- and macro-trace elements in low volume of human milk. In the present study, a single laboratory validation has been performed using a "dilute and shoot" approach for the quantification of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and iodine (I), in both human milk and milk preparations. Performances in terms of limits of detection and quantification, of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness have been assessed and verified using various reference or certified materials. For certified human milk sample (NIST 1953), recoveries obtained for reference or spiked values are ranged from 93% to 108% (except for Mn at 151%). This robust method using new technology ICP-MS/MS without high pressure digestion is adapted to both routinely and rapidly analyze human milk micro-sample (i.e. less than 250 μL) in the frame of clinical trials but also to be extended to the mineral profiling of milk preparations like infant formula and adult nutritionals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Plant miRNAs Abundance in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Lukasik, Anna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2017-12-23

    Breast milk is a natural food and important component of infant nutrition. Apart from the alimentary substances, breast milk contains many important bioactive compounds, including endogenous microRNA molecules (miRNAs). These regulatory molecules were identified in various mammalian biological fluids and were shown to be mostly packed in exosomes. Recently, it was revealed that plant food-derived miRNAs are stably present in human blood and regulate the expression of specific human genes. Since then, the scientific community has focused its efforts on contradicting or confirming this discovery. With the same intention, qRT-PCR experiments were performed to evaluate the presence of five plant food-derived miRNAs (miR166a, miR156a, miR157a, miR172a and miR168a) in breast milk (whole milk and exosomes) from healthy volunteers. In whole milk samples, all examined miRNAs were identified, while only two of these miRNAs were confirmed to be present in exosomes. The plant miRNA concentration in the samples ranged from 4 to 700 fM. Complementary bioinformatics analysis suggests that the evaluated plant miRNAs may potentially influence several crucial biological pathways in the infant organism.

  4. Insulin in human milk and the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, N; Shamir, R; Berant, M; Etzioni, A

    2001-12-01

    Although controversial, exclusive breast milk feeding was shown to exert a protective effect in preventing type 1 diabetes. In contrast, an early introduction of cow's milk-based formula in young infants may enhance the risk of disease, especially in genetically susceptible children, presumably by an increase of intestinal permeability to macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin and beta-casein, which may arouse autoimmunity. We have shown that human milk contains insulin in substantial concentrations, while insulin is barely detectable (if at all) in infant formulas. Orally administered insulin was demonstrated to promote gut maturation and to reduce intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Furthermore, oral insulin may induce tolerance to insulin and protect against the development of type 1 diabetes. We herewith raise a hypothesis that human milk is protective against the development of type 1 diabetes by virtue of the effects of its substantial content of insulin.

  5. TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT ON PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE AND TOXIC (PBT) COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human breast milk is generally recommended as the preferred nutritional source for infants. Lipids, which make up 3-5% of human milk, are the major source of kilocalories and are crucial for the growth and development of the infant. Infants may be significantly exposed to lipop...

  6. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P.; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L.; Blanco, Cynthia L.; Patel, Aloka L.; Meier, Paula P.; Garzon, Steven A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20–40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk. PMID:26045614

  7. Human milk peptides differentiate between the preterm and term infant and across varying lactational stages.

    PubMed

    Dingess, Kelly A; de Waard, Marita; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Lambers, Tim T; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-10-18

    Variations in endogenous peptide profiles, functionality, and the enzymes responsible for the formation of these peptides in human milk are understudied. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge regarding peptides in donor human milk, which is used to feed preterm infants when mother's own milk is not (sufficiently) available. To assess this, 29 human milk samples from the Dutch Human Milk Bank were analyzed as three groups, preterm late lactation stage (LS) (n = 12), term early (n = 8) and term late LS (n = 9). Gestational age (GA) groups were defined as preterm (24-36 weeks) and term (≥37 weeks). LS was determined as days postpartum as early (16-36 days) or late (55-88 days). Peptides, analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and parent proteins (proteins from matched peptide sequences) were identified and quantified, after which peptide functionality and the enzymes responsible for protein cleavage were determined. A total of 16 different parent proteins were identified from human milk, with no differences by GA or LS. We identified 1104 endogenous peptides, of which, the majority were from the parent proteins β-casein, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α s1 -casein, osteopontin, and κ-casein. The absolute number of peptides differed by GA and LS with 30 and 41 differing sequences respectively (p < 0.05) Odds likelihood tests determined that 32 peptides had a predicted bioactive functionality, with no significant differences between groups. Enzyme prediction analysis showed that plasmin/trypsin enzymes most likely cleaved the identified human milk peptides. These results explain some of the variation in endogenous peptides in human milk, leading to future targets that may be studied for functionality.

  8. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Ahrabi, Ali Faraghi; Handa, Deepali; Codipilly, Champa N; Shah, Syed; Williams, Janet E; McGuire, Mark A; Potak, Debra; Aharon, Grace Golda; Schanler, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage. Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality. Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P < .001); bacterial counts decreased most rapidly in the refrigerated frozen group. The gram-negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P < .001). Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased significantly with time in storage (P < .001). Freezing for up to 9 months did not affect total protein, fat, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, or osmolality in either group. Freezer storage of human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect. Method Nine healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of human milk, bovine milk, reconstituted bovine whey- or casein protein in random order. All test meals contributed with 25g intrinsic or added lactose, and a white wheat bread (WWB) meal was used as reference, providing 25g starch. Post-prandial levels in plasma of glucose, insulin, incretins and amino acids were investigated at time intervals for up to 2 h. Results All test meals elicited lower postprandial blood glucose responses, expressed as iAUC 0–120 min compared with the WWB (P < 0.05). The insulin response was increased following all test meals, although only significantly higher after whey. Plasma amino acids were correlated to insulin and incretin secretion (iAUC 0–60 min) (P ≤ 0.05). The lowered glycemia with the test meals (iAUC 0–90 min) was inversely correlated to GLP-1 (iAUC 0–30 min) (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that the glycemic response was significantly lower following all milk/milk protein based test meals, in comparison with WWB. The effect appears to originate from the protein fraction and early phase plasma amino acids and incretins were involved in the insulin secretion. Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk. PMID:23057765

  10. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk.

    PubMed

    Gunnerud, Ulrika; Holst, Jens J; Östman, Elin; Björck, Inger

    2012-10-12

    Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect. Nine healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of human milk, bovine milk, reconstituted bovine whey- or casein protein in random order. All test meals contributed with 25 g intrinsic or added lactose, and a white wheat bread (WWB) meal was used as reference, providing 25 g starch. Post-prandial levels in plasma of glucose, insulin, incretins and amino acids were investigated at time intervals for up to 2 h. All test meals elicited lower postprandial blood glucose responses, expressed as iAUC 0-120 min compared with the WWB (P < 0.05). The insulin response was increased following all test meals, although only significantly higher after whey. Plasma amino acids were correlated to insulin and incretin secretion (iAUC 0-60 min) (P ≤ 0.05). The lowered glycemia with the test meals (iAUC 0-90 min) was inversely correlated to GLP-1 (iAUC 0-30 min) (P ≤ 0.05). This study shows that the glycemic response was significantly lower following all milk/milk protein based test meals, in comparison with WWB. The effect appears to originate from the protein fraction and early phase plasma amino acids and incretins were involved in the insulin secretion. Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk.

  11. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g), very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g). Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA. PMID:28239105

  12. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jane E; Wilson, Jess; Brown, Julie

    2017-02-26

    Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet the estimated needs of preterm infants for adequate growth. Supplementation of human milk with calcium and phosphorus may improve growth and development of preterm infants. To determine whether addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism of preterm infants without significant adverse effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 14 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 14 April 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 April 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases (11 May 2016) and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation of human milk with calcium and/or phosphorus versus no supplementation in hospitalised preterm infants were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors (JB, JW) independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We reported dichotomous data as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. This is an update of a 2001 review that identified no eligible trials. One trial including 40 infants met the inclusion criteria for this review. Using GRADE criteria, we judged the quality of the evidence as low owing to risk of bias (inadequate reporting of methods of randomisation, allocation concealment and/or blinding) and imprecision (wide confidence intervals and

  13. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Structure-Function Relationships of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars; Jantscher-Krenn, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    Human milk contains more than a hundred structurally distinct oligosaccharides. In this review, we provide examples of how the structural characteristics of these human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) determine functionality. Specific α1–2-fucosylated HMO have been shown to serve as antiadhesive antimicrobials to protect the breast-fed infant against infections with Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea. In contrast, α1–2-fucosylation may abolish the beneficial effects of HMO against Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite that causes colitis, acute dysentery, or chronic diarrhea. In a different context, HMO need to be both fucosylated and sialylated to reduce selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and activation, which may protect breast-fed infants from excessive immune responses. In addition, our most recent data show that a single HMO that carries not 1 but 2 sialic acids protects neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis, one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk. Thus, it appears unlikely that they can mimic some of the structure-specific effects of HMO. Recent advances in glycan synthesis and isolation have increased the availability of certain HMO tri- and tetrasaccharides for in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. In the end, intervention studies are needed to confirm that the structure-specific effects observed at the laboratory bench translate into benefits for the human infant. Ultimately, breastfeeding remains the number one choice to nourish and nurture our infants. PMID:22585916

  15. Modeling of milk flow in mammary ducts in lactating human female breast.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S Negin; Geddes, Donna; Hassanipour, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    A transient laminar Newtonian three-dimensional CFD simulation has been studied for milk flow in a phantom model of the 6-generations human lactating breast branching system. Milk is extracted by the cyclic pattern of suction from the alveoli through the duct and to the nipple. The real negative (suction) pressure data are applied as an outlet boundary condition in nipple. In this study, the commercial CFD code (Fluent Inc., 2004) is employed for the numerical solution of the milk flow. The milk intake flow rate from simulation is compared to the real clinical data from published paper. The results are in good agreement. It is believed that the methodology of the lactating human breast branching modeling proposed here can provide potential guidelines for further clinical and research application.

  16. Comparison of the effect of human milk and topical hydrocortisone 1% on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Leila Amiri; Ghobadzadeh, Maryam; Yousefi, Parsa

    2013-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin problems in infants and children, affecting between 7% and 35% of infants. This randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy of hydrocortisone 1% ointment with that of human breast milk in treating acute diaper dermatitis in infants ages 0 to 24 months. Infants with diaper rash were treated with either hydrocortisone 1% ointment (n = 70) or human breast milk (n = 71) for 7 days. Improvement in the rash from baseline was seen in both treatment groups on days 3 and 7; there was no significant difference in total rash scores on days 3 and 7. Treatment with human breast milk was as effective as hydrocortisone 1% ointment alone. Human breast milk is an effective and safe treatment for diaper dermatitis in infants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-15

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple and efficient HPLC method for benznidazole dosage in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Marson, María E; Padró, Juan M; Reta, Mario R; Altcheh, Jaime; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Mastrantonio, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Due to migration, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America, and in other nonendemic regions. The 2 drugs currently available for the treatment, nifurtimox and benznidazole (BNZ), are associated with a high risk of toxicity in therapeutic doses. Excretion of drug into human breast milk is a potential source of unwanted exposure and pharmacologic effects in the nursing infant. However, this phenomenon was not evaluated until now, and measurement techniques for both drugs in milk were not developed. In this work, we described the development of a simple and fast method to quantify BNZ in human milk using a pretreatment that involves acid protein precipitation followed by tandem microfiltration, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet analysis. It is simple because it takes only 3 steps to obtain a clean extracted solution that is ready to inject into the high-performance liquid chromatography equipment. It is fast because a complete analysis of a sample takes only 36 minutes. Although the human breast milk composition is very variable, and lipids are one of the most difficult compounds to clean up on a milk sample, the procedure has proven to be robust and sensitive with a limit of detection of 0.3 μg/mL and quantization of 0.9 μg/mL. Despite a 70% recovery value, which could be considered a relatively low result, this recovery is reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and the analytical response under the linear range is very good (r = 0.9969 adjusted). Real samples of human breast milk from patients in treatment with BNZ were dosed to support the validation process of the method. The method described is fast, specific, accurate, precise, and sufficiently sensitive in the clinical context for the quantification of BNZ in human milk. For all these reasons, it is suitable for clinical risk evaluation studies.

  19. Diaper dermatitis care of newborns human breast milk or barrier cream.

    PubMed

    Gozen, Duygu; Caglar, Seda; Bayraktar, Sema; Atici, Funda

    2014-02-01

    To establish the effectiveness of human breast milk and barrier cream (40% zinc oxide with cod liver oil formulation) applied for the skincare of newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit on the healing process of diaper dermatitis. Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatological condition in newborns who are cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. Recently, there are several kinds of complementary skincare methods suggested for newborns, such as sunflower oil, human breast milk, etc. Also, some chemical formulations are still being used in many neonatal intensive care units. Randomised controlled, prospective, experimental. This study was carried out with a population including term and preterm newborns who developed diaper rash while being treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in Istanbul between February-October 2010. On completion of the research, a total of 63 newborns from human breast milk (n = 30) and barrier cream (n = 33) groups were contacted. Genders, mean gestation weeks, feeding method, antibiotic use, diaper area cleansing methods, diaper brands and prelesion scores of newborns in both groups were found to be comparable (p > 0·05). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.294) between the groups in terms of mean number of clinical improvement days, but postlesion score of the barrier cream group was statistically significantly lower (p = 0·002) than the human breast milk group. Barrier cream delivers more effective results than treatment with human breast milk, particularly in the treatment of newborns with moderate to severe dermatitis in the result of the study. This study will shed light on nursing care of skin for newborns who are treated in neonatal intensive care unit. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in head circumference, body length, and weight growth velocity among the three groups. Donor human milk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  2. It’s alive: microbes and cells in human milk and their potential benefits to mother and infant.

    PubMed

    Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan M; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini; Hartmann, Peter E; McGuire, Michelle K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk is the optimal source of nutrition for the nursing infant. Classically, the nutrients (water, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals) were studied as the critical components of milk serving the growth needs of the infant for optimum growth. However, human milk contains factors other than the classically defined nutrients for which researchers are investigating potential roles in infant and maternal health, development, and well-being. The symposium addressed some of the exciting factors being studied, including microbes and maternal cells found within milk. Drs. Michelle McGuire and Juan M. Rodríguez addressed the presence of a bacterial community in human milk produced by healthy and mastitic mothers, potential sources of those bacteria, and the impact of milk-derived bacteria on the nursing infant. Drs. Donna Geddes, Peter Hartmann, and Foteini Hassiotou discussed the potential importance of maternal cells. For years, immune cells were known to be present in human milk, but recent evidence suggests that their impact is as much on the infant as on the health of the lactating mammary gland. Finally, the existence of highly plastic stem cells in human milk opens doors for previously unforeseen developmental “training” of the nursing infant.

  3. Expression and characterization of bioactive recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin in the milk of transgenic cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yang, P; Tang, B; Sun, X; Zhang, R; Guo, C; Gong, G; Liu, Y; Li, R; Zhang, L; Dai, Y; Li, N

    2008-12-01

    Improvement of the nutritional value of cow milk with transgenic expression of recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) has been previously attempted. However, the detailed characterization of the recombinant protein and analysis of the transgenic milk components are not explored yet. Here, we first report production of healthy transgenic cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which expression of up to 1.55 g/L of recombinant human alpha-LA was achieved. The recombinant human alpha-LA was purified from transgenic milk and displayed physicochemical properties similar to its natural counterpart with respect to molecular weight, structure, and regulatory activity for beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Additionally, no N-glycosylation was found in the recombinant human alpha-LA, whereas the endogenous bovine alpha-LA was glycosylated at the unusual site (71)Asn-Ile-(73)Cys. Compared with milk from nontransgenic cows, expression of the transgene did not materially alter milk composition, such as fat and protein content. Our research thus provides scientific evidence supporting the feasibility of humanizing cow milk.

  4. Collecting and banking human milk: to heat or not to heat?

    PubMed

    Björkstén, B; Burman, L G; De Château, P; Fredrikzon, B; Gothefors, L; Hernell, O

    1980-09-20

    Data on human breast milk and its handling when fed to babies who cannot be breast-fed were reviewed to determine whether the method of processing and storage affected the properties of the milk. Breast milk is normally contaminated by potential pathogens, which seem to produce no ill effects, but it also contains antimicrobial properties which protect against infection. The evidence suggests that pasteurisation not only eliminates pathogenic bacteria but also damages bacteriostatic mechanisms, so making the milk more susceptible to later contamination. Pasteurisation also affects the nutritional properties of milk. Freezing has little effect on milk proteins, while a study on the effect of refrigeration showed that there was little bacterial growth at temperatures below 8 degrees C. Several years' experience of feeding donated raw milk to newborn infants has confirmed that it produces no ill effects. These findings suggest that pasteurisation of donated breastmilk is unnecessary, and it is not recommended, while the decision whether or not to freeze the milk may be made on practical grounds. Raw breast milk can be safely stored at 4-6 degrees C for 72 hours.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  6. Method for the quantification of current use and persistent pesticides in cow milk, human milk and baby formula using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianyu; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Bernoudy, Geneva C; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the quantification of organochlorine (OC), organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticide residues in cow milk, human milk, and baby formula. A total of 25 compounds were included in this method. Sample extraction procedures combined liquid-liquid extraction, freezing-lipid filtration, dispersive primary-secondary amine cleanup, and solid-phase extraction together for effective extraction and elimination of matrix interferences. Target compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron impact ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Average extraction recoveries obtained from cow milk samples fortified at two different concentrations (10 ng/mL and 25 ng/mL), ranged from 34% to 102%, with recoveries for the majority of target compounds falling between 60% and 80%. Similar ranges were found for formula fortified at 25 ng/mL. The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the low pg/mL level (range 3-1600 pg/mL). The accuracies and precisions were within the range of 80-120% and less than 15%, respectively. This method was tested for its viability by analyzing 10 human milk samples collected from anonymous donors, 10 cow milk samples and 10 baby formula samples purchased from local grocery stores in the United States. Hexachlorobenzene, p,p-dicofol, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, and chlorpyrifos were found in all samples analyzed. We found detectable levels of permethrin, cyfluthrin, and fenvalerate in some of the cow milk samples but not in human milk or baby formula samples. Some of the pesticides, such as azinphos-methyl, heptachlor epoxide, and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, were detected in some of the cow milk and human milk samples but not in baby formula samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Differences in the Triacylglycerol and Fatty Acid Compositions of Human Colostrum and Mature Milk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pu; Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yang; Lu, Jing; Lv, Jiaping

    2018-05-02

    Human colostrum is important for immune system development and plays a protective role for infants. However, the comprehensive exploration of lipids, which account for 3-5% of milk, and their biological functions in human colostrum was limited. In present study, the triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acid (FA) compositions of human colostrum and mature milk were analyzed and compared. Variations were observed in both the TAG and FA compositions. The concentrations of 18:1/18:1/16:0 TAG, high-molecular-weight and unsaturated TAGs were significantly higher in colostrum, whereas mature milk contained more low/medium-molecular-weight TAGs and medium-chain FAs. Furthermore, there were also specific TAGs in both colostrum and mature milk. Our data highlighted targets for further investigation to elucidate the biological function of lipids in colostrum milk. In addition, the comprehensive analysis of TAGs in Chinese colostrum might help in designing infant formula for Chinese babies, especially the preterm ones.

  8. Daily variations in oligosaccharides of human milk determined by microfluidic chips and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niñonuevo, Milady R; Perkins, Patrick D; Francis, Jimi; Lamotte, Latasha M; LoCascio, Riccardo G; Freeman, Samara L; Mills, David A; German, J Bruce; Grimm, Rudolf; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2008-01-23

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid that provides not only primary nourishment for infants but also protection against pathogens and influences their metabolic, immunologic, and even cognitive development. The presence of oligosaccharides in remarkable abundance in human milk has been associated to provide diverse biological functions including directing the development of an infant's intestinal microflora and immune system. Recent advances in analytical tools offer invaluable insights in understanding the specific functions and health benefits these biomolecules impart to infants. Oligosaccharides in human milk samples obtained from five different individual donors over the course of a 3 month lactation period were isolated and analyzed using HPLC-Chip/TOF-MS technology. The levels and compositions of oligosaccharides in human milk were investigated from five individual donors. Comparison of HPLC-Chip/TOF-MS oligosaccharides profiles revealed heterogeneity among multiple individuals with no significant variations at different stages of lactation within individual donors.

  9. Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Kampmann, Beate; Mehring Le-Doare, Kirsty

    2015-11-01

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution, finely attuning it to the requirements of the infant. Breast milk contains many complex proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, the concentrations of which alter dramatically over a single feed, as well as over lactation, to reflect the infant's needs. In addition to providing a source of nutrition for infants, breast milk contains a myriad of biologically active components. These molecules possess diverse roles, both guiding the development of the infants immune system and intestinal microbiota. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides, the synthesis of which are determined by the maternal genotype. In this review, we discuss the composition of breast milk and the factors that affect it during the course of breast feeding. Understanding the components of breast milk and their functions will allow for the improvement of clinical practices, infant feeding and our understanding of immune responses to infection and vaccination in infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Human Milk Metabolome Reveals Diverse Oligosaccharide Profiles123

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; O’Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4–120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4–84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  11. Human milk and breast feeding: an update on the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ogra, P L; Greene, H L

    1982-04-01

    Current approaches to infant feeding have been based on the level of available knowledge of nutritional requirements of full term and low birth weight (LBW) infants and on established cultural traditions in many contemporary societies. This discussion summarizes existing information about infant nutrition and immunobiologic aspects of human milk, which may influence the choice of breast versus bottle feeding of infants in different parts of the world. The average caloric requirement for a normal full term infant from the 2nd day of age through the 1st year of life is estimated to be about 100-110 Kcal/kg/day. Caloric intake of less than 80 Kcal/kg/day is usually insufficient for physiologic needs and intakes over the average requirement may be associated with obesity. The minimum requirement for protien has been estimated to be about 1.8 gm/100 Kcal and protein intake of over 4.5 gm/100 Kcal may result in an increased urea nitrogen retention. The nutritional requirements of premature and LBW infants have not been clearly established, but the nutritional needs of a LBW infant appear to be significantly higher than the requirements of a normal full term infant. The chemical composition of human milk exhibits considerable variation between different individuals and in the same individual at different times of lactation, as well as between samples obtained from mothers of LBW infants and full term infants. Fresh milk contains a wealth of components that provide specific and nonspecific defenses against infectious agents or other macromolecules. The concentrations of protein, whey protein nitrogen, sodium and potassium in cow's milk are 2-3 times higher than in human milk. Only limited information is available about the spectrum of environmental chemical and toxins present in cow's milk. The composition of human milk meets the minimum requirements for protein and calories for a growing full term infant, despite the fact that protein content of pooled human milk is low

  12. N-nitrosodimethylamine, nitrate and nitrate-reducing microorganisms in human milk.

    PubMed

    Uibu, J; Tauts, O; Levin, A; Shimanovskaya, N; Matto, R

    1996-10-01

    Of 54 milk samples from 54 healthy nursing women analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines, 42 appeared negative. Trace amounts (below the detection limit 0.5 microgram l-1) of N-nitrosodimethylamine were detected in the milk of 10 mothers and two samples contained this compound at 1.1 and 1.2 micrograms 1-1 respectively. Almost all samples investigated contained nitrate (mean 2.9 +/- 2.3 mg1-1 and nitrate reducing microorganisms (mean 4.2 +/- 1.0 log ml-1). The recent finding of N-nitrosodimethylamine in human milk gives evidence of the continuous endogenous formation of N-nitrosamines.

  13. Creamatocrit analysis of human milk overestimates fat and energy content when compared to a human milk analyzer using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Edward F; Radmacher, Paula G; Sparks, Blake; Adamkin, David H

    2013-05-01

    Human milk (HM) is the preferred feeding for human infants but may be inadequate to support the rapid growth of the very-low-birth-weight infant. The creamatocrit (CMCT) has been widely used to guide health care professionals as they analyze HM fortification; however, the CMCT method is based on an equation using assumptions for protein and carbohydrate with fat as the only measured variable. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a human milk analyzer (HMA) would provide more accurate data for fat and energy content than analysis by CMCT. Fifty-one well-mixed samples of previously frozen expressed HM were obtained after thawing. Previously assayed "control" milk samples were thawed and also run with unknowns. All milk samples were prewarmed at 40°C and then analyzed by both CMCT and HMA. CMCT fat results were substituted in the CMCT equation to reach a value for energy (kcal/oz). Fat results from HMA were entered into a computer model to reach a value for energy (kcal/oz). Fat and energy results were compared by paired t test with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. An additional 10 samples were analyzed locally by both methods and then sent to a certified laboratory for quantitative analysis. Results for fat and energy were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Mean fat content by CMCT (5.8 ± 1.9 g/dL) was significantly higher than by HMA (3.2 ± 1.1 g/dL, P < 0.001). Mean energy by CMCT (21.8 ± 3.4 kcal/oz) was also significantly higher than by HMA (17.1 ± 2.9, P < 0.001). Comparison of biochemical analysis with HMA of the subset of milk samples showed no statistical difference for fat and energy, whereas CMCT was significantly higher than for both fat (P < 0.001) and energy (P = 0.002). The CMCT method appears to overestimate fat and energy content of HM samples when compared with HMA and biochemical methods.

  14. Formula milk feeding does not increase the release of the inflammatory marker calprotectin, compared to human milk.

    PubMed

    Rosti, L; Braga, M; Fulcieri, C; Sammarco, G; Manenti, B; Costa, E

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin is a protein released into stools, used as a marker of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. We tested the hypothesis that cow's milk protein in formula milk may increase the intestinal release of calprotectin, as a consequence of a subclinical inflammatory reaction. At 12 weeks of age, we measured fecal calprotectin by an immunoenzyme assay (Calprest, Eurospital, Trieste, Italy), in 38 exclusively breastfed and in 32 exclusively formula-fed infants. Fecal calprotectin levels were not different in the two groups (p = 0.09), although a trend to higher values in infants with colic, or with family history of allergies was noted. This suggest that, in general, formula milk does not promote activation of an intestinal inflammatory reaction, compared to human milk, although a subclinical activation of the inflammatory response in infants at risk for allergic diseases may be present.

  15. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; López-Sabater, M C; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgell, M; Castellote-Bargalló, A I

    2002-12-01

    To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas. Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain. One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants. We analysed the fatty acid composition of colostrum (n=40), transitional milk (n=40), mature milk (n=40) and 11 infant formulas. We also analysed the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position in colostrum (n=12), transitional milk (n=12), mature milk (n=12), and the 11 infant formulas. Human milk in Spain had low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids and high linolenic acid. Infant formulas and mature human milk had similar fatty acid composition. In mature milk, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position (86.25%), and oleic and linoleic acids were predominantly esterified at the sn-1,3 positions (12.22 and 22.27%, respectively, in the sn-2 position). In infant formulas, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-1,3 positions and oleic and linoleic acids had higher percentages at the sn-2 position than they do in human milk. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Spain seems to reflect the Mediterranean dietary habits of mothers. Infant formulas resemble the fatty acid profile of human milk, but the distribution of fatty acids at the sn-2 position is markedly different.

  16. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-an; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0–330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15–180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates. PMID:26186707

  17. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  18. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    PubMed

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  20. Macro- and Micronutrients of Human Milk Composition: Are They Related to Maternal Diet? A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Keikha, Mojtaba; Bahreynian, Maryam; Saleki, Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at systematically reviewing the observational and interventional studies on the association of maternal macro- and micronutrient intake with breast milk content. We systematically searched the Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge till October 2016 with the following search strategy: ("human milk" OR "breast milk" OR "breast milk composition" OR "human breast milk composition" OR "composition breast milk" OR "mother milk" OR "human breast milk") AND ("maternal diet" OR "maternal nutrition"). We also searched Google scholar for increasing the sensitivity of our search. The search was not limited to title and abstract due to the possibility that the desired outcome might have been considered a secondary aim. We excluded conference papers, editorials, letters, commentary, short survey, and notes. The search was refined to English language, and we did not consider any time limitation. To increase the sensitivity and to select more studies, the reference list of the published studies was checked as well. This review included 59 observational and 43 interventional studies on maternal diet related to breast milk composition. Different studies determined the associations and effects of some maternal dietary intake of micro and macronutrients and its reflection in human milk. Maternal dietary intake, particularly fatty acids, and some micronutrients, including fat soluble vitamins, vitamin B 1 , and vitamin C, was related to their content in breast milk composition.

  1. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  2. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    PubMed

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  3. The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Collado, M Carmen; Laitinen, Kirsi; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika; Mira, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. We characterized the milk microbial community at 3 different time points by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mothers (n = 18) who varied in BMI, weight gain, and mode of delivery. We found that the human milk microbiome changes over lactation. Weisella, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus were predominant in colostrum samples, whereas in 1- and 6-mo milk samples the typical inhabitants of the oral cavity (eg, Veillonella, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella) increased significantly. Milk from obese mothers tended to contain a different and less diverse bacterial community compared with milk from normal-weight mothers. Milk samples from elective but not from nonelective mothers who underwent cesarean delivery contained a different bacterial community than did milk samples from individuals giving birth by vaginal delivery, suggesting that it is not the operation per se but rather the absence of physiological stress or hormonal signals that could influence the microbial transmission process to milk. Our results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants and suggest that the milk microbiome is influenced by several factors that significantly skew its composition. Because bacteria present in breast milk are among the very first microbes entering the human body, our data emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.

  4. Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L; Llebaria, Xavier; Nadal, Martí; Bigas, Esther; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those

  5. An Adoptive Mother Who Became a Human Milk Donor.

    PubMed

    Flores-Antón, Beatriz; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment. She was given domperidone as a galactogogue for 1 month. The pumping protocol began with a double electric breast pump combined with manual pumping 6 months before her child was delivered, and 3 months later, she was accepted as a donor by our milk bank. This highlights the importance of regular stimulation as a milk production mechanism. This is the first case of human milk donation in an adoptive mother described in the literature.

  6. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf.

  7. Effects of Maternal Supplementation With Omega-3 Precursors on Human Milk Composition.

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Evelyne; Rigourd, Virginie; Perez, Paul; Buffin, Rachel; Couedelo, Leslie; Vaysse, Carole; Belcadi, Wafae; Sitta, Rémi; Nacka, Fabienne; Lamireau, Delphine; Cambonie, Gilles; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Billeaud, Claude

    2017-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important for newborn neurosensory development. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers' diets with omega-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), may increase their concentration in human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess human milk composition after 15-day supplementation regimens containing either omega-3 PUFAs or olive oil, which does not provide ALA. A multicenter factorial randomized trial was conducted with four groups of breastfeeding women, with each group containing 19 to 22 women. After a 15-day ALA washout period, three groups received supplementation with omega-3 precursors for 15 days: an enriched margarine (M), a rapeseed oil (R), and a margarine and rapeseed oil (MR). The fourth was unexposed to omega-3 precursors (olive oil control diet, O). After 15 days, blind determination of human milk fatty acid (FA) composition was assessed by gas chromatography, and the FA composition was compared among groups using variance analyses. Alpha-linolenic acid content, expressed as the mean (standard deviation) total human milk FA percentage, was significantly higher after diet supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs, with values of 2.2% (0.7%) (MR), 1.3% (0.5%) (R), 1.1% (0.4%) (M), and 0.8% (0.3%) (O at D30) ( p < .003 for each comparison). The lowest LA-ALA ratio (5.5) was found in the MR group ( p < .001). Docosahexaenoic acid and trans FA concentrations did not differ among groups. In lactating women, omega-3 supplementation via the combination of enriched margarine and rapeseed oil increased the ALA content of human milk and generated the most favorable LA-ALA ratio for LC-PUFA synthesis.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of PDC213, an endogenous peptide from human milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yazhou; Zhou, Yahui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Yan, Linping; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xing; Ruan, Hongjie; Ji, Chenbo; Cui, Xianwei; Wang, Jiaqin

    2017-02-26

    Human milk has always been considered an ideal source of elemental nutrients to both preterm and full term infants in order to optimally develop the infant's tissues and organs. Recently, hundreds of endogenous milk peptides were identified in human milk. These peptides exhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, immunomodulation, or antimicrobial activity. Here, we report the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel type of human antimicrobial peptide (AMP), termed PDC213 (peptide derived from β-Casein 213-226 aa). PDC213 is an endogenous peptide and is present at higher levels in preterm milk than in full term milk. The inhibitory concentration curve and disk diffusion tests showed that PDC213 had obvious antimicrobial against S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica, the common nosocomial pathogens in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Fluorescent dye methods, electron microscopy experiments and DNA-binding activity assays further indicated that PDC213 can permeabilize bacterial membranes and cell walls rather than bind intracellular DNA to kill bacteria. Together, our results suggest that PDC213 is a novel type of AMP that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "Bed Side" Human Milk Analysis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Human milk analyzers can measure macronutrient content in native breast milk to tailor adequate supplementation with fortifiers. This article reviews all studies using milk analyzers, including (i) evaluation of devices, (ii) the impact of different conditions on the macronutrient analysis of human milk, and (iii) clinical trials to improve growth. Results lack consistency, potentially due to systematic errors in the validation of the device, or pre-analytical sample preparation errors like homogenization. It is crucial to introduce good laboratory and clinical practice when using these devices; otherwise a non-validated clinical usage can severely affect growth outcomes of infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microarray analysis of human milk cells: persistent high expression of osteopontin during the lactation period

    PubMed Central

    NAGATOMO, T; OHGA, S; TAKADA, H; NOMURA, A; HIKINO, S; IMURA, M; OHSHIMA, K; HARA, T

    2004-01-01

    To continue the search for immunological roles of breast milk, cDNA microarray analysis on cytokines and growth factors was performed for human milk cells. Among the 240 cytokine-related genes, osteopontin (OPN) gene ranked top of the expression. Real-time PCR revealed that the OPN mRNA levels in colostrum cells were approximately 100 times higher than those in PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), and 10 000 times higher than those in PB CD14+ cells. The median levels of OPN mRNA in early milk or mature milk cells were more than three times higher than those in colostrum cells. Western blot analysis of human milk showed appreciable expression of full-length and short form proteins of OPN. The concentrations of full-length OPN in early milk or mature milk whey continued to be higher than those in colostrum whey and plasma as assessed by ELISA. The early milk (3–7 days postpartum) contained the highest concentrations of OPN protein, while the late mature milk cells (1 years postpartum) had the highest expression of OPN mRNA of all the lactating periods. The results of immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical staining indicated that OPN-producing epithelial cells and macrophages are found in actively lactating mammary glands. These results suggest that the persistently and extraordinarily high expression of OPN in human milk cells plays a potential role in the immunological development of breast-fed infants. PMID:15373904

  11. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  12. Highly Concentrated Preterm Formula as an Alternative to Powdered Human Milk Fortifier: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Willeitner, Andrea; Anderson, Michael; Lewis, Jami

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess clinical feasibility and tolerance of concentrated preterm formula at 30 kcal/oz (CPF30) to fortify human milk to a caloric density of 24 kcal/oz, compared to conventional powdered human milk fortifier (PHMF). Very low birth weight neonates were stratified by birth weight and randomized to receive human milk fortification using CPF30 or PHMF. Infants were monitored from first introduction of human milk fortification, until fortified feeds were well tolerated. Primary outcome was weight gain; secondary outcomes included other measures of feeding intolerance (residual gastric aspirates, feeds held, prokinetic therapy), sepsis, and death. The clinical and study personnel were blinded to the intervention. No significant differences in weight gain or other measures of feeding tolerance were demonstrated between CPF30 and PHMF. Macronutrient intake was similar between both groups. Infants with a birth weight of ≥ 1000 g who received CPF30, experienced fewer days NPO (nil per os; nothing per mouth) and a trend toward lower incidence of NEC, compared with those who received PHMF.. The amount of human milk consumed was significantly lower in the CPF30 group. Both fortifiers were similarly well tolerated. Fortification of human milk with CPF30 is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional PHMF.

  13. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  14. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period.

  15. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  17. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  18. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  19. COLLECTION AND USE OF EXPOSURE DATA FROM HUMAN MILK BIOMONITORING IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human milk is a unique biological matrix which can be used to estimate exposures in both the mother and the breastfed infant. In addition, the presence of environmental chemicals in human milk may act as a sentinel for exposures to a broader population. Several factors play a r...

  20. COLLECTION AND USE OF EXPOSURE DATA FROM HUMAN MILK BIOMONITORING IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human milk is a unique biological matrix which can be used to estimate exposures in both the mother and the breastfed infant. In addition, the presence of environmental chemicals in human milk may act as a sentinel for exposures to a broader population. Several factors play a rol...

  1. Analyzing B-vitamins in human milk: methodological approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentrat...

  2. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bode, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex sugars that are highly abundant in human milk, but currently not present in infant formula. More than a hundred different HMOs have been identified so far. The amount and composition of HMOs are highly variable between women, and each structurally defined HMO might have a distinct functionality. HMOs are not digested by the infant and serve as metabolic substrates for select microbes, contributing to shape the infant gut microbiome. HMOs act as soluble decoy receptors that block the attachment of viral, bacterial or protozoan parasite pathogens to epithelial cell surface sugars, which may help prevent infectious diseases in the gut and also the respiratory and urinary tracts. HMOs are also antimicrobials that act as bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal agents. In addition, HMOs alter host epithelial and immune cell responses with potential benefits for the neonate. The article reviews current knowledge as well as future challenges and opportunities related to the functional biology of HMOs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Laiane Medeiros; Castral, Thaíla Corrêa; Montanholi, Liciane Langona; Daré, Mariana Firmino; Silva, Aline Carolina de Araújo; Antonini, Sonir Roberto Rauber; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2013-10-01

    Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR). Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study's limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  4. Comparison of commercially-available preservatives for maintaining the integrity of bacterial DNA in human milk.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Kimberly A; Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Carrothers, Janae M; Brooker, Sarah L; Shafii, Bahman; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-10-01

    Inhibiting changes to bacteria in human milk between sample collection and analysis is necessary for unbiased characterization of the milk microbiome. Although cold storage is considered optimal, alternative preservation is sometimes necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of several commercially-available preservatives with regard to maintaining bacterial DNA in human milk for delayed microbiome analysis. Specifically, we compared Life Technologies' RNAlater® stabilization solution, Biomatrica's DNAgard® Saliva, Advanced Instruments' Broad Spectrum Microtabs II™, and Norgen Biotek Corporation's Milk DNA Preservation and Isolation Kit. Aliquots of 8 pools of human milk were treated with each preservative. DNA was extracted immediately and at 1, 2, 4, and 6wk, during which time milk was held at 37°C. The V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Changes in bacterial community structure and diversity over time were evaluated. Comparable to other studies, the most abundant genera were Streptococcus (33.3%), Staphylococcus (14.0%), Dyella (6.3%), Pseudomonas (3.0%), Veillonella (2.5%), Hafnia (2.0%), Prevotella (1.7%), Rhodococcus (1.6%), and Granulicatella (1.4%). Overall, use of Norgen's Milk DNA Preservation and Isolation Kit best maintained the consistency of the bacterial community structure. Total DNA, diversity, and evenness metrics were also highest in samples preserved with this method. When collecting human milk for bacterial community analysis in field conditions where cold storage is not available, our results suggest that Norgen's Milk DNA Preservation and Isolation Kit may be a useful method, at least for a period of 2weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble CD14 in human breast milk and its role in innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Vidal, K; Labéta, M O; Schiffrin, E J; Donnet-Hughes, A

    2001-10-01

    Immune factors secreted in milk are important for health in the neonatal gut. We have detected the bacterial pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14 (sCD14) in human breast milk at different times during lactation. The molecule occurs in a single form in milk, in contrast to human serum, in which there are two isoforms. Produced by mammary epithelial cells, milk sCD14 mediates secretion of innate immune response molecules such as interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and epithelial neutrophil activator-78 by CD14-negative intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria. Although present at low concentrations in milk, LPS-binding protein may be implicated in the biological effects observed. Our findings support the premise that milk sCD14 acts as a 'sentinel' molecule and immune modulator in homeostasis and in the defense of the neonatal intestine. In so doing, it may prevent the immune and inflammatory conditions of the gut to which non-breastfed infants are predisposed.

  6. Analysis of serotonin concentrations in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeda, Rika; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-03-25

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in milk volume homeostasis in the mammary gland during lactation; 5-HT in milk may also affect infant development. However, there are few reports on 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. To address this issue, we developed a simple method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) for measuring 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. Breast milk samples were provided by four healthy Japanese women. Calibration curves for 5-HT in each sample were prepared with the standard addition method between 5 and 1000 ng/ml, and all had correlation coefficients >0.999. The recovery of 5-HT was 96.1%-101.0%, with a coefficient of variation of 3.39%-8.62%. The range of 5-HT concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was 11.1-51.1 ng/ml. Thus, the HPLC-FD method described here can effectively extract 5-HT from human breast milk with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of the bioavailability of zinc and calcium from human, cow's, goat, and sheep milk by an in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Robberecht, H; Van Dael, P; Deelstra, H

    1995-01-01

    The availability of zinc and calcium from human, cow's, goat, and sheep milk is evaluated by an in vitro method that involves a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion followed by measurement of dialyzability of zinc and calcium. Zinc availability of milk showed the highest value for human milk (15.0%) and the lowest for sheep milk (1.0%), in both whole and skim milk. Calcium availability of the different types of milk did not differ significantly and ranged between 18 and 23%. No significant differences in availability between whole and skim milk were found for both elements, except for zinc in cow's milk.

  8. Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    The presence of fatty acid derived oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related compounds in human milk may be of importance to the infant. Presently, clinically relevant protocols for storing and handling human milk that minimize error and variability in oxylipin and endocannabinoid concentrations are lacking. In this study, we compared the individual and combined effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these fatty acid metabolites in human milk: state (fresh or frozen), storage temperature (4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C), and duration (1 day, 1 week or 3 months). Thirteen endocannabinoids and related compounds, as well as 37 oxylipins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Twelve endocannabinoids and related compounds (2-111 nM) and 31 oxylipins (1.2 pM-1242 nM) were detected, with highest levels being found for 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 17(R)hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of most endocannabinoid-related compounds and oxylipins were dependent on storage condition, and especially storage at 4 °C introduced significant variability. Our findings suggest that human milk samples should be analyzed immediately after, or within one day of collection (if stored at 4 °C). Storage at -80 °C is required for long-term preservation, and storage at -20 °C is acceptable for no more than one week. These findings provide a protocol for investigating the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in human milk, useful for future milk-related clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Costs of necrotizing enterocolitis and cost-effectiveness of exclusively human milk-based products in feeding extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Hay, Joel W; Kim, Jae H

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mother's milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mother's milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A net expected costs calculator was developed to compare the total NICU costs among extremely premature infants who were fed either a bovine milk-based HMF-fortified diet or a 100% human milk-based diet, based on the previously observed risks of overall necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC in a randomized controlled study that compared outcomes of these two feeding strategies among 207 very low birth weight infants. The average NICU costs for an extremely premature infant without NEC and the incremental costs due to medical and surgical NEC were derived from a separate analysis of hospital discharges in the state of California in 2007. The sensitivity of cost-effectiveness results to the risks and costs of NEC and to prices of milk supplements was studied. The adjusted incremental costs of medical NEC and surgical NEC over and above the average costs incurred for extremely premature infants without NEC, in 2011 US$, were $74,004 (95% confidence interval, $47,051-$100,957) and $198,040 (95% confidence interval, $159,261-$236,819) per infant, respectively. Extremely premature infants fed with 100% human-milk based products had lower expected NICU length of stay and total expected costs of hospitalization, resulting in net direct savings of 3.9 NICU days and $8,167.17 (95% confidence interval, $4,405-$11,930) per extremely premature infant (p < 0.0001). Costs savings from the donor HMF strategy were sensitive to price and quantity of donor HMF, percentage reduction in risk of overall NEC and surgical NEC achieved, and incremental costs of surgical NEC. Compared with feeding extremely premature infants with mother's milk

  10. Unravelling the mystery of stem/progenitor cells in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yiping; Chong, Yap Seng; Choolani, Mahesh A; Cregan, Mark D; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2010-12-28

    Mammary stem cells have been extensively studied as a system to delineate the pathogenesis and treatment of breast cancer. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies which limit the quantity of samples available. We have previously identified putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk, and here, we further characterised the cellular component of human breast milk. We identified markers associated with haemopoietic, mesenchymal and neuro-epithelial lineages in the cellular component of human breast milk. We found 2.6 ± 0.8% (mean ± SEM) and 0.7 ± 0.2% of the whole cell population (WCP) were found to be CD133+ and CD34+ respectively, 27.8 ± 9.1% of the WCP to be positive for Stro-1 through flow-cytometry. Expressions of neuro-ectodermal stem cell markers such as nestin and cytokeratin 5 were found through reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in 4.17 ± 0.2% and 0.9 ± 0.2% of the WCP on flow-cytometry. We also established the presence of a side-population (SP) (1.8 ± 0.4% of WCP) as well as CD133+ cells (1.7 ± 0.5% of the WCP). Characterisation of the sorted SP and non-SP, CD133+ and CD133- cells carried out showed enrichment of CD326 (EPCAM) in the SP cells (50.6 ± 8.6 vs 18.1 ± 6.0, P-value  = 0.02). However, culture in a wide range of in vitro conditions revealed the atypical behaviour of stem/progenitor cells in human breast milk; in that if they are present, they do not respond to established culture protocols of stem/progenitor cells. The identification of primitive cell types within human breast milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide-range of applications; even the possibility of banking one's own stem cell for every breastfeeding woman.

  11. Unravelling the Mystery of Stem/Progenitor Cells in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yiping; Chong, Yap Seng; Choolani, Mahesh A.; Cregan, Mark D.; Chan, Jerry K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammary stem cells have been extensively studied as a system to delineate the pathogenesis and treatment of breast cancer. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies which limit the quantity of samples available. We have previously identified putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk, and here, we further characterised the cellular component of human breast milk. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified markers associated with haemopoietic, mesenchymal and neuro-epithelial lineages in the cellular component of human breast milk. We found 2.6±0.8% (mean±SEM) and 0.7±0.2% of the whole cell population (WCP) were found to be CD133+ and CD34+ respectively, 27.8±9.1% of the WCP to be positive for Stro-1 through flow-cytometry. Expressions of neuro-ectodermal stem cell markers such as nestin and cytokeratin 5 were found through reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in 4.17±0.2% and 0.9±0.2% of the WCP on flow-cytometry. We also established the presence of a side-population (SP) (1.8±0.4% of WCP) as well as CD133+ cells (1.7±0.5% of the WCP). Characterisation of the sorted SP and non-SP, CD133+ and CD133- cells carried out showed enrichment of CD326 (EPCAM) in the SP cells (50.6±8.6 vs 18.1±6.0, P-value  = 0.02). However, culture in a wide range of in vitro conditions revealed the atypical behaviour of stem/progenitor cells in human breast milk; in that if they are present, they do not respond to established culture protocols of stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions/Significance The identification of primitive cell types within human breast milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide-range of applications; even the possibility of banking one's own stem cell for every breastfeeding woman. PMID:21203434

  12. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  13. Comparison of Human Milk Immunoglobulin Survival during Gastric Digestion between Preterm and Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.; Beverly, Robert L.; Nielsen, Søren D.

    2018-01-01

    Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2 h post-ingestion were collected from 15 preterm (23–32 week gestational age (GA)) mother-infant pairs and from 8 term (38–40 week of GA) mother-infant pairs within 7–98 days postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG as well as peptidomics. Total IgA conce