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Sample records for mafic impact-melt breccias

  1. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  2. Impact melt breccias at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Impact melt breccias are by far the most common highland rock type collected on the Apollo 17 mission. They tend to be fine grained, with virtually no clast-free impact melt rocks having been identified. All the highland boulders sampled are impact melt breccia, with the possible exception of one South Massif boulder that might have a friable matrix (but nonetheless consists dominantly of impact melt) and a shocked igneous norite boulder from the North Massif. The impact melt breccias were originally described as metaclastic, but their melt origin became apparent as work progressed. Chemical compositions appear to allow natural groupings of the impact melt breccias. Various groupings of the impact melt breccias are discussed.

  3. Compositional Variation in Apollo 16 Impact-Melt Breccias and Inferences for the Geology and Bombardment History of the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1994-01-01

    High-precision data for the concentrations of a number of lithophile and siderophile elements were obtained on multiple subsamples from 109 impact-melt rocks and breccias (mostly crystalline) from the Apollo 16 site. Compositions of nearly all Apollo 16 melt rocks fall on one of two trends of increasing Sm concentration with increasing Sc concentration. The Eastern trend (lower Sm/Sc, Mg/Fe, and Sm/Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 3 and 4 of previous classification schemes. These melt rocks are feldspathic, poor in incompatible and siderophile elements, and appear to have provenance in the Descartes formation to the east of the site. The Western trend (higher Sm/Sc. Mg/Fe, and Sm/ Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 1 and 2. These relatively mafic, KREEP-bearing breccias are a major component (approx.35%) of the Cayley plains west of the site and are unusual, compared to otherwise similar melt breccias from other sites, in having high concentrations of Fe-Ni metal ( 1-2 %). The metal is the carrier of the low-Ir/Au (approx. 0.3 x chondritic) siderophile-element signature that is characteristic of the Apollo 16 site. Four compositionally distinct groups (1M, 1F, 2DB, and 2NR) of Western-trend melt breccias occur that are each represented by at least six samples. Compositional group 1 or previous classification schemes (the 'poikilitic' or 'LKFM' melt breccias) can be subdivided into two groups. Group 1M (represented by six samples, including 60315) is characterized by lower Al2O3 concentrations, higher MgO and alkali concentrations, and higher Mg/Fe and Cr/Sc ratios than group 1F (represented by fifteen samples, including 65015). Group 1M also has siderophile-element concentrations averaging about twice those of group lF and Ir/Au and Ir/Ni ratios that are even lower than those of other Western-trend melt rocks (Ir/Au = 0.24 +/- 0.03. CI-normalized). At the mafic extreme of group 2 ('VHA' melt breccias), the melt lithology occurring as clasts in

  4. The impact pseudotachylitic breccia controversy: Insights from first isotope analysis of Vredefort impact-generated melt rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Hauser, Natalia; Hansen, Bent T.; Thirlwall, Matthew; Hoffmann, Marie

    2017-10-01

    Besides impact melt rock, several large terrestrial impact structures, notably the Sudbury (Canada) and Vredefort (South Africa) structures, exhibit considerable occurrences of a second type of impact-generated melt rock, so-called pseudotachylitic breccia (previously often termed ;pseudotachylite; - the term today reserved in structural geology for friction melt in shear or fault zones). At the Vredefort Dome, the eroded central uplift of the largest and oldest known terrestrial impact structure, pseudotachylitic breccia is well-exposed, with many massive occurrences of tens of meters width and many hundreds of meters extent. Genesis of these breccias has been discussed variably in terms of melt formation due to friction melting, melting due to decompression after initial shock compression, decompression melting upon formation/collapse of a central uplift, or a combination of these processes. In addition, it was recently suggested that they could have formed by the infiltration of impact melt into the crater floor, coming off a coherent melt sheet and under assimilation of wall rock; even seismic shaking has been invoked. Field evidence for generation of such massive melt bodies by friction on large shear/fault zones is missing. Also, no evidence for the generation of massive pseudotachylitic breccias in rocks of low to moderate shock degree by melting upon pressure release after shock compression has been demonstrated. The efficacy of seismic shaking to achieve sufficient melting as a foundation for massive pseudotachylitic melt generation as typified by the breccias of the Sudbury and Vredefort structures has so far remained entirely speculative. The available petrographic and chemical evidence has, thus, been interpreted to favor either decompression melting (i.e., in situ generation of melt) upon central uplift collapse, or the impact melt infiltration hypothesis. Importantly, all the past clast population and chemical analyses have invariably supported an

  5. Diffusive loss of argon in response to melt vein formation in polygenetic impact melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Hodges, Kip V.

    2017-08-01

    Many planetary surfaces in the solar system have experienced prolonged bombardment. With each impact, new rocks can be assembled that incorporate freshly generated impact melts with fragments of older rocks. Some breccias can become polygenetic, containing multiple generations of impact melt products, and can potentially provide important insights into the extensive bombardment history of a region. However, the amount of chronological information that can be extracted from such samples depends on how well the mineral isotopic systems of geochronometers can preserve the ages of individual melt generations without being disturbed by younger events. We model the thermal evolution of impact melt veins and the resulting loss of Ar from K-bearing phases common in impact melt breccias to assess the potential for preserving the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual melt generations. Our model results demonstrate that millimeter-scale, clast-free melt veins cause significant heating of adjacent host rock minerals and can cause detectable Ar loss in contact zones that are generally thinner than, and at most about the same thickness as, the vein width. The incorporation of cold clasts in melt veins reduces the magnitudes of heating and Ar loss in the host rocks, and Ar loss can be virtually undetectable for sufficiently clast-rich veins. Quantitative evidence of the timing of impacts, as measured with the 40Ar/39Ar method, can be preserved in polygenetic impact melt breccias, particularly for those containing millimeter-scale bodies of clast-bearing melt products.

  6. Graphite in an Apollo 17 impact melt breccia.

    PubMed

    Steele, A; McCubbin, F M; Fries, M; Glamoclija, M; Kater, L; Nekvasil, H

    2010-07-02

    We report on the detection of discrete grains of crystalline graphite and graphite whiskers (GWs) in an Apollo 17 impact melt breccia. Multiple instances of graphite and GWs within a discrete area of the sample imply that these grains are not terrestrial contamination. Both graphite and GWs are indicative of high-temperature conditions and are probably the result of the impact processes responsible for breccia formation. This suggests that impact processes may be an additional formation mechanism for GWs in the solar system and indicates that the Moon contains a record of ancient carbonaceous material delivered at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  7. The petrology and geochemistry of impact melts, granulites, and hornfelses from consortium breccia 61175

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Meyerhoff, M.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix and 58 clasts from breccia 61175 were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The matrix is anorthositic and has lithophile trace element abundances 20 to 40 times chondrite. Clasts comprise impact melt rocks, xenocryst and xenolith-free very high aluminum (VHA) and anorthositic basalts, anorthosite, anorthosite-norite-troctolite granulites, and hornfelses. The VHA and anorthositic basalts are considered to be impact melts, and the hornfelses were probably formed by incorporation of breccias or preexisting melt rocks into a melt sheet prior to cooling. The range of melt-rock lithophile trace element abundances might indicate more than one melt sheet.

  8. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  9. Origin and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and impact-melt breccias from Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the impact melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.

  10. Origin and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and impact-melt breccias from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.

    1990-06-01

    Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the impact melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.

  11. Impact melt-bearing breccias of the Mistastin Lake impact structure: A unique planetary analogue for ground-truthing proximal ejecta emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, M. M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Impact craters are the dominant geological landform on rocky planetary surfaces; however, relationships between specific craters and their ejecta are typically poorly constrained. With limited planetary samples, scientists look to terrestrial craters as analogues. Impact ejecta is defined here as any target material, regardless of its physical state, that is transported beyond the rim of the transient cavity [1]. The original transient cavity reaches its maximum size during the excavation stage of crater formation, before rim collapse begins in the modification stage [2]. In complex craters, during the modification stage, rocks around the periphery of the bowl-shaped transient crater collapse downward and inward to form a series of terraces along the outer margin of the crater structure [3]. Proximal impact ejecta, can therefore be found on the terraces of the modified rim of a complex crater, interior to the final crater rim [1]. Although typically poorly preserved on Earth due to post-impact erosional processes, impact ejecta have been identified in the terraced rim region of the Mistastin Lake impact structure, located in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W) [4]. The Mistastin Lake impact structure is an intermediate-size, complex crater (28 km apparent crater diameter) formed by a meteorite impact ~36 Ma in crystalline target rocks. The original crater has been differentially eroded; however, a terraced rim and distinct central uplift are still observed [5]. The inner portion of the structure is covered by the Mistastin Lake and the surrounding area is locally covered by soil/glacial deposits and vegetation. Locally, allochthonous impactites overlying fractured target rocks are exposed along the lakeshore and along banks of radially cutting streams. They define a consistent stratigraphy, including, from bottom to top: monomict, lithic breccias, allochthonous polymict lithic breccias, and allochthonous impact melt rocks. Mistastin impact breccias range

  12. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  13. On the Relationship between the Apollo 16 Ancient Regolith Breccias and Feldspathic Fragmental Breccias, and the Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of texturally and compositionally similar breccias that consist largely of fragmental debris from meteorite impacts occur at the Apollo 16 lunar site: Feldspathic fragmental breccias (FFBS) and ancient regolith breccias (ARBs). Both types of breccia are composed of a suite of mostly feldspathic components derived from the early crust of the Moon and mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation. The ARBs also contain components, such as agglutinates and glass spherules, indicating that the material of which they are composed occurred at the surface of the Moon as fine-grained regolith prior to lithification of the breccias. These components are absent from the FFBS, suggesting that the FFBs might be the protolith of the ARBS. However, several compositional differences exist between the two types of breccia, making any simple genetic relationship implausible. First, clasts of mafic impact-melt breccia occurring in the FFBs are of a different composition than those in the ARBS. Also the feldspathic "prebasin" components of the FFBs have a lower average Mg/Fe ratio than the corresponding components of the ARBS; the average composition of the plagiociase in the FFBs is more sodic than that of the ARBS; and there are differences in relative abundances of rare earth elements. The two breccia types also have different provenances: the FFBs occur primarily in ejecta from North Ray crater and presumably derive from the Descartes Formation, while the ARBs are restricted to the Cayley plains. Together these observations suggest that although some type of fragmental breccia may have been a precursor to the ARBS, the FFBs of North Ray crater are not a significant component of the ARBs and, by inference, the Cayley plains. The average compositions of the prebasin components of the two types of fragmental breccia are generally similar to the composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites. With 30-31% Al203, however, they are slightly richer in

  14. Petrography of impact glasses and melt breccias from the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure, 18 km in diameter and 3.6 Ma old, in Arctic Siberia, Russia, is the only impact structure on Earth mostly excavated in acidic volcanic rocks. The Late Cretaceous volcanic target includes lavas, tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic, dacitic, and andesitic composition, and local occurrence of basalt. Although the ejecta blanket around the crater is nearly completely eroded, bomb-shaped impact glasses, redeposited after the impact event, occur in lacustrine terraces within the crater. Here we present detailed petrographic descriptions of newly collected impact glass-bearing samples. The observed features contribute to constrain the formation of the melt and its cooling history within the framework of the impact process. The collected samples can be grouped into two types, characterized by specific features: (1) "pure" glasses, containing very few clasts or new crystals and which were likely formed during the early stages of cratering and (2) a second type, which represents composite samples with impact melt breccia lenses embedded in silicate glass. These mixed samples probably resulted from inclusion of unmelted impact debris during ejection and deposition. After deposition the glassy portions continued to deform, whereas the impact melt breccia inclusions that probably had already cooled down behaved as rigid bodies in the flow.

  15. Pseudotachylitic breccia in mafic and felsic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Huber, Matthew S.

    2017-04-01

    Impact-produced pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) is abundant in the core of the Vredefort impact structure and was found in many pre-impact lithologies (e.g., Reimold and Colliston, 1994; Gibson et al., 1997). The mechanisms involved in the process of forming this rock remain highly debated, and various authors have discussed many possible models. We investigate PTB from two different rock types: meta-granite and meta-gabbro and test how lithology controls the development of PTB. We also report on clast transport between different lithologies. In the core of the Vredefort impact structure, meta-granite and meta-gabbro are observed in contact with each other, with an extensive set of PTB veins cutting through both lithologies. Microstructural analyses of the PTB veins in thin sections reveals differences between PTBs in meta-granite and meta-gabbro. In granitic samples, PTB often develops along contacts of material with different physical properties, such as a contact with a migmatite or pegmatite vein. Nucleation sites of PTB have features consistent with ductile deformation and shearing, such as sigmoudal-shaped clasts and dragged edges of the veins. Preferential melting of mafic and hydrous minerals takes place (e.g., Reimold and Colliston, 1994; Gibson et al., 2002). Refractory phases remain in the melt as clasts and form reaction rims. In contrast, PTB in meta-gabbro develop in zones with brittle deformation, and do not exploit existing physical contacts. Cataclastic zones develop along the faults and progressively produce ultracataclasites and melt. Thus, PTB veins in meta-gabbro contain fewer clasts. Clasts usually represent multi-phase fragments of host rock and not specific phases. Such fragments often originate from the material trapped between two parallel or horse-tail faults. The lithological control on the development of PTB does not imply that PTB develops independently in different lithologies. We have observed granitic clasts within PTB veins in meta

  16. ALHA 81011 -- an eucritic impact melt breccia formed 350 m.y. ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, K.; Bobe, K. D.; Kunz, J.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Stoeffler, D.

    1994-07-01

    The ALHA 81011 meteorite has been described as a eucritic breccia consisting of mineral and lithic clasts embedded in a vesicular, dark glassy matrix. Lithic clasts are equilibrated and dominated by subophitic and granulitic texture, frequently with gradual textural transitions in a given clast. Both mineral and lithic clasts were shocked in excess of approximately 30 GPa, transforming plagioclase into maskelynite, followed by thermally induced recrystallization. The observation that plagioclase fragments are 'swirled' into the dark matrix leaving pyroxene fragments unaffected, indicates that the plagioclase fragments were transformed into maskelynite prior to admixing as well. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed that the dark matrix represents a quenched melt with eutectic fabric consisting of parallel intergrowths of pyroxene and plagioclase crystals, interspersed with small vesicles and larger subangular cavities up to 0.6 cm. One basalt clast with a partly granulitic texture and a portion of the dark crystallized matrix were separated and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). We performed age determinations on the separated lithologies by applying the Ar-40/AR-39 method. ALHA 81011 represents a clast-rich eucritic impact melt breccia not older than 350 Ma. It was either part of a rapidly cooled larger impact melt formation or represents a melt 'bomb' that originates from a suevitic ejecta blanket formed by a large-scale impact on the Howardite Eucritic and Diogenite (HED) parent body surface.

  17. Spade: An H Chondrite Impact-melt Breccia that Experienced Post-shock Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Jones, Rhian H.

    2006-01-01

    The low modal abundances of relict chondrules (1.8 Vol%) and of coarse (i.e. >= 2200 micron-size) isolated mafic silicate grains (1.8 Vol%) in Spade relative to mean H6 chondrites (11.4 and 9.8 vol%, respectively) show Spade to be a rock that has experienced a significant degree of melting. Various petrographic features (e.g., chromite-plagioclase assemblages, chromite veinlets, silicate darkening) indicate that melting was caused by shock. Plagioclase was melted during the shock event and flowed so that it partially to completely surrounded nearby mafic silicate grains. During crystallization, plagioclase developed igneous zoning. Low-Ca pyroxene that crystallized from the melt (or equilibrated with the melt at high temperatures) acquired relatively high amounts of CaO. Metallic Fe-Ni cooled rapidly below the Fe-Ni solws and transformed into martensite. Subsequent reheating of the rock caused transformation of martensite into abundant duplex plessite. Ambiguities exist in the shock stage assignment of Spade. The extensive silicate darkening, the occurrence of chromite-plagioclase assemblages, and the impact-melted characteristics of Spade are consistent with shock stage S6. Low shock (stage S2) is indicated by the undulose extinction and lack of planar fractures in olivine. This suggests that Spade reached a maximum prior shock level equivalent to stage S6 and then experienced post-shock annealing (probably to stage Sl). These events were followed by a less intense impact that produced the undulose extinction in the olivine, characteristic of shock stage S2. Annealing could have occurred if Spade were emplaced near impact melts beneath the crater floor or deposited in close proximity to hot debris within an ejecta blanket. Spade firmly establishes the case for post-shock annealing. This may have been a common process on ordinary chondrites (OC) asteroids.

  18. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of lunar impact melt breccias: Implications for the late accretion history of the Moon and Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puchtel, I.S.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Kring, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the compositions of materials accreted to the Earth-Moon system between about 4.5 and 3.8 Ga, we have determined Os isotopic compositions and some highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd) abundances in 48 subsamples of six lunar breccias. These are: Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias 72395 and 76215; Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias 73215 and 73255; Apollo 14 polymict breccia 14321; and lunar meteorite NWA482, a crystallized impact melt. Plots of Ir versus other HSE define excellent linear correlations, indicating that all data sets likely represent dominantly two-component mixtures of a low-HSE target, presumably endogenous component, and a high-HSE, presumably exogenous component. Linear regressions of these trends yield intercepts that are statistically indistinguishable from zero for all HSE, except for Ru and Pd in two samples. The slopes of the linear regressions are insensitive to target rock contributions of Ru and Pd of the magnitude observed; thus, the trendline slopes approximate the elemental ratios present in the impactor components contributed to these rocks. The 187Os/188Os and regression-derived elemental ratios for the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias and the lunar meteorite indicate that the impactor components in these samples have close affinities to chondritic meteorites. The HSE in the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias, however, might partially or entirely reflect the HSE characteristics of HSE-rich granulitic breccia clasts that were incorporated in the impact melt at the time of its creation. In this case, the HSE characteristics of these rocks may reflect those of an impactor that predated the impact event that led to the creation of the melt breccias. The impactor components in the Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias and in the Apollo 14 breccia have higher 187Os/188Os, Pt/Ir, and Ru/Ir and lower Os/Ir than most chondrites. These compositions suggest that the impactors they represent were chemically

  19. Granulatic breccia clasts and feldspathic melt breccia clasts from North Ray crater breccia 67975 - Precursors and petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    A petrologic study of crystalline lithic clasts from feldspathic breccia 67975, collected on the rim of North Ray crater at the Apollo 16 site, is presented. A light gray group has been identified as granulitic breccias, and a dark gray group has been identified as feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias. It is suggested that complete homogenization of the minerology of the granulitic breccias may have been prevented by their incorporation into the 67975 fragmental breccia, and that metamorphism of the clasts may have been interrupted by this breccia forming event.

  20. Preserved Flora and Organics in Impact Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. Scott; Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Zarate, M.

    2014-01-01

    At least seven glass-bearing strata of varying ages occur at different horizons in the Pampean sediments of Argentina dating back to the Miocene. In a strict sense, these impact glasses are melt-matrix breccias composed of partially digested minerals clasts and basement fragments indicative of crater excavation. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating yield ages (+/- 2 sigma) of 6 +/- 2 Ka, 114 +/- 26 Ka, 230 +/- 30 Ka, 445 +/- 21 Ka, 3.27 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Mar del Plata = MdP), 5.28 +/- 0.04 Ma, and 9.21 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Chasico = CH) Where found in place (not reworked), these ages are consistent with the local stratigraphy and faunal assemblages. A striking property of some of these impact glasses is the encapsulation of preserved fragments of floral (and even soft-tissue faunal remains). Here we identify retained organics and describe a likely process of encapsulation and preservation.

  1. Lunar highland meteorite Dhofar 026 and Apollo sample 15418: Two strongly shocked, partially melted, granulitic breccias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, B. A.; James, O.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Barsukova, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of lunar meteorite Dhofar 026, and comparison to Apollo sample 15418, indicate that Dhofar 026 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia (or a fragmental breccia consisting almost entirely of granulitic breccia clasts) that experienced considerable post-shock heating, probably as a result of diffusion of heat into the rock from an external, hotter source. The shock converted plagioclase to maskelynite, indicating that the shock pressure was between 30 and 45 GPa. The post-shock heating raised the rock's temperature to about 1200 ??C; as a result, the maskelynite devitrified, and extensive partial melting took place. The melting was concentrated in pyroxene-rich areas; all pyroxene melted. As the rock cooled, the partial melts crystallized with fine-grained, subophitic-poikilitic textures. Sample 15418 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia that had a similar history, but evidence for this history is better preserved than in Dhofar 026. The fact that Dhofar 026 was previously interpreted as an impact melt breccia underscores the importance of detailed petrographic study in interpretation of lunar rocks that have complex textures. The name "impact melt" has, in past studies, been applied only to rocks in which the melt fraction formed by shock-induced total fusion. Recently, however, this name has also been applied to rocks containing melt formed by heating of the rocks by conductive heat transfer, assuming that impact is the ultimate source of the heat. We urge that the name "impact melt" be restricted to rocks in which the bulk of the melt formed by shock-induced fusion to avoid confusion engendered by applying the same name to rocks melted by different processes. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  2. Chemical Mobility, Variability, and Components of the Yaxcopoil Impact Melt Breccia Matrix as a Function of Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M. J.; Newsom, H.

    2005-05-01

    -linear trend with the join between MED pyro-phyllite and MED serpentine. High resolution equipment will be used to follow up on this idea. The matrix in lower samples had more element mobility, and likely more chemical reactions occurring among phases. An increase in mobility and transport of Mg could help explain this bulk enrichment in lower samples. In addition, variations in the original target material would logically contribute to chemical variations in the matrix. Dolomite and mafic minerals present at greater depth could react with matrix in the melt breccia, while dust and clay may exist in variable amounts within the drill core samples. The linear trend toward metastable dehydroxylate eutec-tic compositions is an encouraging first step to further investigate the possible existence of condensates from the impact cloud within the matrix.

  3. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  4. Melt in the impact breccias from the Eyreville drill cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, Katerina; Hecht, Lutz; Koeberl, Christian; Libowitzky, Eugen; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2011-03-01

    The center of the 35.3 Ma Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km diameter) was drilled during 2005/2006 in an ICDP-0USGS drilling project. The Eyreville drill cores include polymict impact breccias and associated rocks (1397-01551 m depth). Tens of melt particles from these impactites were studied by optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and microRaman spectroscopy, and classified into six groups: m1—clear or brownish melt, m2—brownish melt altered to phyllosilicates, m3—colorless silica melt, m4—melt with pyroxene and plagioclase crystallites, m5—dark brown melt, and m6—melt with globular texture. These melt types have partly overlapping major element abundances, and large compositional variations due to the presence of schlieren, poorly mixed melt phases, partly digested clasts, and variable crystallization and alteration. The different melt types also vary in their abundance with depth in the drill core. Based on the chemical data, mixing calculations were performed to determine possible precursors of these melt particles. The calculations suggest that most melt types formed mainly from the thick sedimentary section of the target sequence (mainly the Potomac Formation), but an additional crystalline basement (schist/gneiss) precursor is likely for the most abundant melt types m2 and m5. Sedimentary rocks with compositions similar to those of the melt particles are present among the Eyreville core samples. Therefore, sedimentary target rocks were the main precursor of the Eyreville melt particles. However, the composition of the melt particles is not only the result of the precursor composition but also the result of changes during melting and solidification, as well as postimpact alteration, which must also be considered. The variability of the melt particle compositions reflects the variety of target rocks and indicates that there was no uniform melt source. Original heterogeneities, resulting from melting of different target rocks

  5. Two-polarity magnetization in the Manson impact breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the impact breccia matrix and clasts has produced surprising results--nearly antipodal normal and reversed polarity magnetic vectors are observed in different portions of the core. Near-antipodal magnetizations within a segment of matrix and within individual samples rule out core inversion as the explanation of the dual polarity. In both the dense and the sandy matrix breccias, the magnetizations of clasts and matrix within the same core segment are identical; this negative 'conglomerate test' indicates that magnetization originated after impact. Paleomagnetic study of the Manson Impact Structure is an attempt to refine the Ar-40/Ar-39 age (65.7 +/- 1 m.y.) that suggests Manson to be a Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact. Refinement is possible because the boundary occurs within a reversed polarity interval (29R) of only 0.5 m.y. duration. The two breccia types in the Manson structure were both examined: one of a very dense matrix and apparently partially melted, and the breccia stratigraphically below it of granular or 'sandy' chloritic matrix. Samples were taken from the matrixes and a wide variety of clast compositions, including granite, diabase, gneiss, amphibolite, and melted granite. Currently, measurements have been made on 22 samples, using 30-35 steps of either alternating field (AF) or thermal demagnetization.

  6. The Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia—Sampling a rapidly cooled impact melt dike on an H chondrite asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kring, David A.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bond, Jade C.; Moore, Carleton B.

    2016-06-01

    The Gao-Guenie H5 chondrite that fell on Burkina Faso (March 1960) has portions that were impact-melted on an H chondrite asteroid at ~300 Ma and, through later impact events in space, sent into an Earth-crossing orbit. This article presents a petrographic and electron microprobe analysis of a representative sample of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia consisting of a chondritic clast domain, quenched melt in contact with chondritic clasts, and an igneous-textured impact melt domain. Olivine is predominantly Fo80-82. The clast domain contains low-Ca pyroxene. Impact melt-grown pyroxene is commonly zoned from low-Ca pyroxene in cores to pigeonite and augite in rims. Metal-troilite orbs in the impact melt domain measure up to ~2 mm across. The cores of metal orbs in the impact melt domain contain ~7.9 wt% of Ni and are typically surrounded by taenite and Ni-rich troilite. The metallography of metal-troilite droplets suggest a stage I cooling rate of order 10 °C s-1 for the superheated impact melt. The subsolidus stage II cooling rate for the impact melt breccia could not be determined directly, but was presumably fast. An analogy between the Ni rim gradients in metal of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia and the impact-melted H6 chondrite Orvinio suggests similar cooling rates, probably on the order of ~5000-40,000 °C yr-1. A simple model of conductive heat transfer shows that the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia may have formed in a melt injection dike ~0.5-5 m in width, generated during a sizeable impact event on the H chondrite parent asteroid.

  7. Ar-Ar Thermochronlogy of Apollo 12 Impact-Melt Breccia 12033,638-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, C. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Jolliff, B. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Borg, L. E.; Shearer, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    We have undertaken an Ar-Ar thermochronology investigation as part of a coordinated multichronometer analysis of a single Apollo 12 impact- melt breccia to demonstrate the wide range of information that can be obtained for a single complex rock. This has implications for the age of formation, component makeup, and subsequent impact/shock and exposure history of the sample. This study also serves as a capabilities demonstration for the proposed MoonRise Mission [1]. The goal of this investigation is to elucidate the history of this sample through coordinated 40Ar*/39Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and zircon 207Pb-206Pb ages along with geochemical and petrographic context on a relatively small (approximately 450 mg) sample. Here, we report preliminary results of the Ar-Ar thermochronology.

  8. Smyer H-Chondrite Impact-Melt Breccia and Evidence for Sulfur Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2002-01-01

    Smyer is an H-chondrite impact-melt breccia containing approx.20 vol% 0.5- to 13-mm-thick silicate-rich melt veins surrounding unmelted subrounded chondritic clasts up to 7 cm in maximum dimension. At the interface between some of the melt veins and chondritic clasts, there are troilite-rich regions consisting of unmelted. crushed 0.2- to 140-micron-size angular silicate grains and chondrule fragments surrounded by troilite and transected by thin troilite veins. Troilite fills every available fracture in the silicates. including some as thin as 0.1 microns. Little metallic Fe-Ni is present in these regions: the FeS/Fe modal ratio ranges from -25: 1 to approx.500: 1, far higher than the eutectic weight ratio of 7.5: 1. The texture of these regions indicates that the sulfide formed from a fluid of very low viscosity. The moderately high viscosity (0.2 poise) and large surface tension of liquid FeS, its inability to wet silicate grain surfaces at low oxygen fugacities. and the supereutectic FeS/Fe ratios in the troilite-rich regions indicate that the fluid was a vapor. It seems likely that during the shock event that melted Smyer, many silicates adjacent to the melt veins were crushed. Upon release of shock pressure. some of the troilite evaporated and dissociated. Molecules of S2 were transported and condensed into fractures and around tiny silicate grains: there, they combined with Fe from small adjacent metallic Fe-Ni grains to form troilite. The Ni content at the edges of some of these metal grains increased significantly; Co from these Ni-rich grains diffused into nearby kamacite. Impact-induced S volatilization may have played a major role in depleting the surface of 433 Eros (and other chondritic asteroids) in S.

  9. Lithification opf gas-rich chondrite regolith breccias by grain boundary and localized shock melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Stoeffler, D.

    1983-01-01

    The fine-grained matrices (less than 150 microns) of 14 gas-rich ordinary chondrile regolith breccias were studied in an attempt to decipher the nature of the lithification process that converted loose regolith material into consolidated breccias. It is found that there is a continuouos gradation in matrix textures from nearly completely clastic (class A) to highly cemented (class C) breccias in which the remining clasts are completely surrounded by interstitial, shock-melted material. It is concluded that this interstitial material is formed by shock melting in the porous regolith. In general, the abundances of solar-wind-implanted He-4 and Ne-20 are inversely correlated with the abundance of intenstitial, shock-melted, feldspathic material. Chondrites with the highest abundance of interstitial, melted material (class C) experienced the highest shock pressures and temperatures and suffered the most extensive degassing. It is this interstitial, feldspathic melt that lithifies and cements the breccias together; those breccias with very little interstitial melt (class A) are the most porous and least consolidated.

  10. The granulite suite: Impact melts and metamorphic breccias of the early lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, J. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Norman, M. D.; Keil, K.

    1993-03-01

    The granulite suite consists of two major types of rocks. One is coarse-grained and poikilitic with many euhedral crystals of olivine and plagioclase. These characteristics indicate crystallization from a melt; the poikilitic granulites are impact melt breccias. The other group is finer-grained and granoblastic, with numerous triple junctions; the granoblastic granulites are metamorphic rocks. Compositional groups identified by Lindstrom and Lindstrom contain both textural types. Two pyroxene thermometry indicates that both groups equilibrated at 1000 to 1150 C. Calculations suggest that the granoblastic group, which has an average grain size of about 80 microns, was annealed for less than 6 x 10 exp 4 y at 1000 C, and for less than 2500 y at 1150 C. Similar equilibration temperatures suggest that both groups were physically associated after impact events produced the poikilitic melts. Granulitic impactites hold important information about the pre-Nectarian bombardment history of the Moon, and the composition and thermal evolution of the early lunar crust. Granulitic impactites are widely considered to be an important rock type in the lunar crust, but how they formed is poorly understood. Metal compositions and elevated concentrations of meteoritic siderophile elements suggest that most lunar granulites are impact breccias. Their occurrence as clasts in approximately 3.9 Ga breccias, and Ar-(40-39) ages greater than or = 4.2 Ga for some granulites show that they represent a component of the lunar crust which formed prior to the Nectarian cataclysm. Petrographic characteristics of lunar granulites indicate at least two endmember textural variants which apparently formed in fundamentally different ways. One type has granoblastic textures consisting of equant, polygonal to rounded grains, and abundant triple junctions with small dispersions around 120 degrees indicating a close approach to textural equilibrium. As suggested by many authors, granoblastic granulites

  11. The granulite suite: Impact melts and metamorphic breccias of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushing, J. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Norman, M. D.; Keil, K.

    1993-01-01

    The granulite suite consists of two major types of rocks. One is coarse-grained and poikilitic with many euhedral crystals of olivine and plagioclase. These characteristics indicate crystallization from a melt; the poikilitic granulites are impact melt breccias. The other group is finer-grained and granoblastic, with numerous triple junctions; the granoblastic granulites are metamorphic rocks. Compositional groups identified by Lindstrom and Lindstrom contain both textural types. Two pyroxene thermometry indicates that both groups equilibrated at 1000 to 1150 C. Calculations suggest that the granoblastic group, which has an average grain size of about 80 microns, was annealed for less than 6 x 10 exp 4 y at 1000 C, and for less than 2500 y at 1150 C. Similar equilibration temperatures suggest that both groups were physically associated after impact events produced the poikilitic melts. Granulitic impactites hold important information about the pre-Nectarian bombardment history of the Moon, and the composition and thermal evolution of the early lunar crust. Granulitic impactites are widely considered to be an important rock type in the lunar crust, but how they formed is poorly understood. Metal compositions and elevated concentrations of meteoritic siderophile elements suggest that most lunar granulites are impact breccias. Their occurrence as clasts in approximately 3.9 Ga breccias, and Ar-(40-39) ages greater than or = 4.2 Ga for some granulites show that they represent a component of the lunar crust which formed prior to the Nectarian cataclysm. Petrographic characteristics of lunar granulites indicate at least two endmember textural variants which apparently formed in fundamentally different ways. One type has granoblastic textures consisting of equant, polygonal to rounded grains, and abundant triple junctions with small dispersions around 120 degrees indicating a close approach to textural equilibrium. As suggested by many authors, granoblastic granulites

  12. AR-40 AR-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in DHOFAR 961

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasl, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Jolliff, B.; Korotev, R.; Zeigler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. The SPA basin also has another convenient property, a geochemically distinct interior, unobscured by extensive mare basalt fill. A case has been made for the possible origin of the Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, based on comparing its composition with Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data for the interior of the SPA basin. Dhofar 961 contains several different impact-melt (IM) lithologies. Jolliff et al. described two classes of mafic impact-melt lithologies, one dominated by olivine (Lithology A) and the other by plagioclase (An 95-96.5) (Lithology B). Broad-beam analyses of these lithologies yielded (is) approximately 14.0 wt% FeO, 11.7 wt% MgO, and 15.4 wt% Al2O3. Lithologies A and B differ by approximately 2.5% Al2O3, 1.5% FeO and 1.5% MgO, consistent with the occurrence of olivine phenocrysts in A and plagioclase clasts in B. Both lithologies are considerably more mafic than the Apollo mafic impact-melt breccias, corresponding to olivine gabbronorite. Joy et al. used U-Pb dating to investigate phosphate fragments in the Dhofar 961 matrix and impact-melt clasts. Matrix phosphates have 4.34 to 4 Ga ages, consistent with ancient KREEP-driven magmatic episodes and Pre-Nectarian ((is) greater than 3.92 Ga). Phosphates found within Dhofar 961 crystalline impact melt breccia clasts range from 4.26 to 3.89 Ga, potentially recording events throughout the basin forming epoch of lunar history. The youngest reset ages in the Dhofar 961 sample represent an upper limit for the time of formation of the meteorite. Joy et al suggested this age represents the final impact that mixed and consolidated several generations of precursor rocks into the Dhofar meteorite group

  13. The thermal and deformational history of apollo 15418, A partly shock-melted lunar breccia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L.; Christie, J.M.; Lally, J.S.; Heuer, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal and mechanical history of lunar gabbroic anorthosite 15418 (1140g) has been deduced from petrographic examination of both exterior and interior thin sections and electron microprobe analysis and transmission electron microscopy of interior thin sections. We suggest that the rock underwent two major shock events - an early brecciation and annealing that produced a recrystallized breccia, followed by a second shock event that melted the surface of the rock, vitrified the interior plagioclase and heavily deformed the mafic phases. This latter shock even was also followed by annealing which crystallized the shock-produced glass and promoted recovery and recrystallization of the deformed crystalline phases. The complex mechanical and thermal history of 15418 compared with other ANT suite rocks at Spur Crater suggests that it had a different provenance. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  14. A discontinuous melt sheet in the Manson impact structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izett, G. A.; Reynolds, R. L.; Rosenbaum, J. G.; Nishi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Petrologic studies of the core recovered from holes drilled in the Manson, Iowa, buried impact structure may unravel the thermal history of the crater-fill debris. We made a cursory examination of about 200 m of core recovered from the M-1 bore hole. The M-1 bore hole was the first of 12 holes drilled as part of a cooperative drilling program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. The M-1 core hole is about 6 km northeast of the center of the impact structure, apparently on the flank of its central peak. We developed a working hypothesis that a 30-m-thick breccia unit within a 53-m-thick unit previously termed the 'crystalline clast breccia with glassy matrix' is part of a discontinuous melt sheet in the crater-fill impact debris. The 30-m-thick breccia unit reached temperatures sufficient to partially melt some small breccia clasts and convert the fine-grained breccia matrix into a silicate melt that cooled to a greenish-black, flinty, microcrystalline rock. The results of the investigation of this unit are presented.

  15. A hybrid composite dike suite from the northern Arabian Nubian Shield, southwest Jordan: Implications for magma mixing and partial melting of granite by mafic magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Yaseen, Najel; Theye, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The Arabian Nubian Shield is an exemplary juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age (1000-542 Ma). The post-collisional rift-related stage (~ 610 to 542 Ma) of its formation is characterized among others by the intrusion of several generations of simple and composite dikes. This study documents a suite of hybrid composite dikes and a natural example of partial melting of granite by a mafic magma from the northernmost extremity of Arabian Nubian Shield in southwest Jordan. The petrogenesis of this suite is discussed on the basis of field, petrographic, geochemical, and Rb/Sr isotopic data. These dikes give spectacular examples of the interaction between basaltic magma and the granitic basement. This interaction ranges from brecciation, partial melting of the host alkali feldspar granite to complete assimilation of the granitic material. Field structures range from intrusive breccia (angular partially melted granitic fragments in a mafic groundmass) to the formation of hybrid composite dikes that are up to 14 m in thickness. The rims of these dikes are trachyandesite (latite) with alkali feldspar ovoids (up to 1 cm in diameter); while the central cores are trachydacite to dacite and again with alkali feldspar ovoids and xenoliths from the dike rims. The granitic xenoliths in the intrusive breccia have been subjected to at least 33% partial melting. A seven-point Rb/Sr isochron from one of these composite dikes yields an age of 561 ± 33 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70326 ± 0.0003 (2σ) and MSWD of 0.62. Geochemical modeling using major, trace, rare earth elements and isotopes suggests the generation of the hybrid composite dike suite through the assimilation of 30% to 60% granitic crustal material by a basaltic magma, while the latter was undergoing fractional crystallization at different levels in the continental crust.

  16. Thermal model for impact breccia lithification - Manicouagan and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.; Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Mcgee, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal model of Simonds (1975) is extended to the full spectrum of impact-produced rocks ranging from fragmental breccias to impact melts, with reference to the Manicouagan impact structure in Quebec. This is done by relating the basic textural features of impact-lithified rocks to variations in the mixture of superheated impact-fused material originating near the point of impact and much cooler fragmented debris originating farther from the point of impact.

  17. Rock Magnetic Study of IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Site M0077A Drill Cores: Post-Impact Sediments, Impact Breccias, Melt, Granitic Basement and Dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Tikoo, S.; Zylberman, W.; Lofi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling at Site M0077 sampled post-impact sediments overlying a peak ring consisting of impact breccias, melt rock and granitoids. Here we focus on characterizing the peak ring using magnetic properties, which vary widely and depend on mineralogy, depositional and emplacement conditions and secondary alterations. Rock magnetic properties are integrated with Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, vertical seismic profile, physical properties, petrographic and chemical analyses and geophysical models. We measure low-field magnetic susceptibility at low- and high-frequencies, intensity and direction of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and laboratory-induced isothermal (IRM) and anhysteretic (ARM) magnetizations, alternating-field demagnetization of NRM, IRM and NRM, susceptibility variation with temperature, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis and IRM back-field demagnetization. Post-impact carbonates show low susceptibilities and NRM intensities, variable frequency-dependent susceptibilities and multivectorial remanences residing in low and high coercivity minerals. Hysteresis loops show low coercivity saturation magnetizations and variable paramagnetic mineral contents. Impact breccias (suevites) and melt rock show higher susceptibilities, low frequency-dependent susceptibilities, high NRM, ARM and IRM intensities and moderate ARM intensity/susceptibility ratios. Magnetic signal is dominated by fine-grained magnetite and titanomagnetites with PSD domain states. Melt rocks at the base of impactite section show the highest susceptibilities and remanence intensities. Basement section is characterized by low susceptibilities in the granites and higher values in the dikes, with NRM and ARM intensities increasing towards the base. The high susceptibilities and remanence intensities correlate with high seismic velocities, density and decreased porosity and electrical resistivity. Fracturing and alteration account for the reduced seismic velocities

  18. Geochemical and petrographic studies of melt-rich breccias from the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Soler-Arechalde, A.; Reyes-Salas, M.; Lozano-Santamaria, R.; Linares-Lopez, C.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2003-04-01

    The proposal by Alvarez et al. (1980) for an extraterrestrial bolide impact marking the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary was based on the anomalous Ir content in Italian and Danish K/T clay layers. The clay layer with a worldwide distribution and enriched in platinum group elements, shocked quartz and other impact-generated features has come to be interpreted as the global ejecta layer produced by a large impact that formed the Chicxulub crater. The ~200 km diameter crater is located in the carbonate platform of northwestern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. The crater is covered by a thick sequence of Tertiary sediments, with no surface exposures. The National University of Mexico conducted a drilling program with continuous core recovery, in which three boreholes (UNAM wells 5, 6 and 7) sampled the impact breccia sequences. Deeper drilling inside the carter has been carried out as part of the ICDP program with drilling of the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, which also cored a section of the impact breccias. The Yaxcopoil-1 borehole has been completed as part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. In this work, we report on the geochemical and petrographic studies of selected samples from the impact breccia sequence recovered in the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole inside the Chicxulub crater. One of the major questions emerging after the interpretation of Chicxulub as the K/T boundary impact site and its link to the global ejecta layer has been the nature of the impacting body. Studies have addressed this question from distinct fields, including investigation of the ejecta deposits near and far from the crater, from the crater itself, from impact records on the Moon and other bodies, searching for surviving fragments in K/T boundary sections, etc. The search for material with a possible small component associated to the impactor could open unique research opportunities to further understand the impact event. The melt breccia samples examined exhibit different textures and chemical

  19. Cat Mountain: A meteoritic sample of an impact-melted chondritic asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Although impact cratering and collisional disruption are the dominant geologic processes affecting asteroids, samples of impact melt breccias comprise less than 1 percent of ordinary chondritic material and none exist among enstatite and carbonaceous chondrite groups. Because the average collisional velocity among asteroids is sufficiently large to produce impact melts, this paucity of impact-melted material is generally believed to be a sampling bias, making it difficult to determine the evolutionary history of chondritic bodies and how impact processes may have affected the physical properties of asteroids (e.g., their structural integrity and reflectance spectra). To help address these and related issues, the first petrographic description of a new chondritic impact melt breccia sample, tentatively named Cat Mountain, is presented.

  20. Geochemical Comparison of Four Cores from the Manson Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; McCarville, Peter; Crossey, Laura J.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 33 elements were determined in relatively unaltered, matrix-rich samples of impact breccia at approximately 3-m-depth intervals in the M-1 core from the Manson impact structure, Iowa. In addition, 46 matrix-rich samples from visibly altered regions of the M-7, M-8, and M-10 cores were studied, along with 42 small clasts from all four cores. Major element compositions were determined for a subset of impact breccias from the M-1 core, including matrix-rich impact-melt breccia. Major- and trace-element compositions were also determined for a suite of likely target rocks. In the M-1 core, different breccia units identified from lithologic examination of cores are compositionally distinct. There is a sharp compositional discontinuity at the boundary between the Keweenawan-shale-clast breccia and the underlying unit of impact-melt breccia (IMB) for most elements, suggesting minimal physical mixing between the two units during emplacement. Samples from the 40-m-thick IMB (M-1) are all similar to each other in composition, although there are slight increases in concentration with depth for those elements that have high concentrations in the underlying fragmental-matrix suevite breccia (SB) (e.g., Na, Ca, Fe, Sc), presumably as a result of greater clast proportions at the bottom margin of the unit of impact-melt breccia. The high degree of compositional similarity we observe in the impact-melt breccias supports the interpretation that the matrix of this unit represents impact melt. That our analyses show such compositional similarity results in part from our technique for sampling these breccias: for each sample we analyzed a few small fragments (total mass: approximately 200 mg) selected to be relatively free of large clasts and visible signs of alteration instead of subsamples of powders prepared from a large mass of breccia. The mean composition of the matrix-rich part of impact-melt breccia from the M-1 core can be modeled as a mixture of approximately

  1. Apollo 16 impact-melt splashes - Petrography and major-element composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich; Morris, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic and major-element analyses are applied to 50 Apollo 16 impact-melt splash (IMS) samples in order to determine their origin and assess the nature of the subregolith source. The macroscopic analyses reveal that the IMSs exhibit a glassy appearance, but the textures range from holohyaline to hyalopilitic. Schlieren-rich glasses dominate the holohyaline areas, and the crystalline areas are mainly spherulitic. It is observed that most IMSs contain feldspathic monomineralic and lithic clasts and no regolithic materials. It is detected that the chemistry of most IMSs is not like the local regolith and appears to represent varied mixtures of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosite; the host rocks are mainly dimict breccias. It is concluded that the Cayley Formation is a polymict deposit composed of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosites. Tables revealing the macroscopic characteristics of the IMSs and the major-element composition of IMSs and various host rock are presented.

  2. The petrology and chronology of NWA 8009 impact melt breccia: Implication for early thermal and impact histories of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shiyong; Hsu, Weibiao

    2017-05-01

    Studies of petrology, mineralogy and geochronology of eucrites are keys to reconstruct the thermal and impact history of 4 Vesta, the proposed parent body for HED meteorites. Here we report the petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of NWA 8009, a newly found eucritic impact-melt breccia, and present SIMS U-Pb ages of zircon and phosphates. NWA 8009 consists of coarse- and fine-grained lithic and mineral clasts set in fine-grained recrystallized matrix. It was derived from a protolith of monomict non-cumulate eucrite. Evidence for intense shock metamorphism observed in NWA 8009 includes mosaicism, deformed exsolution lamellae and partial melting of pyroxene, melting and incipient flow of plagioclase, planar fractures and granular textures of zircon. These shock effects indicate NWA 8009 was subjected to an impact metamorphism with peak pressure of ∼50-60 GPa and post-shock temperature of ∼1160-1200 °C. NWA 8009 is among the most intensely shocked HEDs reported yet. After the impact, the sample was buried near the surface in target rocks and experienced rapid cooling (∼23 °C/h) and annealing, resulting in recrystallization of the matrix and devitrification of plagioclase and silica glasses. U-Pb isotopic system of apatite within plagioclase groundmass of lithic clasts is completely reset and constrains the timing of impact at 4143 ± 61 Ma, providing a new robust impact age on Vesta. Combined with the presence of synchronous impact resetting events, especially those recorded by Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, and Pb-Pb isotopic systems, we identified a period of high impacts flux at ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga on Vesta. This impact flux occurred coincident with the uptick at ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga in impact age spectra of the moon, probably reflects widespread intense bombardment throughout the inner solar system at ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. Based on evidence from zircon chemical zoning, petrographic occurrences, as well as the distinctive Zr/Hf ratios, we suggested that zircons in NWA 8009 have had a

  3. Composition and petrology of HED polymict breccias: The regolith of (4) Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, Jason S.; Quinn, Julie E.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Cartwright, Julia A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Peng, Zhan X.

    2013-11-01

    We have done petrologic and compositional studies on a suite of polymict eucrites and howardites to better understand regolith processes on their parent asteroid, which we accept is (4) Vesta. Taking into account noble gas results from companion studies, we interpret five howardites to represent breccias assembled from the true regolith: Elephant Moraine (EET) 87513, Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95535, GRO 95602, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85313, and Meteorite Hills (MET) 00423. We suggest that EET 87503 is paired with EET 87513, and thus is also regolithic. Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 02066 is dominated by melt-matrix clasts, which may have been formed from true regolith by impact melting. These meteorites display a range in eucrite:diogenite mixing ratio from 55:45 to 76:24. There is no correlation between degree of regolith character and Ni content. The Ni contents of howardite, eucrite, and diogenites (HEDs) are mostly controlled by the distribution of coarse chondritic clasts and metal grains, which in some cases resulted from individual, low-velocity accretion events, rather than extensive regolith gardening. Trace element compositions indicate that the mafic component of HED polymict breccias is mostly basalt similar to main-group eucrites; Stannern-trend basaltic debris is less common. Pyroxene compositions show that some trace element-rich howardites contain abundant debris from evolved basalts, and that cumulate gabbro debris is present in some breccias. The scale of heterogeneity varies considerably; regolithic howardite EET 87513 is more homogeneous than fragmental howardite Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 97001. Individual samples of a given howardite can have different compositions even at roughly 5 g masses, indicating that obtaining representative meteorite compositions requires multiple or large samples.

  4. Partitioning of Cu between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingcheng; Xiong, Xiaolin; Audétat, Andreas; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    This study used improved capsule technique i.e., Pt95Cu05 or Au95Cu05 alloy capsules as Cu sources to determine Cu partitioning between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts at 0.5-2.5 GPa, 950-1100 °C and various oxygen fugacities (fO2). In combination with the data from the mafic composition systems, the results demonstrate that Cu is generally highly incompatible in mafic minerals and moderately incompatible to compatible in Fe-Ti oxides. The general order of mineral/melt Cu partition coefficients (DCu) is garnet (0.01-0.06) ⩽ olivine (0.04-0.20) ≈ opx (0.04-0.24) ≈ amphibole (0.04-0.20) ⩽ cpx (0.04-0.45) ⩽ magnetite, titanomagnetite and Cr-spinel (0.18-1.83). The variations in DCu depend mainly on temperature, fO2 or mineral composition. In general, DCu for olivine (and perhaps opx) increases with decreasing temperature and increasing fO2. DCu increases for cpx with Na+ (pfu) in cpx, for magnetite and Cr-spinel with Fe3+ (pfu) in these phases and for titanomagnetite with Ti4+ (pfu) in this phase. The large number of DCu data (99 pairs) serves as a foundation for quantitatively understanding the behavior of Cu during magmatic processes. The generation of intermediate to felsic magmas via fractional crystallization or partial melting of mafic rocks (magmas) at deep levels of crust involves removal of or leaving assemblages of mafic minerals + Fe-Ti oxides ± sulfides. With our DCu data on mafic minerals and Fe-Ti oxides, DCubulk values around 0.2 were obtained for the sulfide-free assemblages. Cu will thus be concentrated efficiently in the derived melts during these two processes if sulfides are absent or negligible, explaining that high fO2 and sulfide-destabilization are favorable to formation of the porphyry Cu system.

  5. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Sr-Nd in heterolithic breccias and gabbroic dikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Lakomy, R.; Brockmeyer, P.; Dressler, B.

    1992-01-01

    One major objective of our Sudbury project was to define origin and age of the huge breccia units below and above the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). The heterolithic Footwall Breccia (FB) represents a part of the uplifted crater floor. It contains subrounded fragments up to several meters in size and lithic fragments with shock features (greater than 10 GPa) embedded into a fine- to medium-grained matrix. Epsilon(sub Nd)-epsilon(sub Sr) relationships point to almost exclusively parautochthonous precursor lithologies. The different textures of the matrix reflect the metamorphic history of the breccia layer; thermal annealing by the overlying hot impact melt sheet (SIC) at temperatures greater than 1000 C resulted in melting of the fine crushed material, followed by an episode of metasomatic K-feldspar growth and, finally, formation of low-grade minerals such as actinolite and chlorite. Isotope relationships in the Onaping breccias (Gray and Green Member) are much more complex. All attempts to date the breccia formation failed: Zircons are entirely derived from country rocks and lack the pronounced Pb loss caused by the heat of the slowly cooling impact melt sheet (SIC). Rb-Sr techniques using either lithic fragments of different shock stages or the thin slab method, set time limits for the apparently pervasive alkali mobility in these suevitic breccias. The data array and the intercept in the plots point to a major Rb-Sr fractionation around 1.54 Ga ago. This model age is in the same range as the age obtained for the metasomatic matrix of the FB. Rb-Sr dating of a shock event in impact-related breccias seems to be possible only if their matrix had suffered total melting by the hot melt sheet (FB) or if they contain a high fraction of impact melt (suevitic Onaping breccias), whereas the degree of shock metamorphism in rock or lithic fragments plays a minor role. In the Sudbury case, however, the impact melt in the seuvitic breccias is devitrified and recrystallized

  6. Impact melting early in lunar history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The total amount of impact melt produced during early lunar history is examined in light of theoretically and experimentally determined relations between crater diameter (D) and impact melt volume. The time dependence of the melt production is given by the time dependent impact rate as derived from cratering statistics for two different crater-size classes. Results show that small scale cratering (D less than or equal to 30 km) leads to melt volumes which fit selected observations specifying the amount of impact melt contained in the lunar regolith and in craters with diameters less than 10 km. Larger craters (D greater than 30 km) are capable of forming the abundant impact melt breccias found on the lunar surface. The group of large craters (D greater than 30 km) produces nearly 10 times as much impact melt as all the smaller craters, and thus, the large impacts dominate the modification of the lunar surface. A contradiction between the distribution of radiometric rock ages and a model of exponentially decreasing cratering rate going back to 4.5 b.y. is reflected in uncertainty in the distribution of impact melt as a function of time on the moon.

  7. Serenitatis: The Oldest, Largest Impact Basin Sampled in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1997-01-01

    basalts are absent. Mineral fragments suggest similar but more diverse mafic lithologies. The evidence from rocks, remote sensing, and geophysics suggests that the target for the Serenitatis impact was a noritic one and consisted largely of pristine igneous mafic rocks rather than a megabreccia. As the melt moved out, it first picked up heavily comminuted mineral fragments similar to the target and later picked up larger fragments of such material. Finally, it picked up feldspathic granulitic breccias when the melt was too cool to dissolve them significantly into the melt. The melt finally came to rest in a location that, following slumping, formed the Taurus highlands.

  8. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [Apollo 15 breccias and Russian tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Clasts, rind glass, matrix glass, and matrix minerals from five Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias (15255, 15286, 15465, 15466, and 15505) were studied optically and with the SEM/microprobe. Rind glass compositions differ from sample to sample, but are identical, or nearly so, to the local soil, suggesting their origin by fusion of that soil. Most breccia samples contain green or colorless glass spheres identical to the Apollo 15 green glasses. These glasses, along with other glass shards and fragments, indicate a large soil component is present in the breccias. Clast populations include basalts and gabbros containing phases highly enriched in iron, indicative of extreme differentiation or fractional crystallization. Impact melts, anorthosites, and minor amounts of ANT suite material are also present among the clasts. Tektite glasses, impact melts, and breccias from the Zhamanshin structure, USSR, were also studied. Basic tektite glasses were found to be identical in composition to impact melts from the structure, but no satisfactory parent material has been identified in the limited suite of samples available.

  9. Magnetostratigraphy of the impact breccias and post-impact carbonates from borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatán, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    We report the magnetostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence between the impact breccias and the post-impact carbonate sequence conducted on samples recovered by Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1). Samples of impact breccias show reverse polarities that span up to ~56 cm into the postimpact carbonate lithologies. We correlate these breccias to those of PEMEX boreholes Yucatán-6 and Chicxulub-1, from which we tied our magnetostratigraphy to the radiometric age from a melt sample from the Yucatán-6 borehole. Thin section analyses of the carbonate samples showed a significant amount of dark minerals and glass shards that we identified as the magnetic carriers; therefore, we propose that the mechanism of magnetic acquisition within the carbonate rocks for the interval studied is detrital remanent magnetism (DRM). With these samples, we constructed the scale of geomagnetic polarities where we find two polarities within the sequence, a reverse polarity event within the impact breccias and the base of the post-impact carbonate sequence (up to 794.07 m), and a normal polarity event in the last ~20 cm of the interval studied. The polarities recorded in the sequence analyzed are interpreted to span from chron 29r to 29n, and we propose that the reverse polarity event lies within the 29r chron. The magnetostratigraphy of the sequence studied shows that the horizon at 794.11 m deep, interpreted as the K/T boundary, lies within the geomagnetic chron 29r, which contains the K/T boundary.

  10. Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Canada: A mid-size, Complex Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Copeland, P.

    1999-01-01

    The target rocks of the 30-32-km diameter Slate Islands impact structure in northern Lake Superior, Canada, are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and supracrustal Proterozoic rocks. Shatter cones, pseudotachylites, impact glasses, and microscopic shock metamorphic features were formed during the contact and compression phase of the impact process, followed, during excavation and central uplift, by polymict, clastic matrix breccias in the uplifted target, and by allogenic fall-back breccias (suevite and bunte breccia). Monomict, autoclastic breccias were mainly observed on Mortimer Island and the other outlying islands of the archipelago and were probably generated relatively late in the impact process (central uplift and/or crater modification). The frequency of low index planar shock metamorphic features in quartz was correlated with results from shock experiments to estimate shock pressures experienced by the target rocks. The resulting shock attenuation plan across the archipelago is irregular, probably because the shock wave did not expand from a point or spherical source, and because of the destruction of an originally more regular shock attenuation plan during the central uplift and crater modification stages of the impact process. No impact melt rock bodies have been positively identified on the islands. An impact melt may be present in the annular trough around the islands, though and-based on a weighted mixture of target rocks-may have an intermediate-mafic composition. No such impact melt was found on the archipelago. An Ar-40-Ar-39 release spectrum of a pseudotachylite provides an age of about 436 Ma for the impact structure, substantiating age constraints based on various stratigraphic considerations.

  11. Thorium isotope evidence for melting of the mafic oceanic crust beneath the Izu arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Heye; Ivko, Ben; Gill, James B.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Elliott, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We address the question of whether melting of the mafic oceanic crust occurs beneath ordinary volcanic arcs using constraints from U-Series (238U/232Th, 230Th/232Th and 226Ra/230Th) measurements. Alteration of the top few hundred meters of the mafic crust leads to strong U enrichment. Via decay of 238U to 230Th, this results in elevated (230Th/232Th) (where brackets indicate activity ratios) over time-scales of ∼350 ka. This process leads to the high (230Th/232Th), between 2.6 and 11.0 in the mafic altered oceanic crust (AOC) sampled at ODP Sites 801 and 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Th activity ratios in the Izu arc lavas range from (230Th/232Th) = 1.2-2.0. These values are substantially higher than those in bulk sediment subducting at the Izu trench and also extend to higher values than in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the Mariana arc. We show that the range in Th isotope ratios in the Izu arc lavas is consistent with the presence of a slab melt from a mixed source consisting of AOC and subducted sediments with an AOC mass fraction of up to approximately 80 wt.% in the component added to the arc lava source. The oceanic plate subducting at the Izu arc is comparatively cold which therefore indicates that temperatures high enough for fluid-saturated melting of the AOC are commonly achieved beneath volcanic arcs. The high ratio of AOC/sediments of the slab melt component suggested for the Izu arc lavas requires preferential melting of the AOC. This can be achieved when fluid-saturated melting of the slab is triggered by fluids derived from underlying subducted serpentinites. Dehydration of serpentinites and migration of the fluid into the overlying crust causes melting to start within the AOC. The absence of a significant sediment melt component suggests there was insufficient water to flux both AOC and overlying sediments.

  12. Refining lunar impact chronology through high spatial resolution (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of impact melts.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Cameron M; Young, Kelsey E; Weirich, John R; Hodges, Kip V; Jolliff, Bradley L; Wartho, Jo-Anne; van Soest, Matthijs C

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative constraints on the ages of melt-forming impact events on the Moon are based primarily on isotope geochronology of returned samples. However, interpreting the results of such studies can often be difficult because the provenance region of any sample returned from the lunar surface may have experienced multiple impact events over the course of billions of years of bombardment. We illustrate this problem with new laser microprobe (40)Ar/(39)Ar data for two Apollo 17 impact melt breccias. Whereas one sample yields a straightforward result, indicating a single melt-forming event at ca. 3.83 Ga, data from the other sample document multiple impact melt-forming events between ca. 3.81 Ga and at least as young as ca. 3.27 Ga. Notably, published zircon U/Pb data indicate the existence of even older melt products in the same sample. The revelation of multiple impact events through (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronology is likely not to have been possible using standard incremental heating methods alone, demonstrating the complementarity of the laser microprobe technique. Evidence for 3.83 Ga to 3.81 Ga melt components in these samples reinforces emerging interpretations that Apollo 17 impact breccia samples include a significant component of ejecta from the Imbrium basin impact. Collectively, our results underscore the need to quantitatively resolve the ages of different melt generations from multiple samples to improve our current understanding of the lunar impact record, and to establish the absolute ages of important impact structures encountered during future exploration missions in the inner Solar System.

  13. Petrogenesis of Miller Range 07273, a new type of anomalous melt breccia: Implications for impact effects on the H chondrite asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Hutson, Melinda; Friedrich, Jon M.; Rivers, Mark L.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Ebel, Denton S.; Ziegler, Karen; Rumble, Douglas; Dolan, Alyssa A.

    2017-09-01

    Miller Range 07273 is a chondritic melt breccia that contains clasts of equilibrated ordinary chondrite set in a fine-grained (<5 μm), largely crystalline, igneous matrix. Data indicate that MIL was derived from the H chondrite parent asteroid, although it has an oxygen isotope composition that approaches but falls outside of the established H group. MIL also is distinctive in having low porosity, cone-like shapes for coarse metal grains, unusual internal textures and compositions for coarse metal, a matrix composed chiefly of clinoenstatite and omphacitic pigeonite, and troilite veining most common in coarse olivine and orthopyroxene. These features can be explained by a model involving impact into a porous target that produced brief but intense heating at high pressure, a sudden pressure drop, and a slower drop in temperature. Olivine and orthopyroxene in chondrule clasts were the least melted and the most deformed, whereas matrix and troilite melted completely and crystallized to nearly strain-free minerals. Coarse metal was largely but incompletely liquefied, and matrix silicates formed by the breakdown during melting of albitic feldspar and some olivine to form pyroxene at high pressure (>3 GPa, possibly to 15-19 GPa) and temperature (>1350 °C, possibly to ≥2000 °C). The higher pressures and temperatures would have involved back-reaction of high-pressure polymorphs to pyroxene and olivine upon cooling. Silicates outside of melt matrix have compositions that were relatively unchanged owing to brief heating duration.

  14. Quantitative EPMA Compositional Mapping of NWA 2995: Characterization, and Petrologic Interpretation of Mafic Clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P. K.; Hahn, T. M.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first fully quantitative compositional maps of lunar meteorite NWA 2995 using electron microprobe stage mapping, and compare selected clast mineralogy and chemistry. NWA 2995 is a feldspathic fragmental breccia containing numerous highland fine grained lithologies, including anorthosite, norite, olivine basalt, subophitic basalt, gabbro, KREEP-like basalt, granulitic and glassy impact melts, coarse-grained mineral fragments, Fe-Ni metal, and glassy matrix [1]. Chips of NWA 2995, representing these diverse materials, were analyzed by INAA and fused-bead electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA); comparison of analytical data suggests grouping of lunar meteorites NWA 2995, 2996, 3190, 4503, 5151, and 5152. The mean composition of NWA 2995 corresponds to a 2:1 mixture of feldspathic and mare material, with approximately 5% KREEP component [2]. Clast mineral chemistry and petrologic interpretation of paired stone NWA 2996 has been reported by Mercer et al. [3], and Gross et al. [4]. This study combines advances in quantitative EPMA compositional mapping and data analysis, as applied to selected mafic clasts in a polished section of NWA 2995, to investigate the origin of mafic lithic components and to demonstrate a procedural framework for petrologic analysis.

  15. Refining lunar impact chronology through high spatial resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of impact melts

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Young, Kelsey E.; Weirich, John R.; Hodges, Kip V.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Wartho, Jo-Anne; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative constraints on the ages of melt-forming impact events on the Moon are based primarily on isotope geochronology of returned samples. However, interpreting the results of such studies can often be difficult because the provenance region of any sample returned from the lunar surface may have experienced multiple impact events over the course of billions of years of bombardment. We illustrate this problem with new laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar data for two Apollo 17 impact melt breccias. Whereas one sample yields a straightforward result, indicating a single melt-forming event at ca. 3.83 Ga, data from the other sample document multiple impact melt–forming events between ca. 3.81 Ga and at least as young as ca. 3.27 Ga. Notably, published zircon U/Pb data indicate the existence of even older melt products in the same sample. The revelation of multiple impact events through 40Ar/39Ar geochronology is likely not to have been possible using standard incremental heating methods alone, demonstrating the complementarity of the laser microprobe technique. Evidence for 3.83 Ga to 3.81 Ga melt components in these samples reinforces emerging interpretations that Apollo 17 impact breccia samples include a significant component of ejecta from the Imbrium basin impact. Collectively, our results underscore the need to quantitatively resolve the ages of different melt generations from multiple samples to improve our current understanding of the lunar impact record, and to establish the absolute ages of important impact structures encountered during future exploration missions in the inner Solar System. PMID:26601128

  16. Lithologies contributing to the clast population in Apollo 17 LKFM basaltic impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Spudis, Paul; Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    LKFM basaltic impact melts are abundant among Apollo lunar samples, especially those from Apollo 15, 16, and 17. They are generally basaltic in composition, but are found exclusively as impact melts. They seem to be related to basins and so could represent the composition of the lower lunar crust. They contain lithic clasts that cannot be mixed in any proportion to produce the composition of the melt matrix; components rich in transition elements (Ti, Cr, Sc) and REE are not considered. To search for the mysterious cryptic component, we previously investigated the mineral clast population in two Apollo 14 LKFM basaltic impact melts, 15445 and 15455. The cryptic component was not present in the mineral clast assemblage of these breccias either, but some olivine and pyroxene grains appeared to be from lithologies not represented among identified igneous rocks from the lunar highlands. In addition, none of the mineral clasts could be unambiguously assigned to a ferroan anorthosite source. We have now extended this study to Apollo 17, starting with two LKFM impact melt breccias (76295 and 76315) from the Apollo 17 station 6 boulder. The results from the study are presented.

  17. Impact melts in the MAC88105 lunar meteorite - Inferences for the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and the diversity of basaltic impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The MAC88105 lunar meteorite, as represented by thin section 78, contains three major types of impact melt breccias. The most abundant type is clast-laden, fine-grained, and rich in Al2O3 (28 wt pct); these clasts constitute most of the meteorite. Their abundance and aluminous nature indicate that the MAC88105 source area was very aluminous. This is consistent with formation of the primordial lunar crust from a global magma ocean. The second type of impact melt is represented by only one clast in 78. It has a basaltic bulk composition similar to many other lunar impact melts, but is significantly richer in P2O5 than most and has a much lower MgO/(MgO + FeO). The third impact-melt type resembles a prominent melt group at Apollo 16, but has lower MgO/(MgO + FeO). These data show that basaltic impact melts are compositionally diverse. Dating samples of the Al-rich impact melts and the new types of basaltic impact melts from this meteorite can test the idea that the Moon suffered a terminal cataclysm 3.9 Ga ago.

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of feldspathic impact-melt breccia Abar al' Uj 012, the first lunar meteorite from Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Marianna; Hofmann, Beda A.; Lanari, Pierre; Korotev, Randy L.; Gnos, Edwin; Greber, Nicolas D.; Leya, Ingo; Greenwood, Richard C.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.

    2016-10-01

    Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 is a clast-rich, vesicular impact-melt (IM) breccia, composed of lithic and mineral clasts set in a very fine-grained and well-crystallized matrix. It is a typical feldspathic lunar meteorite, most likely originating from the lunar farside. Bulk composition (31.0 wt% Al2O3, 3.85 wt% FeO) is close to the mean of feldspathic lunar meteorites and Apollo FAN-suite rocks. The low concentration of incompatible trace elements (0.39 ppm Th, 0.13 ppm U) reflects the absence of a significant KREEP component. Plagioclase is highly anorthitic with a mean of An96.9Ab3.0Or0.1. Bulk rock Mg# is 63 and molar FeO/MnO is 76. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 33.4 ± 5.2 kyr. AaU 012 contains a 1.4 × 1.5 mm2 exotic clast different from the lithic clast population which is dominated by clasts of anorthosite breccias. Bulk composition and presence of relatively large vesicles indicate that the clast was most probably formed by an impact into a precursor having nonmare igneous origin most likely related to the rare alkali-suite rocks. The IM clast is mainly composed of clinopyroxenes, contains a significant amount of cristobalite (9.0 vol%), and has a microcrystalline mesostasis. Although the clast shows similarities in texture and modal mineral abundances with some Apollo pigeonite basalts, it has lower FeO and higher SiO2 than any mare basalt. It also has higher FeO and lower Al2O3 than rocks from the FAN- or Mg-suite. Its lower Mg# (59) compared to Mg-suite rocks also excludes a relationship with these types of lunar material.

  19. Manicouagan impact melt, Quebec. I - Stratigraphy, petrology, and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floran, R. J.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Dence, M. R.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Blanchard, D. P.; Simonds, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    A sheet of clast-laden impact melt 230 m thick and 55 km in diameter forms an annular plateau surrounding an uplift of shocked anorthosite within the moderately eroded Manicouagan structure. Three gradational units of the melt sheet are characterized with respect to grain size, inclusions, texture, and mineralogy. The melt rocks as a group are chemically homogeneous with a bulk composition similar to that of latite and with no statistically significant regional chemical variations. The melt is not completely chemically homogeneous as a local mafic variant represented by two samples with poikilitic texture was found. These poikilitic rocks texturally resemble some Apollo 17 impact melt rocks and are inferred to have had a similar origin and thermal history.

  20. Characterization of multiple lithologies within the lunar feldspathic regolith breccia meteorite Northeast Africa 001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Crawford, Ian A.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- Lunar meteorite Northeast Africa (NEA) 001 is a feldspathic regolith breccia. This study presents the results of electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS analyses of a section of NEA 001. We identify a range of lunar lithologies including feldspathic impact melt, ferroan noritic anorthosite and magnesian feldspathic clasts, and several very-low titanium (VLT) basalt clasts. The largest of these basalt clasts has a rare earth element (REE) pattern with light-REE (LREE) depletion and a positive Euanomaly. This clast also exhibits low incompatible trace element (ITE) concentrations (e.g., <0.1 ppm Th, <0.5 ppm Sm), indicating that it has originated from a parent melt that did not assimilate KREEP material. Positive Eu-anomalies and such low-ITE concentrations are uncharacteristic of most basalts returned by the Apollo and Luna missions, and basaltic lunar meteorite samples. We suggest that these features are consistent with the VLT clasts crystallizing from a parent melt which was derived from early mantle cumulates that formed prior to the separation of plagioclase in the lunar magma ocean, as has previously been proposed for some other lunar VLT basalts. Feldspathic impact melts within the sample are found to be more mafic than estimations for the composition of the upper feldspathic lunar crust, suggesting that they may have melted and incorporated material from the lower lunar crust (possibly in large basin-forming events). The generally feldspathic nature of the impact melt clasts, lack of a KREEP component, and the compositions of the basaltic clasts, leads us to suggest that the meteorite has been sourced from the Outer-Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT-O), probably on the lunar farside and within about 1000 km of sources of both Low-Ti and VLT basalts, the latter possibly existing as cryptomaria deposits.

  1. Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

  2. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  3. Shallow drilling in the 'Bunte Breccia' impact deposits, Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Gall, H.; Huettner, R.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is a field report concerning a shallow core drilling program in the multicolored breccia deposits which constitute 90% of all the impact breccias beyond the outer rim of the Ries, a 26-km-diam impact crater. About 480 m of core was recovered from 11 locations with radial ranges between 16.5 and 35 km from the crater center. The cores consist of breccias, whose components are derived from the crater itself and the terrain outside the crater. The local components dominate the breccias at the larger ranges, and possibly constitute more than 90% of the breccia volume at the greatest distances investigated. The great depth of the Bunte Breccia (84 m at 27 km range), together with the preponderance of local components, necessitates an emplacement mechanism that ploughed up and mixed the crater surroundings to depths greater than 50 m.

  4. Apollo 16 site geology and impact melts - Implications for the geologic history of the lunar highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Spudis, P.D.

    1984-11-15

    The geology of the Apollo 16 site is reconsidered on the basis of data from photogeology, geochemical remote sensing, and lunar samples. The site possesses an upper surface of anorthositic gabbro and related rocks. Mafic components were deposited as basin ejecta. The events involved in its geological evolution were the Nectaris impact and the Imbrium impact. The role of large, local craters in the history of the region was to serve as topographic depressions to accumulate basin ejecta. The most abundant melt composition at Apollo 16 is an aluminous variety of LKFM basalt supplied by the Nectaris impact as ejectedmore » basin impact melt. The mafic LKFM melt may have been supplied by the Imbrium impact. More aluminous melt groups are probably derived from local, small craters. The remainder of the deposits in the region are composed of anorthositic clastic debris derived from the Nectaris basin, the local crustal substrate, and Imbrium and other basins.« less

  5. Impact Amber, Popcorn, and Pathology: The Biology of Impact Melt Breccias and Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    2007-03-01

    We present evidence that superheated impact melts can trap and preserve both floral and faunal remains forming "impact amber." We discuss terrestrial occurrences of impact amber and the strategy it suggests in searching for evidence of past life on other

  6. Impact melting of carbonates from the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Claeys, P.; Heuschkel, S.

    We have recently interpreted distinctive feathery-textured spinifex carbonate in the upper part of the Chicxulub suevite breccia as quenched carbonate melts (Jones et al. 1998); these distinctive fragments make up to 10 vol% of the breccia. Carbonate clasts and spherules occurring in the ejecta-rich basal part of the coarse clastic sequence, which marks the K/T boundary all around the Gulf of Mexico, may represent distal quenched droplets of carbonate liquids. In seeking to explain this widespread carbonate impact-melting phenomenon, we have re-examined the available experimental evidence. The important decarbonation reaction for calcite CaCO3=CaO+CO2 is inhibited by very small pressures up to temperatures >2000 K. We conclude that massive decarbonation by direct shock pressure is unlikely without attainment of temperatures >4000 K. Therefore, decarbonation generally can only occur during post-shock cooling for carbonates at low pressure (< 10 bars). We assume that post-shock cooling is quasi-thermodynamic, and provide a general P-T model for carbonate spanning 11 orders of magnitude in pressure (atmosphere to core). Subtle differences in sample preconditioning can probably explain the wildly divergent experimental shock data. A major planetary implication for the formation of the Earth's early atmosphere is that impacts on limestone would be less likely to have contributed substantial CO2 than has previously been assumed. Lastly, we note that carbonate melts at high pressures serve as excellent catalysts for diamond growth, and may have contributed to the widespread formation of some impact diamond.

  7. Excess Silica Substitution in Plagioclase Grains in the Pasamonte Eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Le, L.; Berger, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Pasamonte is a clast-rich polymict basaltic breccia with O- and Cr-isotopic compositions that are resolved from those of most eucrites. It is dominated by two mafic clast types: (i) very-fine- to fine-grained, variolitic, subophitic and ophitic basalts, usually containing zoned pyroxenes; and (ii) fine- to medium grained hypidiomorphic-granular and allotriomorphic-granular microgabbros containing pyroxenes composed of augite lamellae in homogeneous pigeonite hosts. Minor clast types are fine-grained impact-melt, mafic-breccia and mafic-granular clasts; coarse matrix mineral fragments include pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, ferroan olivine and ilmenite. Our petrologic studies include determination of plagioclase compositions for the two major clast types and matrix grains, which we report here.

  8. Flynn Creek Impact Structure: New Insights from Breccias, Melt Features, Shatter Cones, and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenick, J. C.; Lee, P.; Deane, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Flynn Creek impact structure is located in Tennessee, USA (36 deg.17 min.N, 85 deg.40 min.W). The structure was first mapped as a crypto-volcanic by Wilson and Born in 1936 [1]. Although they did not properly identify the stratigraphy within the crater or the causal mechanism, they did correctly define the horizontal extent of the crater. More detailed surface and subsurface research by Roddy (1979) accurately described the crater as being an impact structure with a diameter of 3.8 km. It formed around 360 Ma, which corresponds to the interval between the deposition of the Nashville Group and the Chattanooga Shale. Although there is limited rock outcrop in the area, there are exposed surface faults, folds, and large outcrops of impact breccia within the crater.

  9. Superimposed deformation in seconds: breccias from the impact structure at Kentland, Indiana (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnerud, M. G.

    1998-05-01

    Breccias from the central uplift at the Kentland, Indiana impact structure have outcrop and microscopic characteristics that give insight into events that may occur in a carbonate-dominated sedimentary sequence in the moments following hypervelocity impact. Three distinct types of brecciated rock bodies — fault breccias, breccia lenses, and breccia dikes — suggest multiple mechanisms of fragmentation. The fault breccias occur along steeply dipping faults that coincide with compositional discontinuities in the stratigraphic succession. The breccia lenses and dikes are less localized in occurrence and show no systematic spatial distribution or orientation. The fault breccias and breccia lenses show no consistent cross-cutting relationships, but both are transected by the breccia dikes. Textural analysis reveals significant differences in particle size distributions for the different breccias. The fault breccias are typically monomict, coarsest and least uniform in grain size, and yield the highest power-law exponent (fractal dimension) in plots of particle size vs. frequency. The polymict dike filling is finest and most uniform in grain size, has the lowest power-law exponent, and is locally laminated and size-sorted. SEM images of the dike-filling breccia show that fragmentation occurred to the scale of microns. Material within the breccia lenses has textural characteristics intermediate between the other two types, but the irregular morphology of these bodies suggests a mechanism of formation different from that of either of the other breccia categories. The breccia lenses and dikes both have sub-mm-scale spheroidal vugs that may have been formed by carbon dioxide bubbles released during sudden devolatilization of the carbonate country rock. Collectively, these observations shed light on the processes that occur during the excavation and modification phases of crater formation in carbonate strata — heterogeneous, polyphase, multiscale deformation accomplished

  10. Oxidized sulfur-rich mafic magma at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Hoog, J.C.M.; Hattori, K.H.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Basaltic fragments enclosed in andesitic dome lavas and pyroclastic flows erupted during the early stages of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, contain amphiboles that crystallized during the injection of mafic magma into a dacitic magma body. The amphiboles contain abundant melt inclusions, which recorded the mixing of andesitic melt in the mafic magma and rhyolitic melt in the dacitic magma. The least evolved melt inclusions have high sulfur contents (up to 1,700 ppm) mostly as SO42, which suggests an oxidized state of the magma (NNO + 1.4). The intrinsically oxidized nature of the mafic magma is confirmed by spinel-olivine oxygen barometry. The value is comparable to that of the dacitic magma (NNO + 1.6). Hence, models invoking mixing as a means of releasing sulfur from the melt are not applicable to Pinatubo. Instead, the oxidized state of the dacitic magma likely reflects that of parental mafic magma and the source region in the sub-arc mantle. Our results fit a model in which long-lived SO2 discharge from underplated mafic magma accumulated in the overlying dacitic magma and immiscible aqueous fluids. The fluids were the most likely source of sulfur that was released into the atmosphere during the cataclysmic eruption. The concurrence of highly oxidized basaltic magma and disproportionate sulfur output during the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption suggests that oxidized mafic melt is an efficient medium for transferring sulfur from the mantle to shallow crustal levels and the atmosphere. As it can carry large amounts of sulfur, effectively scavenge sulfides from the source mantle and discharge SO2 during ascent, oxidized mafic magma forms arc volcanoes with high sulfur fluxes, and potentially contributes to the formation of metallic sulfide deposits. ?? Springer-Verlag 2003.

  11. The Petrology and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Granulitic Breccia NWA 3163: Implications for the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.; Irvine, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar meteorites are crucial to understand the Moon s geological history because, being samples of the lunar crust that have been ejected by random impact events, they potentially originate from areas outside the small regions of the lunar surface sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions. The Apollo and Luna sample sites are contained within the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT, Jolliff et al., 2000), where KREEP refers to potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus-rich lithologies. The KREEP-rich rocks in the PKT are thought to be derived from late-stage residual liquids after approx.95-99% crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). These are understood to represent late-stage liquids which were enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) relative to older rocks (Snyder et al., 1992). As a consequence, the PKT is a significant reservoir for Th and KREEP. However, the majority of the lunar surface is likely to be significantly more depleted in ITE (84%, Jolliff et al., 2000). Lunar meteorites that are low in KREEP and Th may thus sample regions distinct from the PKT and are therefore a valuable source of information regarding the composition of KREEP-poor lunar crust. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163 is a thermally metamorphosed ferroan, feldspathic, granulitic breccia composed of igneous clasts with a bulk anorthositic, noritic bulk composition. It is relatively mafic (approx.5.8 wt.% FeO; approx.5 wt.% MgO) and has some of the lowest concentrations of ITEs (17ppm Ba) compared to the feldspathic lunar meteorite (FLM) and Apollo sample suites (Hudgins et al., 2011). Localized plagioclase melting and incipient melting of mafic minerals require localized peak shock pressures in excess of 45 GPa (Chen and El Goresy, 2000; Hiesinger and Head, 2006). NWA 3163, and paired samples NWA 4481 and 4883, have previously been interpreted to represent an annealed micro-breccia which was produced by burial metamorphism at depth in the ancient lunar crust (Fernandes et al., 2009

  12. Evaluation of the Lithospheric Contribution to Southern Rio Grande Rift Mafic Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J. G.; Crocker, L.; Anaya, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.

    2011-12-01

    As continental rifting proceeds, the accommodation of lithospheric thinning by mechanical extension and magmatic intrusion represents an important but poorly constrained tectonic process. Insight into role of the magmatic component may come from the composition of volcanic products, which can record magma-lithosphere interactions. The volcanic activity in continental rift environments is frequently characterized by bimodal associations of mafic and silicic volcanism with heterogenous lithospheric contributions. We present a new integrated data set from several mafic volcanic fields in the Rio Grande Rift, consisting of major and trace element compositions, as well as isotopes. This data set provides insight into asthenospheric melting processes and interactions with the overlying lithosphere. The melting processes and the related extensional volcanism is the result of foundering of the Farallon slab. Large volume silicic eruptions such as those in the Sierra Madre Occidental originate from a large contribution of lithospheric melting, with a subordinate asthenospheric contribution. In contrast, Late Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic volcanic fields in the Rio Grande Rift were likely sourced in the asthenosphere and did not reside in the lithosphere for substantial periods. As a result the region is the ideal natural laboratory to investigate the interaction of asthenospheric melts with the lithosphere. In particular the wide array of volcanic fields contain multiple xenolith localities, such as Kilbourne Hole, providing direct samples of lithosphere and crust. Although previous studies have focused on correlations between amount of extension related to Farallon slab foundering, volcanic compositions, and their mantle sources, we present data that suggest that some compositional signatures may pre-date current tectonic processes. Radiogenic isotope data from several volcanic fields in New Mexico show a converging pattern in Pb isotope compositions, focusing on the

  13. Solubility of copper in a sulfur-free mafic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Edward M.; Brophy, James G.

    1995-12-01

    The solubility of Cu in S-free mafic melts has been measured at a series of ƒ O2 values and temperatures of 1245 and 1300°C. At constant temperature Cu solubility increases from 0.04 wt% at log ƒ O2 = -11.9 to 1.10 wt% at log ƒ O 2 = -7.4 . Copper solubilities were in excess of 8 wt% in two runs controlled at very high ƒ O2 conditions of 10 -1.4 and 10 -22 Partitioning of Cu between metal and glass shows a strong ƒ O2 dependence, with D Cumet/gl ranging from 90 at log ƒ O2 = -7.4 to 2190 at log ƒ O2 = -11.9 . Slopes of Cu solubility and DCumet/gl vs. log ƒ O2 suggest that Cu dissolves predominantly in the +1 valence state. Copper solubility decreases with increasing temperature at constant ƒ O2, similar to experimental results for Ni, Co, and Mo (Dingwell et al., 1994; Holzheid et al., 1994). The data are consistent with Cu dissolution as an oxide (represented by CuO 0.5) and suggest that changes in ƒ O2 ( Fe2+/Fe3+ variations and Cu 1+ complexation with Fe 3+) may have large effects on the distribution of Cu between silicate and sulfide magmas. Results also suggest that the extraction of oxide-bonded Cu in mafic magmas by externally derived S may be an important mechanism in the generation of Cu-rich sulfide ores.

  14. Mineralogy of the Dhofar 489 Lunar Meteorite, Crystalline Matrix Breccia with Magnesian Anorthositic Clasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Saiki, K.; Ishii, T.; Otsuki, M.

    2003-03-01

    Dhofar 489, a crystalline matrix feldspathic breccia gives the mg# of mafic silicates higher than those of FAN trend in the An vs. mg# diagram, but D489 does not show granulitic texture. We examine the origin of this magnesian anorthosite.

  15. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  16. Apollo 12 breccia 12013: Impact-induced partial Pb loss in zircon and its implications for lunar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, F.; Nemchin, A. A.; Snape, J. F.; Bellucci, J. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2018-06-01

    Apollo 12 breccia 12013 is composed of two portions, one grey in colour, the other black. The grey portion of the breccia consists mainly of felsite thought to have formed during a single crystallisation event, while the black part is characterized by presence of lithic fragments of noritic rocks and individual plagioclase crystals. In this study, U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphate and zircon grains were conducted in both portions of the breccia. The zircon grains within the grey portion yielded a large range of ages (4154 ± 7 to 4308 ± 6 Ma, 2σ) and show decreasing U and Th concentrations within the younger grains. Moreover, some grains exhibit recrystallisation features and potentially formation of neoblasts. The latter process requires high temperatures above 1600-1700 °C leading to the decomposition of the primary zircon grain and subsequent formation of new zircon occurring as neoblasts. As a result of the high temperatures, the U-Pb system of the remaining original zircon grains was most likely open for Pb diffusion causing partial resetting and the observed range of 207Pb/206Pb ages. The event that led to the Pb loss in zircon could potentially be dated by the U-Pb system in Ca-phosphates, which have a weighted average 207Pb/206Pb age across both lithologies of 3924 ± 3 Ma (95% conf.). This age is identical within error to the combined average 207Pb/206Pb age of 3926 ± 2 Ma that was previously obtained from Ca-phosphates within Apollo 14 breccias, zircon grains in Apollo 12 impact melt breccias, and the lunar meteorite SaU 169. This age was interpreted to date the Imbrium impact. The zircon grains located within the black portion of the breccia yielded a similar range of ages (4123 ± 13 to 4328 ± 14 Ma, 2σ) to those in the grey portion. Given the brecciated nature of this part of the sample, the interpretation of these ages as representing igneous crystallisation or resetting by impact events remains ambiguous since there is no direct link to their

  17. 10Be Content in Suevite Breccia from the Bosumtwi Impact Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: According to the current understanding of meteorite impact processes, surface target material is transported from a crater in the form of ejecta or is vaporized/melted (e.g., [1]). The formation model of tektites from the surface of the target rocks has been established using the 10Be content of tektites (e.g., [2]), and chemical comparison with the possible target surface material (e.g., [3]); it was also reproduced by computer modeling (e.g., [4]). On the other hand, some observations ([5, 6]) suggest that part of the surface material may be incorporated into the crater-fill. The aim of this study is to check if surface-derived material is present in suevitic breccias to better understand formation mechanisms of fallback breccias. Also, 10Be can be used to trace contamination of rocks in the top layer of the suevitic layer by meteoric (lake) water. This abstract is an update (based on more data now available) of the previous report presented during the Metsoc75 conference. Samples: The Bosumtwi crater was chosen as study site because of its relatively large size (10.5 km in diameter), young age of 1.07 Ma [7], good state of preservation, and availability of core samples. Clasts from suevitic breccia selected for this study come from the LB-07A and LB-08A cores that are located within the crater and represent fallback breccia (e.g., [7]). Of 41 analyzed samples (22 single clasts and 21 matrix samples - 11 of those being monomictic breccia), 36 came from core LB-07A (in the zone outside the central uplift) and represent depths of 333.7 - 407.9 m and 5 are from core LB-08A (on the flank of the central uplift) from depths 239.5 - 264.9 m. Methods: For each sample, 0.8 g of finely grounded material from clasts containing in situ produced and meteoric 10Be was dissolved in a mixture of HF and HNO3 by microwave digestion. A 9Be carrier (1 mg or 0.6 mg, 10Be/9Be ratio: 2.82±0.31*10-15 [2? uncertainty]) was added to the sample, and then Be was chemically

  18. Breccia dikes from the Beaverhead Impact structure, southwest Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Hougen, S. B.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    While shatter cones are generally accepted as indicators of meteorite impact, older petrologic features are not widely recognized in the geologic community. Breccia dikes are one such feature. They are found in many large impact structures occurring over an area at least as extensively as shatter cones. Breccia dikes will survive moderate degrees of metamorphism and tectonism, unlike many other microscopic features (shocked quartz grains, high-pressure polymorphs, etc.) and even large-scale features such as annular or bowl-shaped topographic features. Thus, they are important diagnostic criteria, especially for large, poorly preserved impact structures. The Beaverhead Impact structure is a recently discovered, deeply eroded impact structure in southwestern Montana. The remains of the structure are delineated by the occurrence of shatter cones, found in an area greater than 200 sq km, occurring within the Cabin thrust plate, part of the Cretaceous Sevier fold and thrust system. The distribution of shatter cones is further truncated by Tertiary normal faults. The present remains represent an allochthonous fragment of a larger structure.

  19. Cogenetic Rock Fragments from a Lunar Soil: Evidence of a Ferroan Noritic-Anorthosite Pluton on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    The impact that produced North Ray Crater, Apollo 16 landing site, exhumed rocks that include relatively mafic members of the lunar ferroan anorthositic suite. Bulk and mineral compositions indicate that a majority of 2-4 mm lithic fragments from sample 67513, including impact breccias and monomict igneous rocks, are related to a common noritic-anorthosite precursor. Compositions and geochemical trends of these lithic fragments and of related samples collected along the rim of North Ray Crater suggest that these rocks derived from a single igneous body. This body developed as an orthocumulate from a mixture of cumulus plagioclase and mafic intercumulus melt, after the plagioclase had separated from any cogenetic mafic minerals and had become concentrated into a crystal mush (approximately 70 wt% plagioclase, 30 wt% intercumulus melt). We present a model for the crystallization of the igneous system wherein "system" is defined as cumulus plagioclase and intercumulus melt. The initial accumulation of plagioclase is analogous to the formation of thick anorthosites of the terrestrial Stillwater Complex; however, a second stage of formation is indicated, involving migration of the cumulus-plagioclase-intercumulus-melt system to a higher crustal level, analogous to the emplacement of terrestrial massif anorthosites. Compositional variations of the lithic fragments from sample 67513 are consistent with dominantly equilibrium crystallization of intercumulus melt. The highly calcic nature of orthocumulus pyroxene and plagioclase suggests some reaction between the intercumulus melt and cumulus plagioclase, perhaps facilitated by some recrystallization of cumulus plagioclase. Bulk compositions and mineral assemblages of individual rock fragments also require that most of the mafic minerals fortned in close contact with cumulus plagioclase, not as separate layers. The distribution of compositions (and by inference, modes) has a narrow peak at anorthosite and a broader, larger

  20. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic phenocrysts in primitive mafic lavas from the southernmost Cascade Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Sandra J.; Clynne, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Previously reported whole-rock δ18O values (5.6–7.8‰) for primitive quaternary mafic lavas from the southernmost Cascades (SMC) are often elevated (up to 1‰) relative to δ18O values expected for mafic magmas in equilibrium with mantle peridotite. Olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase crystals were separated from 29 geochemically well-characterized mafic lavas for δ18O measurements by laser fluorination to assess modification of the mantle sources by ancient and modern subducted components. Oxygen isotope values of olivine phenocrysts in calc-alkaline lavas and contemporaneous high alumina olivine tholeiitic (HAOT) lavas generally exceed depleted mantle olivine values (~4.9–5.3‰). Modern addition of up to 6 wt% slab-derived fluid from Gorda serpentinized peridotite dehydration (~15‰) or chlorite dehydration (~10‰) within the serpentinized peridotite can provide the 18O enrichment detected in olivine phenocrysts (δ18Oolivine = 5.3–6.3‰) in calc-alkaline mafic lavas, and elevate 18O in overlying mantle lithosphere, as well. Specifically, although HAOT δ18Oolivine values (5.5–5.7‰) may reflect partial melting in heterogeneous 18O enriched mantle source domains that developed during multiple subduction events associated with terrane accretion (e.g., <1 wt% of ~15‰ materials), an additional 18O enrichment of up to 2 wt% of 10–15‰ slab-derived hydrous fluids might be accommodated. The calc-alkaline primitive magmas appear to have experienced a continuous range of open system processes, which operate in the mantle and during rapid magma ascent to eruption, and occasionally post quench. Textural relationships and geochemistry of these lava samples are consistent with blends of mafic phenocrysts and degassed melts in varying states of 18O disequilibrium. In lenses of accumulated melt within peridotite near the base of the crust, coexisting olivine and clinopyroxene δ18O values probably are not at isotopic equilibrium because fluids

  1. Archean high δ18O Mg-diorite: crustal-derived melt hybridized with enriched mafic accumulated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Guo, Jing-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The genesis of Mg-diorite or sanukitoids has significances to understand the crustal growth and tectonic style in Archean. The chemical compositions of minerals and rocks, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope, zircon SIMS U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes of Zhulagou (ZLG) Mg-diorite and their mafic enclaves (Yinshan Block, North China Craton) were studied to place constraints on their sources and genesis, and therefore provide information about dynamic processes. The ~2520 Ma ZLG diorites have intermediate SiO2 (59.4-65.5 wt.%), high Mg# (49-52), Cr (90.4-438 ppm), Ni (15.0-95.9 ppm), Sr (436-882 ppm) and Ba (237-1206 ppm) contents with fractionated rare earth elements (REE, LaN/YbN = 9.1-40.5) and depleted high field-strength element (HFSE, e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti). These geochemical signatures are similar to those Archean high-Mg diorites and sanukitoids. However, they are sodic with low K2O/Na2O (0.14-0.49) ratios, exhibiting an affinity with Archean trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG). Abundant coeval amphibole-bearing mafic enclaves (~2525 Ma) are enclosed within the ZLG diorites. They display low SiO2 (46.5-50.3 wt.%) contents but high concentrations of MgO (9.0-14.5 wt.%), Cr (647-1946 ppm) and Ni (197-280 ppm). They are enriched in K2O (0.64-3.43 wt.%) and large ion lithophile element (LILE), depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. Combined with their concave REE patterns and prominent negative Eu anomaly, we suggest that they are cumulates of the melt which probably derived from subduction-related Archean metasomatized mantle source. Mineral trace element modelling results, similar ɛNd(t) (+0.6 to +2.3) and δ18O(Zrc) values (~8.6-9.0 ‰) of the diorites and mafic enclaves, strongly reflect that they had experienced intense interaction and hybridization. Evolved whole-rock Nd isotopes (TDM = 2.80-2.70 Ga), variable zircon ɛHf (t) (-1.6 to +6.0) and high δ18O (~9.0 ‰) values of the diorites indicate that they most likely originated from melting of an older continental crust (≥ 2

  2. Post-impact alteration of the Manson impact structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossey, L. J.; Mccarville, P.

    1993-01-01

    Core materials from the Manson impact site (Manson, Iowa) are examined in order to evaluate post-impact alteration processes. Diagenetic interpretation of post-impact events is based on petrologic, mineralogic, and geochemical investigation of core materials including the following: target strata, disturbed and disrupted strata, ejecta, breccias, microbreccias, and impact melt. The diagenetic study utilizes research cores obtained by the continental scientific drilling project (CSDP) at the Manson structure, as well as core and cuttings of related materials. Samples include impactites (breccias, microbreccias, and melt material), crater fill material (sedimentary clast breccias), disturbed and disrupted target rocks, and reference target material (Amoco Eisheid No. 1 materials). The study of multiple cores will permit development of a regional picture of post-impact thermal history. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) provide a detailed description of authigenic and alteration mineralogy from diverse lithologies encountered in research drill cores at the Manson impact structure, and (2) identify and relate significant post-impact mineral alteration to post-impact thermal regime (extent and duration). Results will provide mineralogical and geochemical constraints on models for post-impact processes including the following: infilling of the crater depression; cooling and hydrothermal alteration of melt rocks; and subsequent long-term, low-temperature alteration of target rocks, breccias, and melt rocks. Preliminary petrologic and x-ray diffraction examination of fracture linings and void fillings from research core M1 indicate the presence of quartz, chlorite, mixed-layer clays, gypsum/anhydrite, calcite, and minor pyrite.

  3. Effects of Varying Proportions of Glass on Reflectance Spectra of HED Polymict Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Reddy, V; LeCorre, L.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, P.; Le, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some meteorites contain significant amounts of glass, which, in most cases, probably results from impact processes on parent bodies.. Yamato 82202 is an example of one of the unequilibrated eucrites that contains significant proportions of impact glass distributed as veins throughout the meteorite. In other cases, fragments of glass are distributed throughout polymict breccias. For example, the polymict eucrite EET 87509 contains rare angular fragments of devitrified glass. Proportions of glass in most of these meteorites and in lithic clasts within these meteorites may vary locally from small amounts (less than one percent) to much larger amounts (subequal proportions of glass and mineral material). For example, some fragments within the South African polymict eucrite Macibini contain approximately 50% glass. The presence of these variable proportions of meteorite glass confirm the increased recognition that impact processes played an important role in the histories of asteroidal bodies. This study attempts to quantify the effects of a glass component on reflectance spectra by analyzing in the laboratory mixtures of varying proportions of a well-characterized HED polymict breccia and glass derived by melting a bulk sample of that breccia.

  4. Scaling Impact-Melt and Crater Dimensions: Implications for the Lunar Cratering Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala , Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of impact on the solid bodies of the solar system are manifest and legion. Although the visible effects on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon's, are the most obvious testimony to the spatial and temporal importance of impacts, less dramatic chemical and petrographic characteristics of materials affected by shock abound. Both the morphologic and petrologic aspects of impact cratering are important in deciphering lunar history, and, ideally, each should complement the other. In practice, however, a gap has persisted in relating large-scale cratering processes to petrologic and geochemical data obtained from lunar samples. While this is due in no small part to the fact that no Apollo mission unambiguously sampled deposits of a large crater, it can also be attributed to the general state of our knowledge of cratering phenomena, particularly those accompanying large events. The most common shock-metamorphosed lunar samples are breccias, but a substantial number are impact-melt rocks. Indeed, numerous workers have called attention to the importance of impact-melt rocks spanning a wide range of ages in the lunar sample collection. Photogeologic studies also have demonstrated the widespread occurrence of impact-melt lithologies in and around lunar craters. Thus, it is clear that impact melting has been a fundamental process operating throughout lunar history, at scales ranging from pits formed on individual regolith grains to the largest impact basins. This contribution examines the potential relationship between impact melting on the Moon and the interior morphologies of large craters and peaking basins. It then examines some of the implications of impact melting at such large scales for lunar-sample provenance and evolution of the lunar crust.

  5. Origin and transportation history of lunar breccia 14311

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Renaud E.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Pidgeon, Robert T.; Grange, Marion L.; Snape, Joshua F.; Thiessen, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the U-Pb zircon age distribution pattern of sample 14311 from the Apollo 14 landing site with those from other breccias collected at the same landing site. Zircons in breccia 14311 show major age peaks at 4340 and 4240 Ma and small peaks at 4110, 4030, and 3960 Ma. The zircon age patterns of breccia 14311 and other Apollo 14 breccias are statistically different suggesting a separate provenance and transportation history for these breccias. This interpretation is supported by different U-Pb Ca-phosphate and exposure ages for breccia 14311 (Ca-phosphate age: 3938 ± 4 Ma, exposure age: 550-660 Ma) from the other Apollo 14 breccias (Ca-phosphate age: 3927 ± 2 Ma, compatible with the Imbrium impact, exposure age: 25-30 Ma). Based on these observations, we consider two hypotheses for the origin and transportation history of sample 14311. (1) Breccia 14311 was formed in the Procellarum KREEP terrane by a 3938 Ma-old impact and deposited near the future site of the Imbrium basin. The breccia was integrated into the Fra Mauro Formation during the deposition of the Imbrium impact ejecta at 3927 Ma. The zircons were annealed by mare basalt flooding at 3400 Ma at Apollo 14 landing site. Eventually, at approximately 660 Ma, a small and local impact event excavated this sample and it has been at the surface of the Moon since this time. (2) Breccia 14311 was formed by a 3938 Ma-old impact. The location of the sample is not known at that time but at 3400 Ma, it was located nearby or buried by hot basaltic flows. It was transported from where it was deposited to the Apollo 14 landing site by an impact at approximately 660 Ma, possibly related to the formation of the Copernicus crater and has remained at the surface of the Moon since this event. This latter hypothesis is the simplest scenario for the formation and transportation history of the 14311 breccia.

  6. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility upon impact melting, Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graup, Guenther

    1999-05-01

    The 24-km-diameter Ries impact crater in southern Germany is one of the most studied impact structures on Earth. The Ries impactor struck a Triassic to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequence overlying Hercynian crystalline basement. At the time of impact (14.87 +/- 0.36 Ma; Storzer et al., 1995), the 350 m thick Malm limestone was present only to the S and E of the impact site. To the N and W, the Malm had been eroded away, exposing the underlying Dogger and Lias. The largest proportion of shocked target material is in the impact melt-bearing breccia suevite. The suevite had been believed to be derived entirely from the crystalline basement. Calcite in the suevite has been interpreted as a post-impact hydrothermal deposit. From optical inspection of 540 thin sections of suevite from 32 sites, I find that calcite in the suevite shows textural evidence of liquid immiscibility with the silicate impact melt. Textural evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melt in the Ries suevite includes: carbonate globules within silicate glass, silicate globules embedded in carbonate, deformable and coalescing carbonate spheres within silicate glass, sharp menisci or cusps and budding between silicate and carbonate melt, fluidal textures and gas vesicles in carbonate schlieren, a quench crystallization sequence of the carbonate, spinifex textured quenched carbonate, separate carbonate spherules in the suevite mineral-fragment-matrix, and inclusions of mineral fragments suspended in carbonate blebs. Given this evidence of liquid immiscibility, the carbonate in the suevite has, therefore, like the silicate melt a primary origin by impact shock melting. Evidence of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility is abundant in the suevites to the SW to E of the Ries crater. The rarer suevites to the W to NE of the crater are nearly devoid of carbonate melts. This correspondence between the occurrence of outcropping limestones at the target surface and the formation of

  7. Eucrite Impact Melt NWA 5218 - Evidence for a Large Crater on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmann, Axel; Hiroi, Takahiro; Ross, Daniel K.; Herrin, Jason S.; Rumble, Douglas, III; Kring, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5218 is a 76 g achondrite that is classified as a eucrite [1]. However, an initial classification [2] describes it as a "eucrite shock-melt breccia...(in which) large, partially melted cumulate basalt clasts are set in a shock melt flow...". We explore the petrology of this clast-bearing impact melt rock (Fig. 1), which could be a characteristic lithology at large impact craters on asteroid Vesta [3]. Methods: Optical microscopy, scanning electronmicroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used on a thin section (Fig. 1) for petrographic characterization. The impact melt composition was determined by 20 m diameter defocused-beam analyses with a Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe. The data from 97 spots were corrected for mineral density effects [4]. Constituent mineral phases were analyzed with a focusedbeam. Bidirectonal visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and biconical FT-IR reflectance spectra were measured on the surface of a sample slab on its central melt area and on an eucrite clast, and from 125-500 m and <125 m powders of melt. Results: General petrography: The sample specimen is a coherent, medium dark-grey (N4), melt rock. The thin section captures a central, subophitic-textured melt that contains 1 cm to tens of m-size subangular to rounded, variably-shocked eucrite clasts. Clasts >100 m are coarse-grained with equigranular 1 mm size plagioclase, quartz, and clinopyroxene (Fig. 1). Single crystals of chromite, ilmenite, zircon, Ca-Mg phosphate, Fe-metal, and troilite are embedded in the melt. Polymineralic clasts are mostly compositionally similar to the above mentioned larger clasts but scarce granulitic fragments are observed as well.

  8. SEM-MLA-based Investigation of the Composition of Mafic Volcaniclastic Deposits from the Paraná Large Igneous Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfig, D. F.; Höfig, T. W.; Licht, O. A. B.; Haser, S.; Valore, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mafic volcaniclastic deposits (MVDs) have been widely reported in Large Igneous Provinces around the world, except for the Paraná Province (review by Ross et al., 2005: J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 145, pp. 281-314). Recent geochemical classification for this unit highlights, however, the occurrence of such deposits, connected to basic lava flows, mostly those High Ti - High P ones (Licht.: J Volcanol Geotherm Res, in press). In southern Brazil, MVDs intercalated with lava flows have been reported at 680 sites, showing conspicuous poorly sorted polymictic breccia at the base, grading to tuff breccias and red silicified tuffs at the top. Newly sampled rocks of Paraná mafic volcanoclastic deposits unravel important information about the composition utilizing Scanning Electron Microscopy-based Mineral Liberation Analysis. Overall, they show similar mineralogy presenting obsidian (25-40%), different phases of iron oxide (5-20%), quartz (10-25%), plagioclase (5-25%), celadonite (5-25%), and chlorite (5-10%). The breccias reveal a greater content of celadonite due to the presence of altered hypohyaline and hypocrystalline basaltic shards, whereas the tuffs are more enriched in glass. Different generations of plagioclase are attributed to various basalt shards and clasts as well vitroclasts found in the matrix. It is proposed that the MVDs were generated by explosive events due the interaction between the ascending mafic magma and deep aquifer systems and its siliciclastic matrix represents the country rock, i.e., the underneath Paleozoic sedimentary sequence of Paraná Basin.

  9. Connecting Lunar Meteorites to Source Terrains on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Carpenter, P. K.; Korotev, R. L.; North-Valencia, S. N.; Wittmann, A.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    that excavated and mixed rocks from depth within the lunar crust and possibly the upper mantle. One of the key questions is whether the mafic materials are ferroan or magnesian, which remote sensing does not clearly distinguish, and if mafic, whether they might contain mantlederived components such as olivine (dunite). Many but not all have mainly ferroan mafic components, consistent with a ferroan crustal source that is complementary to the ferroan anorthositic suite and that represents primary magma-ocean-derived feldspathic crust. Meteorites such as ALH 81005 [5] and Shisr 161 [6], however, contain coarse-grained magnesian mafic clasts (Fig. 1a) derived from deeply seated and melted material associated with impact basins. Comparison to LP gamma-ray data [2] supports an origin for magnesian feldspathic meteorites such as these (e.g., Shisr 161) as shown in Fig. 1b. Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 169. Another distinctive but much less common composition is represented by relatively mafic impact-melt breccia that is rich in incompatible elements known as KREEP. These meteorites can be related to the western nearside Procellarum KREEP Terrane, especially through a combination of Fe and Th contents. Among the most enriched is SaU 169, which has been related to high- Th impact-melt breccia found at the Apollo 12 site [7]. Through detailed EPMA and ion microprobe analysis we have shown that these two rock types are related in age and origin.

  10. Sudbury Breccia (Canada): a product of the 1850 Ma Sudbury Event and host to footwall Cu Ni PGE deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousell, Don H.; Fedorowich, John S.; Dressler, Burkhard O.

    2003-02-01

    The Sudbury Structure, formed by meteorite impact at 1850 Ma, consists of three major components: (1) the Sudbury Basin; (2) the Sudbury Igneous Complex, which surrounds the basin as an elliptical collar; and (3) breccia bodies in the footwall known as Sudbury Breccia. In general, the breccia consists of subrounded fragments set in a dark, fine-grained to aphanitic matrix. A comparison of the chemical composition of host rocks, clasts and matrices indicates that brecciation was essentially an in-situ process. Sudbury Breccia forms irregular-shaped bodies or dikes that range in size from mm to km scale. Contacts with the host rocks are commonly sharp. The aspect ratio of most clasts is approximately 2 with the long axes parallel to dike walls. The fractal dimension (Dr)=1.55. Although there appears to be some concentration of brecciation within concentric zones, small Sudbury Breccia bodies within and outside these zones have more or less random strikes and steep dips. Sudbury Breccia bodies near an embayment structure tend to be subparallel to the base of the Sudbury Igneous Complex. Sudbury Breccia occurs as much as 80 km from the outer margin of the Sudbury Igneous Complex. In an inner zone, 5 to 15 km wide, breccia comprises 5% of exposed bedrock with an increase in brecciation intensity in embayment structures. Sudbury Breccia may be classified into three types based on the nature of the matrix: clastic, pseudotachylite and microcrystalline. Clastic Sudbury Breccia, the dominant type in the Southern Province, is characterized by flow-surface structures. Possibly, a sudden rise in pore pressure caused explosive dilation and fragmentation, followed by fluidization and flowage into extension fractures. Pseudotachylite Sudbury Breccia, mainly confined to Archean rocks, apparently formed by comminution and frictional melting. Microcrystalline Sudbury Breccia formed as a result of the thermal metamorphism, of the North Range footwall, by the Sudbury Igneous Complex

  11. Petrochemistry of Mafic Rocks Within the Northern Cache Creek Terrane, NW British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J. M.; Johnston, S. T.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    The Cache Creek terrane is a belt of oceanic rocks that extend the length of the Cordillera in British Columbia. Fossil fauna in this belt are exotic with respect to the remainder of the Canadian Cordillera, as they are of equatorial Tethyan affinity, contrasting with coeval faunas in adjacent terranes that show closer linkages with ancestral North America. Preliminary results reported here from geochemical studies of mafic rocks within the Nakina area of NW British Columbia further constrain the origin of this enigmatic terrane. The terrane is typified by tectonically imbricated slices of chert, argillite, limestone, wacke and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as mafic and ultramafic rocks. These lithologies are believed to represent two separate lithotectonic elements: Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic, subduction-related accretionary complexes, and dismembered basement assemblages emplaced during the closure of the Cache Creek ocean in the Middle Jurassic. Petrochemical analysis revealed four distinct mafic igneous assemblages that include: magmatic 'knockers' of the Nimbus serpentinite mélange, metabasalts of 'Blackcaps' Mountain, augite-phyric breccias of 'Laughing Moose' Creek, and volcanic pediments to the reef-forming carbonates of the Horsefeed Formation. Major and trace element analysis classifies the 'Laughing Moose' breccias and the carbonate-associated volcanics as alkaline in nature, whereas the rest are subalkaline. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that the alkaline rocks are of within-plate affinity, while the 'Blackcaps' basalts and 'knockers' from within the mélange typically straddle the island-arc tholeiite and the mid-ocean ridge boundaries. However, primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots indicate that these subalkaline rocks have pronounced negative Nb anomalies, a characteristic arc signature. The spatial association of alkaline volcanic rocks with extensive carbonate domains points to the existence of seamounts within the Cache

  12. Rocks of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1980-01-01

    Data are summarized which suggest a model for the early evolution of the lunar crust. According to the model, during the final stages of accretion, the outer part of the moon melted to form a magma ocean approximately 300 km deep. This ocean fractionated to form mafic and ultramafic cumulates at depth and an overlying anorthositic crust made up of ferroan anorthosites. Subsequent partial melting in the primitive mantle underlying the crystallized magma ocean produced melts which segregated, moved upward, intruded the primordial crust, and crystallized to form layered plutons consisting of Mg-rich plutonic rocks. Intense impact bombardment at the lunar surface mixed and melted the rocks of the two suites to form a thick layer of granulated debris, granulitic breccias, and impact-melt rocks.

  13. Clastic Breccias at the Slates Islands Complex Impact Structure, Northern Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1996-01-01

    About 150 impact craters are known on Earth and each year several structures are added to this number. The general geology of the Slate Islands archipelago has been described by Sage (1991) and a short summary based on Sage's work is given in Dressler et al. (1995). The reader is referred to these publications for information on the bedrock geology of the island group. Early studies on the Slate Islands impact structure include: Halls and Grieve (1976), Grieve and Robertson (1976) and Stesky and Halls (1983). In this report, we provide a summary of the impact process as presently understood. We also present some of the results of our laboratory investigations conducted in 1995 and 1996. We describe in some detail the various clastic breccias encountered on the islands during our 1994 and 1995 field work and relate them to the various phases of the impact process. A more encompassing treatise on the breccias has been submitted for publication. (Dressler and Sharpton 1996).

  14. Geochemistry of lunar crustal rocks from breccia 67016 and the composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, Stuart R.

    1992-01-01

    The geochemistry of anorthositic clasts from an Apollo 16 breccia 67016 is studied in order to investigate the role of these rock types in lunar crustal evolution. The samples have aluminous, alkali-poor compositions and varied FeO and MgO contents. Three compositional groups are recognized. One group is poor in mafic constituents with low abundances of lithophile trace elements typical of lunar anorthosites, while the other two groups are more mafic and are distinguished from each other by FeO/MgO ratios greater than one in the case of ferroan noritic and less than one in the case of magnesian troctolitic. These mafic-enriched varieties have considerably higher lithophile element concentrations, at levels similar to that of the bulk lunar crust. The ferroan noritic clasts may represent a fundamental type of igneous rock in the lunar crust which has not been widely recognized.

  15. Petrology of Anomalous Mafic Achondrite Polymict Breccia Pasamonte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.

    2017-01-01

    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type basalts and gabbros - rocks composed of ferroan pigeonite and augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal [1]. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid, widely considered to be 4 Vesta, along with howardites and diogenites [1, 2]. High precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some eucrites have small, well-resolved O-isotopic differences from the group mean [3-5]. These Oanomalous eucrites are thought to hail from asteroidal parents that are distinct from that of eucrites [5]. Three O-anomalous eucrites are PCA 82502, PCA 91007 (paired) and Pasamonte, all of which have the same O-isotopic composition [5, 6]. Our petrologic studies have shown that PCA 82502 and PCA 91007 have well-resolved anomalies in low-Ca pyroxene Fe/Mn compared to eucrites [6]. Divalent Mn and Fe are homologous species that do not greatly fractionate during igneous processes; mafic mineral Fe/Mn can be used to fingerprint parent object sources [7]. Previous petrological studies of Pasamonte [8-10] have not yielded sufficiently precise Fe/Mn ratios to allow distinction of anomalies of the scale of those found for the PCA basalts. We have begun petrological study of Pasamonte for comparison with our results on normal and anomalous eucrites [6], and to constrain its origin.

  16. Confirmation of a meteoritic component in impact-melt rocks of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA - Evidence from osmium isotopic and PGE systematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, S.R.; Horton, J. Wright; Walker, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The osmium isotope ratios and platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of impact-melt rocks in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure were determined. The impact-melt rocks come from the cored part of a lower-crater section of suevitic crystalline-clast breccia in an 823 m scientific test hole over the central uplift at Cape Charles, Virginia. The 187Os/188Os ratios of impact-melt rocks range from 0.151 to 0.518. The rhenium and platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of these rocks are 30-270?? higher than concentrations in basement gneiss, and together with the osmium isotopes indicate a substantial meteoritic component in some impact-melt rocks. Because the PGE abundances in the impact-melt rocks are dominated by the target materials, interelemental ratios of the impact-melt rocks are highly variable and nonchondritic. The chemical nature of the projectile for the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cannot be constrained at this time. Model mixing calculations between chondritic and crustal components suggest that most impact-melt rocks include a bulk meteoritic component of 0.01-0.1% by mass. Several impact-melt rocks with lowest initial 187Os/188Os ratios and the highest osmium concentrations could have been produced by additions of 0.1%-0.2% of a meteoritic component. In these samples, as much as 70% of the total Os may be of meteoritic origin. At the calculated proportions of a meteoritic component (0.01-0.1% by mass), no mixtures of the investigated target rocks and sediments can reproduce the observed PGE abundances of the impact-melt rocks, suggesting that other PGE enrichment processes operated along with the meteoritic contamination. Possible explanations are 1) participation of unsampled target materials with high PGE abundances in the impact-melt rocks, and 2) variable fractionations of PGE during syn- to post-impact events. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2006.

  17. Composition and Petrology of HED Polymict Breccias: The Regolith of (4) Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Cartwright, J. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.; Peng, Z. X.; Quinn, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The polymict breccias of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites preserve records of regolith processes that occur on Vesta, their putative home world. These breccias -- howardites, polymict eucrites and polymict diogenites -- are impact-engendered mixtures of diogenites and eucrites. The compositions of polymict breccias can be used to constrain the lithologic diversity of the vestan crust and the excavation depths of these materials. We have done petrological and compositional studies of multiple samples of 5 polymict eucrites and 28 howardites to investigate these issues. Older analyses were done on samples of approx 0.5 gram mass by INAA; newer analyses on samples of approx 5 gram mass by XRF and ICP-MS. We estimate the percentage of eucritic material (POEM) of polymict breccias by comparing their Al and/or Ca contents to those of average basaltic eucrite and diogenite. Our samples have POEM ranging from 28 to 98; adding two polymict diogenites from extends the range to POEM 10. One hypothesis is that ancient, well-mixed vestan regolith has POEM approx 67 and has a higher content of admixed impactor material. Several of our howardites have POEM of 59-74 (Al and/or Ca contents +/- 10% of POEM 67); about a third have Ni contents >300 micro g/g suggesting they contain >2% chondritic material (CM and/or CR). These may be regolithic howardites. Only one (LEW 85313) contains Ne dominated by a solar wind (SW) component. PCA 02066 is dominated by impact-melt material of polymict parentage and petrologically appears to be a mature regolith breccia, yet it does not contain SW-Ne. GRO 95602 falls within the POEM window, contains SW-Ne], yet has a Ni content of 193 micro g/g. Its petrologic characteristics suggest it was formed from immature regolith (no polymict breccia clasts; no glass). Trace element characteristics of the polymict breccias demonstrate the dominance of main-group eucrites as the basaltic component. Mixing diagrams of Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf

  18. El'gygytgyn impact crater, Chukotka, Arctic Russia: Impact cratering aspects of the 2009 ICDP drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Pittarello, Lidia; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Raschke, Ulli; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure in Chukutka, Arctic Russia, is the only impact crater currently known on Earth that was formed in mostly acid volcanic rocks (mainly of rhyolitic, with some andesitic and dacitic, compositions). In addition, because of its depth, it has provided an excellent sediment trap that records paleoclimatic information for the 3.6 Myr since its formation. For these two main reasons, because of the importance for impact and paleoclimate research, El'gygytgyn was the subject of an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project in 2009. During this project, which, due to its logistical and financial challenges, took almost a decade to come to fruition, a total of 642.3 m of drill core was recovered at two sites, from four holes. The obtained material included sedimentary and impactite rocks. In terms of impactites, which were recovered from 316.08 to 517.30 m depth below lake bottom (mblb), three main parts of that core segment were identified: from 316 to 390 mblb polymict lithic impact breccia, mostly suevite, with volcanic and impact melt clasts that locally contain shocked minerals, in a fine-grained clastic matrix; from 385 to 423 mblb, a brecciated sequence of volcanic rocks including both felsic and mafic (basalt) members; and from 423 to 517 mblb, a greenish rhyodacitic ignimbrite (mostly monomict breccia). The uppermost impactite (316-328 mblb) contains lacustrine sediment mixed with impact-affected components. Over the whole length of the impactite core, the abundance of shock features decreases rapidly from the top to the bottom of the studied core section. The distinction between original volcanic melt fragments and those that formed later as the result of the impact event posed major problems in the study of these rocks. The sequence that contains fairly unambiguous evidence of impact melt (which is not very abundant anyway, usually less than a few volume%) is only about 75 m thick. The reason for

  19. El'gygytgyn impact crater, Chukotka, Arctic Russia: Impact cratering aspects of the 2009 ICDP drilling project.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Christian; Pittarello, Lidia; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Raschke, Ulli; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel; Spray, John

    2013-07-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure in Chukutka, Arctic Russia, is the only impact crater currently known on Earth that was formed in mostly acid volcanic rocks (mainly of rhyolitic, with some andesitic and dacitic, compositions). In addition, because of its depth, it has provided an excellent sediment trap that records paleoclimatic information for the 3.6 Myr since its formation. For these two main reasons, because of the importance for impact and paleoclimate research, El'gygytgyn was the subject of an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project in 2009. During this project, which, due to its logistical and financial challenges, took almost a decade to come to fruition, a total of 642.3 m of drill core was recovered at two sites, from four holes. The obtained material included sedimentary and impactite rocks. In terms of impactites, which were recovered from 316.08 to 517.30 m depth below lake bottom (mblb), three main parts of that core segment were identified: from 316 to 390 mblb polymict lithic impact breccia, mostly suevite, with volcanic and impact melt clasts that locally contain shocked minerals, in a fine-grained clastic matrix; from 385 to 423 mblb, a brecciated sequence of volcanic rocks including both felsic and mafic (basalt) members; and from 423 to 517 mblb, a greenish rhyodacitic ignimbrite (mostly monomict breccia). The uppermost impactite (316-328 mblb) contains lacustrine sediment mixed with impact-affected components. Over the whole length of the impactite core, the abundance of shock features decreases rapidly from the top to the bottom of the studied core section. The distinction between original volcanic melt fragments and those that formed later as the result of the impact event posed major problems in the study of these rocks. The sequence that contains fairly unambiguous evidence of impact melt (which is not very abundant anyway, usually less than a few volume%) is only about 75 m thick. The reason for

  20. El'gygytgyn impact crater, Chukotka, Arctic Russia: Impact cratering aspects of the 2009 ICDP drilling project

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, Christian; Pittarello, Lidia; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Raschke, Ulli; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel; Spray, John

    2013-01-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure in Chukutka, Arctic Russia, is the only impact crater currently known on Earth that was formed in mostly acid volcanic rocks (mainly of rhyolitic, with some andesitic and dacitic, compositions). In addition, because of its depth, it has provided an excellent sediment trap that records paleoclimatic information for the 3.6 Myr since its formation. For these two main reasons, because of the importance for impact and paleoclimate research, El'gygytgyn was the subject of an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project in 2009. During this project, which, due to its logistical and financial challenges, took almost a decade to come to fruition, a total of 642.3 m of drill core was recovered at two sites, from four holes. The obtained material included sedimentary and impactite rocks. In terms of impactites, which were recovered from 316.08 to 517.30 m depth below lake bottom (mblb), three main parts of that core segment were identified: from 316 to 390 mblb polymict lithic impact breccia, mostly suevite, with volcanic and impact melt clasts that locally contain shocked minerals, in a fine-grained clastic matrix; from 385 to 423 mblb, a brecciated sequence of volcanic rocks including both felsic and mafic (basalt) members; and from 423 to 517 mblb, a greenish rhyodacitic ignimbrite (mostly monomict breccia). The uppermost impactite (316–328 mblb) contains lacustrine sediment mixed with impact-affected components. Over the whole length of the impactite core, the abundance of shock features decreases rapidly from the top to the bottom of the studied core section. The distinction between original volcanic melt fragments and those that formed later as the result of the impact event posed major problems in the study of these rocks. The sequence that contains fairly unambiguous evidence of impact melt (which is not very abundant anyway, usually less than a few volume%) is only about 75 m thick. The reason for

  1. Evidence for a Meteoritic Component in Impact Melt Rock from the Chicxulub Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Shirey, Steven B.; Blum, Joel D.; Marin, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Yucatan, Mexico, has recently been recognized as a greater then 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact crater of K-T boundary age. Crystalline impact melt rocks and breccias from within the crater, which have compositions similar to those of normal continental crustal rocks and which show shock metamorphic effects, have been studied for trace element and Re-Os isotope compositions. Re-Os isotope systematics allow the sensitive and selective determination of an extraterrestrial component in impact-derived rocks. A melt rock sample shows elevated iridium concentrations, an osmium concentration of 25 ppb, and a low Os-187/Os-188 ratio of 0.113, which are incompatible with derivation from the continental crust. Even though the Os-187/Os-188 ratio is slightly lower than the range so far measured in meteorites, a mantle origin seems unlikely for mass balance reasons and because the cratering event is unlikely to have excavated mantle material. The data support the hypothesis of a heterogeneously distributed meteoritic component in the Chicxulub melt rock. A sample of impact glass from the Haitian K-T boundary at Beloc yielded about 0.1 ppb osmium and an Os-187/0s-188 ratio of 0.251, indicating the presence of a small meteoritic component in the impact ejecta as well.

  2. Impactites of the Yaxcopoil-1 drilling site, Chicxulub impact structure: Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Burkhard O.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Ames, Doreen

    2004-01-01

    The impact breccias encountered in drill hole Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) in the Chicxulub impact structure have been subdivided into six units. The two uppermost units are redeposited suevite and suevite, and together are only 28 m thick. The two units below are interpreted as a ground surge deposit similar to a pyroclastic flow in a volcanic regime with a fine-grained top (unit 3; 23 m thick; nuee ardente) and a coarse breccia (unit 4; approx.15 m thick) below. As such, they consist of a melange of clastic matrix breccia and melt breccia. The pyroclastic ground surge deposit and the two units 5 and 6 below are related to the ejecta curtain. Unit 5 (approx.24 m thick) is a silicate impact melt breccia, whereas unit 6 (10 m thick) is largely a carbonate melt breccia with some clastic-matrix components. Unit 5 and 6 reflect an overturning of the target stratigraphy. The suevites of units 1 and 2 were deposited after emplacement of the ejecta curtain debris. Reaction of the super-heated breccias with seawater led to explosive activity similar to phreomagmatic steam explosion in volcanic regimes. This activity caused further brecciation of melt and melt fragments. The fallback suevite deposit of units 1 and 2 is much thinner than suevite deposits at larger distances from the center of the impact structure than the 60 km of the Yax-1 drill site. This is evidence that the fallback suevite deposit (units 1 and 2) originally was much thicker. Unit 1 exhibits sedimentological features suggestive of suevite redeposition. Erosion possibly has occurred right after the IUT impact due to seawater backsurge, but erosion processes spanning thousands of years may also have been active. Therefore, the top of the 100 m thick impactite sequence at Yaxcopoil, in our opinion, is not the K/T boundary.

  3. Impact History on Vesta: Petrographic, Compositional and Future Chronological Studies of Melt Clasts in Howardites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Hodges, K. V.; Wadhwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Howardite meteorites are polymict breccias composed mainly of eucritic and diogenitic material that likely originate from the surface of the Asteroid 4 Vesta. They can be separated into two subtypes: Regolithic, which represent the lithified remains of the active vestan regolith; Fragmental, which represent simpler polymict breccias. Amongst the regolithic features observed in the former, melt clasts are particularly striking for their appearance and compositional variability. They range from glassy spherules to finely crystalline (i.e., devitrified) clasts, and clasts containing only relict mineral grains to those containing only phenocrysts. Glasses can be separated into compositional sub-types including those with low FeO/MgO ratios (less than 5) -low alkali glasses, K-rich (K2O greater than 0.2 wt.%), Na-rich (Na2O greater than 0.6 wt.%) and CaO-rich, and those with high FeO/MgO ratios (greater than 10). There is also a distinction to be made between primary volcanic melt clasts and those produced by impacts. While suggested that a lack of chemical homogeneity among their studied melt clasts ruled out a primary volcanic origin, the low siderophile element contents observed in such clasts suggest less compositional influence from impactors than commonly assumed. Studying the chronology of the impact melt clasts in howardites can help us to better determine the timing of impact events on Vesta and the asteroid belt. In this research, we are launching an investigation into the petrology, composition (major/trace element and noble gas) and chronology of melt clasts in howardites. We have selected a set of howardites known to contain large quantities of melt clasts, and have begun the petrological and compositional studies of these materials. Once the melt clasts have been fully classified, we aim to perform chronological studies of individual clasts using both the Ar-40/Ar-39 and Pb-Pb chronometers, as well as determine the noble gas components present. Of

  4. Search for a meteoritic component at the Beaverhead impact structure, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Kay, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The Beaverhead impact structure, in southwestern Montana, was identified recently by the presence of shatter cones and impactites in outcrops of Proterozoic sandstones of the Belt Supergroup. The cones occur over an area greater than 100 sq km. Because the geologic and tectonic history of this region is long and complex, the outline of the original impact crater is no longer identifiable. The extent of the area over which shatter cones occur suggests, however, that the feature may have been at least 60 km in diameter. The absence of shatter cones in younger sedimentary units suggests that the impact event occurred in late Precambrian or early Paleozoic time. We have collected samples of shocked sandstone from the so-called 'Main Site' of dark-matrix breccias, and of impact breccias and melts from the south end of Island Butte. The melts, occurring often as veins through brecciated sandstone, exhibit a distinctive fluidal texture, a greenish color, and a cryptocrystalline matrix, with small inclusions of deformed sandstone. Samples of the same type, along with country rock, were analyzed previously for major- and trace-element abundances. It was found that, although the major-element composition as relatively uniform, trace-element composition showed variations between the melt material and the adjacent sandstone. These variations were attributed to extensive weathering and hydrothermal alteration. In a more specific search for a possible meteoritic signature in the breccia and the melt material we have conducted a new series of trace-element analyses on powders of our own samples by thermal neutron activation analysis. Our results indicate that Ir abundances in the breccia, the melts, and the adjacent sandstone clasts are no greater than about 0.1 ppb, suggesting no Ir enrichment of the breccia or the melts relative to the country rock. However, both the breccia and the melt material exhibit notable enrichments in Cr (8- and 10-fold), in U (9- and 5-fold), and in

  5. First finding of impact melt in the IIE Netschaëvo meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roosbroek, N.; Pittarello, L.; Greshake, A.; Debaille, V.; Claeys, P.

    2016-02-01

    About half of the IIE nonmagmatic iron meteorites contain silicate inclusions with a primitive to differentiated nature. The presence of preserved chondrules has been reported for two IIE meteorites so far, Netschaëvo and Mont Dieu, which represent the most primitive silicate material within this group. In this study, silicate inclusions from two samples of Netschaëvo were examined. Both silicate inclusions are characterized by a porphyritic texture dominated by clusters of coarse-grained olivine and pyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass that consists of new crystals of olivine and a glassy appearing matrix. This texture does not correspond to the description of the previously examined pieces of Netschaëvo, which consist of primitive chondrule-bearing angular clasts. Detailed petrographic observations and geochemical analyses suggest that the investigated samples of Netschaëvo consist of quenched impact melt. This implies that Netschaëvo is a breccia containing metamorphosed and impact-melt rock (IMR) clasts and that collisions played a major role in the formation of the IIE group.

  6. Lunar highland rock types: Their implications for impact-induced fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar rocks may be classified into three major groups: (1) coarse-grained igneous rocks, (2) fine-grained igneous rocks, and (3) breccias. Group 1 is interpreted as primitive lunar crustal rocks that display various degrees of crushing and/or annealing. Group 2 is interpreted as volcanic rocks. Group 3 is interpreted as resulting from impacts on the lunar surface and is subdivided on the basis of matrix textures into fragmental breccias, crystalline breccias that have been annealed, and crystalline breccias with igneous matrices. A synthesis of the data concerning lunar highlands polymict breccias compels the prediction that the breccias should have homogeneous matrices from rock to rock within regions of the highlands of limited size where impact mixing has been efficient and extensive. But the returned breccias, even from one landing site, display a wide range in composition. This incompatibility between prediction and observation is a paradox that may be resolved by a process that acts after impact mixing to cause a differentiation of the breccia compositions. Partial melting of the local average crustal composition (as modeled by the average soil composition for each site) and separation of melt and residue in ejecta and/or fall-back blankets are compatible with the reviewed data and may resolve the paradox.

  7. Organic matter from the Bunte Breccia of the Ries Crater, southern Germany: investigating possible thermal effects of the impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Leythaeuser, D.; Schwark, L.

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine thermal effects of the Ries impact, southern Germany, on organic matter in its ejecta blanket, the maturity of organic matter of Posidonia Shale components from the Bunte Breccia at Harburg and Gundelsheim is compared with the maturity of organic matter of a reference section of Posidonia Shale outside the impact site at Hesselberg. Three black shale samples from the Bunte Breccia were identified as corresponding to the organic matter-rich Posidonia Shale based on the molecular composition of extractable organic matter. They show n-alkane patterns with a maximum of n-C 17, a predominance of odd over even n-alkanes in the range from n-C 26 to n-C 35, a dominance of unsaturated sterenes over steranes and monoaromatic over triaromatic steroids, and contain isorenieratene. The maturity of the organic matter from the Bunte Breccia samples corresponds to 0.32-0.35% random vitrinite reflectance ( Rr) and a spectral red/green quotient ( Q) of 0.32-0.34. The organic matter from the Bunte Breccia is more mature than the Posidonia Shale sample from the reference site Hesselberg (0.25% Rr; 0.21 for Q). The thermal overprint is presumed to be too high to be explained by differences in the burial history prior to the impact alone and is, therefore, attributed to processes related to the displacement of the Bunte Breccia.

  8. An apatite-rich, ferroan, mafic lithology from lunar meteorite ALHA81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1985-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Allan Hills A81005 is a polymict, anorthositic regolith breccia of lunar origin. Most lithic clasts in the meteorite 81005 are similar to those from other lunar rocks. However, some, such as 'hyperferroan' anorthosites, have not been reported before the discovery of 81005. On the basis of the composition of some granulitic polymict breccia clasts, it appears possible that other new lithologies are present. In the present paper, a description is provided of an unusual, apatite-rich, ferroan, mafic lithology, and its origin is discussed. Three clasts which appeared to contain two minerals were separated as samples ,32 ,28 and ,27. It is found in a study that the clast in ,32 and ,28 is an apatite-rich ferroan anorthositic troctolite which is probably pristine. This rock is unique among lunar samples. On the basis of an evaluation of the significance of the results of the study, it is concluded that complex processes were apparently involved in the evolution of the primitive lunar crust.

  9. A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

  10. Disequilibrium growth of olivine in mafic magmas revealed by phosphorus zoning patterns of olivine from mafic-ultramafic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Chang-Ming; Wang, Christina Yan; Tan, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Olivine from mafic-ultramafic intrusions rarely displays growth zoning in major and some minor elements, such as Fe, Mg and Ni, due to fast diffusion of these elements at high temperatures. These elements in olivine are thus not useful in deciphering magma chamber processes, such as magma convection, multiple injection and mixing. High-resolution X-ray elemental intensity mapping reveals distinct P zoning patterns of olivine from two mafic-ultramafic intrusions in SW China. Polyhedral olivine grains from lherzolite and dunite of the Abulangdang intrusion show P-rich dendrites similar to those observed in volcanic rocks. Rounded olivine grains from net-textured Fe-Ti oxide ores of the Baima layered intrusion have irregular P-rich patches/bands crosscut and interlocked by P-poor olivine domains. P-rich patches/bands contain 250 to 612 ppm P, much higher than P-poor olivine domains with 123 to 230 ppm P. In electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps, P-rich patches/bands within a single olivine grain have the same crystallographic orientation, indicating that they were remnants of the same crystal. Thus, both P-rich patches/bands and P-poor olivine domains in the same grain show a disequilibrium texture and clearly record two-stage growth. The P-rich patches/bands are likely the remnants of a polyhedral olivine crystal that formed in the first stage, whereas the P-poor olivine domains containing rounded Ti-rich magnetite and Fe-rich melt inclusions may have formed from an Fe-rich ambient melt in the second stage. The complex P zoning of olivine can be attributed to the dissolution of early polyhedral olivine and re-precipitation from the Fe-rich ambient melt. The early polyhedral olivine was in chemical disequilibrium with the ambient melt that may have been developed by silicate liquid immiscibility in a crystal mush. Our study implies that olivine crystals in igneous cumulates with an equilibrium appearance may have experienced disequilibrium growth processes

  11. Prospects for Dating the South Pole-Aitken Basin through Impact-Melt Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Coker, R. F.; Petro, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the present debate about the ages of the nearside basins arises because of the difficulty in understanding the relationship of recovered samples to their parent basin. The Apollo breccias are from basin ejecta formations, which are ballistically-emplaced distal deposits that have mixed provenances. The Nectaris, Imbrium, and Serenitatis basins all have mare-basalt fill obscuring their original melt sheets, so geochemical ties are indirect. Though the geological processes acting to vertically and laterally mix materials into regolith are the same as at the Apollo sites, the SPA interior is a fundamentally different geologic setting than the Apollo sites. The South Pole-Aitken basin was likely filled by a large impact melt sheet, possibly differentiated into cumulate horizons. It is on this distinctive melt sheet that the regolith has formed, somewhat diluting but not erasing the prominent geochemical signature seen from orbital assets. By analogy to the Apollo 16 site, a zeroth-order expectation is that bulk samples taken from regolith within SPA will contain abundant samples gardened from the SPA melt sheet. However, questions persist as to whether the SPA melt sheet has been so extensively contaminated with foreign ejecta that a simple robotic scoop sample of such regolith would be unlikely to yield the age of the basin.

  12. The delivery of water by impacts from planetary accretion to present

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical models and observational evidence indicate that water-rich asteroids and comets deliver water to objects throughout the solar system, but the mechanisms by which this water is captured have been unclear. New experiments reveal that impact melts and breccias capture up to 30% of the water carried by carbonaceous chondrite–like projectiles under impact conditions typical of the main asteroid belt impact and the early phases of planet formation. This impactor-derived water resides in two distinct reservoirs: in impact melts and projectile survivors. Impact melt hosts the bulk of the delivered water. Entrapment of water within impact glasses and melt-bearing breccias is therefore a plausible source of hydration features associated with craters on the Moon and elsewhere in the solar system and likely contributed to the early accretion of water during planet formation. PMID:29707636

  13. The delivery of water by impacts from planetary accretion to present.

    PubMed

    Daly, R Terik; Schultz, Peter H

    2018-04-01

    Dynamical models and observational evidence indicate that water-rich asteroids and comets deliver water to objects throughout the solar system, but the mechanisms by which this water is captured have been unclear. New experiments reveal that impact melts and breccias capture up to 30% of the water carried by carbonaceous chondrite-like projectiles under impact conditions typical of the main asteroid belt impact and the early phases of planet formation. This impactor-derived water resides in two distinct reservoirs: in impact melts and projectile survivors. Impact melt hosts the bulk of the delivered water. Entrapment of water within impact glasses and melt-bearing breccias is therefore a plausible source of hydration features associated with craters on the Moon and elsewhere in the solar system and likely contributed to the early accretion of water during planet formation.

  14. The Apollo 17 'melt sheet' - Chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace-element compositions, age data, and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor, and trace-element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates (Ar-40/Ar-39) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 billion years ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated, and melted norites, norite cumulates, and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 billion years old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event.

  15. Lithic breccia and ignimbrite erupted during the collapse of Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (6845 y.B.P.) vented a total of ???50 km3 of compositionally zoned rhyodacitic to basaltic magma from: (a) a single vent as a Plinian pumice fall deposit and the overlying Wineglass Welded Tuff, and (b) ring vents as ignimbrite and coignimbrite lithic breccia accompanying the collapse of Crater Lake caldera. New field and grain-size data for the ring-vent products are presented in this report. The coarse-grained, poorly bedded, clast-supported lithic breccia extends as far as 18 km from the caldera center. Like the associated ignimbrite, the breccia is compositionally zoned both radially and vertically, and silicic, mixed, and mafic types can be recognized, based on the proportion of rhyodacitic pumice. Matrix fractions in silicic breccias are depleted of fines and are lithic- and crystal-enriched relative to silicic ignimbrite due to vigorous gas sorting during emplacement. Ignimbrite occurs as a proximal veneer deposit overlying the breccia, a medial (??? 8 to ??? 25 km from the caldera center), compositionally zoned valley fill as much as > 110 m thick, and an unzoned distal ({slanted equal to or greater-than} 20 km) facies which extends as far as 55 km from the caldera. Breccia within ??? 9 km of the caldera center is interpreted as a coignimbrite lag breccia formed within the deflation zone of the collapsing ring-vent eruption columns. Expanded pyroclastic flows of the deflation zone were probably vertically graded in both size and concentration of blocks, as recently postulated for some turbidity currents. An inflection in the rate of falloff of lithic-clast size within the lithic breccia at ??? 9 km may mark the outer edge of the deflation zone or may be an artifact of incomplete exposure. The onset of ring-vent activity at Mt. Mazama was accompanied by a marked increase in eruptive discharge. Pyroclastic flows were emplaced as a semicontinuous stream, as few ignimbrite flow-unit boundaries are evident. As eruption from

  16. Pre-1991 sulfur transfer between mafic injections and dacite magma in the Mt. Pinatubo reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di, Muro A.; Pallister, J.; Villemant, B.; Newhall, C.; Semet, M.; Martinez, M.; Mariet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Before the 1991-1992 activity, a large andesite lava dome belonging to the penultimate Pinatubo eruptive period (Buag ??? 500??BP) formed the volcano summit. Buag porphyritic andesite contains abundant amphibole-bearing microgranular enclaves of basaltic-andesite composition. Buag enclaves have lower K2O and incompatible trace element (LREE, U, Th) contents than mafic pulses injected in the Pinatubo reservoir during the 1991-1992 eruptive cycle. This study shows that Buag andesite formed by mingling of a hot, water-poor and reduced mafic magma with cold, hydrous and oxidized dacite. Depending on their size, enclaves experienced variable re-equilibration during mixing/mingling. Re-equilibration resulted in hydration, oxidation and transfer of mobile elements (LILE, Cu) from the dacite to the mafic melts and prompted massive amphibole crystallization. In Buag enclaves, S-bearing phases (sulfides, apatite) and melt inclusions in amphibole and plagioclase record the evolution of sulfur partition among melt, crystal and fluid phases during magma cooling and oxidation. At high temperature, sulfur is partitioned between andesitic melt and sulfides (Ni-pyrrhotite). Magma cooling, oxidation and hydration resulted in exsolution of a S-Cl-H2O vapor phase at the S-solubility minimum near the sulfide-sulfate redox boundary. Primary magmatic sulfide (pyrrhotite) and xenocrystic sulfide grains (pyrite), recycled together with olivines and pyroxenes from old mafic intrusives, were replaced by Cu-rich phases (chalcopyrite, cubanite) and, partially, by Ba-Sr sulfate. Sulfides degassed and transformed into residual spongy magnetite in response to fS2 drop during final magma ascent and decompression. Our research suggests that a complete evaluation of the sulfur budget at Pinatubo must take into account the en route S assimilation from the country rocks. Moreover, this study shows that the efficiency of sulfur transfer between mafic recharges and injected magmas is controlled by the

  17. Review of Carbonate Breccia Genetic Classification in West Hill, Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    This thesis proposes genetic classification for carbonate breccia in West Hill, Beijing, summarizes the genesis mechanism and features of 14 types of carbonate breccia there, and raises research questions. Not at all of types were included in this classification, mainly which are not so commonly discussed, such as impact breccia formed by meteorolite. Among other things, it raises the issue of overlapping the concept, which requires further research.

  18. Mid-infrared bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy of impact melt glasses and tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlok, Andreas; Stojic, Aleksandra; Weber, Iris; Hiesinger, Harald; Zanetti, Michael; Helbert, Joern

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed 14 impact melt glass samples, covering the compositional range from highly felsic to mafic/basaltic, as part of our effort to provide mid-infrared spectra (7-14 μm) for MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), an instrument onboard of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Since Mercury was exposed to many impacts in its history, and impact glasses are also common on other bodies, powders of tektites (Irghizite, Libyan Desert Glass, Moldavite, Muong Nong, Thailandite) and impact glasses (from the Dellen, El'gygytgyn, Lonar, Mien, Mistastin, and Popigai impact structures) were analyzed in four size fractions of (0-25, 25-63, 93-125 and 125-250 μm) from 2.5 to 19 μm in bi-directional reflectance. The characteristic Christiansen Feature (CF) is identified between 7.3 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 8.2 μm (Dellen). Most samples show mid-infrared spectra typical of highly amorphous material, dominated by a strong Reststrahlen Band (RB) between 8.9 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 10.3 μm (Dellen). Even substantial amounts of mineral fragments hardly affect this general band shape. Comparisons of the SiO2 content representing the felsic/mafic composition of the samples with the CF shows felsic/intermediate glass and tektites forming a big group, and comparatively mafic samples a second one. An additional sign of a highly amorphous state is the lack of features at wavelengths longer than ∼15 μm. The tektites and two impact glasses, Irghizite and El'gygytgyn respectively, have much weaker water features than most of the other impact glasses. For the application in remote sensing, spectral features have to be correlated with compositional characteristics of the materials. The dominating RB in the 7-14 μm range correlates well with the SiO2 content, the Christiansen Feature shows similar dependencies. To distinguish between glass and crystalline phases of the same chemical composition, a comparison between CF the SCFM index (SiO2/(SiO2

  19. The Garnet to Majorite Transformation in Mafic Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xirouchakis, D.; Draper, David S.; Agee, C. B.

    2002-01-01

    The garnet to majorite transformation in mafic compositions is controlled by bulk composition and the presence of silicate melt, clinopyroxene, and silicate perovskite as well as pressure. Thus, the use of empirical geobarometers based on garnet Si(4+) and/or [Al(3+) +/- Cr(3+)] (p.f.u) seems unjustified. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Bohemian circular structure, Czechoslovakia: Search for the impact evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajlich, Petr

    Test of the impact hypothesis for the origin of the circular, 260-km-diameter structure of the Bohemian Massif led to the discovery of glasses and breccias in the Upper Proterozoic sequence that can be compared to autogeneous breccias of larger craters. The black recrystallized glass contains small exsolution crystals of albite-oligoclase and biotite, regularly dispersed in the matrix recrystallized to quartz. The occurrence of these rocks is limited to a 1-sq-km area. It is directly underlain by the breccia of the pelitic and silty rocks cemented by the melted matrix, found on several tens of square kilometers. The melt has the same chemistry as rock fragments in major and in trace elements. It is slightly impoverished in water. The proportion of melted rocks to fragments varies from 1:5 to 10:1. The mineralogy of melt viens is the function of later, mostly contact metamorphism. On the contact of granitic plutons it abounds on sillimanite, cordierite, and small bullets of ilmenite. Immediately on the contact with syenodiorites it contains garnets. The metamorphism of the impact rock melt seems the most probable explanation of the mineralogy and the dry total fusion of rocks accompanied by the strong fragmentation. Other aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  1. Bohemian circular structure, Czechoslovakia: Search for the impact evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajlich, Petr

    1992-01-01

    Test of the impact hypothesis for the origin of the circular, 260-km-diameter structure of the Bohemian Massif led to the discovery of glasses and breccias in the Upper Proterozoic sequence that can be compared to autogeneous breccias of larger craters. The black recrystallized glass contains small exsolution crystals of albite-oligoclase and biotite, regularly dispersed in the matrix recrystallized to quartz. The occurrence of these rocks is limited to a 1-sq-km area. It is directly underlain by the breccia of the pelitic and silty rocks cemented by the melted matrix, found on several tens of square kilometers. The melt has the same chemistry as rock fragments in major and in trace elements. It is slightly impoverished in water. The proportion of melted rocks to fragments varies from 1:5 to 10:1. The mineralogy of melt viens is the function of later, mostly contact metamorphism. On the contact of granitic plutons it abounds on sillimanite, cordierite, and small bullets of ilmenite. Immediately on the contact with syenodiorites it contains garnets. The metamorphism of the impact rock melt seems the most probable explanation of the mineralogy and the dry total fusion of rocks accompanied by the strong fragmentation. Other aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  2. The impact history of the Moon: implications of new high-resolution U-Pb analyses of Apollo impact breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Thiessen, Fiona; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2015-04-01

    Constraining the impact history of the Moon is a key priority, both for lunar science [1] and also for our understanding of how this fundamental geologic processes [2] has affected the evolution of planets in the inner solar system. The Apollo impact breccia samples provide the most direct way of dating impact events on the Moon. Numerous studies have dated samples from the Apollo landing sites by multiple different methods with varying degrees of precision [3]. This has led to an ongoing debates regarding the presence of a period of intense meteoritic bombardment (e.g. [4-8]). In this study we present high precision U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphates in a variety of Apollo impact breccias. These data allow us to resolve the signatures of multiple different impact events in samples collected by the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 missions. In particular, the potential identification of three significant impact events between the period of ~3915-3940 Ma, is indicative of a high rate of meteorite impacts at this point in lunar history. A more fundamental problem with interpretations of Apollo breccia ages is that the samples originate from the lunar regolith and do not represent samples of actual bedrock exposures. As such, although improvements in analytical precision may allow us to continue identifying new impact signatures, the proposed links between these signatures and particular impact features remain highly speculative. This is a problem that will only be truly addressed with a more focused campaign of lunar exploration. Most importantly, this would include the acquisition of samples from below the lunar regolith, which could be confidently attributed to particular bedrock formations and provide a degree of geologic context that has been largely absent from studies of lunar geology to date. References: [1] National Research Council (2007) The scientific context for exploration of the Moon, National Academies Press. [2] Melosh H. J. (1989) Impact Cratering: A Geologic

  3. Petrology and Geochemistry of an Upper Crustal Mafic Complex- Hidden Lakes, Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Bucholz, C. E.; Jagoutz, O. E.; Eddy, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic differentiation in arc settings is likely a polybaric process, with crystallization of primitive basalts occurring primarily in the lower crust and more evolved melts in the upper crust. The general lack of mafic-ultramafic cumulates in the silicic paleo-arc upper crust supports this model. However, the Sierra Nevada Batholith preserves numerous mafic intrusions up to 25 km2, suggesting that significant volumes of mafic magma may differentiate at shallow crustal levels. Previous studies on several such intrusions report ages contemporaneous with Cretaceous batholith emplacement (Coleman et al., 1995), but only a few have investigated their chemistry and relationship to arc magmatism (Frost, 1987; Frost & Mahood, 1987; Sisson et al., 1996). We present field observations, petrography, mineral chemistry, and bulk rock compositional data for the Hidden Lakes Mafic Complex (HLMC), located in the Central Sierra Nevada Batholith. Preliminary CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages constrain crystallization between 90 and 95 Ma, slightly older than the surrounding Cretaceous felsic plutons (89-90 Ma) and younger than adjacent Jurassic granodiorites (172 Ma). This 2.2 km2 complex consists of biotite+amphibole gabbros through qtz-monzonites, in gradational contact, and contains local pods of biotite- and amphibole-bearing olivine-orthopyroxenites and gabbronorites. Mineral compositions and field relations suggest that these lithologies were derived from a common crystallization sequence. The most primitive olivine-pyroxenite contains olivine and orthopyroxene in equilibrium with a melt with Mg# 54. Subsequent crystallization over a temperature range of 1025 to 700°C produced more evolved lithologies up to qtz-monzonites. Al-in-hornblende calculations for HLMC qtz-monzonites indicate a crystallization depth of 9-10 km, well into the upper crust. The early crystallization of amphibole requires a parental basalt with >6 wt% H2O, which may have enabled it to ascend into the upper

  4. Geometric consequences of ductile fabric development from brittle shear faults in mafic melt sheets: Evidence from the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenauer, Iris; Riller, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    Compared to felsic igneous rocks the genetic relationship between brittle and ductile fabric development and its influence on the geometry of deformed mafic melt sheets has received little attention in structural analyses. We explore these relationships using the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) as an example. The SIC is the relic of a layered impact melt sheet that was transformed into a fold basin, the Sudbury Basin, during Paleoproterozoic deformation at the southern margin of the Archean Superior Province. We studied brittle and ductile strain fabrics on the outcrop and map scales in the southern Sudbury Basin, notably in the Norite and Quartz Gabbro layers of the SIC. Here, deformation is heterogeneous and occurred under variable rheological conditions, evident by the development of brittle shear fractures, brittle-ductile shear zones and pervasive ductile strain. The mineral fabrics formed under low- to middle greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereby brittle deformation caused hydrolytic weakening and ductile fabric development. Principal strain axes inferred from all structural elements are collinear and point to a single deformation regime that led to thinning of SIC layers during progressive deformation. Ductile fabric development profoundly influenced the orientation of SIC material planes, such as lithological contacts and magmatic mineral fabrics. More specifically, these planar structural elements are steep where the SIC underwent large magnitudes of thinning, i.e., in the south limb of the Sudbury Basin. Here, the actual tilt component of material planes is likely smaller than its maximum total rotation (60°) inferred from inclined igneous layering in the Norite. Our field-based study shows that ductile fabric development from brittle faults can have a profound influence on the rotational components of primary material planes in deformed igneous melt sheets.

  5. A comparison of the chemistry of pseudotachylyte breccias in the Archean Levack Gneisses of the Sudbury structure, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Lucy M.; Spray, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The Archean Levack Gneisses of the North Range host millimeter-thick veins and centimeter-thick lenses of pseudotachylyte, as well as substantially larger meter-wide, dykelike bodies of pseudotachylytic 'breccia'. The 'breccia' occurs up to several tens of kilometers away from the Sudbury Igneous Complex and is commonly sited within or near joints and other natural weaknesses such as bedding, dyke contacts, and lithological boundaries. The larger 'breccia' dykes comprise a generally dark matrix containing rounded to subrounded and occasionally angular rock fragments derived predominantly from Levack Gneiss. Selected samples of bulk Sudbury Breccia and Sudbury Breccia matrices were chemically analyzed and compared to existing data on the Levack Gneisses and Sudbury Breccia. The matrices are apparently enriched in Fe and, to a lesser extent, Mg, Ti, and Ca compared to the wallrocks and the majority of clasts. This enrichment can be partly explained by the preferential cataclasis and/or frictional melting of hydrous ferromagnesian wallrock minerals, but also appear to require contamination by more basic exotic lithologies. This suggests that certain components of pseudotachylitic Sudbury Breccia have undergone significant transport during their formation.

  6. Petrographic and petrological study of lunar rock materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Impact melts and breccias from the Apollo 15 and 16 landing sites were examined optically and by electron microscope/microprobe. Major and trace element abundances were determined for selected samples. Apollo 16 breccias contained impact melts, metamorphic and primary igneous rocks. Metamorphic rocks may be the equivalents of the impact melts. Apollo 15 breccias studied were fragment-laden melts derived from gabbro and more basalt target rocks.

  7. Toward an understanding of disequilibrium dihedral angles in mafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holness, Marian B.; Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Sides, Rachel; Helz, Rosalind T.; Tegner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The median dihedral angle at clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, Θcpp, is generally lower than equilibrium (109˚ {plus minus} 2˚). Observation of a wide range of mafic bodies demonstrates that previous work on systematic variations of Θcpp is incorrect in several important respects. Firstly, the spatial distribution of plagioclase compositional zoning demonstrates that the final geometry of three-grain junctions, and hence Θcpp, is formed during solidification (the igneous process): sub-solidus textural modification in most dolerites and gabbros, previously thought to be the dominant control on Θcpp, is insignificant. Θcpp is governed by mass transport constraints, the inhibiting effects of small pore size on crystallization, and variation in relative growth rates of pyroxene and plagioclase. During rapid cooling, pyroxene preferentially fills wider pores while the narrower pores remain melt-filled, resulting in an initial value of Θcpp of 78˚, rather than 60˚ which would be expected if all melt-filled pores were filled with pyroxene. Lower cooling rates create a higher initial Θcpp due to changes in relative growth rates of the two minerals at the nascent three-grain junction. Low Θcpp (associated with cuspate clinopyroxene grains at triple junctions) can also be diagnostic of infiltration of previously melt-free rocks by late-stage evolved liquids (the metasomatic process). Modification of Θcpp by sub-solidus textural equilibration (the metamorphic process) is only important for fine-grained mafic rocks such as chilled margins and intra-plutonic chill zones. In coarse-grained gabbros from shallow crustal intrusions the metamorphic process occurs only in the centres of oikocrysts, associated with rounding of chadacrysts.

  8. Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint And EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L.; Agee, C.; Sutton, S.

    2013-01-01

    Immiscible sulfide melt spherules are locally very abundant in shergottite impact melts. These melts can also contain samples of Martian atmospheric gases [1], and cosmogenic nuclides [2] that are present in impact melt, but not in the host shergottite, indicating some components in the melt resided at the Martian surface. These observations show that some regolith components are, at least locally, present in the impact melts. This view also suggests that one source of the over-abundant sulfur in these impact melts could be sulfates that are major constituents of Martian regolith, and that the sulfates were reduced during shock heating to sulfide. An alternative view is that sulfide spherules in impact melts are produced solely by melting the crystalline sulfide minerals (dominantly pyrrhotite, Fe(1-x)S) that are present in shergottites [3]. In this abstract we report new analyses of the compositions of sulfide immiscible melt spherules and pyrrhotite in the shergottites Tissint, and EETA79001,507, and we use these data to investigate the possible origins of the immiscible sulfide melt spherules. In particular, we use the metal/S ratios determined in these blebs as potential diagnostic criteria for tracking the source material from which the numerous sulfide blebs were generated by shock in these melts.

  9. Introduction to the Apollo collections: Part 2: Lunar breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Simonds, C. H.; Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Basic petrographic, chemical and age data for a representative suite of lunar breccias are presented for students and potential lunar sample investigators. Emphasis is on sample description and data presentation. Samples are listed, together with a classification scheme based on matrix texture and mineralogy and the nature and abundance of glass present both in the matrix and as clasts. A calculus of the classification scheme, describes the characteristic features of each of the breccia groups. The cratering process which describes the sequence of events immediately following an impact event is discussed, especially the thermal and material transport processes affecting the two major components of lunar breccias (clastic debris and fused material).

  10. Textural variations and impact history of the Millbillillie eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated 10 new specimens of the Millbillillie eucrite to study its textures and mineral compositions by electron probe microanalyser and scanning electron microscope. Although originally described as having fine-grained texture, the new specimens show diversity of texture. The compositions (Mg/Fe ratios) of the host pigeonites and augite lamellae are homogeneous, respectively, in spite of the textural variation. In addition to their chemical homogeneity, pyroxenes in coarse and fine-grained clasts are partly inverted to orthopyroxene. Chemical zoning of plagioclase during crystal growth is preserved. This eucrite includes areas of granulitic breccias and impact melts. Large scale textures show a subparallel layering suggesting incomplete mixing and deposition of impact melt and lithic fragments. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age determination for a coarse-grained clast indicates a strong degassing event at 3.55 +/- 0.02 Ga. We conclude that Millbillillie is among the most equilibriated eucrites produced by thermal annealing after impact brecciation. According to the classificcation of impact breccias, Millbillillie can be classified as a mixture of granulitic breccias and impact melts. The last significant thermal event is characterized by network-like glassy veins that run through clasts and matrices. Consideration of textual observations and requirements for Ar-degassing suggests that the Ar-39-Ar-40 age could in principle date either the earlier brecciation and annealing event or the event which produced the veins.

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Triassic mafic complexes with MORB/OIB affinities from the western Garzê-Litang ophiolitic mélange, central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Ma, Chang-Qian; Guo, Yu-Heng; Xiong, Fu-Hao; Guo, Pan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Although numerous Paleo-Tethyan ophiolites with mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) and/or oceanic-island basalt (OIB) affinities have been reported in the central Tibetan Plateau (CTP), the origin and tectonic nature of these ophiolites are not well understood. The petrogenesis, mantle sources and geodynamic setting of the mafic rocks from these ophiolites are unclear, which is the main reason for this uncertainty. In this paper, we present new geochronological, mineralogical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the Chayong and Xiewu mafic complexes in the western Garzê-Litang suture zone (GLS), a typical Paleo-Tethyan suture crossing the CTP. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 234 ± 3 Ma and 236 ± 2 Ma can be interpreted as formation times of the Chayong and Xiewu mafic complexes, respectively. The basalts and gabbros of the Chayong complex exhibit enriched MORB (E-MORB) compositional affinities except for a weak depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti relative to the primitive mantle, whereas the basalts and gabbros of the Xiewu complex display distinct E-MORB and OIB affinities. The geochemical features suggest a probable fractionation of olivine ± clinopyroxene ± plagioclase as well as insignificant crustal contamination. The geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data reveal that the Chayong mafic rocks may have been derived from depleted MORB-type mantle metasomatized by crustal components and Xiewu mafic rocks from enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by OIB-like components. The ratios of Zn/Fet, La/Yb and Sm/Yb indicate that these mafic melts were produced by the partial melting of garnet + minor spinel-bearing peridotite or spinel ± minor garnet-bearing peridotite. We propose that back-arc basin spreading associated with OIB/seamount recycling had occurred in the western GLS at least since the Middle Triassic times, and the decompression melting of the depleted MORB-type asthenosphere mantle and partial melting of sub-continental lithosphere were metasomatized by plume

  12. Origin of magnetization in lunar breccias - An example of thermal overprinting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Strangway, D. W.; Pearce, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty six samples from seven hand specimens, collected from the station 6 boulder at the Apollo 17 landing site, were studied magnetically. The boulder is a breccia consisting of three lithologic units distinguished by their clast population. The direction of magnetization of samples from unit B which is almost devoid of large clasts cluster fairly well after alternating field demagnetization. Samples from unit C which is characterized by abundant large clasts up to 1 m in size do not contain a uniform direction of magnetization but the distribution is not random. Based on these data we propose that the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in these breccias is the vector sum of two magnetizations, a pre-impact magnetization and a partial thermoremanence acquired during breccia formation. The relative contribution of the two components is controlled by the thermal history of the ejecta, which in turn is determined by its clast population. Depending on the clast population, the NRM can be a total thermoremanence, a partial thermoremanence plus a pre-impact magnetization, or a pre-impact magnetization. This model of thermal overprinting might be applicable to all lunar breccias of medium and higher metamorphic grade.

  13. Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, Northern Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yan; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Jiyong; Ye, Lei; Kong, Juanjuan; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guorui

    2016-02-01

    We present zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data on the late Triassic mafic dikes (diabase) and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB). These rocks give a small age window of 228-218 Ma. The mafic dikes represent evolved alkaline basaltic melts intruding ~ 8-9 Myrs older and volumetrically more abundant A-type granite batholith. Their rare earth element (REE) and multi-element patterns are similar to those of the present-day ocean island basalts (OIBs) except for a weak continental crustal signature (i.e., enrichment of Rb and Pb and weak depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti). Their trace element characteristics together with the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7076-0.7104), low εNd(t) (- 2.18 to - 3.46), low εHf(t) (- 2.85 to - 4.59) and variable Pb isotopic ratios are consistent with melts derived from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle with crustal contamination. The felsic volcanic rocks are characterized by high LREE/HREE (e.g., [La/Yb]N of 5.71-17.00) with a negative Eu anomaly and strong depletion in Sr and P, resembling the model upper continental crust (UCC). Given the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7213-0.7550) and less negative εNd(t) (- 3.83 to - 5.09) and εHf(t) (- 3.06 to - 3.83) than the UCC plus the overlapping isotopes with the mafic dikes and high Nb-Ta rhyolites, the felsic volcanic rocks are best interpreted as resulting from melting-induced mixing with 45-50% crustal materials and 50-55% mantle-derived mafic melts probably parental to the mafic dikes. Such mantle-derived melts underplated and intruded the deep crust as juvenile crustal materials. Partial melting of such juvenile crust produced felsic melts parental to the felsic volcanic rocks in the EKOB. We hypothesize that the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks are associated with post-collisional extension and related orogenic collapse. Such processes are probably significant in causing asthenospheric upwelling, decompression melting

  14. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  15. Transfer of volatiles and metals from mafic to felsic magmas in composite magma chambers: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haihao; Audétat, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In order to determine the behavior of metals and volatiles during intrusion of mafic magma into the base of silicic, upper crustal magma chambers, fluid-rock partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) of Li, B, Na, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Mo, As, Se, Sb, Te, W, Tl, Pb and Bi were determined experimentally at 2 kbar and 850 °C close to the solidus of mafic magma. In a first step, volatile-bearing mafic glasses were prepared by melting a natural basaltic trachyandesite in the presence of volatile-bearing fluids at 1200 °C/10 kbar in piston cylinder presses. The hydrous glasses were then equilibrated in subsequent experiments at 850 °C/2 kbar in cold-seal pressure vessels, which caused 80-90% of the melt to crystallize. After 0.5-2.0 days of equilibration, the exsolved fluid was trapped by means of in-situ fracturing in the form of synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Both the mafic rock residue and the fluid inclusions were subsequently analyzed by laser-ablation ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Reverse experiments were conducted by equilibrating metal-bearing aqueous solutions with rock powder and then trapping the fluid. In two additional experiments, information on relative element mobilities were obtained by reacting fluids that exsolved from crystallizing mafic magma with overlying silicic melts. The combined results suggest that under the studied conditions S, Cl, Cu, Se, Br, Cd and Te are most volatile (Dfluid/rock >10), followed by Li, B, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, Cs, W, Tl, Pb and Bi (Dfluid/rock = 1-10). Less volatile are Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Mo and Rb (Dfluid/rock 0.1-1), and the least fluid-mobile elements are Al, Si, Ti, Zr, Ba and Ce (Dfluid/rock <0.1). This trend is broadly consistent with relative element volatilities determined on natural high-temperature fumarole gases, although some differences exist. Based on the volatility data and measured mineral-melt and sulfide-melt partition coefficients, volatile fluxing in

  16. Soot and palynologic analysis of Manson impact-related strata (Upper Cretaceous) of Iowa and South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varricchio, D.J.; Raven, R.F.; Wolbach, W.S.; Elsik, W.C.; Witzke, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Campanian Manson impact structure of Iowa represents the best-preserved, large-diameter complex crater within the continental U.S. To assess the timing and potential mode of crater infilling and the possible presence of an impact event horizon, we analyzed samples from both within and distal to the impact structure for their elemental carbon, soot and palynomorphs. Within the impact structure, identifiable soot occurred in fragmented impact breccia and suevite but not in lower impact-melt breccia. Although most of this soot likely represents reworking of material from older Cretaceous marine shales, one high soot concentration occurs with melt material in a Keweenawan Shale-Phanerozoic clast breccia mix. This represents the first association of soot and impact-generated materials within an impact structure and the best sample candidate for Manson impact-generated soot. No palynomorphs occurred in the impact melt breccia. Overlying suevite (Keweenawan Shale clast breccia) of the central peak yielded sparse and thermally altered palynomorphs, indicating deposition prior to full cooling of the crater debris. Presence of easily degraded soot also argues for rapid backfilling of the crater. Distal samples from South Dakota represent the Sharon Springs and Crow Creek members of the Pierre Shale 230 km northwest of the Manson impact structure. Although containing shocked grains, the Crow Creek preserves no soot. In contrast, the Sharon Springs, generally considered as predating the Manson impact, has significant soot quantities. Palynomorphs differ markedly across the unconformity separating the two members with the Crow Creek containing more terrestrial forms, normapolles, and older reworked palynomorphs, consistent with a terrestrial impact to the east. Origin of the Sharon Springs soot remains unclear. Given soot occurrence within four of the five Cretaceous marine units sampled, the relatively shallow, anoxic bottom conditions of the Western Interior Cretaceous

  17. Petrological constraints on the recycling of mafic crystal mushes, magma ascent and intrusion of braided sills in the Torres del Paine mafic complex (Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuthold, Julien; Müntener, Othmar; Baumgartner, Lukas; Putlitz, Benita

    2014-05-01

    Cumulate and crystal mush disruption and reactivation are difficult to recognise in coarse grained shallow plutonic rocks. Mafic minerals included in hornblende and zoned plagioclase provide snapshots of early crystallization and cumulate formation, but are difficult to interpret in terms of the dynamics of magma ascent and possible links between silicic and mafic rock emplacement. We will present the field relations, the microtextures and the mineral chemistry of the Miocene mafic sill complex of the Torres del Paine intrusive complex (Patagonia, Chile) and its sub-vertical feeder-zone. The mafic sill complex was built up by a succession of braided sills of shoshonitic and high-K calc-alkaline porphyritic hornblende-gabbro and fine grained monzodioritic sills. The mafic units were over-accreted over 41±11 ka, underplating the overlying granite. Local diapiric structures and felsic magma accumulation between sills indicate limited separation of intercumulus liquid from the mafic sills. Anhedral hornblende cores, with olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase ± apatite inclusions, crystallized at temperatures >900°C and pressures of ~300 to ~500 MPa. The corresponding rims and monzodiorite matrix crystallized at <830°C, ~70 MPa. This abrupt compositional variation suggests stability and instability of hornblende during mafic roots recycling and subsequent decompression. The near lack of intercumulus crystals in the sub-vertical feeder zone layered gabbronorite and pyroxene-hornblende gabbronorite stocks testifies that melt is more efficiently extracted than in sills, resulting in a cumulate signature in the feeding system. The emplacement age of the sill complex topmost granitic unit is identical, within uncertainties, to the feeder zone mafic cumulates. Granitic liquids formed by AFC processes and were extracted at high temperature (T>950°C) from the middle crust reservoir to the emplacement level. We show that hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry is a useful

  18. An Anomalous Breccia in the Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) Atar Group, Mauritania: Potential Evidence for an Impact-generated Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aden, D. J.; Milam, K. A.; Kah, L. C.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Inital observations reveal that an anomalous high-energy breccia in the Mesoproterozoic Atar Group, Mauitania, is a possible candidate for an ancient tsunamite, which may have been triggered by a marine impact event.

  19. A Reevaluation of Impact Melt Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Vickery, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.

    1997-06-01

    The production of melt and vapor is an important process in impact cratering events. Because significant melting and vaporization do not occur in impacts at velocities currently achievable in the laboratory, a detailed study of the production of melt and vapor in planetary impact events is carried out with hydrocode simulations. Sandia's two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrocode CSQ was used to estimate the amount of melt and vapor produced for widely varying initial conditions: 10 to 80 km/sec for impact velocity, 0.2 to 10 km for the projectile radius. Runs with different materials demonstrate the material dependency of the final result. These results should apply to any size projectile (for given impact velocity and material), since the results can be dynamically scaled so long as gravity is unimportant in affecting the early-time flow. In contrast with the assumptions of previous analytical models, a clear difference in shape, impact-size dependence, and depth of burial has been found between the melt regions and the isobaric core. In particular, the depth of the isobaric core is not a good representation of the depth of the melt regions, which form deeper in the target. While near-surface effects cause the computed melt region shapes to look like “squashed spheres” the spherical shape is still a good analytical analog. One of the goals of melt production studies is to find proper scaling laws to infer melt production for any impact event of interest. We tested the point source limit scaling law for melt volumes (μ = 0.55-0.6) proposed by M. D. Bjorkman and K. A. Holsapple (1987,Int. J. Impact Eng.5, 155-163). Our results indicate that the point source limit concept does not apply to melt and vapor production. Rather, melt and vapor production follows an energy scaling law (μ = 0.67), in good agreement with previous results of T. J. Ahrens and J. D. O'Keefe [1977, inImpact and Explosion Cratering(D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill, Eds.), pp. 639

  20. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-05-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  1. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  2. Nature of the H chondrite parent body regolith - Evidence from the Dimmitt breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Allen, J. S. B.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorite regolith breccias are clastic rocks which formed by lithification of fragmental regolith material that once resided at the surface of a meteorite parent body. A study is reported of the matrix and 21 clasts of various sizes (0.2-24 mm) in the Dimmitt H chondrite regolith breccia using petrographic and electron microprobe techniques. In addition, oxygen isotope studies of three clasts and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Ar-39/Ar-40 age dating of one clast are reported. The Dimmitt meteorite was found about 1942 near Dimmitt, Texas. Attention is given to analytical procedures, the clastic matrix, equilibrated clasts, poikilitic melt-rock clast, clasts of different chondrite groups, graphite-magnetite aggregates, the origin of exotic clasts, and the complexity of parent body surfaces processes.

  3. Homogeneous impact melts produced by a heterogeneous target?. Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Popigai crater, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.; Masaitis, V. L.

    The 35.7 ± 0.2 Ma old Popigai crater, Siberia, with a diameter of about 100 km is one of the best preserved large terrestrial impact structures. The heterogeneous target at the impact site consists of Archean to Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the crystalline basement, Upper Proterozoic quartzites and other clastic deposits, as well as Cambrian to Cretaceous clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks, including carbonate rocks. Moreover, Proterozoic and Permo-Triassic dolerite dykes are found in the target area. We report major element, Sr and Nd isotope data for 13 of these target rocks and for various types of impactites. The 15 analysed impactite samples include tagamites (impact melt rocks), suevites and impact glass from small veins. Furthermore, two impact breccias and two impact glass-coated gneiss bombs were analysed. We discuss the relation of these impactites to the target lithologies, and evaluate on the basis of literature data the relation of microkrystites (and associated microtektites) in Upper Eocene sediments to the Popigai event. The impactites have SiO 2 abundances ranging from 59 to 66 wt.% and show significant variations in the content of Fe, Ca, and Ti. They have present day 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios between 0.7191 and 0.7369. Their Sr model ages T SrUR range from 1.9 to 2.3 Ga. The 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios for the impactite samples cluster between 0.5113 and 0.5115. The Nd model ages T NdCHUR range from 1.9 to 2.1 Ga. In an ɛ CHUR(Nd)-ɛ UR(Sr) diagram, the impactites and Upper Eocene microkrystites (and associated microtektites) plot in a field delimited by Popigai target lithologies. The impactites are restricted to the field of crystalline basement rocks and Upper Proterozoic quartzites, but they show different isotopic signatures in different crater sectors. Impactites and Upper Eocene microkrystites plot in different, only partly overlapping clusters. The leucocratic microkrystites and microtektites have a higher affinity to the post

  4. Monogenetic Arc Volcanism in the Central Andes: The "Hidden" Mafic Component in the Land of Andesite and Ignimbrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alderwerelt, B. M.; Ukstins Peate, I.; Ramos, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    Faulting in the upper crust of the Central Andes has provided passage for small volumes of mafic magma to reach the surface, providing a window into petrogenetic processes in the region's deep crust and upper mantle. Mafic lavas are rare in the Central Andean region dominated by intermediate-composition arc volcanism and massive sheets of silicic ignimbrite, and provide key data on magmatic origin, evolution, and transport. This work characterizes fault-controlled, within-arc monogenetic eruptive centers representative of the most mafic volcanism in the Altiplano-Puna region of the Andes since (at least) the Mesozoic. Olivine-phyric basaltic andesite (54 wt% SiO2, 7.3 wt% MgO) at Cerro Overo maar and associated dome, La Albóndiga Grande, and an olivine-clinopyroxene flow (53 wt% SiO2, 6.7 wt% MgO) from Cordón de Puntas Negras have been erupted at the intersection of regional structural features and the modern volcanic arc. Bulk magma chemistry, radiogenic isotopes, and microanalyses of mineral and melt inclusion composition provide insight on the composition(s) of mafic magmas being delivered to the lowermost crust and the deep crustal processes which shape central Andean magma. Bulk major and trace elements follow regional arc differentiation trends and are clearly modified by crustal magmatic processes. In contrast, microanalyses reveal a much richer history with olivine-hosted melt inclusions recording multiple distinct magmas, including potential primary melts. Single crystal olivine 87Sr/86Sr from Cerro Overo (0.7041-0.7071) define a broader range than whole rock (0.7062-0.7065), indicating preservation of juvenile melt in olivine-hosted inclusions lost at the whole rock scale. Mineral chemistry (via EMPA) P-T calculations define a petrogenetic history for these endmember lavas. Field mapping, bulk chemistry, and microanalyses outline the generation, storage, transportation, and eventual eruption of the "hidden" mafic component of the Andean arc.

  5. Bridging the Gap: Formation of Voluminous Pseudotachylitic Rocks in Tectonic and Impact Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, B.; Shipton, Z. K.; Reimold, W. U.

    2015-09-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccias (PTBs) from the Outer Hebrides Fault Zone, Scotland, show structural similarities to impact PTBs. In both impact and tectonic settings, processes additional to friction heat melting are requisite for the formation of PTBs.

  6. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  7. Minerals and melt inclusions as keys to understanding magma reservoir processes during formation of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yurii; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia) attract attention of researchers because they contain ultramafic volcanic rocks - meimechites, being products of crystallization of the ultrabasic deep mantle melts (Sobolev et al., 1991, 2009, 2011; Ryabchikov et al., 2002; Vasiliev, Gora, 2014). Effusive meimechites together with intrusive dunites of the Guli massif form ancient (253-246 Ma) volcanic and plutonic association, in which also pyroxenites and alkaline rocks are situated. Conditions of formation of this association were established with the help of minerals and melt inclusions study. The cumulative structure of the Guli massif dunites consists of rather large (2-4 mm) olivine crystals and dividing them zones (0.5-0.7 mm), filled with fine grains of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals (magnetite, ilmenite and chromite). The extended forms of well faceted pyroxene crystals testify to their fast growth from melt between cumulative olivines. Thus, crystallization of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals leads to formation between olivines ore pyroxenites, which are presented in the Guli massif by independent bodies. Analysis of olivine, Cr-spinel and clinopyroxene compositions testify to similarity of conditions of the Guli massif dunites crystallization on the one hand with formation of platinum-bearing Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes and with another - show participation of meimechite magma. Major element composition of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel has shown that dunites of the Guli massif were crystallized with participation of subalkaline picrite magmatic systems, that are relative to melts, responsible of formation of platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes and meimechites. Peculiarities of trace and rare-earth elements distribution in melt inclusions in Cr-spinel of dunites are actually similar to inclusions in olivine of meimechites. Overall, data on composition of inclusions directly testify to formation of considered

  8. Metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowth textures in EL3 meteorites: Origin by impact melting on the EL parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    We document the petrographic setting and textures of Fe,Ni metal, the mineralogy of metallic assemblages, and the modal mineral abundances in the EL3 meteorites Asuka (A-) 881314, A-882067, Allan Hills 85119, Elephant Moraine (EET) 90299/EET 90992, LaPaz Icefield 03930, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02635, MAC 02837/MAC 02839, MAC 88136, Northwest Africa (NWA) 3132, Pecora Escarpment 91020, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93351/QUE 94321, QUE 94594, and higher petrologic type ELs Dar al Gani 1031 (EL4), Sayh al Uhaymir 188 (EL4), MAC 02747 (EL4), QUE 94368 (EL4), and NWA 1222 (EL5). Large metal assemblages (often containing schreibersite and graphite) only occur outside chondrules and are usually intergrown with silicate minerals (euhedral to subhedral enstatite, silica, and feldspar). Sulfides (troilite, daubréelite, and keilite) are also sometimes intergrown with silicates. Numerous authors have shown that metal in enstatite chondrites that are interpreted to have been impact melted contains euhedral crystals of enstatite. We argue that the metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowths in the ELs we studied were also formed during impact melting and that metal in EL3s thus does not retain primitive (i.e., nebular) textures. Likewise, the EL4s are also impact-melt breccias. Modal abundances of metal in the EL3s and EL4s range from approximately 7 to 30 wt%. These abundances overlap or exceed those of EL6s, and this is consistent either with pre-existing heterogeneity in the parent body or with redistribution of metal during impact processes.

  9. Bunte Breccia of the Ries - Continuous deposits of large impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Ostertag, R.; Rainey, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The 26-km-diameter Ries impact crater in south Germany and the mechanism of ejection and emplacement associated with its formation about 15 Myr ago are discussed in detail, and the implications of the findings for models of crater formation on earth, moon, and planets are considered. Field observations and laboratory tests on 560-m core materials from nine locations are reported. The continuous deposits (Bunte Breccia) are found to be a chaotic mixture resulting from deposition at ambient temperatures in a highly turbulent environment, probably in the ballistic scenario proposed by Oberbeck et al. (1975), with an emplacement time of only about 5 min. Further impact parameters are estimated using the 'Z model' of Maxwell (1977): initial radius = 6.5 km, excavation depth = 1650 m, excavation volume = 136 cu km, and transient cavity volume = 230 cu km. The interpretation of lunar and planetary remote-sensing and in situ evidence from impact craters is reviewed in the light of the Ries findings. Numerous photographs, maps, diagrams, and tables illustrate the investigation.

  10. Petrology and Composition of HED Polymict Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites forms the largest suite of achondrites with over 900 named members. The HEDs are igneous rocks and breccias of igneous rocks from a differentiated asteroid [1]. The consensus view is that these rocks hail from the asteroid 4 Vesta, which will be the first target of NASA's Dawn mission. When Dawn arrives at Vesta, she will begin remote imagery and spectroscopy of the surface. The surface she will observe will be dominated by rocks and soils mixed through impact gardening. To help with the interpretation of the remotely sensed data, we have begun a project on the petrologic and compositional study of a suite of HED polymict breccias. Here we report on the preliminary findings of this project.

  11. Concentrations of radioactive elements in lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    As an aid to interpreting data obtained remotely on the distribution of radioactive elements on the lunar surface, average concentrations of K, U, and Th as well as Al, Fe, and Ti in different types of lunar rocks and soils are tabulated. The U/Th ratio in representative samples of lunar rocks and regolith is constant at 0.27; K/Th ratios are more variable because K and Th are carried by different mineral phases. In nonmare regoliths at the Apollo sites, the main carriers of radioactive elements are mafic (i.e., 6-8 percent Fe) impact-melt breccias created at the time of basin formation and products derived therefrom.

  12. Melt inclusions in alluvial sapphires from Montana, USA: Formation of sapphires as a restitic component of lower crustal melting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palke, Aaron C.; Renfro, Nathan D.; Berg, Richard B.

    2017-05-01

    We report here compositions of glassy melt inclusions hosted in sapphires (gem quality corundum) from three alluvial deposits in Montana, USA including the Rock Creek, Dry Cottonwood Creek, and Missouri River deposits. While it is likely that sapphires in these deposits were transported to the surface by Eocene age volcanic events, their ultimate origin is still controversial with many models suggesting the sapphires are xenocrysts with a metamorphic or metasomatic genesis. Melt inclusions are trachytic, dacitic, and rhyolitic in composition. Microscopic observations allow separation between primary and secondary melt inclusions. The primary melt inclusions represent the silicate liquid that was present at the time of sapphire formation and are enriched in volatile components (8-14 wt.%). Secondary melt inclusions analyzed here for Dry Cottonwood Creek and Rock Creek sapphires are relatively volatile depleted and represent the magma that carried the sapphires to the surface. We propose that alluvial Montana sapphires from these deposits formed through a peritectic melting reaction during partial melting of a hydrated plagioclase-rich protolith (e.g. an anorthosite). The heat needed to drive this reaction was likely derived from the intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magmas near the base of the continental lithosphere during rollback of the Farallon slab around 50 Ma. These mafic magmas may have ended up as the ultimate carrier of the sapphires to the surface as evidenced by the French Bar trachybasalt near the Missouri River deposit. Alternatively, the trachytic, rhyolitic, and dacitic secondary melt inclusions at Rock Creek and Dry Cottonwood Creek suggests that the same magmas produced during the partial melting event that generated the sapphires may have also transported them to the surface. Determining the genesis of these deposits will further our understanding of sapphire deposits around the world and may help guide future sapphire prospecting techniques. This

  13. Whole rock major element chemistry of KREEP basalt clasts in lunar breccia 15205: Implications for the petrogenesis of volcanic KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    KREEP basalts are a major component of soils and regolith at the Apollo 15 site. Their origin is controversial: both endogenous (volcanic) and exogenous (impact melt) processes have been proposed, but it is now generally agreed that KREEP basalts are volcanic rocks derived from the nearby Apennine Bench formation. Because most pristine KREEP basalts are found only as small clasts in polymict lunar breccias, reliable chemical data are scarce. The primary aim of this study is to characterize the range in chemical composition of pristine KREEP basalt, and to use these data to decipher the petrogenesis of these unique volcanic rocks.

  14. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  15. Evolution of crystalline target rocks and impactites in the chesapeake bay impact structure, ICDP-USGS eyreville B core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Kunk, Michael J.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Jackson, John C.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The 1766-m-deep Eyreville B core from the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure includes, in ascending order, a lower basement-derived section of schist and pegmatitic granite with impact breccia dikes, polymict impact breccias, and cataclas tic gneiss blocks overlain by suevites and clast-rich impact melt rocks, sand with an amphibolite block and lithic boulders, and a 275-m-thick granite slab overlain by crater-fill sediments and postimpact strata. Graphite-rich cataclasite marks a detachment fault atop the lower basement-derived section. Overlying impactites consist mainly of basement-derived clasts and impact melt particles, and coastal-plain sediment clasts are underrepresented. Shocked quartz is common, and coesite and reidite are confirmed by Raman spectra. Silicate glasses have textures indicating immiscible melts at quench, and they are partly altered to smectite. Chrome spinel, baddeleyite, and corundum in silicate glass indicate high-temperature crystallization under silica undersaturation. Clast-rich impact melt rocks contain α-cristobalite and monoclinic tridymite. The impactites record an upward transition from slumped ground surge to melt-rich fallback from the ejecta plume. Basement-derived rocks include amphibolite-facies schists, greenschist(?)-facies quartz-feldspar gneiss blocks and subgreenschist-facies shale and siltstone clasts in polymict impact breccias, the amphibolite block, and the granite slab. The granite slab, underlying sand, and amphibolite block represent rock avalanches from inward collapse of unshocked bedrock around the transient crater rim. Gneissic and massive granites in the slab yield U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon dates of 615 ± 7 Ma and 254 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Postimpact heating was <~350 °C in the lower basement-derived section based on undisturbed 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of muscovite and <~150 °C in sand above the suevite based on 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of detrital microcline.

  16. Impact Melt Emplacement on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, J. W.; Neish, C. D.

    2018-05-01

    This work proposes that fresh craters on rocky bodies may deposit impact melt externally ultimately according to the strength of its surface gravity, regardless of the body's surface topography and melt abundance.

  17. Multiple (immiscible) melt phases of mafic composition in Chicxulub impact ejecta from northeastern Mexico: New constraints on target lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Kontny, A.; Stüben, D.; Kramar, U.; Harting, M.

    2002-12-01

    in Fe and Mg (up to one wt%) and are characterized by dark red-brown luminescence, in contrast to the carbonaceous matrix, which shows bright luminescence colors. Within all phases, but mainly in (1), various inclusions have been observed: (a) Globules enriched in Fe and Mg, (b) schlieren, rich in Ti, K, Fe, (c) garland-shaped Ti-rich lamellae, (d) dendritic and skeletal crystals of Ti-Fe oxides, (e) hematite crystals with a Ni-content up to 0.4 wt%, as well as goethite and rutile crystals, (f) rare μm-sized Co-, Ni-, Fe-rich metallic or sulfidic particles. These compositional phases are present in all studied outcrops, but their individual amount varies with prevailing Fe-rich phases at Rancho Nuevo and La Sierrita and Fe-, K-rich and silicic phases at El Peñon and El Mimbral. These characteristics imply an origin of the ejecta from mafic lithologies and carbonaceous sediments, in addition to contribution from felsic rocks. The occurrence of different compositional phases in single ejecta layers and even within individual ejecta particles suggests strong fractionation effects and/or negligible mixing of different melt phases. The presence of metallic Fe, Ni and Co may indicate that additional contamination by meteoritic material occurred.

  18. Microstructural and Compositional Relations of Granitoid Clasts in Lunar Breccias at the Micrometer to Sub-Micrometer Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. I.; Mills, R. D.; Ross, D. K.; Tappa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar granitoid lithologies have long been of interest for the information they provide on processes leading to silicic melt compositions on the Moon. The extraction of such melts over time affects the distribution and budget of incompatible materials (i.e., radiogenic heat producing elements and volatiles) of the lunar interior. We have recently shown that in addition to their high concentrations of incompatible lithophile elements, some granitoid clasts in lunar breccias have significant indigenous water contents in their alkali feldspars. This raises the importance of lunar granitoid materials in the expanding search for mineralogic/petrologic hosts of indigenous lunar water-related species. We are undertaking a detailed survey of the petrologic/mineralogical relations of granitoid clasts in lunar breccias to achieve a better understanding of the potential of these diverse assemblages as hosts for volatiles, and as candidates for additional isotope chronology studies. Our preliminary results reported here based on high-resolution field-emission SEM, EPMA and TEM studies uncover immense complexity in these materials at the micrometer to sub-micrometer scale that heretofore have not been fully documented.

  19. Partial melting of metagreywackes, Part II. Compositions of minerals and melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, Jean-Marc; Vielzeuf, Daniel

    C at 800MPa. The position of the isotects is interpreted in terms of both the solubility of water in the melt and the nature of the reactions involved in the melting process. A comparison with other partial melting experiments suggests that pelites are the most fertile source rocks above 800MPa. The difference in fertility between pelites and greywackes decreases with decreasing pressure. A review of the glass compositions obtained in experimental studies demonstrates that partial melting of fertile rock types in the crust (greywackes, pelites, or orthogneisses) produces only peraluminous leucogranites. More mafic granitic compositions such as the various types of calk-alkaline rocks, or mafic S-type rocks, have never been obtained during partial melting experiments. Thus, only peraluminous leucogranites may correspond to liquids directly formed by partial melting of metasediments. Other types of granites involve other components or processes, such as restite unmixing from the source region, and/or interaction with mafic mantle-derived materials.

  20. Mineralogy and petrology of the Abee enstatite chondrite breccia and its dark inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for the petrogenesis of the Abee E4 enstatite chondrite breccia, which consists of clasts, dark inclusions and matrix, and whose dark inclusions are an unusual kind of enstatite chondritic material. When the maximum metamorphic temperature of the breccia parent material was greater than 840 C, euhedral enstatite crystals in metallic Fe, Ni, and sulfide-rich areas grew into pliable metal and sulfide. Breccia parent material was impact-excavated, admixed with dark inclusions, and rapidly cooled. During this cooling, the clast and matrix material acquired thermal remanent magnetization. A subsequent ambient magnetic field imparted a uniform net magnetic orientation to the matrix and caused the magnetic orientation of the clasts to be less random. The Abee breccia was later consolidated by shock or by shallow burial and long period, low temperature metamorphism.

  1. Impact Melting of Ordinary Chondrite Regoliths and the Production of Fine-grained Fe(sup 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The detailed study of individual lunar soil grains provides evidence that the major optical properties of the lunar surface are primarily related to the production of fine-grained (< 20 nm, super-paramagnetic) Fe-particles in agglutinitic impact melts and to iron-rich vapor deposits on the surfaces of individual grains. These Fe-rich materials are derived from oxidized species due to high post-shock temperatures in the presence of solar-wind derived H2; part of the Fe-rich grain surfaces may also be due to sputtering processes. Identical processes were recently suggested for the optical maturation of S-type asteroid surfaces, the parent objects of ordinary chondrites (OCs). OCs, however, do not contain impact-produced soil melts, and should thus also be devoid of impact-triggered vapor condensates. The seeming disparity can only be understood if all OCs resemble relatively immature impact debris, akin to numerous lunar highland breccias. It is possible to assess this scenario by evaluating experimentally whether impact velocities of 5- 6 km/s, typical for the present day asteroid belt, suffice to produce both impact melts and fine-grained metallic iron. We used 125-250 m powders of the L6 chondrite ALH85017. These powders were aliquots from fines that were produced by collisionally disrupting a single, large (461g) chunk of this meteorite during nine impacts and by subjecting the resulting rubble to an additional 50 impacts. As a consequence, the present shock-recovery experiments employ target materials of exceptional fidelity (i.e., a real chondrite that was impact pulverized). The target powders were packed into tungsten-alloy containers to allow for the potential investigation of freshly produced, fine-grained iron and impacted by stainless-steel and tungsten flyer plates; the packing density varied between 38 and 45% porosity. Peak pressures ranged from 14.5 to 67 GPa and were attained after multiple reverberations of the shock wave at the interface of the

  2. Petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Weibiao; Zhang, Aicheng; Bartoschewitz, Rainer; Guan, Yunbin; Ushikubo, Takayuki; KrńHenbÜHl, Urs; Niedergesaess, Rainer; Pepelnik, Rudolf; Reus, Ulrich; Kurtz, Thomas; Kurtz, Paul

    2008-08-01

    We report here the petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 300 (SaU 300). SaU 300 is dominated by a fine-grained crystalline matrix surrounding mineral fragments (plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite) and lithic clasts (mainly feldspathic to noritic). Mare basalt and KREEPy rocks are absent. Glass melt veins and impact melts are present, indicating that the rock has been subjected to a second impact event. FeNi metal and troilite grains were observed in the matrix. Major element concentrations of SaU 300 (Al2O3 21.6 wt% and FeO 8.16 wt%) are very similar to those of two basalt-bearing feldspathic regolith breccias: Calcalong Creek and Yamato (Y-) 983885. However, the rare earth element (REE) abundances and pattern of SaU 300 resemble the patterns of feldspathic highlands meteorites (e.g., Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93069 and Dar al Gani (DaG) 400), and the average lunar highlands crust. It has a relatively LREE-enriched (7 to 10 x CI) pattern with a positive Eu anomaly (˜11 x CI). Values of Fe/Mn ratios of olivine, pyroxene, and the bulk sample are essentially consistent with a lunar origin. SaU 300 also contains high siderophile abundances with a chondritic Ni/Ir ratio. SaU 300 has experienced moderate terrestrial weathering as its bulk Sr concentration is elevated compared to other lunar meteorites and Apollo and Luna samples. Mineral chemistry and trace element abundances of SaU 300 fall within the ranges of lunar feldspathic meteorites and FAN rocks. SaU 300 is a feldspathic impact-melt breccia predominantly composed of feldspathic highlands rocks with a small amount of mafic component. With a bulk Mg# of 0.67, it is the most mafic of the feldspathic meteorites and represents a lunar surface composition distinct from any other known lunar meteorites. On the basis of its low Th concentration (0.46 ppm) and its lack of KREEPy and mare basaltic components, the source region of SaU 300 could have been within a highland

  3. Lonar Lake, India: An impact Crater in basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredriksson, K.; Dube, A.; Milton, D.J.; Balasundaram, M.S.

    1973-01-01

    Discovery of shock-metamorphosed material establishes the impact origin of Lonar Crater. Coarse breccia with shatter coning and microbreccia with moderately shocked fragments containing maskelynite were found in drill holes through the crater floor. Trenches on the rim yield strongly shocked fragments in which plagioclase has melted and vesiculated, and bombs and spherules of homogeneous rock melt. As the only known terrestrial impact crater in basalt, Lonar Crater provides unique opportunities for comparison with lunar craters. In particular, microbreccias and glass spherules from Lonar Crater have close analogs among the Apollo specimens.

  4. Consortium study of the unusual H chondrite regolith breccia, Noblesville

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Vogt, Stephan; Michlovich, Edward; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Satterwhite, Cecilia; Schultz, Ludolf; Loeken, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The Noblesville meteorite is a genomict, regolith breccia (H6 clasts in H4 matrix). Moessbauer analysis confirms that Noblesville is unusually fresh, not surprising in view of its recovery immediately after its fall. It resembles 'normal' H4-6 chondrites in its chemical composition and induced thermoluminescence (TL) levels. Thus, at least in its contents of volatile trace elements, Noblesville differs from other H chondrite, class A regolith breccias. Noblesville's small pre-atmospheric mass and fall near solar maximum and/or its peculiar orbit (with perihelion less than 0.8 AU as shown by natural TL intensity) may partly explain its levels of cosmogenic radionuclides. Its cosmic ray exposure age of about 44 Ma is long, is equalled or exceeded by less than 3 percent of all H chondrites, and also differs from the 33 +/- 3 Ma mean exposure age peak of other H chondrite regolith breccias. While Noblesville is now among the chondritic regolithic breccias richest in solar gases, elemental ratios indicate some loss, especially of He, perhaps by impacts in the regolith that heated individual grains. While general shock-loading levels in Noblesville did not exceed 4 GPa, individual clasts record shock levels of 5-10 GPa, doubtless acquired prior to lithification of the whole-rock meteoroid.

  5. Large-Scale Impact Cratering and Early Earth Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Cintala, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The surface of the Moon attests to the importance of large-scale impact in its early crustal evolution. Previous models of the effects of a massive bombardment on terrestrial crustal evolution have relied on analogies with the Moon, with allowances for the presence of water and a thinner lithosphere. It is now apparent that strict lunar-terrestrial analogies are incorrect because of the "differential scaling" of crater dimensions and melt volumes with event size and planetary gravity. Impact melt volumes and "ancient cavity dimensions for specific impacts were modeled according to previous procedures. In the terrestrial case, the melt volume (V(sub m)) exceeds that of the transient cavity (V(sub tc)) at diameters > or = 400 km. This condition is reached on the Moon only with transient cavity diameters > or = 3000 km, equivalent to whole Moon melting. The melt volumes in these large impact events are minimum estimates, since, at these sizes, the higher temperature of the target rocks at depth will increase melt production. Using the modification-scaling relation of Croft, a transient cavity diameter of about 400 km in the terrestrial environment corresponds to an expected final impact "basin" diameter of about 900 km. Such a "basin" would be comparable in dimensions to the lunar basin Orientale. This 900-km "basin" on the early Earth, however, would not have had the appearance of Orientale. It would have been essentially a melt pool, and, morphologically, would have had more in common with the palimpsests structures on Callisto and Ganymede. With the terrestrial equivalents to the large multiring basins of the Moon being manifested as muted palimpsest-like structures filled with impact melt, it is unlikely they played a role in establishing the freeboard on the early Earth. The composition of the massive impact melt sheets (> 10 (exp 7) cu km) produced in "basin-forming" events on the early Earth would have most likely ranged from basaltic to more mafic for the

  6. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  7. Mafic enclaves in Caucasian granitoids: generation of mantle-looking lamprophyre nodules by reaction with (meta)-sedimentary carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranovich, Leonid; Dubinina, Elena; Nosova, Anna; Avdeenko, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of mafic enclaves in granitic plutons is a very common feature, particularly in the late- to post-collision granites. Origin of the enclaves is conventionally ascribed to the magma mingling processes, with the mafic component being derived from an "enriched" mantle source. Here we report geochemical and petrological data on the late-Miocene granitoid stocks and laccolites of the Caucasian Spring Waters region (CSW), which indicate principal involvement of contamination by (meta)-sedimentary carbonates in the origin of mafic nodules. The stocks and laccolites are composed of amphibole-bearing (Amph) granite, granosyenite, syenite and leucogranite varieties. Mafic nodules are rather abundant in granosyenite and syenite, and almost entirely absent in Amph- and leucogranite. All granitoids except for the leucogranites, which are believed to represent late differentiates of the Amph-granites not contaminated by the carbonates, are enriched in Ba and Sr (1227-1766 and 899-1143 ppm, correspondingly). 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the granitoids, recalculated to the intrusion age (8.3 Myr), falls in a narrow range from 0.7083-0.7086, while epsilon Nd(T) varies from -4.2 to -2.1. The epsilon Nd(T) values point to the crustal precursor for the granitoid melts, while the nearly constant 87Sr/86Sr ratio indicates derivation of all granitoid bodies from the same magma reservoir. Mafic nodules in granosyenite and syenite consist of fluorine-rich phlogopite (Phl, up to 5 wt.% F) + clinopyroxene (Cpx) + subordinate plagioclase (Pl, An14-16) + minor carbonate (Carb, 0.2-0.4 wt.% SrO) and apatite. Rare, up to 100 micron sized Sr-rich (up to 2 wt.% SrO) barite (Brt) grains have been identified in the nodules. Stable isotope composition of both Carb (delta 18O = +18.8 per mille, delta 13C = -13.4 per mille) and Brt (delta 34S = +13.5 per mille) indicate (meta)-sedimentary origin of the carbonate precursor rock. Jurassic dolomite-rich evaporates with the required Sr- and S

  8. Petrography and preliminary interpretations of the crystalline breccias from the Manson M-1 core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Reagan, M. K.; Anderson, R. R.; Foster, C. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The M-1 core was drilled on the eastern edge of the central uplift within the Manson Impact Structure in Iowa. The lower 107.9 m of the core consists of crystalline breccias. Twelve intervals of thin sections from this core have been studied for preliminary discussion. The breccias are divided into three units by matrix size and abundance. Unit 1 is characterized by a high volume fraction of matrix, and a decreasing proportion of matrix with depth. This matrix is nearly isotropic and consists of grains less than 0.005 to less than 0.02 mm in length. The matrix between 112 and 146 meters depth consists of a crystalline intergrowth of felsic and opaque minerals with or without chlorite. This was the hottest section of the core after impact, and may have undergone high temperature metamorphic recrystallization. Unit 2 is transitional between units 1 and 3, and is delineated by a rapid increase in grain size to .01-.04 mm and a decrease in matrix abundance to 10 percent. Unit 3 has a coarse, often porous matrix, whose abundance changes from about 10 percent at the top to about 2 percent at the base. Grain sizes range from 0.01-0.1 mm over this interval and coarsen with depth. Changes in the character of the matrix as well as the changes in clast lithology and abundance outlined below suggest that unit 3 is in-situ brecciated basement with injected melt and shale fragments; unit 1 is a crater veneer deposit consisting of transported basement materials and unit 2 is a mixed zone between units 1 and 3.

  9. Possible impact-induced refractory-lithophile fractionations in EL chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz; Wasson, John T.

    2009-03-01

    Literature data show that refractory-lithophile elements in most chondrite groups are unfractionated relative to CI chondrites; the principal exception is the EL-chondrite group whose observed falls (all of which are type 6) are depleted in Ca and light REE. In contrast, literature data and our new INAA data on EL3 PCA 91020, EL3 MAC 88136 and EL4 Grein 002 show that some replicates of these samples have nearly flat REE patterns (unlike those of EL6 chondrites); other replicates exhibit fractionated REE patterns similar to those of EL6 chondrites. Petrographic examination shows that many EL6 (and some EL3 and EL4) chondrites are impact-melt breccias or contain impact-melted portions. We suggest that the same impact processes that formed these breccias and produced melt are responsible for the observed bulk compositional fractionations in refractory-lithophile elements, i.e., EL6 chondrites were produced from initially unequilibrated EL3 material. When large amounts of impact heat were deposited, plagioclase and/or oldhamite (CaS) (the major REE carriers in enstatite chondrites) may have been melted and then transported appreciable (>10 cm) distances. EL6 chondrites represent the residuum that is depleted in REE (particularly in LREE) and Ca. Unlike the case for EL chondrites, our new INAA data on ALH 84170, EET 87746 and SAH 97096 (all EH3) show some scatter but are consistent with the EH group having uniform refractory-lithophile abundances.

  10. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  11. Lithologic distribution and geologic history of the Apollo 17 site: The record in soils and small rock particles from the highland massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of <1 mm fines, and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% incompatible-trace-element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm-4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass-weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their compositions

  12. Asteroid 4 Vesta: A Fully Differentiated Dwarf Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David

    2014-01-01

    One conclusion derived from the study of meteorites is that some of them - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where metallic cores and basaltic crusts were formed. Telescopic observations show that there remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta; present day mean radius 263 km. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are cumulate gabbros, diabases and basalts from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias of diogenites and eucrites. A strong case can be made that HEDs are derived from Vesta. The NASA Dawn spacecraft orbited Vesta for 14 months returning data allowing geological, mineralogical, compositional and geophysical interpretations of Vesta's surface and structure. Combined with geochemical and petrological observations of HED meteorites, differentiation models for Vesta can be developed. Proto-Vesta probably consisted of primitive chondritic materials. Compositional evidence, primarily from basaltic eucrites, indicates that Vesta was melted to high degree (>=50%) which facilitated homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of immiscible Fe,Ni metal plus Fe sulphide into a core. Geophysical models based on Dawn data support a core of 110 km radius. The silicate melt vigorously convected and initially followed a path of equilibrium crystallization forming a harzburgitic mantle, possibly overlying a dunitic restite. Once the fraction of crystals was sufficient to cause convective lockup, the remaining melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer. This melt undergoes fractional crystallization to form a dominantly orthopyroxenite (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of primitive chondritic material is gradually replaced by a

  13. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Isotope systematics support the impact origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, A.; Buhl, D.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Flucks, M.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the Sudbury project a considerable number of Sr-Nd isotope analyses were carried out on petrographically well-defined samples of different breccia units. Together with isotope data from the literature these data are reviewed under the aspect of a self-consistent impact model. The crucial point of this model is that the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) is interpreted as a differentiated impact melt sheet without any need for an endogenic 'magmatic' component such as 'impact-triggered' magmatism or 'partial' impact melting of the crust and mixing with a mantle-derived magma.

  14. A Thermodynamic Approach for Modeling H2O-CO2 Solubility in Alkali-rich Mafic Magmas at Mid-crustal Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, C. M.; Roggensack, K.; Clarke, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile solubility in magmas is dependent on several factors, including composition and pressure. Mafic (basaltic) magmas with high concentrations of alkali elements (Na and K) are capable of dissolving larger quantities of H2O and CO2 than low-alkali basalt. The exsolution of abundant gases dissolved in alkali-rich mafic magmas can contribute to large explosive eruptions. Existing volatile solubility models for alkali-rich mafic magmas are well calibrated below 200 MPa, but at greater pressures the experimental data is sparse. To allow for accurate interpretation of mafic magmatic systems at higher pressures, we conducted a set of mixed H2O-CO2 volatile solubility experiments between 400 and 600 MPa at 1200 °C in six mafic compositions with variable alkali contents. Compositions include magmas from volcanoes in Italy, Antarctica, and Arizona. Results from our experiments indicate that existing volatile solubility models for alkali-rich mafic magmas, if extrapolated beyond their calibrated range, over-predict CO2 solubility at mid-crustal pressures. Physically, these results suggest that volatile exsolution can occur at deeper levels than what can be resolved from the lower-pressure experimental data. Existing thermodynamic models used to calculate volatile solubility at different pressures require two experimentally derived parameters. These parameters represent the partial molar volume of the condensed volatile species in the melt and its equilibrium constant, both calculated at a standard temperature and pressure. We derived these parameters for each studied composition and the corresponding thermodynamic model shows good agreement with the CO2 solubility data of the experiments. A general alkali basalt solubility model was also constructed by establishing a relationship between magma composition and the thermodynamic parameters. We utilize cation fractions from our six compositions along with four compositions from the experimental literature in a linear

  15. Mineralogy of the Mafic Anomaly in the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for excavation of the lunar mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Tompkins, S.; Head, J. W.; Hess, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Mineralogy of South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) (the largest confirmed impact basin on the Moon) is evaluated using five-color images from Clementine. Although olivine-rich material as well as basalts rich in clinopyroxene are readily identified elsewhere on the farside, the dominant rock type observed across the interior of SPA is of a very noritic composition. This mineralogy suggests that lower crust rather than the mantle is the dominant source of the mafic component at SPA. The lack of variation in observed noritic composition is probably due to basin formation processes, during which extensive melting and mixing of target materials are likely to occur.

  16. A scaling relationship for impact-induced melt volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Rubie, D. C.; Melosh, H., IV; Jacobson, S. A.; Golabek, G.; Nimmo, F.; Morbidelli, A.

    2016-12-01

    During the late stages of planetary accretion, protoplanets experience a number of giant impacts and extensive mantle melting. The impactor's core sinks through the molten part of the target mantle (magma ocean) and experiences metal-silicate partitioning (e.g., Stevenson, 1990). For understanding the chemical evolution of the planetary mantle and core, we need to determine the impact-induced melt volume because the partitioning strongly depends on the ranges of the pressures and temperatures within the magma ocean. Previous studies have investigated the effects of small impacts (i.e. impact cratering) on melt volume, but those for giant impacts are not well understood yet. Here, we perform giant impact simulations to derive a scaling law for melt volume as a function of impact velocity, impact angle, and impactor-to-target mass ratio. We use two different numerical codes, namely smoothed particle hydrodynamics we developed (SPH, a particle method) and the code iSALE (a grid-based method) to compare their outcomes. Our simulations show that these two codes generally agree as long as the same equation of state is used. We also find that some of the previous studies developed for small impacts (e.g., Abramov et al., 2012) overestimate giant impact melt volume by orders of magnitudes partly because these models do not consider self-gravity of the impacting bodies. Therefore, these models may not be extrapolated to large impacts. Our simulations also show that melt volume can be scaled by the total mass of the system. In this presentation, we further discuss geochemical implications for giant impacts on planets, including Earth and Mars.

  17. The genesis of Mo-Cu deposits and mafic igneous rocks in the Senj area, Alborz magmatic belt, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Li, Xian-Hua; Wan, Bo; Honarmand, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    The geochemical and isotopic investigations were provided on the Upper Eocene Senj mafic intrusion and Mo-Cu mineralization to better understand the tectono-magmatic evolution and metallogeny of the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt. The Senj mafic intrusion is composed of gabbro to monzodiorite and monzonite in lithology, and intruded as a sill into volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Eocene Karaj Formation. The Karaj Formation consists of volcano-sedimentary rocks, such as altered crystalline to shaly tuffs. The Senj intrusion (39.7 ± 0.4 Ma) shows LILE and LREE enrichment and negative anomaly of Nb, Ta and Ti, the geochemical signatures similar to those from subduction-related mafic magmas. The Hf-O zircon analyses yield ɛHf(t) values of + 4.1 to + 11.1 and δ18O values of + 4.8 to + 6.2‰. The zircon isotopic signatures together with shoshonitic affinity in the Senj mafic samples suggest partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle that had already been metasomatized by slab-derived melts and fluids. The Mo-Cu mineralization mainly occurs as veins and veinlets in the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Karaj Formation and is dominated by molybdenite with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite. The associated gangue minerals are tremolite, actinolite, quartz, calcite, chlorite and epidote. The Senj Mo-Cu deposit formed in volcano-sedimentary rocks following the emplacement of the Late Eocene Senj sill. The source of molybdenite in the Senj deposit is dominantly from crustal materials as it is revealed by Re contents in the molybdenite minerals (0.5 to 0.7 ppm). In fact, the molybdenite occurrence may be a remobilization process related to the emplacement of the Senj mafic magma.

  18. Vestiges of the proto-Caribbean seaway: Origin of the San Souci Volcanic Group, Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Urbani, Franco; Hastie, Alan R.; Pindell, James L.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Millar, Ian L.

    2014-06-01

    Outcrops of volcanic-hypabyssal rocks in Trinidad document the opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway during Jurassic-Cretaceous break-up of the Americas. The San Souci Group on the northern coast of Trinidad comprises the San Souci Volcanic Formation (SSVF) and passive margin sediments of the ~ 130-125 Ma Toco Formation. The Group was trapped at the leading edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during the Cretaceous-Palaeogene, colliding with the para-autochthonous margin of Trinidad during the Oligocene-Miocene. In-situ U-Pb ion probe dating of micro-zircons from a mafic volcanic breccia reveal the SSVF crystallised at 135.0 ± 7.3 Ma. The age of the SSVF is within error of the age of the Toco Formation. Assuming a conformable contact, geodynamic models indicate a likely origin for the SSVF on the passive margin close to the northern tip of South America. Immobile element and Nd-Hf radiogenic isotope signatures of the mafic rocks indicate the SSVF was formed by ≪10% partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source with no subduction or continental lithospheric mantle component. Felsic breccias within the SSVF are more enriched in incompatible elements, with isotope signatures that are less radiogenic than the mafic rocks of the SSVF. The felsic rocks may be derived from re-melting of mafic crust. Although geochemical comparisons are drawn here with proto-Caribbean igneous outcrops in Venezuela and elsewhere in the Caribbean more work is needed to elucidate the development of the proto-Caribbean seaway and its rifted margins. In particular, ion probe dating of micro-zircons may yield valuable insights into magmatism and metamorphism in the Caribbean, and in altered basaltic terranes more generally.

  19. Feldspathic Clasts in Yamato 86032: Remnants of the Lunar Crust with Implications for its Formation and Impact History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Bogard, D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ebihara, M.; Reese, Y.; Garrison, D.; Takeda, H.

    2006-01-01

    Yamato (Y)-86032 is a relatively large, feldspathic lunar highlands meteorite composed of a variety of highland lithologies. Low bulk contents of Th and Fe indicated that it came from a region of the moon far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT) and the Apollo landing sites, perhaps from the farside. A large (5.2 x 3.6 cm) slab was cut from Y-86032 . We report results from coordinated textural, mineralogical-petrological, chemical, and isotopic studies of lithologies identified in the slab, emphasizing the results of Ar-39/Ar-40, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd chronological studies as well as Sm-isotopic studies. These studies characterize the history of Y-86032 and its precursors in the farside mega-regolith, leading to inferences about the formation and evolution of the lunar crust. Textural studies establish that the Y-86032 breccia is composed of a variety of highland components including feldspathic breccias, and other components, such as possible VLT mare basalts. Impact melt veins smoothly abut the other lithologies. Thus, Y-86032 experienced at least two impact events. These impacts occurred on a predominantly feldspathic protolith, which formed 4.43+/-0.03 Ga ago as determined from a Sm-Nd isochron for mineral clasts separated from the two dominant lithologies. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 in the protolith at that time was -0.64+/-0.13 epsilon-units below Nd-143/Nd-144 in reservoirs having chondritic Sm/Nd ratios, consistent with prior fractionation of mafic cumulates from the LMO. Although the mineral chemistry of these clasts differs in detail from that of minerals in Apollo 16 Ferroan Anorthosites (FANs), the Rb-Sr studies establish that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 in them was the same as in the FANs.

  20. Large impacts in the Baltic shield with special attention to the Uppland structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkel, H.; Lilljequist, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Baltic Shield several very large structures have been identified and are suspected to be of meteorite impact origin. Some of these deeply eroded circular features are presented with special attention to the Uppland structure, where several indications point toward an impact origin in the mid-Proterozoic. The structures exceed 100 km in diameter and the topographic expression is inferior or absent. An arcuate arrangement of lithologies occurs around the margin of the structures and the central regions show conform magnetic and positive gravity anomalies. The Uppland structure is approximately 320 km in diameter as expressed by morphological, geological, and geophysical concentric patterns. The central part is topographically remarkably flat and is characterized by an unusual irregular fracture pattern. A subcircular central tonalite with density of 2.81 Mg(sup -3) gives a positive gravity anomaly of 35 mgal and the gravimetric profile is very similar to that of Manicouagan and Vredefort. The tonalite constitutes a huge antiform, 80 km in diameter, probably representing a 12-km structural uplift of infracrustal rocks. The flancs of the tonalite are characterized by recrystallized pseudotachylitic breccia dykes and breccia zones. Around the central parts amphibolite-grade metamorphic rocks appear as large fragments within a fine-grained granite interpreted as a thermally annealed melt rock. Several occurrences of breccia dykes and breccia-bearing melts have been identified about 100 km from the gravimetric center of the structure. Impact-related ore deposits are located around the margin of the structure and are interpreted as preexisting downfaulted iron formations, and deposits formed from remobilization of these preimpact occurrences. The so-called ball ores are interpreted to have formed by fluid injection similar to the formation of breccia dykes. The extensive hydrothermal alteration along the outer margin of the structure have created extreme soda

  1. Apollo 17 materials viewed from 2 to 4 mm soil particles: Pre-serenitatis highlands components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

    1993-01-01

    Among the highland lithologies of 2-4 mm rock fragments in North Massif soil 76503, we have found a compositional group, low in incompatible element concentrations, that we interpret as representing the pre-Serenitatis surface. A component of these materials is an igneous-textured lithology that we believe formed in large impact melts. These are compositionally similar to, and possibly precursors of, many of the granulitic breccias that appear to be mixtures of ferroan and magnesian-suite rocks. The polymict, or old, upper-crustal breccias, along with granulitic breccias and the endogenous igneous lithologies found particularly at the North Massif stations, constitute the poorly consolidated portions of North Massif. Highland samples from the South Massif, on the other hand, are enriched in materials of the competent, impact-melt breccias formed by the Serenitatis impact. The competent melt-breccias contain clasts of most of the pre-existing surface materials, but they also contain components not found in the rocks of the poorly consolidated massif materials.

  2. Dating Howardite Melt Clasts: Evidence for an Extended Vestan Bombardment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Hodges, K. V.; Wadhwa, M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Howardites are polymict breccias that, together with eucrites and diogenites (HED), likely originate from the vestan surface (regolith/ megaregolith), and display a heterogeneous distribution of eucritic and diogenitic material. Melt clasts are also present alongside other regolithic features within howardites, and are noteworthy for their compositional variability and appearance. Melt clasts formed by impact events provide a snapshot of the timings and conditions of surface gardening and bombardment on the vestan surface. By dating such clasts, we aim to better constrain the timings of impact events on Vesta, and to establish whether the impact flux in the asteroid belt was similar to that on the Moon. As the Moon is used as the basis for characterising impact models of the inner solar system, it is necessary to verify that apparent wide-scale events are seen in other planetary bodies. In particular, the observed clustering of Apollo melt clast ages between 3.8-4.0 Ga has led to two hypotheses: 1) The Moon was subjected to a sudden event - 'Lunar Cataclysm' or period of 'Late Heavy Bombardment' (LHB), 2) The age cluster represents the end of an epoch of declining bombardment or 'Heavy Bombardment. No consensus has emerged regarding one or other hypothesis. We are testing these hypotheses by seeking evidence for such events in materials other than those derived from the Moon.

  3. Yucatán subsurface stratigraphy: Implications and constraints for the Chicxulub impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, W. C.; Keller, G.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Adatte, T.

    1995-10-01

    Much of the discussion about the effects of an end-of-Cretaceous impact by a large extraterrestrial body in northwestern Yucatán has been done in the context of limited and partly erroneous published data on the Mesozoic stratigraphy of that area. Reexamination of cores and geophysical logs taken in several Pemex wells has produced improved lithologic and biostratigraphic correlation of the Jurassic to Maastrichtian section across the northern Yucatán peninsula. These data suggest that major disturbance of strata by an impact would have been confined to within about 100 km of the proposed impact center near Chicxulub. The only unusual lithologic unit is polymict breccia, which apparently was penetrated at or near the top of the Cretaceous section in all the deep wells of northern Yucatán. This breccia in Pemex wells Yucatán 1, 2, 4, 5A, and 6 is composed predominantly of detrital dolomite, limestone, and anhydrite clasts set in dolomitized carbonate mud matrix, which contains upper Maastrichtian foraminifers. These constituents, mixed with fragments of altered glass or melt rock, shocked quartz and feldspar, and basement rock, suggest an impact as the most likely origin for the breccia. The timing of brecciation is poorly constrained by biostratigraphic data. There is some evidence, however, that the breccia unit is overlain by about 18 m of uppermost Maastrichtian marls, suggesting an impact before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In addition, there may have been more than one episode of breccia deposition.

  4. New links between the Chicxulub impact structure and the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpton, V.L.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Marin, L.E.; Ryder, G.; Schuraytz, B.C.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    1992-01-01

    THE 200-km-diameter Chicxulub structure1-3 in northern Yucatan, Mexico has emerged as the prime candidate for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary impact crater3-6. Concentric geophysical anomalies associated with enigmatic occurrences of Upper Cretaceous breccias and andesitic rocks led Penfield and Camargo1 to suspect that this structure was a buried impact basin. More recently, the discovery of shocked quartz grains in a Chicxulub breccia3, and chemical similarities between Chicxulub rocks and K/T tektite-like glasses3-6 have been advanced as evidence that the Chicxulub structure is a K/T impact site. Here we present evidence from core samples that Chicxulub is indeed a K/T source crater, and can apparently account for all the evidence of impact distributed globally at the K/T boundary without the need for simultaneous multiple impacts or comet showers. Shocked breccia clasts found in the cores are similar to shocked lithic fragments found worldwide in the K/T boundary ejecta layer7,8. The Chicxulub melt rocks that we studied contain anomalously high levels of iridium (up to 13.5 parts per 109), also consistent with the indium-enriched K/T boundary layer9. Our best estimate of the crystallization age of these melt rocks, as determined by 40Ar/39Ar analyses, is 65.2??0.4 (1??) Myr, in good agreement with the mean plateau age of 64.98 ?? 0.05 Myr recently reported10. Furthermore, these melt rocks acquired a remanent magnetization indicating that they cooled during an episode of reversed geomagnetic polarity. The only such episode consistent with 40Ar/39Ar constraints is chron 29R, which includes the K/T boundary.

  5. Chemical characteristics and origin of H chondrite regolith breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Biswas, S.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Petrologic data and contents of Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Se, Te, Tl and Zn-trace elements spanning the volatility/mobility range-in light and dark portions of H chondrite regolith breccias and L chondrite fragmental breccias are reported. The chemical/petrologic characteristics of H chondrite regolith breccias differ from those of nonbrecciated chondrites or fragmental breccias. Petrologic characteristics and at least some trace element contents of H chondrite regolith breccias reflect primary processes; contents of the most volatile/mobile elements may reflect either primary or secondary processing, possibly within layered H chondrite parent object(s). Chemical/petrologic differences existed in different regions of the parent(s). Regoligh formation and gardening and meteoroid compaction were not so severe as to alter compositions markedly.

  6. Recrystallized Impact Glasses of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Weiser, T.; Brockmeyer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Sudbury Structure and of the associated heterolithic breccias of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex have been controversial. While an impact origin of the structure has gained wide acceptance over the last 15 years, the origin of the recrystallized Onaping Formation glasses and of the igneous complex is still being debated. Recently the interpretation of the breccias of the Onaping Formation as suevitic fall-back impact breccias has been challenged. The igneous complex is interpreted either as a differentiated impact melt sheet or as a combination of an upper impact melt represented by the granophyre, and a lower, impact-triggered magmatic body consisting of the norite-sublayer formations. The Onaping Formation contains glasses as fluidal and nonfluidal fragments of various shapes and sizes. They are recrystallized, and our research indicates that they are petrographically heterogeneous and span a wide range of chemical compositions. These characteristics are not known from glasses of volcanic deposits. This suggests an origin by shock vitrification, an interpretation consistent with their association with numerous and varied country rock clasts that exhibit microscopic shock metamorphic features. The recrystallized glass fragments represent individual solid-state and liquid-state vitrified rocks or relatively small melt pods. The basal member lies beneath the Gray and Black members of the Onaping Formation and, where not metamorphic, has an igneous matrix. Igneous-textured melt bodies occur in the upper two members and above the Basal Member. A comparison of the chemical compositions of recrystallized glasses and of the matrices of the Basal Member and the melt bodies with the components and the bulk composition of the igneous complex is inconclusive as to the origin of the igneous complex. Basal Member matrix and Melt Bodies, on average, are chemically similar to the granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, suggesting that

  7. Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic

  8. Descriptions and preliminary interpretations of cores recovered from the Manson Impact Structure (Iowa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Witzke, B. J.; Hartung, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Roddy, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A core drilling program initiated by the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey in 1991 and 1992 collected 12 cores totalling over 1200 m from the Manson Impact Structure, a probable K-T boundary structure located in north-central Iowa. Cores were recovered from each of the major structural terranes, with 2 cores (M-3 and M-4) from the Terrace Terrane, 4 cores (M-2, M-2A, M-6, and M-9) from the Crater Moat, and 6 cores (M-1, M-5, M-7, M-8, M-10, and M-11) from the Central Peak. These supplemented 2 central peak cores (1-A and 2-A) drilled in 1953. The cores penetrated five major impact lithologies: (1) sedimentary clast breccia; (2) impact ejecta; (3) central peak crystallite rocks; (4) crystalline clast breccia with sandy matrix; and (5) crystallite clast breccia with a melt matrix. Descriptions and preliminary interpretations of these cores are presented.

  9. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  10. Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Gavin G.; Petrus, Joseph A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Daly, J. Stephen; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. -9 to -12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt. Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust. We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

  11. Mafic and felsic igneous rocks at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; Cousin, Agnès; Mangold, Nicolas; Toplis, Michael; Fabre, Cécile; Forni, Olivier; Payré, Valérie; Gasnault, Olivier; Ollila, Anne; Rapin, William; Fisk, Martin; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Lasue, Jérémie; Newsom, Horton; Lanza, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of igneous rocks to the west of the Yellow Knife Bay sedimentary unit (from sol 13 to 800) which are float rocks or clasts in conglomerates. Textural and compositional analyses using MastCam and ChemCam Remote micro Imager (RMI) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with a ˜300-500 µm laser spot lead to the recognition of 53 massive (non layered) igneous targets, both intrusive and effusive, ranging from mafic rocks where feldspars form less than 50% of the rock to felsic samples where feldspar is the dominant mineral. From morphology, color, grain size, patina and chemistry, at least 5 different groups of rocks have been identified: (1) a basaltic class with shiny aspect, conchoidal frature, no visible grains (less than 0.2mm) in a dark matrix with a few mm sized light-toned crystals (21 targets) (2) a porphyritic trachyandesite class with light-toned, bladed and polygonal crystals 1-20 mm in length set in a dark gray mesostasis (11 targets); (3) light toned trachytes with no visible grains sometimes vesiculated or forming flat targets (6 targets); (4) microgabbro-norite (grain size < 1mm) and gabbro-norite (grain size >1 mm) showing dark and light toned crystals in similar proportion ( 8 targets); (5) light-toned diorite/granodiorite showing coarse granular (>4 mm) texture either pristine or blocky, strongly weathered rocks (9 rock targets). Overall, these rocks comprise 2 distinct geochemical series: (i) an alkali-suite: basanite, gabbro trachy-andesite and trachyte) including porphyritic and aphyric members; (ii) quartz-normative intrusives close to granodioritic composition. The former looks like felsic clasts recently described in two SNC meteorites (NWA 7034 and 7533), the first Noachian breccia sampling the martian regolith. It is geochemically consistent with differentiation of liquids produced by low

  12. Geophysical characterization of the Chicxulub impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G. L.; Barton, P. J.; Grieve, R. A.; Morgan, J. V.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, conclusively linked to the 65.5 Ma mass extinction, includes three sets of inward dipping, ring faults, between 70 and 130 km radially with a topographically elevated inner rim, at the inner edge of these faults except in the northeast where such a rim is absent. Slump blocks offset by large faults result in a terrace zone, that steps down from the inner rim into the annular trough. The inner blocks underlie the peak ring --an internal topographic ring of topography that exhibits variable relief due to target asymmetries and bounds the coherent melt sheet within the central basin. Impact breccias lie within the annular trough above the slump blocks and proximal ejecta and within the central basin above the melt sheet. Beneath the melt sheet is the top of the central uplift, displaced by >10 km vertically, and an upwarped Moho, displaced by 1-2 km. These interpretations and hydrocode models support the following working hypothesis for the formation of Chicxulub: a 50 km radius transient cavity, lined with melt and impact breccia, formed within 10s of seconds of the 65.5 Ma impact and within minutes, weakened rebounding crust rose above kilometers above the surface, the transient crater rim underwent localized, brittle deformation and collapsed into large slump blocks resulting in a inner rim being preserved 70-85 km from crater center, and ring faults forming farther outwards. The overheightened central uplift of weakened crust collapsed outwards forming the peak ring, and buried the inner slump blocks. Most impact melt that lined the transient cavity was transported on top of the central uplift, ultimately emplaced as a coherent <3-km thick melt sheet that shallows within the inner regions of the peak ring. Smaller pockets of melt flowed into the annular trough. During and likely for sometime after these events, slope collapse, proximal ejecta, ground surge, and tsunami waves infilled the annular trough with sediments up to 3 km

  13. Meteoritic and other constraints on the internal structure and impact history of small asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Wilson, Lionel

    2005-03-01

    Studies of the internal structure of asteroids, which are crucial for understanding their impact history and for hazard mitigation, appear to be in conflict for the S-type asteroids, Eros, Gaspra, and Ida. Spacecraft images and geophysical data show that they are fractured, coherent bodies, whereas models of catastrophic asteroidal impacts, family and satellite formation, and studies of asteroid spin rates, and other diverse properties of asteroids and planetary craters suggest that such asteroids are gravitationally bound aggregates of rubble. These conflicting views may be reconciled if 10-50 km S-type asteroids formed as rubble piles, but were later consolidated into coherent bodies. Many meteorites are breccias that testify to a long history of impact fragmentation and consolidation by alteration, metamorphism, igneous and impact processes. Ordinary chondrites, which are the best analogs for S asteroids, are commonly breccias. Some may have formed in cratering events, but many appear to have formed during disruption and reaccretion of their parent asteroids. Some breccias were lithified during metamorphism, and a few were lithified by injected impact melt, but most are regolith and fragmental breccias that were lithified by mild or moderate shock, like their lunar analogs. Shock experiments show that porous chondritic powders can be consolidated during mild shock by small amounts of silicate melt that glues grains together, and by friction and pressure welding of silicate and metallic Fe,Ni grains. We suggest that the same processes that converted impact debris into meteorite breccias also consolidated asteroidal rubble. Internal voids would be partly filled with regolith by impact-induced seismic shaking. Consolidation of this material beneath large craters would lithify asteroidal rubble to form a more coherent body. Fractures on Ida that were created by antipodal impacts and are concentrated in and near large craters, and small positive gravity anomalies

  14. New insight into lunar impact melt mobility from the LRO camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bray, Veronica J.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Hawke, B. Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Garry, William B.; Rizk, Bashar; Caudill, C.M.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is systematically imaging impact melt deposits in and around lunar craters at meter and sub-meter scales. These images reveal that lunar impact melts, although morphologically similar to terrestrial lava flows of similar size, exhibit distinctive features (e.g., erosional channels). Although generated in a single rapid event, the post-impact mobility and morphology of lunar impact melts is surprisingly complex. We present evidence for multi-stage influx of impact melt into flow lobes and crater floor ponds. Our volume and cooling time estimates for the post-emplacement melt movements noted in LROC images suggest that new flows can emerge from melt ponds an extended time period after the impact event.

  15. Magnesium and chromium isotope evidence for initial melting by radioactive decay of 26Al and late stage impact-melting of the ureilite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-07-01

    and later remelting of cumulates with corresponding feldspathic melts, at 3.8 ± 1.3 Myr after CAI formation. Assuming an initial 26Al/27Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0 = 1.33-0.18+0.21 × 10-5] similar to the angrite parent body, the early melting event is best explained by heat production from 26Al whereas the late event is more likely caused by a major impact. Variations in 54Cr between MG clasts and HT clasts agree with a carbonaceous chondrite impactor onto the ureilite parent body. This impactor may be represented by abundant dark clasts found in polymict ureilites, which have μ26Mg∗ and μ54 Cr signatures similar to CI chondrites. Similar volatile-rich dark clasts found in other meteorite breccias provide insights into the timing of volatile influx to the accretion region of the terrestrial planets.

  16. Petrogenesis of the ∼500 Ma Fushui mafic intrusion and Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Northern Qinling Belt, Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Pei, Xiaoli; Castillo, Paterno R.; Liu, Xijun; Ding, Haihong; Guo, Zhichao

    2017-06-01

    The Fushui mafic intrusion in the Qinling orogenic belt (QOB) is composed of meta-gabbro, meta-gabbro-diorite, diorite, and syenite. Most of these rocks are metamorphosed under the upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies metamorphism. Zircon separates from eight samples have LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 497-501 Ma which are taken to be the emplacement age of magmas that formed the Fushui intrusion. Most of the zircon grains exhibit negative εHf values, correspond to TDM2 model ages of late Paleoproterozoic-early Mesoproterozoic or Neoproterozoic and suggest that the mafic rocks were most probably derived from mafic melts produced by partial melting of a previously metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The intrusion is not extensively contaminated by crustal materials and most chemical compositions of rocks are not modified during the greenschist to amphibolite-facies metamorhism. Rocks from the intrusion have primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns with significant enrichment in light-REE and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE). On the basis of the trace element contents, the Fushui intrusion was derived from parental magmas generated by <10% partial melting of both phlogopite-lherzolite and garnet-lherzolite mantle sources. These sources are best interpreted to be in a subduction-related arc environment and have been modified by fluids released from a subducting slab. The formation of the Fushui intrusion was related to the subduction of the Paleotethyan Shangdan oceanic lithosphere at ∼500 Ma.

  17. Phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions along fissures on the top of mafic stratovolcanoes with overlapping compound calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Geshi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    external water producing debris jet dominated phreatomagmatic tephra and radially expanding pyroclastic density currents to deposit their load around the growing crater. This 3D architecture can only be explained if we infer that the original lower fissure-fed eruptions gradually allow melt to move toward the summit region where they hit ground water accumulated in an older caldera infill that hosted a succession of lava flows intercalated with lava foot and top breccias as well as abundant pyroclastic and reworked porous deposits capable to harvest water from rain and let them ponded along aquitard horizons in the caldera structure. We infer that such eruption mechanism is probably a common eruption style especially associated with volcanic islands with mafic stratovoclanoes that contain some summit caldera structures and located in humic and/or tropical climate.

  18. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and precise dating of middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) Alamo Breccia, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.; Malkowski, K.; Joachimski, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    At Hancock Summit West, Nevada, western USA, uppermost Givetian (upper Middle Devonian) and lower and middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) rocks of the lower Guilmette Formation include, in stratigraphic sequence, carbonate-platform facies of the conodont falsiovalis, transitans, and punctata Zones; the type Alamo Breccia Member of the middle punctata Zone; and slope facies of the punctata and hassi Zones. The catastrophically deposited Alamo Breccia and related phenomena record the ~ 382??Ma Alamo event, produced by a km-scale bolide impact into a marine setting seaward of an extensive carbonate platform fringing western North America. Re-evaluation of conodonts from the lower Guilmette Formation and Alamo Breccia Member, together with regional sedimentologic and conodont biofacies comparisons, now firmly locates the onset of the Johnson et al. (1985) transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycle IIc, which occurred after the start of the punctata Zone, within a parautochthonous megablock low in the Alamo Breccia. Whole-rock carbon isotope analyses through the lower Guilmette Formation and Alamo Breccia Member reveal two positive ??13Ccarb excursions: (1) a small, 3??? excursion, which is possibly correlative with the falsiovalis Event previously identified from sections in Western Europe and Australia, occurs below the breccia in the Upper falsiovalis Zone to early part of the transitans Zone; and (2) a large, multi-part excursion, dominated by a 6??? positive shift, begins above the start of the punctata Zone and onset of T-R cycle IIc and continues above the Alamo Breccia, ending near the punctata- hassi zonal boundary. This large excursion correlates with the punctata Event, a major positive ??13C excursion previously recognized in eastern Laurussia and northern Gondwana. Consistent with previous studies, at Hancock Summit West the punctata Event is apparently not associated with any regional extinctions or ecosystem reorganizations. In the study area, onset of the

  19. Magnetic Properties of Three Impact Structures in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. G.; Pilkington, M.; Tanczyk, E. I.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetic anomaly lows associated with the West Hawk Lake (Manitoba), Deep Bay (Saskatchewan) and Clearwater Lakes (Quebec) impact structures, are variable in lateral extent and intensity, a characteristic shared with most impact structures [1]. Drill core from the centres of these structures provides a unique opportunity to ground truth the causes of the reduction in magnetic field intensity in impact structures. Magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization levels have been found to be well below regional levels in melt rocks, impact breccias, fractured/shocked basement rocks in the central uplifts, and post-impact sediments. Deep Bay, formed in Pre-Cambrian paragneisses, is a complex crater with a submerged central uplift. It has been extensively infilled with non-magnetic black shales of Cretaceous age [2]. An airborne magnetic low of about 100 nT is associated with the Deep Bay structure. Below the shales and along the rim of the structure are highly brecciated country rocks with variable amounts of very fine rock flour. Susceptibility and remanent magnetization are both weak due to extensive alteration in the brecciated rocks. Alteration of the brecciated rocks, and the effect of several hundred meters of non-magnetic sedimentary infill, both contribute to the magnetic low. West Hawk Lake, a simple crater, was excavated in metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Superior Province [3], and has a ground magnetic low of about 250 nT. As with Deep Bay, West Hawk Lake has been infilled with dominantly non-magnetic sediments. Brecciation and alteration are extensive, with breccia derived from greenschist-facies meta-andesite displaying slightly higher susceptibilities and remanent magnetizations than breccia derived from the more felsic metasediments. Brecciation has effectively randomized magnetization vectors, and subsequent alteration resulted in the destruction of magnetic phases. These two factors contribute to the magnetic low over this structure

  20. Composition of Impact Melt Debris from the Eltanin Impact Strewn Field, Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the km-sized Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea produced mm- to cm-sized vesicular impact melt-rock particles found in sediment cores across a large area of the ocean floor. These particles are composed mainly of olivine and glass with minor chromite and traces of NiFe-sulfides. Some particles have inclusions of unmelted mineral and rock fragments from the precursor asteroid. Although all samples of melt rock examined have experienced significant alteration since their deposition in the late Pliocene, a significant portion of these particles have interiors that remain pristine and can be used to estimate the bulk composition of the impact melt. The bulk composition of the melt-rock particles is similar to the composition of basaltic meteorites such as howardites or mesosiderite silicates, with a contribution from seawater salts and a siderophile-rich component. There is no evidence that the Eltanin impact melt contains a significant terrestrial silicate component that might have been incorporated by mixing of the projectile with oceanic crust. If terrestrial silicates were incorporated into the melt, then their contribution must be much less than 10 wt%. Since excess K, Na, and CI are not present in seawater proportions, uptake of these elements into the melt must have been greatest for K and least for CI, producing a K/CI ratio about 4 times that in seawater. After correcting for the seawater component, the bulk composition of the Eltanin impact melt provides the best estimate of the bulk composition of the Eltanin asteroid. Excess Fe in the impact melt, relative to that in howardites, must be from a significant metal phase in the parent asteroid. Although the estimated Fe:Ni:Ir ratios (8:1:4 x 10(exp -5)) are similar to those in mesosiderite metal nodules (10:1:6 x 10(exp -5), excess Co and Au by factors of about 2 and 10 times, respectively, imply a metal component distinct from that in typical mesosiderites. An alternative interpretation

  1. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  2. Occurrence and mechanisms of impact melt emplacement at small lunar craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, Julie D.; Hawke, B. Ray; Robinson, Mark S.; Denevi, Brett W.; Giguere, Thomas A.; Koeber, Steven D.

    2014-11-01

    Using observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), we assess the frequency and occurrence of impact melt at simple craters less than 5 km in diameter. Nine-hundred-and-fifty fresh, randomly distributed impact craters were identified for study based on their maturity, albedo, and preservation state. The occurrence, frequency, and distribution of impact melt deposits associated with these craters, particularly ponded melt and lobate flows, are diagnostic of melt emplacement mechanisms. Like larger craters, those smaller than a few kilometers in diameter often exhibit ponded melt on the crater floor as well as lobate flows near the crater rim crest. The morphologies of these deposits suggest gravity-driven flow while the melt was molten. Impact melt deposits emplaced as veneers and ;sprays;, thin layers of ejecta that drape other crater materials, indicate deposition late in the cratering process; the deposits of fine sprays are particularly sensitive to degradation. Exterior melt deposits found near the rims of a few dozen craters are distributed asymmetrically around the crater and are rare at craters less than 2 km in diameter. Pre-existing topography plays a role in the occurrence and distribution of these melt deposits, particularly for craters smaller than 1 km in diameter, but does not account for all observed asymmetries in impact melt distribution. The observed relative abundance and frequency of ponded melt and flows in and around simple lunar craters increases with crater diameter, as was previously predicted from models. However, impact melt deposits are found more commonly at simple lunar craters (i.e., those less than a few kilometers in diameter) than previously expected. Ponded melt deposits are observed in roughly 15% of fresh craters smaller than 300 m in diameter and 80% of fresh craters between 600 m and 5 km in diameter. Furthermore, melt deposits are observed at roughly twice as many non-mare craters than at mare craters. We

  3. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): New investigations on Sudbury breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Mohr, V.

    Sudbury breccias occur as discordant dike breccias within the footwall rocks of the Sudbury structure, which is regarded as the possible remnant of a multiring basin. Exposures of Sudbury breccias in the North Range are known up to a radial distance of 60-80 km from the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). The breccias appear more frequent within a zone of 10 km adjacent to the SIC and a further zone located about 20-33 km north of the structure. From differences in the structure of the breccias, as for example the size of the breccia dikes, contact relationships between breccia and country rock as well as between different breccia dikes, fragment content, and fabric of the ground mass, as seen in this section, the Sudbury Breccias have been classified into four different types. (1) Early breccias with a clastic/crystalline matrix comprise small dikes ranging in size from approx. 1 cm to max. 20 cm. (2) Polymict breccias with a clastic matrix represent the most common type of Sudbury breccia. The thickness of the dikes varies from several tens of centimeters to a few meters but can also extend to more than 100 m in the case of the largest known breccia dike. Contacts with country rock are sharp or gradational. Heterogenous matrix consisting of a fine-grained rock flour displays nonoriented textures as well as extreme flow lines. Chemical analysis substantiates at least some mixing with allochthonous material. (3) Breccias with a crystalline matrix are a subordinate type of Sudbury breccia. According to petrographical and chemical differences, three subtypes have been separated. (4) Late breccias with a clastic matrix are believed to represent the latest phase of brecciation. Two subtypes have been distinguished due to differences in the fragment content.

  4. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): New investigations on Sudbury breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Sudbury breccias occur as discordant dike breccias within the footwall rocks of the Sudbury structure, which is regarded as the possible remnant of a multiring basin. Exposures of Sudbury breccias in the North Range are known up to a radial distance of 60-80 km from the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). The breccias appear more frequent within a zone of 10 km adjacent to the SIC and a further zone located about 20-33 km north of the structure. From differences in the structure of the breccias, as for example the size of the breccia dikes, contact relationships between breccia and country rock as well as between different breccia dikes, fragment content, and fabric of the ground mass, as seen in this section, the Sudbury Breccias have been classified into four different types. (1) Early breccias with a clastic/crystalline matrix comprise small dikes ranging in size from approx. 1 cm to max. 20 cm. (2) Polymict breccias with a clastic matrix represent the most common type of Sudbury breccia. The thickness of the dikes varies from several tens of centimeters to a few meters but can also extend to more than 100 m in the case of the largest known breccia dike. Contacts with country rock are sharp or gradational. Heterogenous matrix consisting of a fine-grained rock flour displays nonoriented textures as well as extreme flow lines. Chemical analysis substantiates at least some mixing with allochthonous material. (3) Breccias with a crystalline matrix are a subordinate type of Sudbury breccia. According to petrographical and chemical differences, three subtypes have been separated. (4) Late breccias with a clastic matrix are believed to represent the latest phase of brecciation. Two subtypes have been distinguished due to differences in the fragment content.

  5. Processes active in mafic magma chambers: The example of Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed in 1959 as a closed chamber of 40??million m3 of picritic magma. Repeated drilling and sampling of the lake allows recognition of processes of magmatic differentiation, and places time restrictions on the periods when they operated. This paper focuses on evidence for the occurrence of lateral convection in the olivine-depleted layer, and constraints on the timing of this process, as documented by chemical, petrographic and thermal data on drill core from the lake. Lateral convection appears to have occurred in two distinct layers within the most olivine-poor part of the lake, created a slightly olivine-enriched septum in the center of the olivine-depleted section. A critical marker for this process is the occurrence of loose clusters of augite microphenocrysts, which are confined to the upper half of the olivine-poor zone. This process, which took place between late 1962 and mid-1964, is inferred to be double-diffusive convection. Both this convection and a process of buoyant upwelling of minimum-density liquid from deep within the lake (Helz, R.T., Kirschenbaum H. and Marinenko, J.W., 1989. Diapiric melt transfer: a quick, efficient process of igneous differentiation: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, 578-594) result from the fact that melt density in Kilauea Iki compositions decreases as olivine and augite crystallize, above the incoming of plagioclase. The resulting density vs. depth profile creates (1) a region of gravitationally stable melt at the top of the chamber (the locus of double-diffusive convection) and (2) a region of gravitationally unstable melt at the base of the melt column (the source of upwelling minimum-density melt, Helz, R.T., Kirschenbaum H. and Marinenko, J.W., 1989. Diapiric melt transfer: a quick, efficient process of igneous differentiation: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, 578-594). By contrast the variation of melt density with temperature for the 1965 Makaopuhi lava lake does

  6. Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 026: A Second-Generation Impact Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Taylor, L. A.; Nazarov, M.

    2001-03-01

    Petrology and mineral-chemistry of lunar highlands meteorite Dhofar 026 show that it is a crystalline impact melt of FAN-type material. Crystalline spherules within the meteorite are earlier impact melt fragments derived from a basaltic precursor.

  7. Preliminary Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum and laser probe dating of the M1 core of the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa: A K-T boundary crater candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunk, M. J.; Snee, L. W.; French, B. M.; Harlan, S. S.; Mcgee, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum and laser probe dating results from new drill core from the 35-km-diameter Manson Impact Structure (MIS), Iowa indicates a reasonable possibility that the MIS is a Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact event. Several different types of samples from a melt-matrix breccia, a unit of apparent crater fill intersected by the M1 core, were analyzed. Ar-40/Ar-39 results from these samples indicate a maximum age for the MIS of about 65.4 plus or minus 0.4(2 sigma) Ma. Petrographic analyses of the samples indicate a high probability that all the dated samples from the melt-matrix breccia contain relict grains that were not entirely melted or degassed at the time of impact, suggesting that the actual age of the MIS could be somewhat younger than our preliminary results indicate. The results are consistent with a previously published age estimate of shocked microcline from the MIS central uplift of 65.7 plus or minus 1.0 Ma.

  8. Storage conditions of the mafic and silicic magmas at Cotopaxi, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Caroline; Andújar, Joan; Mothes, Patricia; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Molina, Indira

    2018-04-01

    The 2015 reactivation of the Cotopaxi volcano urges us to understand the complex eruptive dynamics of Cotopaxi for better management of a potential major crisis in the near future. Cotopaxi has commonly transitioned from andesitic eruptions of strombolian style (lava flows and scoria ballistics) or nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows and ash falls) to highly explosive rhyolitic ignimbrites (pumiceous pyroclastic flows), which entail drastically different risks. To better interpret geophysical and geochemical signals, Cotopaxi magma storage conditions were determined via existing phase-equilibrium experiments that used starting materials chemically close to the Cotopaxi andesites and rhyolites. The results suggest that Cotopaxi's most mafic andesites (last erupted products) can be stored over a large range of depth from 7 km to ≥16 km below the summit (pressure from 200 to ≥400 MPa), 1000 °C, NNO +2, and contain 4.5-6.0±0.7 wt% H2O dissolved in the melt in equilibrium with 30-40% phenocrysts of plagioclase, two pyroxenes, and Fe-Ti oxides. These mafic andesites sometimes evolve towards more silicic andesites by cooling to 950 °C. Rhyolitic magmas are stored at 200-300 MPa (i.e. 7-11 km below the summit), 750 °C, NNO +2, and contain 6-8 wt% H2O dissolved in a nearly aphyric melt (<5% phenocrysts of plagioclase, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides). Although the andesites produce the rhyolitic magmas by fractional crystallization, the Cotopaxi eruptive history suggests reactivation of either reservoirs at distinct times, likely reflecting flux or time fluctuations during deep magma recharge.

  9. The anatomy of a hydrothermal (explosion ) breccia, Abbot Village, central Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.C.

    1993-03-01

    An apparently intrusive hydrothermal breccia is exposed in a large outcrop along Kingsbury Stream downstream from the Route 6 bridge in Abbot Village. The breccia intrudes the Siluro-Devonian Madrid Formation which is comprised of thick-bedded metasandstone interbedded with less fine-grained schist and phyllite at regional biotite grade. In the vicinity of the breccia, the bedding attitude in the Madrid is N60E 70SE and the section faces SE. The breccia is a concordant body with respect to bedding and the exposure shows what appears to the SW terminus of the intrusion which extends an unknown distance NE. The main phase ofmore » the breccia consists of randomly oriented and angular clasts'' of Madrid metasandstone and schist that are cemented by a quartz-dominated matrix. The random orientation of the clasts is present this phase were it is in contact with the country rock. The matrix comprises about 15% of the volume of the breccia and, in addition to quartz, contains biotite, galena, chalcopyrite ( ), pyrite, and an iron-carbonate. In some interstitial matrix, apparently late iron-carbonate fills post-quartz vugs that contain quartz-crystal terminations. The wall phase contains a higher proportion of biotite schist clasts that in places are bent around each other and metasandstone clasts. Quartz veins extending into the country rock near the breccia follow prominent regional joint directions and suggest hydrofracturing of the Madrid was the principal mechanism for breccia formation. The breccia is interpreted to be of explosive origin with the main phase of the body representing clasts that fell down within the vent'' following upward transport. The wall phase is taken to have formed due to adhesion to the wall of breccia clasts during the eruptive stage.« less

  10. Stratigraphy, distribution, and evidence for mafic triggering of the ca. 8.5 ka Driftwood Pumice eruption, Makushin Volcano, Alaska, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Allan H.; Crowley, Peter D.; Nicolaysen, Kirsten P.; Hazlett, Richard W.

    2018-05-01

    Makushin Volcano on Unalaska Island, Alaska, threatens the Aleutian's largest population centers (Unalaska and Dutch Harbor), yet its eruption mechanisms are poorly known. This study presents a detailed stratigraphic and geochemical investigation of Makushin's most recent highly explosive event: the ca. 8.5 ka Driftwood Pumice eruption. The Driftwood Pumice has measured thicknesses of over 2.5 m, and isopach reconstructions estimate a total deposit volume of 0.3 to 1.6 km3, indicating a VEI 4-5 eruption. Proximal deposits consist of normally-graded, tan, dacitic to andesitic pumice, capped by a thinner dark layer of lower-silica andesitic scoria mixed with abundant lithic fragments. This stratigraphy is interpreted as an initial vent-clearing eruption that strengthened into a climactic ejection of pumice and ash and concluded with vent destabilization and the eruption of somewhat more mafic, gas-poor magma. Within the pumice, geochemical trends, disequilibrium mineral populations, and mineral zonation patterns show evidence of magma mixing between a bulk silicic magma and a mafic melt. Euhedral high-Ca plagioclase (An68-91) and high-Mg olivine (Fo69-77) phenocrysts are in disequilibrium with trachydacitic glass (65-68 wt% SiO2) and more abundant sodic plagioclase (An34-55), indicating the former originally crystallized in a more mafic melt. Tephra whole rock compositions become more mafic upwards through the deposit, ranging from a basal low-silica dacite to an andesite (total range: 60.8-63.3 wt% SiO2). Collectively, these compositional variations suggest magma mixing in the Driftwood Pumice (DWP) magma reservoir, with a systematic increase in the amount of a mafic component (up to 25%) upward through the deposit. Olivine-liquid and liquid-only thermometry indicate the mafic magma intruded at temperatures 140-200 °C hotter than the silicic magma. Diffusion rates calculated for 5-7 μm thick, lower-Mg rims on the olivine phenocrysts (Fo60 rim vs Fo76 bulk) suggest

  11. Suevite superposition on the Bunte breccia in Noerdlinger Ries, Germany: New findings on the transport mechanism of impactites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bringemeier, D.

    1992-01-01

    Research undertaken in the last decades in Noerdlinger Ries, Germany, has repeatedly emphasized the sharp contact between Bunte breccia and suevite. However, extensive investigations into this layer boundary have not yet been possible due to insufficient outcrop ratios. New outcrops enabled an in-depth investigation into the superposition of suevite on the Bunte breccia, which is assigned a key role in interpreting the transport mechanisms of ejecta of large impact. In two quarries lying several kilometers east and south-southwest of the crater, the contact between the suevite and Bunte breccia was recorded in detailed sections on outcrops of over 50 m in length.

  12. The Fractionation of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) in Impact Melts and the Determination of the Meteoritic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Palme, H.; Kratz, K. L.

    1995-09-01

    Lunar highland rocks contain an excess of siderophile elements, which has been attributed to meteoritic influx after the formation of the lunar crust [1-4]. Siderophile element enrichment has subsequently become a standard method for the identification of terrestrial impact craters. Janssens et al. [5], Grieve [6] and Palme et al. [7] have shown the dominant role of impact melt as the main carrier of meteoritic material at large terrestrial impact craters. This has been demonstrated at Clearwater East [8], Lappajarvi [9-11], Saaksjarvi [12], Brent [6] and Rochechouart [5]. The amount of projectile material incorporated in impact melt sheets is generally low (<1%). The highest recorded is 8% at East Clearwater, where the siderophiles are carried in a sulphide phase. In other cases, searches for siderophile anomalies at some impact structure have been largely unsuccessful. Melt bearing mixed breccias (suevitic melt) and fall-back sediments have been found to be free of meteoritic components in Brent, Lappajarvi and Ries samples [6,9,12-14]. However, from approximately 130 craters which are currently known on Earth only four clearly identified chondrites have been found as projectiles of large craters [15,16]. In this study we analyzed twenty-two impact melt samples (10 g) from Saaksjarvi (Finland), Mien and Dellen (Sweden) impact craters for Os, Re, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd and Au by a slightly modified version of the fire assay neutron activation method using nickel sulphide as the collector [13,14]. All samples were obtained from the collection of the University of Munster. Only fresh, nearly fragment-free, fine grained samples without any sign of alteration were selected for chemical studies. All samples have been described previously [17]. The INAA procedure involved two irradiations: a short irradiation for Rh and a long irradiation for the other elements. Impact melts from Saaksjarvi are highly enriched in PGEs. The flat siderophile pattern suggests that the meteoritic

  13. Mineralogy and petrogenesis of lunar magnesian granulitic meteorite Northwest Africa 5744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Jeremy J.; Brandon, Alan D.; Joy, Katherine H.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Irving, Anthony J.; Coleff, Daniel M.

    2017-09-01

    Lunar meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 is a granulitic breccia with an anorthositic troctolite composition that may represent a distinct crustal lithology not previously described. This meteorite is the namesake and first-discovered stone of its pairing group. Bulk rock major element abundances show the greatest affinity to Mg-suite rocks, yet trace element abundances are more consistent with those of ferroan anorthosites. The relatively low abundances of incompatible trace elements (including K, P, Th, U, and rare earth elements) in NWA 5744 could indicate derivation from a highlands crustal lithology or mixture of lithologies that are distinct from the Procellarum KREEP terrane on the lunar nearside. Impact-related thermal and shock metamorphism of NWA 5744 was intense enough to recrystallize mafic minerals in the matrix, but not intense enough to chemically equilibrate the constituent minerals. Thus, we infer that NWA 5744 was likely metamorphosed near the lunar surface, either as a lithic component within an impact melt sheet or from impact-induced shock.

  14. Lithification of vitric- and clastic-matrix breccias - SEM petrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Mckay, D. S.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used in a petrographic investigation of the matrix textures of 41 lunar breccias ranging from very friable soil clods through coherent microbreccias and tough vitric breccias to tough, fine-grained crystalline breccias. It was found that as their coherence increases, the matrices display a gradual increase in the content of glass from 1 or 2% as filaments less than 1 micron across through 5-50% as irregularly shaped patches up to 200 microns across to over 50% as continuous networks.

  15. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impact-Related Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Impact-Related Deposits" included:Evidence for a Lightning-Strike Origin of the Edeowie Glass; 57Fe M ssbauer Spectroscopy of Fulgurites: Implications for Chemical Reduction; Ca-Metasomatism in Crystalline Target Rocks from the Charlevoix Structure, Quebec, Canada: Evidence for Impact-related Hydrothermal Activity; Magnetic Investigations of Breccia Veins and Basement Rocks from Roter Kamm Crater and Surrounding Region, Namibia; Petrologic Complexities of the Manicouagan Melt Sheet: Implications for 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology; Laser Argon Dating of Melt Breccias from the Siljan Impact Structure, Sweden: Implications for Possible Relationship to Late Devonian Extinction Events; Lunar Impact Crater, India: Occurrence of a Basaltic Suevite?; Age of the Lunar Impact Crater, India: First Results from Fission Track Dating; The Fluidized Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket, Mexico: Implications for Mars; Low Velocity Ejection of Boulders from Small Lunar Craters: Ground Truth for Asteroid Surfaces; Ejecta and Secondary Crater Distributions of Tycho Crater: Effects of an Oblique Impact; Potassium Isotope Systematics of Crystalline Lunar Spherules from Apollo 16; Late Paleocene Spherules from the North Sea: Probable Sea Floor Precipitates: A Silverpit Provenance Unproven; A Lithological Investigation of Marine Strata from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Including a Search for Shocked Quartz; Triassic Cratered Cobbles: Shock Effects or Tectonic Pressure?; Regional Variations of Trace Element Composition Within the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field; Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Microtektite-bearing Sands and Tsunami Beds, Alabama Gulf Coastal Plain; Sand Lobes on Stewart Island as Probable Impact-Tsunami Deposits; Distal Impact Ejecta, Uppermost Eocene, Texas Coastal Plain; and Continental Impact Debris in the Eltanin Impact Layer.

  17. Petrology of the Cangas de Onis and nulles regolith breccias Implications for parent body history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. V.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; San Miguel, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of the Cangas de Onis and Nulles H chondrite regolith breccias indicates that the minerals in the matrices and equilibrated clasts have essentially the same compositional distributions, so that much of the material in the castic matrix would have to have been derived from the impact comminution of clats. The apparently exclusive occurrence of H6 clasts in Cangas de Onis, and H4 clasts in Nulles, suggests that, at the locations where these breccias formed, the regolith predominantly consisted of H6 and H4 material, respectively.

  18. Early Earth Felsic Crust Formation: Insights from Numerical Modelling of High-MgO Archaean Basalt Partial Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, N., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite series (TTGs) represent the bulk of the felsic continental crust that formed between 4.4 and 2.5 Ga and is preserved in Archaean craton (3.8-2.5 Ga). It is now recognized that the petrogenesis of TTG series derives from an hydrous mafic system at high pressure. However, the source of the early TTGs (3.5-3.2 Ga) have not been preserved and its characteristics are still debated. In this study we use thermodynamical modelling coupled with two-phase flow to investigate the products of partial melting of high-MgO primary mafic crust. Our model setup is made of a 45-km thick hydrated mafic crust and is heated above the solidus from 50 to 200°C. To explore the effects of melt-rock interactions during melt transfer (via two-phase flow), the melt composition is modelled either in thermodynamic equilibrium with the rock or in thermodynamic disequilibrium. Our modelling results show that partial melting of hydrous high-MgO metabasalt crust can produce significant volumes of felsic melt. The average composition of these melts is SiO2-rich > 62%, Mg# = 40-50, Na2O ~6%, MgO = 0.5-1% which is consistent with the composition of TTGs. The residual rock after melt segregation is composed of olivine + garnet + pyroxene which is in agreement with Archaean eclogites found in mantle xenoliths of Archaean cratons. Moreover, the depleted residual rock is denser than the mantle and is likely to be recycled in the mantle. We show that the early felsic crust with a TTGs signature could have been formed by partial melting of high-MgO hydrated metabasaltic crust, and propose that plume-related activity and/or rapid burial due to high volcanic activity are likely geodynamic conditions to generate an early felsic crust.

  19. Geologic History of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of meteorites - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where magmatism occurred within a very few million years of the formation of the earliest solids in the solar system. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid]. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are basalts, diabases and cumulate gabbros from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias mostly of diogenites and eucrites. There remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta, which is thought to be the source of the HED clan. Differentiation models for Vesta are based on HED compositions. Proto-Vesta consisted of chondritic materials containing Al-26, a potent, short-lived heat source. Inferences from compositional data are that Vesta was melted to high degree (=50%) allowing homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of a metallic core. Convection of the silicate magma ocean allowed equilibrium crystallization, forming a harzburgitic mantle. After convective lockup occurred, melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer and underwent fractional crystallization forming an orthopyroxene-rich (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of chondritic material was replaced by a mafic upper crust through impact disruption and foundering. The mafic crust thickened over time as additional residual magma intrudes and penetrates the mafic crust forming plutons, dikes, sills and flows of cumulate and basaltic eucrite composition. This magmatic history may have taken only 2-3 Myr. This magma ocean scenario is at odds with a model of heat and magma transport that indicates that small degrees of melt would be rapidly expelled from source regions, precluding development of a magma ocean. Constraints from radiogenic Mg-26 distibutions

  20. Petrography and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite Larkman Nunatak 06638

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    LAR 06638 is a glassy-matrix lunar regolith breccia based on the presence of glass spherules, which also contains prominent clasts of a feldspathic fragmental breccia lithology. The similarity in composition of the two lithologies is unsurprising given the observed similarities in the clast populations and mineral compositions in both lithologies. The small differences in composition are likely explained by the incorporation of small amounts of more diverse material into the regolith breccia lithologies, e.g., KREEPy glass clasts to account for the higher siderophile and ITE concentrations and excess plagioclase to account for the lower concentrations of mafic elements and increased Na concentrations. Given the relatively small masses analyzed (approx.120 mg of each lithology), these small compositional differences could also be sampling effects. The presense of multiple generations of glass coatings on LAR 06638 is, to our knowledge, unique among lunar meteorites. The more mafic, schlieren and nanophase Fe bearing glass is similar in morphology to the South Ray Crater glass coatings at the Apollo 16 site [3] and likely has a similar origin. The outer, more feldspathic glass has a morphology typical of fusion crust observed on other feldspathic lunar meteorites. It is unclear at this time whether the partially melted glass area represents a partially formed fusion crust or incipient melting due to heating on the lunar surface, likely from an overlying (and possibly ablated) glass splash coating. LAR 06638 is unlikely to be source-crater paired with any other lunar meteorites. For all elements, it plots right in the range of "typical feldspathic lunar meteorites" [4]. Among lunar meteorites from Antarctica, LAR 06638 most closely resembles MAC 88104/5 in composition, although it is slightly more feldspathic and 1.8 richer in siderophile elements. Compositionally it is more similar to hot-desert meteorites like Dhofar 490/1084 and NWA 2200 [4].

  1. Friction melt distribution in a multi-ring impact basin.

    PubMed

    Spray, J G; Thompson, L M

    1995-01-12

    It is generally accepted that multi-ring basins are the consequence of very large impacts, but the mechanism by which they form is still a matter of contention. Most of what is currently known about multi-ring basins is based on remote studies of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, Mars and Mercury. But at least two multi-ring impact basins have been recognized on Earth--the Sudbury (Canada) and Vredefort (South Africa) impact structures--providing an opportunity to study their properties directly. Here we describe the distribution of friction melt (pseudotachylyte) in the floor of the Sudbury impact basin. Although the veins and dykes of pseudotachylyte decrease in both thickness and frequency of occurrence towards the basin periphery, the greatest volumes of friction melt appear to define four rings around the central impact melt sheet. Field evidence indicates that the rings originated as zones of large displacement, which facilitated localized frictional melting of the basin floor during the modification (collapse) stage of the cratering process. By analogy, we argue that the rings of other multi-ring impact basins are also likely to be the remnants of such large-displacement fault zones.

  2. Melting and its relationship to impact crater morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Shock-melting features occur on planets at scales that range from micrometers to megameters. It is the objective of this study to determine the extent of thickness, volume geometry of the melt, and relationship with crater morphology. The variation in impact crater morphology on planets is influenced by a broad range of parameters: e.g., planetary density, thermal state, strength, impact velocity, gravitational acceleration. We modeled the normal impact of spherical projectiles on a semi-infinite planet over a broad range of conditions using numerical techniques.

  3. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral impact mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local impact craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not impact melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed impact melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of impact melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant impact melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected impact-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the impact history of a site. A detailed impact history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand impact-melt fragments will yield the impact history of the SPA basin.

  4. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  5. Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

    1992-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  6. Foliated breccias in the active Portuguese Bend landslide complex, California: bearing on melange genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Hudleston, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    The active portion of the Portuguese Bend landslide complex is approximately 3 km/sup 2/ in area and 30-50 m thick. Measured displacement rates range from less than one to greater than 30 mm/day on different parts of the landslide, with total displacements over the last 30 yrs ranging from about 10 to greater than 150 m. Six types of breccia, each locally with a foliated matrix, were recognized in the active landslide complex and are absent outside the landslide complex. Slide-body breccias are of two types, the first formed by extensional fracturing during bulk pure shear at the top ofmore » the landslide (slide-top breccia) and the second by flow of tuffaceous shales and fracture of embedded siliceous shales during simple shear deep in the landslide to the basal decollement (slide-bottom breccias). Slide-margin breccias, also in simple shear, are produced on the lateral margins of individual slide blocks accompanying wrench-fault motion. Other breccias (fault-ramp breccias) are formed during motion over ramps. Colluvial deposits within tension gashes (crack-fill breccias) and at the toe of the slide (slide-toe breccias) represent a fifth breccia type. Diapirs originating from over-pressured zones at the slide base also contain breccia. Recognition of different breccia types in ancient rocks would be difficult, because fabrics in the different types are similar. Foliations are defined by: scaly cleavage, compositional banding and color banding (in shear zones), stretched mud clasts, and aligned hard grains. Foliated breccias are synonymous with melanges. The authors regard the six breccia types described herein as representing the principal types of melange that occur in ancient accretionary settings.« less

  7. Decoupling of the Assimilation and Fractionation Signatures in a MASH Zone: Evidence from the Sierra Valle Fértil Mafic Zone, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. A., Jr.; Bergantz, G. W.; Otamendi, J.; Ducea, M. N.; Cristofolini, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Valle Fértil (SVF) in northern Argentina is a tilted Ordovician fossil arc complex with continuous exposure from paleodepths of ~10 km to ~30 km. The system is layered when viewed at a large scale: shallow, granodiorite plutons give way to a heterogeneous granodiorite-tonalite zone, which in turn grades into a gabbro-tonalite zone at the base of the section. A metapelitic country rock package is interlayered throughout the magmatic complex, allowing for determination of emplacement depths within the section. Our work focuses on the lowermost domain of the SVF, as it preserves what we consider to be a frozen example of a MASH zone. Here, dominant rock types are hornblende gabbronorite and tonalitie variants, which appear to be interfingered as dm- to 10s of m-scale sheets. Mappable ultramafic pods containing dunites, websterites, troctolites, and minor anorthosites are also present. Field relations are consistent with a complex series of intrusive events. Much of the SVF mafic zone compositional array can be modeled by fractional crystallization where the mafic rocks are cumulate assemblages and the intermediate rocks are the daughter magmas. Amphibole and, perhaps more importantly, Fe-Ti oxide crystallization are likely the principal agents of silica enrichment. Metapelitic rocks exposed throughout the SVF are likely the vestiges of a country rock package that was melted (or reacted) and incorporated into SVF magmas, but field and compositional evidence for assimilation is cryptic in the mafic zone. While isotopic data (Sr, Nd, O) seem to implicate crustal contributions to the SVF mafic zone, incompatible major and trace elements typically associated with an "assimilation signature" (e.g., K, Rb, Ba) are sparse. Such elements are abundant in the metapelites and in igneous rocks farther up section. We interpret this isotopic and elemental decoupling as a byproduct of prolonged MASH processes in the lower crust. A high temperature and an increasingly

  8. Foreland-forearc collisional granitoid and mafic magmatism caused by lower-plate lithospheric slab breakoff: The Acadian of Maine, and other orogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoonmaker, A.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Bradley, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    During collisional convergence, failure in extension of the lithosphere of the lower plate due to slab pull will reduce the thickness or completely remove lower-plate lithosphere and cause decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle; magmas from this source may subsequently provide enough heat for substantial partial melting of crustal rocks under or beyond the toe of the collisional accretionary system. In central Maine, United States, this type of magmatism is first apparent in the Early Devonian West Branch Volcanics and equivalent mafic volcanics, in the slightly younger voluminous mafic/silicic magmatic event of the Moxie Gabbro-Katahdin batholith and related ignimbrite volcanism, and in other Early Devonian granitic plutons. Similar lower-plate collisional sequences with mafic and related silicic magmatism probably caused by slab breakoff are seen in the Miocene-Holocene Papuan orogen, and the Hercynian-Alleghenian belt. Magmatism of this type is significant because it gives evidence in those examples of whole-lithosphere extension. We infer that normal fault systems in outer trench slopes of collisional orogens in general, and possibly those of oceanic subduction zones, may not be primarily due to flexural bending, but are also driven by whole-lithosphere extension due to slab pull. The Maine Acadian example suggests that slab failure and this type of magmatism may be promoted by pre-existing large margin-parallel faults in the lower plate. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  9. Feldspathic clasts in Yamato-86032: Remnants of the lunar crust with implications for its formation and impact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L.; Bogard, D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Reese, Y.; Garrison, D.; McKay, G.; Takeda, H.

    2006-12-01

    probably reflects some diffusive 40Ar loss. Lack of solar wind and lunar atmosphere implanted Ar in the light gray breccia clast allows determination of an 39Ar/ 40Ar age of 4.10 ± 0.02 Ga, which is interpreted as the time of initial brecciation of this litholgy. After correction for implanted lunar atmosphere 40Ar, impact melt and dark regolith clasts give Ar ages of 3.8 ± 0.1 Ga implying melt formation and final breccia assembly ˜3.8 Ga ago. Some breccia lithologies were exposed to thermal neutron fluences of ˜2 × 10 15 n/cm 2, only about 1% of the fluence experienced by some other lunar highlands meteorites. Other lithologies experienced neutron fluences of ˜1 × 10 15 n/cm 2. Thus, Y-86032 spent most of the time following final brecciation deeply buried in the megaregolith. The neutron fluence data are consistent with cosmogenic 38Ar cos cosmic ray exposure ages of ˜10 Ma. Variations among differing lithologies in the amount of several regolith exposure indicators, including cosmogenic noble gas abundances, neutron capture induced variations in Sm isotopic abundances, and Ir contents, are consistent with a period of early (>˜3.8 Ga ago) lunar regolith exposure, subsequent deep burial at >˜5 m depth, and ejection from the moon ˜7-10 Ma ago.

  10. Geologic columns for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville A and B cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Sediment-clast breccias, 1096 to 444 m depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.; Powars, D.S.; Gohn, G.S.; Dypvik, H.

    2009-01-01

    The Eyreville A and B cores, recovered from the "moat" of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, provide a thick section of sediment-clast breccias and minor stratified sediments from 1095.74 to 443.90 m. This paper discusses the components of these breccias, presents a geologic column and descriptive lithologic framework for them, and formalizes the Exmore Formation. From 1095.74 to ??867 m, the cores consist of nonmarine sediment boulders and sand (rare blocks up to 15.3 m intersected diameter). A sharp contact in both cores at ??867 m marks the lowest clayey, silty, glauconitic quartz sand that constitutes the base of the Exmore Formation and its lower diamicton member. Here, material derived from the upper sediment target layers, as well as some impact ejecta, occurs. The block-dominated member of the Exmore Formation, from ??855-618.23 m, consists of nonmarine sediment blocks and boulders (up to 45.5 m) that are juxtaposed complexly. Blocks of oxidized clay are an important component. Above 618.23 m, which is the base of the informal upper diamicton member of the Exmore Formation, the glauconitic matrix is a consistent component in diamicton layers between nonmarine sediment clasts that decrease in size upward in the section. Crystalline-rock clasts are not randomly distributed but rather form local concentrations. The upper part of the Exmore Formation consists of crudely fining-upward sandy packages capped by laminated silt and clay. The overlap interval of Eyreville A and B (940-??760 m) allows recognition of local similarities and differences in the breccias. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  11. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [from the Apollo 15 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thin sections and polished electron probe mounts of Apollo 15 glasscoated breccias 15255, 15286, 15466, and 15505 were examined optically and analyzed by sem/microprobe. Sections from breccias 15465 and 15466 were examined in detail, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of several larger lithic clasts, green glass, and partly crystallized green glass spheres are presented. Area analyses of 33 clasts from the above breccias were also done using the SEM/EDS system. Mineralogical and bulk chemical analyses of clasts from the Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias reveal a diverse set of potential rock types, including plutonic and extrusive igneous rocks and impact melts. Examination of the chemistry of the clasts suggests that many of these clasts, like those found in 61175, are impact melts. Their variability suggests formation by several small local impacts rather than by a large basin-forming event.

  12. Noachian Impact Breccias on the Rim of Endeavour Crater, Mars: Opportunity APXS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been investigating the geology of Meridiani Planum since January 2004, and is currently approx. 3830% into its primary mission. Opportunity reached the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavor crater at Spirit Point on the south end of Cape York on sol 2681 and began exploring the geology of Endeavour rim. She left Cape York on sol 3316 and arrived at the next rim remnant to the south, Solander Point, on sol 3387 to begin geological investigations at the contact and up onto Murray Ridge. The Burns fm. of Meridiani Planum lies near the top of the plains-forming unit of western Sinus Meridiani and onlaps onto the Endeavour rim rocks (hereafter rim rocks). Endeavour crater would have excavated approx. 4 km into the existing stratigraphy. Thus, the ejecta that form the rim rocks offer windows into the deeper lithologies of Sinus Meridiani. Here we discuss the polymict breccias of the Shoemaker fm. on Cape York and the breccias from Murray Ridge, with a focus on compositions determined by the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS).

  13. A Crustal Rock Clast in Magnesian Anorthositic Breccia, Dhofar 489 and Its Excavation from a Large Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ohtake, Makiko; Saiki, Kazuto

    2004-01-01

    We report the mineralogy and Ar-Ar age of a spinel troctolite clast with a granulitic texture found in the Dofar 489 lunar meteorite. This anothositic breccia contained magnesian mafic silicates not common in ferroan anorthosites (FAN) from the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) of Joliff et al. The Ar-Ar ages of most FANs in the Apollo sample collection from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) and FHT of the near-side of the Moon were reset at around 3.9 Gyr. by the basin forming event of Imbrium. From the older Ar-Ar age of Dho 489, we propose that a large basin formation other than the Imbrium basin may have mixed deep crustal rocks such as spinel troctolites with "pure" anrthosites to produce a magnesian anorthosite brecca. This model is in line with a proposal by Bussey and Spudis, who reported that inner rings of large basins display massifs of nearly pure anorthosites.

  14. Petrogenesis of melt rocks, Manicouagan impact structure, Quebec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.; Floran, R. J.; Mcgee, P. E.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested, on the basis of previous theoretical studies of shock waves, that the Manicouagan melt formed in 1 or 2 s in a 5-km-radius hemisphere near the point of impact. The melt and the less shocked debris surrounding it flowed downward and outward for a few minutes until the melt formed a lining of a 5- to 8-km deep, 15- to 22-km-radius cavity. Extremely turbulent flow thoroughly homogenized the melt and promoted the incorporation and progressive digestion of debris that had been finely fragmented (but not melted) to grain sizes of less than one mm by the passage of the shock waves. The equilibration of clasts and melt, plagioclase nucleation, and readjustment of the crater floor are discussed.

  15. Evolution of melt-vapor surface tension in silicic volcanic systems: Experiments with hydrous melts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the melt-vapor surface tension (??) of natural, water-saturated dacite melt at 200 MPa, 950-1055??C, and 4.8-5.7 wt % H2O. We experimentally determine the critical supersaturation pressure for bubble nucleation as a function of dissolved water and then solve for ?? at those conditions using classical nucleation theory. The solutions obtained give dacite melt-vapor surface tensions that vary inversely with dissolved water from 0.042 (??0.003) J m-2 at 5.7 wt% H2O to 0.060 (??0.007) J m-2 at 5.2 wt% H2O to 0.073 (??0.003) J m-2 at 4.8 wt% H2O. Combining our dacite results with data from published hydrous haplogranite and high-silica rhyolite experiments reveals that melt-vapor surface tension also varies inversely with the concentration of mafic melt components (e.g., CaO, FeOtotal, MgO). We develop a thermodynamic context for these observations in which melt-vapor surface tension is represented by a balance of work terms controlled by melt structure. Overall, our results suggest that cooling, crystallization, and vapor exsolution cause systematic changes in ?? that should be considered in dynamic modeling of magmatic processes.

  16. Chicxulub Impact Melts: Geochemical Signatures of Target Lithology Mixing and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Fluid Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Freidrich; Mertzmann, Stanley A.

    2004-01-01

    Impact melts within complex impact craters are generally homogeneous, unless they differentiated, contain immiscible melt components, or were hydrothermally altered while cooling. The details of these processes, however, and their chemical consequences, are poorly understood. The best opportunity to unravel them may lie with the Chicxulub impact structure, because it is the world s most pristine (albeit buried) large impact crater. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered approx. 100 meters of impactites in a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole. This dramatically increased the amount of melt available for analyses, which was previously limited to two small samples N17 and N19) recovered from the Yucatan-6 (Y-6) borehole and one sample (N10) recovered from the Chicxulub-1 (C-1) borehole. In this study, we describe the chemical compositions of six melt samples over an approx. 40 m section of the core and compare them to previous melt samples from the Y-6 and C-1 boreholes.

  17. Volatile Release from the Siberian Traps Inferred from Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Rowe, M. C.; Ukstins Peate, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption to global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption (Thordarson et al., 1996). Mafic pyroclastic deposits from the lowermost Arydzhangsky suite (basal Siberian Traps) contain clinopyroxene phenocrysts hosting melt inclusions. Electron microprobe analysis of clinopyroxene-hosted re-homogenized melt inclusions indicates maximum measured concentrations of up to 1500 - 2000 ppm sulfur, 500 - 760 ppm chlorine, and 1900 - 2400 ppm fluorine. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of 5000 ppm, and less substantial concentrations of chlorine and fluorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine concentrations nearing one weight percent. Visscher et al. (2004) proposed that chlorofluorocarbon

  18. WIRGO in TIC's? [What (on Earth) is Really Going On in Terrestrial Impact Craters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dence, Michael R.

    2003-02-01

    Canada is well endowed with impact craters formed in crystalline rocks with relatively homogeneous physical properties. They exhibit all the main morphological-structural variations with crater size seen in craters on other rocky planets, from small simple bowl to large peak and ring forms. Lacking stratigraphy, analysis is based on the imprint of shock melting and metamorphism, the position of the GPL (limit of initial Grady-Kipp fracturing due to shock wave reverberations) relative to shock level, the geometry of late stage shears and breccias and the volume of shocked material beyond the GPL. Simple craters, exemplified by Brent (D = 3.7 km) allow direct comparison with models and experimental data. Results of interest include: 1. The central pool of impact melt and underlying breccia at the base of the crater fill is interpreted as the remnant of the transient crater lining; 2. The overlying main mass of breccias filling the final apparent crater results from latestage slumping of large slabs bounded by a primary shear surface that conforms to a sphere segment of radius, rs approx. = 2dtc, where dtc is the transient crater depth; 3. The foot of the primary shear intersects above the GPL at the centre of the melt pool and the rapid emplacement of slumped slabs produces further brecciation while suppressing any tendency for the centre to rise. In the autochthonous breccias below the melt and in the underlying para-allochthone below the GPL, shock metamorphism weakens with depth. The apparent attenuation of the shock pulse can be compared with experimentally derived rates of attenuation to give a measure of displacements down axis and estimates of the size of a nominal bolide of given velocity, the volume of impact melt and the energy released on impact. In larger complex craters (e.g. Charlevoix, D = 52 km) apparent shock attenuation is low near the centre but is higher towards the margin. The inflection point marks the change from uplift of deep material in the

  19. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The June 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ~1.3 km3 of andesite and ~4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ~10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the surface.

  20. Analysis of impact melt and vapor production in CTH for planetary applications

    DOE PAGES

    Quintana, S. N.; Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    2015-05-19

    This study explores impact melt and vapor generation for a variety of impact speeds and materials using the shock physics code CTH. The study first compares the results of two common methods of impact melt and vapor generation to demonstrate that both the peak pressure method and final temperature method are appropriate for high-speed impact models (speeds greater than 10 km/s). However, for low-speed impact models (speeds less than 10 km/s), only the final temperature method is consistent with laboratory analyses to yield melting and vaporization. Finally, a constitutive model for material strength is important for low-speed impacts because strengthmore » can cause an increase in melting and vaporization.« less

  1. Analysis of impact melt and vapor production in CTH for planetary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, S. N.; Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    This study explores impact melt and vapor generation for a variety of impact speeds and materials using the shock physics code CTH. The study first compares the results of two common methods of impact melt and vapor generation to demonstrate that both the peak pressure method and final temperature method are appropriate for high-speed impact models (speeds greater than 10 km/s). However, for low-speed impact models (speeds less than 10 km/s), only the final temperature method is consistent with laboratory analyses to yield melting and vaporization. Finally, a constitutive model for material strength is important for low-speed impacts because strengthmore » can cause an increase in melting and vaporization.« less

  2. Laboratory study of the characteristics of fault breccias in Busan area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, I.; Um, J.

    2012-12-01

    The physical and mechanical characteristics of fault breccias from near the Mt. Kumjung were estimated from laboratory tests on fractured fault breccias. Mt. Kumjung is surrounded by Yangsan Fault and Dongrae Fault which are major faults traversing the southeast part of Korea in the direction of NE-SW. The undisturbed samples were obtained from boreholes drilled in this region. The microscopic analysis on the thin sections of fault breccias showed the microstructure and the porosity of breccias. The fault breccias are composed of mainly fine quartz grains, and of angular quartz grains and weathered microcline grains. This microstructure of fault breccias might be formed by the catalasis during brittle deformation processes of the fault. 20 to 40% porosity of fault breccias could play an important role in the passage of groundwater and then in the development of fault gouge in the core part of fault. The mechanical characteristics were estimated by means of uniaxial compressive strength tests on the undisturbed breccias samples. Since fault breccias are not cohesive enough to use it directly as a test specimen, the epoxy resin was utilized to fix the outer surface of core samples. The thin plastic wrap had been enveloped before the epoxy resin was applied in order that the epoxy resin could not penetrate into the core specimens. The thickness of epoxy resin was less than 1mm not to disturb the results of uniaxial compressive strength of core samples. The measured uniaxial compressive strengths are 10 to 15MPa for the only physically fractured breccias and 8 to 10 MPa for the core specimens with hydrothermally altered surface. These results can be compared with the Hoek and Brown failure criteria : 7 to 10MPa for GSI value 40 to 50 for fault breccias with fresh surface. The overall measured strength of fault breccias is less than the strength obtained empirically by Hoek and Brown failure criteria.; ;

  3. From crustal thinning to mantle exhumation: what the Pyrenean breccia formations tell us.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, C.; Chauvet, A.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Reynaud, J.-Y.; Boulvais, P.; Bousquet, R.; Lahfid, A.; Vauchez, A.; Mahé, S.

    2012-04-01

    Several formations with various breccia types occur in Mesozoic basins disseminated along the North Pyrenean fault, on the northern flank of the French Pyrenees. Due to their location along the Iberia-Europa plate boundary, the North Pyrenean breccia formations represent complex archives documenting the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Pyrenean realm during the Aptian-Albian period. In particular, the North Pyrenean breccia formations have recorded the main stages of crustal thinning, continental break-up and mantle exhumation, which occurred along the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ). We will review the main sedimentary, structural, metamorphic and geochemical characters of these breccias, based on new field investigations conducted in both the Western and Eastern Pyrenées (Agly, Aulus, Moncaup-St Béas and Urdach localities). Based on our new founding, we re-intrepret the significance of the breccia formations in the light of the most recent models developed for the pre-orogenic evolution of the Pyrenees. In several places and mostly close to the contact between Paleozoic basement and Mesozoic cover, we systematically recognized the following three types of breccias: i) Semi-ductile syn-metamorphic breccias resulting from the boudinage of silicic or dolomitic beddings in ductily deformed marbles. ii) Cataclastic breccias disturbing the neighbouring host rocks and displaying a relatively monogenetic character. These tectonic breccias result from the disruption of the Mesozoic metamorphic platform under cooling conditions. They are dominated by cataclastic levels mainly located in the Triassic and Liassic weaker levels, iii) Polymictic sedimentary breccias, which composition is dominated by clasts of Mesozoic metasediments. Locally, close to subcontinental mantle bodies, the sedimentary breccias include numerous clasts of ultramafic and/or crustal basement rocks. Such breccias are the witness of the disruption of the sedimentary cover of the North Pyrenean Zone

  4. Shock metamorphism and impact melting in small impact craters on Earth: Evidence from Kamil crater, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Agnese; Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Cordier, Carole

    2014-12-01

    Kamil is a 45 m diameter impact crater identified in 2008 in southern Egypt. It was generated by the hypervelocity impact of the Gebel Kamil iron meteorite on a sedimentary target, namely layered sandstones with subhorizontal bedding. We have carried out a petrographic study of samples from the crater wall and ejecta deposits collected during our first geophysical campaign (February 2010) in order to investigate shock effects recorded in these rocks. Ejecta samples reveal a wide range of shock features common in quartz-rich target rocks. They have been divided into two categories, as a function of their abundance at thin section scale: (1) pervasive shock features (the most abundant), including fracturing, planar deformation features, and impact melt lapilli and bombs, and (2) localized shock features (the least abundant) including high-pressure phases and localized impact melting in the form of intergranular melt, melt veins, and melt films in shatter cones. In particular, Kamil crater is the smallest impact crater where shatter cones, coesite, stishovite, diamond, and melt veins have been reported. Based on experimental calibrations reported in the literature, pervasive shock features suggest that the maximum shock pressure was between 30 and 60 GPa. Using the planar impact approximation, we calculate a vertical component of the impact velocity of at least 3.5 km s-1. The wide range of shock features and their freshness make Kamil a natural laboratory for studying impact cratering and shock deformation processes in small impact structures.

  5. Cubic zirconia in >2370 °C impact melt records Earth's hottest crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Zanetti, Michael R.; Pearce, Mark A.; Cayron, Cyril; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Reddy, Steven M.; Wittmann, Axel; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    Bolide impacts influence primordial evolution of planetary bodies because they can cause instantaneous melting and vaporization of both crust and impactors. Temperatures reached by impact-generated silicate melts are unknown because meteorite impacts are ephemeral, and established mineral and rock thermometers have limited temperature ranges. Consequently, impact melt temperatures in global bombardment models of the early Earth and Moon are poorly constrained, and may not accurately predict the survival, stabilization, geochemical evolution and cooling of early crustal materials. Here we show geological evidence for the transformation of zircon to cubic zirconia plus silica in impact melt from the 28 km diameter Mistastin Lake crater, Canada, which requires super-heating in excess of 2370 °C. This new temperature determination is the highest recorded from any crustal rock. Our phase heritage approach extends the thermometry range for impact melts by several hundred degrees, more closely bridging the gap between nature and theory. Profusion of >2370 °C superheated impact melt during high intensity bombardment of Hadean Earth likely facilitated consumption of early-formed crustal rocks and minerals, widespread volatilization of various species, including hydrates, and formation of dry, rigid, refractory crust.

  6. Target-projectile interaction during impact melting at Kamil Crater, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Agnese; D'Orazio, Massimo; Cordier, Carole; Folco, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In small meteorite impacts, the projectile may survive through fragmentation; in addition, it may melt, and chemically and physically interact with both shocked and melted target rocks. However, the mixing/mingling between projectile and target melts is a process still not completely understood. Kamil Crater (45 m in diameter; Egypt), generated by the hypervelocity impact of the Gebel Kamil Ni-rich ataxite on sandstone target, allows to study the target-projectile interaction in a simple and fresh geological setting. We conducted a petrographic and geochemical study of macroscopic impact melt lapilli and bombs ejected from the crater, which were collected during our geophysical campaign in February 2010. Two types of glasses constitute the impact melt lapilli and bombs: a white glass and a dark glass. The white glass is mostly made of SiO2 and it is devoid of inclusions. Its negligible Ni and Co contents suggest derivation from the target rocks without interaction with the projectile (<0.1 wt% of projectile contamination). The dark glass is a silicate melt with variable contents of Al2O3 (0.84-18.7 wt%), FeOT (1.83-61.5 wt%), and NiO (<0.01-10.2 wt%). The dark glass typically includes fragments (from few μm to several mm in size) of shocked sandstone, diaplectic glass, lechatelierite, and Ni-Fe metal blebs. The metal blebs are enriched in Ni compared to the Gebel Kamil meteorite. The dark glass is thus a mixture of target and projectile melts (11-12 wt% of projectile contamination). Based on recently proposed models for target-projectile interaction and for impact glass formation, we suggest a scenario for the glass formation at Kamil. During the transition from the contact and compression stage and the excavation stage, projectile and target liquids formed at their interface and chemically interact in a restricted zone. Projectile contamination affected only a shallow portion of the target rocks. The SiO2 melt that eventually solidified as white glass behaved as

  7. Slab Breakoff of the Neo-Tethys Ocean in the Lhasa Terrane Inferred From Contemporaneous Melting of the Mantle and Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Jifeng; Zeng, Yunchuan; Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Baodi; Yu, Hongxia; Chen, Ling; Huang, Wenlong; Tan, Rongyu

    2017-11-01

    Oceanic slab breakoff significantly affects the thermal regime of the lithosphere during continental collision. This often triggers extension-related mafic magmatism and crustal melting. It is generally accepted that the Neo-Tethyan lithosphere subducted beneath the southern Lhasa Subterrane, resulting in the formation of the Gangdese magmatic arc. However, the timing of slab breakoff is still disputed, due to a lack of evidence for extension-related mafic magmatism. In this study, we provide comprehensive age, element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data of mafic dikes, felsic intrusions, and enclaves from the Daju area, southern Lhasa Subterrane. The timing of mafic dikes and granitoids are contemporaneous at circa 57 Ma. The mafic dikes are characterized by high Th/U, and Zr/Y ratios, their geochemistry indicates an intraplate affinity rather than arc magmas. Furthermore, the mafic dikes show strongly variable igneous zircon ɛHf(t), and lower whole-rock ɛNd(t) than granitoids. This evidence suggests that the mafic dikes represent asthenosphere-derived melts contaminated by various degrees of ancient lithosphere. However, the granitoids were directly derived from the juvenile lower crust. Given the abrupt decrease in the convergence rate between India and Asia, and the surface uplift and sedimentation cessation in the southern Lhasa Subterrane in the early Cenozoic, the occurrence of synchronous mafic dikes and granitoids is best explained by a slab breakoff model. The occurrence of intraplate-type magmas likely corresponds to the magmatic expression of the initial stage of Neo-Tethyan slab breakoff. The slab breakoff concept also explains the onset of the magmatic "flare-up" and crustal growth after 57 Ma.

  8. Partial melting of amphibolites in the Eastern Segment of the Sveconorwegian orogen, southern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, E.; Hansen, E. C.; Möller, C.; Huffman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mafic migmatites with amphibolitic melanosome and tonalitic leucosome are a common feature in continental collision orogenic zones. However, the anatexis of mafic rocks has received much less attention than anatexis in felsic, intermediate or pelitic compositions. We examined mafic migmatites along a traverse within the Eastern Segment of the 1.14-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogen, between Forsheda and Fegen southern Sweden. This traverse occurs in the center of a >150 km metamorphic transition from sub-greenschist facies in the east to high-pressure granulite and eclogite facies in the west (Möller and Andersson, unpublished metamorphic map). The Eastern Segment is a parautochthonous belt made up of rocks of the Fennoscandian shield that were deformed and metamorphosed during the Sveconorwegian orogeny. Within the traverse amphibolite bodies occur within migmatitic felsic to intermediate orthogneisses. The first appearance of tonalitic leucosome in amphibolite was observed towards the eastern edge of the traverse and continued to occur sporadically westward ranging in abundance (by outcrop area) from 0 to 25 %. The mineral assemblage in amphibolite is hbl + plag ( An30) + qtz + bt ± grt ± ilm ± ttn ± py ± SO2-rich scp. No examples of peritectic pyroxene associated with leucosome were found. The lack of peritectic pyroxene suggests that a water-rich phase was present at the onset of anatexis. The highly variable amount of leucosome further suggests that the amount of melt generated was determined by the amount of water available. Together these suggest that partial was driven by the local influx of a water-rich fluid. In the higher grade portions further west migmatitic amphibolite with tonalitic leucosome occurs in two varieties: one with peritectic pyroxene and relatively small amounts of leucosome, interpreted as forming by water-undersaturated dehydration melting, and another without peritectic pyroxene and with larger amounts of leucosome which is interpreted

  9. Breccia 66055 and related clastic materials from the Descartes region, Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Robyn, M. A.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace and major element contents obtained by instrumental neutron activation are reported for a number of Apollo 16 soil samples and miscellaneous breccia fragments. In addition, data obtained by instrumental neutron activation and electron microprobe techniques along with petrographic descriptions are presented for selected subsamples of breccia 66055. The compositions of our soil samples can be modeled by mixtures of various amounts of anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and low-K Fra Mauro basalt components. These mixtures are typical of those found in a number of petrographic surveys of the fines. Breccia 66055 is a complex regolith breccia which consists of at least four distinct types of microbreccias. No systematic relation with respect to stratigraphic age among the various microbreccia types was observed. Compositionally and texturally, the clasts which compose breccia 66055 are similar to a number of previously reported rock types from the Apollo 16 area. The entire breccia appears to have undergone a complex history of thermal metamorphism. We conclude from the study of these samples that the Cayley Formation is probably homogeneous in its gross compositional and petrographic aspects.

  10. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  11. Ultrabasic breccias in layered intrusions - The Rhum complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Two breccias in the southwest part of the ultrabasic Rhum complex are considered. Aspects of field relations are discussed along with questions regarding the petrography of the matrix. Attention is given to textures and chemical mineralogy, the mechanism of brecciation, matrix magmas, and the possible implications of the findings. It is concluded that the Harris Bay and Ard Mheall ultrabasic breccias formed by brecciation due to the intrusion of feldspathic peridotite magmas.

  12. A low-δ18O intrusive breccia from Koegel Fontein, South Africa: Remobilisation of basement that was hydrothermally altered during global glaciation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olianti, Camille A. E.; Harris, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The Cretaceous Koegel Fontein igneous complex is situated on the west coast of South Africa, and has a high proportion of rocks with abnormally low δ18O values. The rocks with the lowest δ18O values (- 5.2‰) belong to intrusive matrix-supported breccia pipes and dykes, containing a variety of clast types. The breccia rocks range in SiO2 from 44 to 68 wt% and their whole-rock δ18O values vary between - 5.2‰ and + 1.8‰. The major and trace element composition of the breccia rocks is consistent with them containing variable proportions of clasts of Cretaceous intrusive rocks and basement gneiss and the matrix being fluidized material derived from the same source as the clasts. Based on the nature of the clasts contained in the breccia, it was emplaced just prior to intrusion of the main Rietpoort Granite at 134 Ma. All components of the breccia have low δ18O value and, at least in the case of the gneiss clasts, this predates incorporation in the fluidized material. Although the early Cretaceous appears to have been a period of cold climate, it is unlikely that the δ18O values of ambient precipitation ( - 10‰) would have been low enough to have generated the required 18O-depletion. The basement gneiss was probably 2-3 km below the Cretaceous surface, minimizing the possibility of interaction with isotopically unmodified meteoric water, and there is no evidence for foundered blocks of cover rocks in the breccia. There is, therefore, no evidence for downwards movement of material. We favour a model where basement gneiss interacted with extremely 18O-depleted fluid during crustal reworking at 547 Ma, a time of global glaciation. Low-δ18O metamorphic fluids produced by dehydration melting of 18O-depleted gneiss became trapped and, as the fluid pressure increased, failure of the seal resulted in explosive upwards movement of fluidized breccia. Migration was along pre-existing dykes, incorporating fragments of these dykes, as well as the country rock gneiss.

  13. Lunar sample studies. [breccias basalts, and anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility.

  14. Major, trace element and stable isotope geochemistry of synorogenic breccia bodies, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, J.P.; McGillion, M.S.; Webers, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Cambrian carbonates in the Heritage Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica host a series of carbonate-rich breccia bodies that formed contemporaneously with the Permian Gondwanide orogen. The breccia bodies had a three-stage genesis, with the older breccias containing Cambrian limestone (and marble) clasts supported by calcite, whereas the younger breccias are nearly clast-free and composed entirely of matrix calcite. Breccia clasts, calcite matrix and detrital matrix samples were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence (major and trace elements), x-ray diffraction, and stable isotopes (C, O) and suggest that the breccias formed as part of a closed geochemical system, at considerable depth, within the Cambrian limestone host as the Ellsworth Mountains deformed into a fold-and-thrust belt along the margin of Gondwana

  15. Ancient impactor components preserved and reworked in martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, Steven; Brandon, Alan D.; Mayer, Bernhard; Humayun, Munir

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and paired stones represent unique samples of martian polymict regolith breccia. Multiple breccia subsamples characterized in this work confirm highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd) contents that are consistently elevated (e.g., Os ∼9.3-18.4 ppb) above indigenous martian igneous rocks (mostly <5 ppb Os), equivalent to ∼3 wt% of admixed CI-type carbonaceous chondritic material, and occur in broadly chondrite-relative proportions. However, a protracted history of impactor component (metal and sulfide) breakdown and redistribution of the associated HSE has masked the original nature of the admixed meteorite signatures. The present-day 187Os/188Os ratios of 0.119-0.136 record a wider variation than observed for all major chondrite types. Combined with the measured 187Re/188Os ratios of 0.154-0.994, the range in Os isotope ratios indicates redistribution of Re and Os from originally chondritic components early in the history of the regolith commencing at ∼4.4 Ga. Superimposed recent Re mobility reflects exposure and weathering at or near the martian and terrestrial surfaces. Elevated Os concentrations (38.0 and 92.6 ppb Os), superchondritic Os/HSE ratios, and 187Os/188Os of 0.1171 and 0.1197 measured for two subsamples of the breccia suggest the redistribution of impactor material at ∼1.5-1.9 Ga, possibly overlapping with a (partial) resetting event at ∼1.4 Ga recorded by U-Pb isotope systematics in the breccia. Martian alteration of the originally chondritic HSE host phases, to form Os-Ir-rich nuggets and Ni-rich pyrite, implies the influence of potentially impact-driven hydrothermal systems. Multiple generations of impactor component admixture, redistribution, and alteration mark the formation and evolution of the martian regolith clasts and matrix of NWA 7034 and paired meteorites, from the pre-Noachian until impact ejection to Earth.

  16. Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, J.F.; Pieters, C.M.; Isaacson, P.J.; Head, J.W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Klima, R.L.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Runyon, C.J.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  18. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic bombs that degas at sea surface, boil seawater and sink when cooled and degassed. At the beginning of the eruption white coloured pumices enveloped in darker coloured spatters floated on land. These composite pumices show evidence of magma mingling with folds and undulations of the darker coloured magma within the white pumice suggesting magma mingling in a viscous regime. The white pumice is highly vesicular and resembles foam. Most of the vesicular structure is made of tightly packed, polygonal bubbles of uniform size (˜ 100 μm), suggesting a single event of homogeneous bubble nucleation. An earlier event of heterogeneous bubble nucleation is indicated by the presence of a few large bubbles developed around tiny quartz crystals. Both the darker and lighter coloured pumices are almost aphyric. A few olivine crystals with perfect euhedral morphology occur within the darker part. Rare olivines of same composition are also found in the white pumice glass but then display somewhat rounded outlines and hopper-type structure. Melt inclusions in olivines of the darker pumice are of the same composition as the enveloping mafic glass, whereas olivines in the mixing boundary layer have melt inclusions of less mafic composition. The whole-rock composition and slightly more evolved glass composition are of basanitc and alkali rhyolitic composition (at the limit of the trachyte field) according to the TAS classification. Such rhyolitic compositions are rare in the Canaries. Analyses of residual volatile concentration in the glasses show that the silicic glass is highly degassed (F: 511 ±222; Cl: 202 ±58; S: below detection limit; values in ppm,1SD, n=10), whereas the basanitic glass still has very high halogene concentrations (F: 1354 ±151; Cl: 1026 ±47; S: 362 ±29; 1SD, n=10). In-situ analysis of trace element compositions of the dark glasses reveal typical basanitic compositions with

  19. Petrogenesis of the Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complex in the Makkah quadrangle, western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtoor, Abdelmonem; Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Harbi, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    -rich and Fe-rich varieties. All spinel varieties in the mafic-ultramafic rocks have high Fe3 + and TiO2 contents. The estimated melt composition in equilibrium with Gabal Taftafan complex is mostly similar to that of the SSZ boninitic magmas. The Taftafan mafic-ultramafic rocks show many similarities with the Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, including the internal zonal lithology, bulk rock geochemistry, and mineral chemistry. Thus, it is neither related to a fragment of ophiolite sequence nor to the stratiform mafic-ultramafic intrusion. The location of the Taftafan complex along a major fracture zone parallel to the suture between Jeddah and Asir terranes in addition to the aforementioned striking similarities to the Alaskan-type complexes, suggests a formation in subduction-related setting from a common hydrous mafic magma.

  20. Chronology of Late Cretaceous igneous and hydrothermal events at the Golden Sunlight gold-silver breccia pipe, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Foord, Eugene E.; Zartman, Robert E.; Pearson, Robert C.; Foster, Fess

    1996-01-01

    Gold mineralization at the Golden Sunlight breccia pipe, southwestern Montana, is related to emplacement of Late Cretaceous alkali-calcic rhyolite and subsequent collapse of the Belt Supergroup wallrock and rhyolite in the pipe. The pipe is inferred to grade downward into an alkalic porphyry molybdenum system. The pipe is cut by alkalic to sub-alkalic lamprophyre dikes and sills, which locally contain high-grade gold where emplaced along late shear zones and vein systems. Determination of the emplacement age of the rhyolite is hampered by inherited lead or inherited Late Archean zircon from the source region of the rhyolite. An emplacement age of about 80 Ma for the rhyolite can be inferred if a basement age of 2,600 Ma is assumed. This Late Archean age is in agreement with basement ages determined in many parts of southwestern Montana. A 206 Pb- 238 U whole-rock date of 84 ? 18 Ma from altered and mineralized Belt Supergroup strata and rhyolite in the breccia pipe indicates hydrothermal alteration related to gold mineralization in Late Cretaceous time. Although sericite is a relatively widespread hydrothermal mineral, attempts to date the very fine grained material by the 40 Ar- 39 Ar method did not provide a spectra that could be interpreted unambiguously. A 40 Ar- 39 Ar plateau date of 76.9 ? 0.5 Ma from biotite phenocrysts in the lamprophyre indciates intrusion of mafic magma and attendant CO 2 metasomatism in the Late Cretaceous. Fission-track data from zircon in the rhyolite are permissive of slow uplift of the Belt Supergroup strata, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225. 2Golden Sunlight Mines, Inc., 453 MT Highway 2 East, Whitehall, MT 59759. rhyolite, and lamprophyre between 55 and 50 Ma, but the data are not definitive. Rhyolitic welded tuff in the informally named units 7, 9, and 11 of the Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics is most similar in chemistry and age to the rhyolite at the Golden Sunlight mine. Trachybasalt in

  1. Geomorphologic mapping of the lunar crater Tycho and its impact melt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, T.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    Using SELENE/Kaguya Terrain Camera and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data, we produced a new, high-resolution (10 m/pixel), geomorphological and impact melt distribution map for the lunar crater Tycho. The distal ejecta blanket and crater rays were investigated using LROC wide-angle camera (WAC) data (100 m/pixel), while the fine-scale morphologies of individual units were documented using high resolution (∼0.5 m/pixel) LROC narrow-angle camera (NAC) frames. In particular, Tycho shows a large coherent melt sheet on the crater floor, melt pools and flows along the terraced walls, and melt pools on the continuous ejecta blanket. The crater floor of Tycho exhibits three distinct units, distinguishable by their elevation and hummocky surface morphology. The distribution of impact melt pools and ejecta, as well as topographic asymmetries, support the formation of Tycho as an oblique impact from the W-SW. The asymmetric ejecta blanket, significantly reduced melt emplacement uprange, and the depressed uprange crater rim at Tycho suggest an impact angle of ∼25-45°.

  2. Petrology of 60035 - Evolution of a polymict ANT breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive analysis of the lunar rock sample 60035 with optical microscopy and electron microprobe methods show it to be a polymict ANT breccia partly coated with glass, containing abundant clasts which have troctolitic/noritic anorthosite compositions. At least two episodes of crushing and mixing were involved in the petrogenesis of 60035, and annealing and mineral equilibration have not been extensive since the formation of the breccia.

  3. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  4. AR-39Ar-40 dating of basalts and rock breccias from Apollo 17 and the malvern achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, T.; Horn, P.

    1977-01-01

    The principles and the potential of the Ar-39/Ar-40 dating technique are illustrated by means of results obtained for 12 Apollo 17 rocks. Emphasis is given to methodical problems and the geological interpretation of lunar rock ages. Often it is ambigious to associate a given lunar breccia with a certain formation, or a formation with a basin. In addition, large-scale events on the Moon have not necessarily reset radiometric clocks completely. One rock fragment has a well-defined plateau age of 4.28 b.y., but the ages of two Apollo 17 breccias define an upper limit for the formation age of the Serenitatis basin at 4.05 b.y. Ages derived from five mare basalts indicate cessation of mare volcanism at Taurus-Littrow approximately 3.78 b.y. ago. Ca/Ar-37 exposure ages show that Camelot Crater was formed by an impact approximately 95 m.y. ago. After a short summary of the lunar timetable as it stands at the end of the Apollo program, we report about Ar-39/Ar-40 and rare gas studies on the Malvern meteorite. This achondrite resembles lunar highland breccias in texture as well as in rare-gas patterns. It was strongly annealed at some time between 3.4 and 3.8 b.y. ago. The results indicate that very similar processes have occurred on the Moon and on achondritic parent bodies at comparable times, leading to impact breccias with strikingly similar features, including the retention of rare-gas isotopes from various sources.

  5. Sedimentology of the Shangoluwe breccias and timing of the Cu mineralisation (Katanga Supergroup, D. R. of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambwe, Pascal; Kipata, Louis; Chabu, Mumba; Muchez, Philippe; Lubala, Toto; Jébrak, Michel; Delvaux, Damien

    2017-08-01

    The origin of breccias in the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup in D.R of Congo is still a matter of debate. At the Shangoluwe Cu deposit located in the Kambove mining district (central part of the Lufilian arc), the sedimentary breccias bearing Cu mineralisation have been investigated for lithological and sedimentological study, quantitative analysis of the breccias fragments and fault kinematic analysis in order to understand the origin of the breccias, their lithostratigraphic position and the timing of mineralisation. At Shangoluwe, three sedimentary breccias sequentially deposited within the Kundelungu rocks can be identified on the basis of the nature of the matrix and fragments; from bottom to the top, the Ferruginous Breccias, the Dolomitic Breccias and the Siliceous Breccias. These breccias were deposited as lenses. The presence of debris and grain flows, a finely laminated matrix, pseudo-stratification, normal and reverse graded-bedding, and the presence of interbedded siltstone, sandy shale, dolomitic shale, shale and dolomite, are considered as evidence of a sedimentary origin of the breccias. The log normal distribution of the fragments indicates that gravity flow was the main deposition mechanism. The Ferruginous and Dolomitic Breccias are regarded as contemporaneous with the Kundelungu Group. They were deposited as lenses interbedded in the Kanianga and Mongwe formations, both affected by the Lufilian orogeny (D1 - Kolwezian and D2 - Monwezian phases). The Siliceous Breccias are post-orogenic as shown by the presence of an erosional and angular unconformity respectively on the Dolomitic Breccias and the Kundelungu formations. Therefore, the Siliceous Breccias are attributed to the Lower Palaeozoic Biano Subgroup and the lithostratigraphy of the Biano Subgroup is proposed for revision accordingly. Copper mineralisation post-dates the deposition of the breccias, the dissolution of dolomite fragments and in-situ fragmentation. This mineralisation

  6. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  7. Late Holocene hydrous mafic magmatism at the Paint Pot Crater and Callahan flows, Medicine Lake Volcano, N. California and the influence of H2O in the generation of silicic magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzler, R.J.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper characterizes late Holocene basalts and basaltic andesites at Medicine Lake volcano that contain high pre-eruptive H2O contents inherited from a subduction related hydrous component in the mantle. The basaltic andesite of Paint Pot Crater and the compositionally zoned basaltic to andesitic lavas of the Callahan flow erupted approximately 1000 14C years Before Present (14C years B.P.). Petrologic, geochemical and isotopic evidence indicates that this late Holocene mafic magmatism was characterized by H2O contents of 3 to 6 wt% H2O and elevated abundances of large ion lithophile elements (LILE). These hydrous mafic inputs contrast with the preceding episodes of mafic magmatism (from 10,600 to ~3000 14C years B.P.) that was characterized by the eruption of primitive high alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) with low H2O (< 0.2 wt%), lower LILE abundance and different isotopic characteristics. Thus, the mantle-derived inputs into the Medicine Lake system have not always been low H2O, primitive HAOT, but have alternated between HAOT and hydrous subduction related, calc-alkaline basalt. This influx of hydrous mafic magma coincides temporally and spatially with rhyolite eruption at Glass Mountain and Little Glass Mountain. The rhyolites contain quenched magmatic inclusions similar in character to the mafic lavas at Callahan and Paint Pot Crater. The influence of H2O on fractional crystallization of hydrous mafic magma and melting of pre-existing granite crust beneath the volcano combined to produce the rhyolite. Fractionation under hydrous conditions at upper crustal pressures leads to the early crystallization of Fe-Mg silicates and the suppression of plagioclase as an early crystallizing phase. In addition, H2O lowers the saturation temperature of Fe and Mg silicates, and brings the temperature of oxide crystallization closer to the liquidus. These combined effects generate SiO2-enrichment that leads to rhyodacitic differentiated lavas. In contrast, low H2O HAOT

  8. The mineralogical, chemical, and chronological characteristics of the crystalline Apollo 16 impact melt rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Reimold, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative review of mineralogical, chemical, and chronological data on crystalline Apollo 16 impact melt rocks is presented. The use of such data to identify distinct impact melt complex is discussed, and 22 distinct impact melt bodies are identified. The recently detected group of feldspathic microporphyritic (FM) melt rocks was tested for chemical and isotopic homogeneity; instrumental neutron activation analysis and new Rb-Sr isotopic whole rock data indicate that FMs were probably not derived from a single impact melt sheet, but might be representative of the Descartes basement. Stratigraphical and chronological concepts for the geological development of the landing site are discussed, and a model is presented for the formation of the Cayley Plains and the Descartes formation.

  9. Coincidence in Time of the Imbrium Basin Impact and Apollo 15 KREEP Volcanic Flows: The Case for Impact-Induced Melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1994-01-01

    On the Earth there is no firm evidence that impacts can induce volcanic activity. However, the Moon does provide a very likely example of volcanism induced by an immense impact: the Imbrium basin-forming event was immediately succeeded by a crustal partial melting event that released basalt flows characterized by K, rare-earth elements (REE), P, and other trace elements (KREEP) over a wide area creating the Apennine Bench Formation. Impact total melting is inconsistent with the chemistry and petrography of these Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, which are quite unlike the impact melts recognized at Taurus-Littrow as the products of the Serenitatis impact. The Imbrium impact and the KREEP volcanic events are indistinguishable in radiometric age, and thus the volcanism occurred less than about 20 Ma later than the impact (less than about 0.5% of lunar history). The sample record indicates that such KREEP volcanism had not occurred in the region prior to that time, and demonstrates that it never occurred again. Such coincidence in time implies a genetic relationship between the two events, and impact-induced partial melting or release appears to be the only feasible process. Nonetheless, the characteristics of the Apollo 15 KREEP basalts suggest large-degree crustal melting that is not easy to reconcile with the inability of lunar pressure release alone to induce partial melting unless the source was already almost at its melting point. The earliest history of the surface of the Earth, at a time of greater internal heat production and basin-forming impacts, could have been greatly influenced by impact-induced melting.

  10. Impact-melt hygrometer for Mars: The case of shergottite Elephant Moraine (EETA) 79001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Yang; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Zhang, Youxue

    2018-05-01

    We report volatile concentrations and hydrogen isotope compositions of impact melts and minerals in EETA 79001. We observed chemical changes in pyroxene, maskelynite (or feldspathic glass), and merrillite in contact with or inside impact melts. All pyroxene grains analyzed here are inside or close to impact melt pockets and contain 10-41 ppm H2O and enriched in D (δD = + 1729 to + 3707 ‰), with the highest values found in a grain enclosed in an impact melt pocket. Maskelynite or feldspathic glass contains 6.3 to 98 ppm H2O with δD values of +1604 to + 3938 ‰. The high H2O and δD values were obtained in those enclosed inside or in contact with the impact melts, whereas low H2O content (4 ppm) and terrestrial-like D/H value (δD of - 90 ± 82 ‰) were found in one maskelynite grain away from impact melts contains. Rims of ∼5 μm thickness of merrillite grains next to impact melts display Na-depletion by ∼0.9 wt%, and the sides in contact with impact melts show Mg-enrichment by ∼0.5 wt%. However, the H2O and δD values of merrillite interiors (39-242 ppm H2O and δD of +1682 to + 3884 ‰) do not show correlation with their proximity to the impact melts. Rather, δD and 1/H2O of merrillite form a negative trend different from that of impact melt pockets and maskelynite, suggesting post-crystallization or late-crystallization interactions with the crustal fluids. The impact melt pockets in EETA 79001 contain 121-646 ppm H2O, 4.3-13 ppm F, 13-50 ppm Cl, 707-2702 ppm S, and the δD values of +3368 to + 4639 ‰. The correlations between H2O, F, Cl, P2O5, and δD values of impact melts and feldspathic glass are consistent with mixing between a volatile-rich and high δD (+3000 to + 5000 ‰) endmember and a volatile-poor and low δD endmember. The volatile-poor and low δD endmember is consistent with magmatic volatiles stored in silicates. The volatile-rich and high δD endmember represents pre-impact alteration materials by subsurface water. Alteration

  11. The Onset of the Cataclysm: In Situ Dating of the Nectaris Basin Impact Melt Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact history of the Moon has significant implications beyond simply excavating the surface of our nearest neighbor. The age distribution of lunar impact breccias inspired the idea of a catastrophic influx of asteroids and comets about 4 billion years ago and motivated new models of planetary dynamics. An epoch of heavy bombardment after planets had atmospheres and continents would have influenced the course of biologic evolution. The story of a cataclysmic bombardment, written in the rocks of the Moon, has far-reaching consequences.

  12. Lobate impact melt flows within the extended ejecta blanket of Pierazzo crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Neish, Catherine D.; Artemieva, Natalia A.; McEwen, Alfred S.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    2018-02-01

    Impact melt flows are observed within the continuous and discontinuous ejecta blanket of the 9 km lunar crater Pierazzo, from the crater rim to more than 40 km away from the center of the crater. Our mapping, fractal analysis, and thermal modeling suggest that melt can be emplaced ballistically and, upon landing, can become separated from solid ejecta to form the observed flow features. Our analysis is based on the identification of established melt morphology for these in-ejecta flows and supported by fractal analysis and thermal modeling. We computed the fractal dimension for the flow boundaries and found values of D = 1.05-1.17. These are consistent with terrestrial basaltic lava flows (D = 1.06-1.2) and established lunar impact melt flows (D = 1.06-1.18), but inconsistent with lunar dry granular flows (D = 1.31-1.34). Melt flows within discontinuous ejecta deposits are noted within just 1.5% of the mapping area, suggesting that the surface expression of impact melt in the extended ejecta around craters of this size is rare, most likely due to the efficient mixing of melts with solid ejecta and local target rocks. However, if the ejected fragments (both, molten and solid) are large enough, segregation of melt and its consequent flow is possible. As most of the flows mapped in this work occur on crater-facing slopes, the development of defined melt flows within ejecta deposits might be facilitated by high crater-facing topography restricting the flow of ejecta soon after it makes ground contact, limiting the quenching of molten ejecta through turbulent mixing with solid debris. Our study confirms the idea that impact melt can travel far beyond the continuous ejecta blanket, adding to the lunar regolith over an extensive area.

  13. Reconnaissance survey of the Duolun ring structure in Inner Mongolia: Not an impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Kenkmann, Thomas; Xiao, Zhiyong; Sturm, Sebastian; Metzger, Nicolai; Yang, Yu; Weimer, Daniela; Krietsch, Hannes; Zhu, Meng-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The Duolun basin, which is located in Inner Mongolia, China, has been proposed to be an impact structure with an apparent rim diameter of about 70, or even 170 km. The designation as an impact structure was based on its nearly circular topography, consisting of an annular moat that surrounds an inner hummocky region, and the widespread occurrences of various igneous rocks, polymict breccias, and deformed crustal rocks. Critical shock metamorphic evidence is not available to support the impact hypothesis. We conducted two independent reconnaissance field surveys to this area and studied the lithology both within and outside of the ring structure. We collected samples from all lithologies that might contain evidence of shock metamorphism as suggested by their locations, especially those sharing similar appearances with impact breccias, suevites, impact melt rocks, and shatter cones. Field investigation, together with thin-section examination, discovered that the suspected impact melt rocks are actually Early Cretaceous and Late Jurassic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of rhyolitic to trachytic compositions, and the interpreted impact glass is typical volcanic glass. Petrographic analyses of all the samples reveal no indications for shock metamorphic overprint. All these lines of evidence suggest that the Duolun basin was not formed through impact cratering. The structural deformation and spatial distribution pattern of the igneous rocks suggest that the Duolun basin is most likely a Jurassic-Cretaceous complex rhyolite caldera system that has been partly filled with sediments forming an annular basin, followed by resurgent doming of the central area.

  14. On the applicability of lunar breccias for paleomagnetic interpretations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Strangway, D. W.; Larson, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    The weak but definite remanent magnetization of returned lunar samples is discussed. In general, the breccias have the possibility of carrying a significant viscous remanent magnetism (VRM) when exposed to magnetic fields. The two samples studied appear to exemplify two limiting cases which can be clearly related to the iron distribution present. The VRM measured in the laboratory must have been acquired by the samples since their return to earth because the time decay proceeds at such a rate that any viscous remanence will disappear in less than half a year. In spite of the viscous effects there seems to be little question that some breccias carry a recognizable stable remanent magnetism which is very much like that found in the igneous rocks, both in stability and intensity. It is concluded that it is possible to use some of the breccias to reconstruct the history of the lunar magnetic field.

  15. Detailed anatomy of a deep-water carbonate breccia lobe (Upper Jurassic, French subalpine basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courjault, Thomas; Grosheny, Danièle; Ferry, Serge; Sausse, Judith

    2011-06-01

    Detailed correlations across Tithonian carbonate breccia deposits in the Drôme River area (northern part of the so-called "Vocontian Through") suggest the depositional system was that of an elongated deep-water lobe, up to 70 km long and 20 to 30 km wide, for a thickness reaching 200 m. The Drôme lobe, as it is now called, is mainly made of slope to basinal mudstones breccias with minor platform components, interpreted as debris flow and mud flow deposits, associated with slump deposits. It is basically a base-of-slope system, whose elongated depositional area implies it was a "point-sourced" gravity system, thus perhaps connected to a small canyon cut onto the western slope of the basin. But the mostly mudstone material of the breccias also suggests that the walls of this inferred canyon were the main supplier of the lobe, not the carbonate platform proper. The updip part of the lobe has a complex internal geometry as the deposition of breccia bed packages is interrupted by scourings locally 50 m-deep, indicating maybe a canyon mouth environment. The middle part of the lobe is dominated by pure vertical aggradation of breccia beds with minor intervening erosion. In the downdip part of the system a morphological compensation mechanism occurs as breccia beds tend to spread laterally. A huge slump carrying large mudstone olistoliths ends the breccia deposition at the beginning of the Berriasian. This megaslump deposit was mostly emplaced on the right side of the breccia lobe supporting the idea of a depositional relief. Our observations thus show that previous interpretations as a submarine canyon infilling or as shallow-water breccias formed in-situ by cyclic loading under attenuating hurricane waves approaching the platform are not consistent with our observations. The internal geometry of the system studied brings new data about a poorly-studied kind of "turbidite" systems that of deep-water carbonate breccias.

  16. Experimental alteration of artificial and natural impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Declercq, J.; Dypvik, H.; Aagaard, Per; Jahren, J.; Ferrell, R.E.; Horton, J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    The alteration or transformation of impact melt rock to clay minerals, particularly smectite, has been recognized in several impact structures (e.g., Ries, Chicxulub, Mj??lnir). We studied the experimental alteration of two natural impact melt rocks from suevite clasts that were recovered from drill cores into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and two synthetic glasses. These experiments were conducted at hydrothermal temperature (265 ??C) in order to reproduce conditions found in meltbearing deposits in the first thousand years after deposition. The experimental results were compared to geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) of the same alteration and to original mineral assemblages in the natural melt rock samples. In the alteration experiments, clay minerals formed on the surfaces of the melt particles and as fine-grained suspended material. Authigenic expanding clay minerals (saponite and Ca-smectite) and vermiculite/chlorite (clinochlore) were identified in addition to analcime. Ferripyrophyllite was formed in three of four experiments. Comparable minerals were predicted in the PHREEQC modeling. A comparison between the phases formed in our experiments and those in the cores suggests that the natural alteration occurred under hydrothermal conditions similar to those reproduced in the experiment. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Mafic enclaves record syn-eruptive basalt intrusion and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plail, Melissa; Edmonds, Marie; Woods, Andrew W.; Barclay, Jenni; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Herd, Richard A.; Christopher, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Mafic enclaves hosted by andesite erupted at the Soufrière Hills Volcano between 1995 and 2010 yield insights into syn-eruptive mafic underplating of an andesite magma reservoir, magma mixing and its role in sustaining eruptions that may be widely applicable in volcanic arc settings. The mafic enclaves range in composition from basalt to andesite and are generated from a hybrid thermal boundary layer at the interface between the two magmas, where the basalt quenches against the cooler andesite, and the two magmas mix. We show, using an analytical model, that the enclaves are generated when the hybrid layer, just a few tens of centimetres thick, becomes buoyant and forms plumes which rise up into the andesite. Mafic enclave geochemistry suggests that vapour-saturated basalt was underplated quasi-continuously throughout the first three eruptive phases of the eruption (the end member basalt became more Mg and V-rich over time). The andesite erupted during the final phases of the eruption contained more abundant and larger enclaves, and the enclaves were more extensively hybridised with the andesite, suggesting that at some time during the final few years of the eruption, the intrusion of mafic magma at depth ceased, allowing the hybrid layer to reach a greater thickness, generating larger mafic enclaves. The temporal trends in mafic enclave composition and abundance suggests that basalt recharge and underplating sustained the eruption by the transfer of heat and volatiles across the interface and when the recharge ceased, the eruption waned. Our study has important implications for the petrological monitoring of long-lived arc eruptions.

  18. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.

    1973-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  19. Field geology, geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Alxa, China: Implications for Late Permian accretionary tectonics in the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianyun; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian; Han, Chunming; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Ji'en; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lin, Lina

    2013-12-01

    The time of termination of orogenesis for the southern Altaids has been controversial. Systematic investigations of field geology, geochronology and geochemistry on newly discriminated mafic-ultramafic rocks from northern Alxa in the southern Altaids were conducted to address the termination problem. The mafic-ultramafic rocks are located in the Bijiertai, Honggueryulin, and Qinggele areas, stretching from west to east for about 100 km. All rocks occur high-grade gneisses as tectonic lenses that are composed of peridotite, pyroxenite, gabbro, and serpentinite, most of which have undergone pronounced alteration, i.e., serpentinization and chloritization. Geochemically, the rocks are characterized by uniform compositional trends, i.e., with low SiO2-contents (42.51-52.21 wt.%) and alkalinity (Na2O + K2O) (0.01-5.45 wt.%, mostly less than 0.8 wt.%), and enrichments in MgO (7.37-43.36 wt.%), with Mg# = 52.75-91.87. As the rocks have been strongly altered and have a wide range of loss-on-ignition (LOI: 0.44-14.07 wt.%) values, they may have been subjected to considerable alteration by either seawater or metamorphic fluids. The REE and trace element patterns show a relatively fractionated trend with LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, similar to that of T-MORB between N-MORB and E-MORB, indicating that the parental melt resulted from the partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle overprinted by fluid alteration of island-arc origin. The ultramafic rocks are relics derived from the magma after a large degree of partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle with superposed island arc processes under the influence of mid-ocean-ridge magmatism. LA-ICP MS U-Pb zircon ages of gabbros from three spots are 274 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.35), 306 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.49), 262 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), respectively, representing the formation ages of the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Therefore, considering other previously published data, we suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks were products of

  20. Snap, Crackle, Pop: Dilational fault breccias record seismic slip below the brittle-plastic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, Ben L.; Rowe, Christie D.; Smit, Louis; Groenewald, Conrad; Lambert, Christopher W.; Macey, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Off-fault dynamic tensile cracks form behind an earthquake rupture front with distinct orientation and spacing. These cracks explode the wall rock and create breccias, which we hypothesize will preserve a unique fingerprint of dynamic rupture. Identification of these characteristic breccias may enable a new tool for identifying paleoseismic slip surfaces in the rock record. Using previous experimental and theoretical predictions, we develop a field-based model of dynamic dilational breccia formation. Experimental studies find that secondary tensile fracture networks comprise closely spaced fractures at angles of 70-90° from a slip surface, as well as fractures that branch at angles of ∼ 30 ° from a primary mode I fracture. The Pofadder Shear Zone, in Namibia and South Africa, preserves breccias formed in the brittle-ductile transition zone displaying fracture patterns consistent with those described above. Fracture spacing is approximately two orders of magnitude less than predicted by quasi-static models. Breccias are clast-supported, monomict and can display an abrupt transition from fracture network crackle breccia to mosaic breccia textures. Brecciation occurs by the intersection of off-fault dynamic fractures and wall rock fabric; this is in contrast to previous models of fluid pressure gradient-driven failure ;implosion breccias;. This mechanism tends to form many similar sized clasts with particle size distributions that may not display self-similarity; where self-similarity is observed the distributions have relatively low D-values of 1.47 ± 0.37, similar to other studies of dynamic processes. We measure slip distances at dilational breccia stepovers, estimating earthquake magnitudes between Mw 2.8-5.8 and associated rupture lengths of 0.023-3.3 km. The small calculated rupture dimensions, in combination with our geologic observations, suggest that some earthquakes nucleated within the quartz-plastic transitional zone and potentially record deep

  1. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    -ocean-ridge-basalt mantle and enriched-mantle I components. The Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang were formed from tholeiitic basaltic magmas derived from decompression partial melting of the metasomatized mantle in a post-collision extensional tectonic setting. The tholeiitic basaltic magmas are equivalent to the voluminous underplated basaltic magmas that formed during vertical crustal growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the later Paleozoic.

  2. Northwest Africa 773: Lunar Mare Breccia with a Shallow-formed Olivine-Cumulate Component, Very-Low-Ti Heritage, and a KREEP Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Floss, C.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Northwest Africa 773 is one of the more unusual lunar meteorites found in recent years because it contains a prominent clast lithology, which appears to be an olivine-rich cumulate and because it is a very-low-Ti (VLT) mare breccia with relatively high incompatible-trace-element concentrations and LREE/HREE enrichment. A lunar origin was verified by Fagan and coworkers on the basis of noble-gas contents, oxygen isotopes, and mineral compositions. Fagan et al. described two lithologies: (1) heterolithic impact breccia with a regolith component and (2) cumulus olivine gabbronorite. Here, we refer to these as the breccia (Bx) lithology and the olivine-cumulate (OC) lithology. The impact breccia components are predominantly volcanic (basaltic), and, in this context, the occurrence of the cumulus lithology is especially significant: is it related to the volcanic components or does it represent a deep-seated rock entrained by the basaltic magma as it rose to the surface? Elevated incompatible-element concentrations with more or less KREEP-like inter-element ratios and very-low-Ti concentrations distinguish both lithologies of this meteorite from Apollo mare basalts. Here, we summarize key compositional information (bulk and mineral), especially related to the OC lithology, to show that it formed at shallow depth and comes from a VLT ultramafic precursor that mixed with a KREEP-like trace-element component deep in the crust or upper mantle.

  3. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Implications and observations at terrestrial craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Cintala, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The volume of impact melt relative to the volume of the transient cavity increases with the size of the impact event. Here, we use the impact of chondrite into granite at 15, 25, and 50 km s(sup -1) to model impact-melt volumes at terrestrial craters in crystalline targets and explore the implications for terrestrial craters. Figures are presented that illustrate the relationships between melt volume and final crater diameter D(sub R) for observed terrestrial craters in crystalline targets; also included are model curves for the three different impact velocities. One implication of the increase in melt volumes with increasing crater size is that the depth of melting will also increase. This requires that shock effects occurring at the base of the cavity in simple craters and in the uplifted peaks of central structures at complex craters record progressively higher pressures with increasing crater size, up to a maximum of partial melting (approx. 45 GPa). Higher pressures cannot be recorded in the parautochthonous rocks of the cavity floor as they will be represented by impact melt, which will not remain in place. We have estimated maximum recorded pressures from a review of the literature, using such observations as planar features in quartz and feldspar, diaplectic glasses of feldspar and quartz, and partial fusion and vesiculation, as calibrated with estimates of the pressures required for their formation. Erosion complicates the picture by removing the surficial (most highly shocked) rocks in uplifted structures, thereby reducing the maximum shock pressures observed. In addition, the range of pressures that can be recorded is limited. Nevertheless, the data define a trend to higher recorded pressures with crater diameter, which is consistent with the implications of the model. A second implication is that, as the limit of melting intersects the base of the cavity, central topographic peaks will be modified in appearance and ultimately will not occur. That is

  4. Contrasting melt equilibration conditions across Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Mary; Delph, Jonathan; Schleiffarth, W. Kirk; Cosca, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The widespread mafic volcanism, elevated crustal temperatures, and plateau-type topography in Central Anatolia, Turkey, could collectively be the result of lithospheric delamination, mantle upwelling, and tectonic escape in response to Arabian-Anatolian plate collision. We used the results from basalt geochemistry and a passive-source broadband seismic experiment obtained as part of an international collaborative effort (Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolia Tectonics) to investigate the crust-mantle structure and melting conditions associated with the Quaternary Hasandag Monogenic Cluster (HMC) south and west of Hasandag volcano. The HMC is unusually mafic, not only for Central Anatolia but globally, enabling meaningful comparisons between geochemical and seismic interpretations of mantle conditions. HMC basalts are characterized by orogenic signatures that could have originated (1) in mantle wedge that, after stagnating because of collision, was remobilized south and upward as a result of rollback of the African slab or, alternatively (2) by piecemeal foundering of residual mantle lithosphere into convecting upper mantle, producing small-scale convection and associated decompression melting. Melt equilibration conditions for the HMC are hot (TP ˜1335-1250˚ C, assuming 1-4 wt.% H2O) and shallow (P = 1.1 to 1.6 GPa), approaching those for MORB. Shear wave velocities are relatively constant at ˜4.1 km/s between the Moho and a depth of ˜45-50 km (˜1.4 GPa; Fig. 6), below which Vs increases with increasing depth. We infer that a melt-perfused mantle lid could be locally present between 40 and 55 km. In contrast to Central Anatolia, estimated equilibration conditions for Western Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia (east of the Inner Tauride Suture) mantle melts are hotter (by ≥60˚ C) and deeper (mostly by 0.6-1.0 GPa). They also have chemical signatures that, unlike Central Anatolia, are similar to those of intraplate basalts. These differences are likely related

  5. Lunar breccias, petrology, and earth planetary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1978-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) petrologic studies of poikiloblastic textured rocks; (2) petrology of aluminous mare basalts in breccia 14063; (3) petrology of Apollo 15 breccia 15459; (4) high-alumina mare basalts; (5) some petrological aspects of imbrium stratigraphy; (6) petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution; (7) the crystallization trends of spinels in Tertiary basalts from Rhum and Muck and their petrogenetic significance; (8) the geology and evolution of the Cayman Trench; (9) The petrochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cayman Trench and the Captains Bay Pluton, Unalaska Island and their relation to tectonic processes at plate margins; and (10) the oxide and silicate mineral chemistry of a Kimberlite from the Premier Mine with implications for the evolution of kimberlitic magma.

  6. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  7. Experimental Measurement of Frozen and Partially Melted Water Droplet Impact Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, Jose; Yan, Sihong; Tan, Jason; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    High-speed video of single frozen water droplets impacting a surface was acquired. The droplets diameter ranged from 0.4 mm to 0.9 mm and impacted at velocities ranging from 140 m/sec to 309 m/sec. The techniques used to freeze the droplets and launch the particles against the surfaces is described in this paper. High-speed video was used to quantify the ice accretion area to the surface for varying impact angles (30 deg, 45 deg, 60 deg), impacting velocities, and break-up angles. An oxygen /acetylene cross-flow flame used to ensure partial melting of the traveling frozen droplets is also discussed. A linear relationship between impact angle and ice accretion is identified for fully frozen particles. The slope of the relationship is affected by impact speed. Perpendicular impacts, i.e. 30 deg, exhibited small differences in ice accretion for varying velocities, while an increase of 60% in velocity from 161 m/sec to 259 m/sec, provided an increase on ice accretion area of 96% at an impact angle of 60 deg. The increase accretion area highlights the importance of impact angle and velocity on the ice accretion process of ice crystals. It was experimentally observed that partial melting was not required for ice accretion at the tested velocities when high impact angles were used (45 and 60 deg). Partially melted droplets doubled the ice accretion areas on the impacting surface when 0.0023 Joules were applied to the particle. The partially melted state of the droplets and a method to quantify the percentage increase in ice accretion area is also described in the paper.

  8. EARLY IMPACT MELTING AND SPACE EXPOSURE HISTORY OF THE PAT91501 LCHONDRITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2004-01-01

    Collisions probably occurred frequently in the early history of the asteroid belt. Their effects, which should be recorded in meteorites, must have included heating and melting along with shock alteration of mineral textures. Some non-chondritic meteorite types e.g., eucrites and IIE and IAB irons - do indeed give evidence of extensive impact heating more than 3.4 Gyr ago. The ordinary chondrites, in contrast, show little evidence of early impact heating. The Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of ordinary chondrites that experienced intense shock are for the most part relatively young, many less than 1.5 Gyr. The numerous L-chondrites with Ar- Ar ages clustering near 0.5 Gy are a well-known example. One of them, the 105-kg Chico Lchondrite, shows the effects of unusually intense heating. It is approximately 60% impact melt and likely formed as a dyke beneath a large crater when the L-chondrite parent body underwent a very large impact approximately 0.5 Gyr ago. In rare instances, older shock dates are indicated for ordinary chondrites. Dixon et al show early impact resetting of Ar-Ar ages of a few LL-chondrites including MIL 99301 at 4.23 0.03 Gyr, but in none of these stones did shock lead to extensive melting. As of 2003, searches for chondritic melts attributable to early shock had turned up only the Shaw L-chondrite, which has an Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.42 Gyr. PAT91501 is an 8.55-kg L-chondrite containing vesicles and metal-troilite nodules. It is a unique, near-total impact melt, unshocked, depleted in siderophile and chalcophile elements, and contains only approximately 10% relic chondritic material. The authors conclude that PAT91501 crystallized rapidly and from a much more homogeneous melt than did Shaw. They suggest that PAT resembles Chico and likely formed as an impact melt vein within an impact crater. To define the history of PAT, we have determined its Ar-39-Ar-40 age and measured several radioactive and stable nuclides produced during its space exposure to

  9. Origin of silicic magmas along the Central American volcanic front: Genetic relationship to mafic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Thomas A.; Patino, Lina C.; Eaton, Jonathon K.; Valley, John W.; Rose, William I.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Viray, Ela L.

    2006-09-01

    Silicic pyroclastic flows and related deposits are abundant along the Central American volcanic front. These silicic magmas erupted through both the non-continental Chorotega block to the southeast and the Paleozoic continental Chortis block to the northwest. The along-arc variations of the silicic deposits with respect to diagnostic trace element ratios (Ba/La, U/Th, Ce/Pb), oxygen isotopes, Nd and Sr isotope ratios mimic the along-arc variation in the basaltic and andesitic lavas. This variation in the lavas has been interpreted to indicate relative contributions from the slab and asthenosphere to the basaltic magmas [Carr, M.J., Feigenson, M.D., Bennett, E.A., 1990. Incompatible element and isotopic evidence for tectonic control of source mixing and melt extraction along the Central American arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 369-380.; Patino, L.C., Carr, M.J. and Feigenson, M.D., 2000. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 138 (3), 265-283.]. With respect to along-arc trends in basaltic lavas the largest contribution of slab fluids is in Nicaragua and the smallest input from the slab is in central Costa Rica — similar trends are observed in the silicic pyroclastic deposits. Data from melting experiments of primitive basalts and basaltic andesites demonstrate that it is difficult to produce high K 2O/Na 2O silicic magmas by fractional crystallization or partial melting of low-K 2O/Na 2O sources. However fractional crystallization or partial melting of medium- to high-K basalts can produce these silicic magmas. We interpret that the high-silica magmas associated Central America volcanic front are partial melts of penecontemporaneous, mantle-derived, evolved magmas that have ponded and crystallized in the mid-crust — or are melts extracted from these nearly completely crystallized magmas.

  10. Investigation of C-O-H-S fluids directly exsolved from melts associated with the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Esposito, R.; Lamadrid, H. M.; Redi, D.; Steele-MacInnis, M. J.; Bodnar, R. J.; De Vivo, B.; Cannatelli, C.; Lima, A.

    2016-12-01

    Undegassed deep melts can be trapped as melt inclusions (MI) hosted in phenocrysts growing in magma reservoirs. The host crystal acts as a pressure capsule, ideally preventing the melt from degassing. Sometimes, MI often contain a vapor bubble when observed at ambient conditions. Bubble-bearing MI represent a natural sample with which to investigate magmatic fluids that directly exsolve from a silicate melt. Some recent studies reported that most of the CO2 in bubble-bearing MI hosted in mafic minerals is stored in the vapor bubble. However, despite the detection of CO2 in bubbles, the expected accompanying H2O has not been found in mafic MI hosted in olivine. In this presentation, we describe the discovery of H2O in MI hosted in olivine associated with the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) magmas. We reheated crystallized (or partially crystallized) olivine-hosted MI from various eruptions at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius. We quenched bubble-bearing MI from high T (1143-1238°C) to produce a bubble-bearing glass at room T. Using Raman spectroscopy, we detected liquid H2O at room T, vapor H2O at 150°C in the vapor bubbles of reheated MI, and native S and gypsum, in addition to CO2. In most MI, the H2O is hosted in sub-micron scale hydrous phases at the interface between the bubble and the glass and would not be detected during routine analysis. During MI heating experiments, the H2O is redissolved into the melt and then exsolves from the melt into the vapor bubble, where it remains after quenching, at least on the relatively short time scales of our observations. Our results suggest that a significant amount of H2O may be stored in vapor bubbles of bubble-bearing MI, especially for MI with (1) relatively low H2O content in the originally trapped melt, (2) relatively high proportion of H2O in the exsolved fluid, (3) relatively large volume % vapor bubble. In addition, we calculated that the composition of magmatic fluids directly exsolving from mafic melts associated with Mt. Somma

  11. Apollo 16 exploration of Descartes - A geologic summary.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Cayley Plains at the Apollo 16 landing site consist of crudely stratified breccias to a depth of at least 200 meters, overlain by a regolith 10 to 15 meters thick. Samples, photographs, and observations by the astronauts indicate that most of the rocks are impact breccias derived from an anorthosite-gabbro complex. The least brecciated members of the suite include coarse-grained anorthosite and finer-grained, more mafic rocks, some with igneous and some with metamorphic textures. Much of the transverse area is covered by ejecta from North Ray and South Ray craters, but the abundance of rock fragments increases to the south toward the younger South Ray crater.

  12. A tale of two magmas: Petrological insights into mafic and intermediate Plinian volcanism at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crummy, J. M.; Savov, I. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Wilson, M.; Loughlin, S.; Navarro-Ochoa, C.

    2012-12-01

    Volcán de Colima in western Mexico explosively erupts basaltic to high-silica andesitic magmas. Detailed petrological and geochemical analyses of Holocene tephra fallout deposits reveal two distinct magma types: I. typical calc-alkaline series magmas; and II. mixed calc-alkaline - alkaline magmas. Group I magmas comprise basalt to high-silica andesite (50.7 to 60.4 wt.% SiO2) and typically contain phenocrysts of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides ± hornblende ± olivine. Crystallinity varies from 10-25 vol.% dominated by plagioclase in a groundmass comprising highly vesiculated glass with abundant microlites. Back-scatter electron (BSE) microscope images together with electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) reveal complex zoning patterns and compositional variations in plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts. Large scale resorption events with dissolution surfaces cross-cutting multiple growth zones, combined with large steps in An content of up to 20 mol.% in plagioclase, and Mg# varying from 0.74 to 0.86 in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, indicates destabilisation and recrystallisation in a more mafic melt: increases in Cr coincident with step increases in Mg# reveal mafic magma recharge. Many plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts record multiple magma recharge events; while small-scale oscillations reveal compositional fluctuations as a result of decompression and degassing. Group II magmas comprise basalt to basaltic-andesite (48.3 to 57.5 wt.% SiO2) and contain 10-15 vol.% crystals comprising clinopyroxene + olivine + phlogopite + plagioclase + Fe-Ti oxides ± hornblende ± orthopyroxene. The groundmass comprises highly vesiculated glass with abundant microlites of the same mineral phases. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts have magnesian cores (Mg# 0.88-0.89) that display strong dissolution with clear resorption and recrystallisation. EPMA analyses reveal large compositional differences with the surrounding growth zone (Mg# 0.80) indicating

  13. Incipient Melt Formation and Devitrification at the Wanapitei Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Crabtree, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Wanapitei impact structure is approximately 8 km in diameter and lies within Wanapitei Lake, approximately 34 km northeast of the city of Sudbury. Rocks related to the 37 Ma impact event are found only in Pleistocene glacial deposits south of the lake. Most of the target rocks are metasedimentary rocks of the Proterozoic Huronian Supergroup. An almost completely vitrified, inclusion-bearing sample investigated here represents either an impact melt or a strongly shock metamorphosed, pebbly wacke. In the second, preferred interpretation, a number of partially melted and devitrified clasts are enclosed in an equally highly shock metamorphosed arkosic wacke matrix (i.e., the sample is a shocked pebbly wacke), which records the onset of shock melting. This interpretation is based on the glass composition, mineral relicts in the glass, relict rock textures, and the similar degree of shock metamorphism and incipient melting of all sample components. Boulder matrix and clasts are largely vitrified and preserve various degrees of fluidization, vesiculation, and devitrification. Peak shock pressure of approximately 50-60 GPa and stress experienced by the sample were somewhat below those required for complete melting and development of a homogeneous melt. The rapid cooling and devitrification history of the analyzed sample is comparable to that reported recently from glasses in the suevite of the Ries impact structure in Germany and may indicate that the analyzed sample experienced an annealing temperature after deposition of somewhere between 650 C and 800 C.

  14. Accessory and rock forming minerals monitoring the evolution of zoned mafic ultramafic complexes in the Central Ural Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2007-04-01

    This study describes major and trace element compositions of accessory and rock forming minerals from three Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains (Kytlym, Svetley Bor, Nizhnii Tagil) for the purpose of constraining the origin, evolution and composition of their parental melts. The mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Urals are aligned along a narrow, 900 km long belt. They consist of a central dunite body grading outward into clinopyroxenite and gabbro lithologies. Several of these dunite bodies have chromitites with platinum group element mineralization. High Fo contents in olivine (Fo 92-93) and high Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel (0.67-0.84) suggest a MgO-rich (> 15 wt.%) and Al 2O 3-poor ultramafic parental magma. During its early stages the magma crystallized dominantly olivine, spinel and clinopyroxene forming cumulates of dunite, wehrlite and clinopyroxenite. This stage is monitored by a common decrease in the MgO content in olivine (Fo 93-86) and the Cr/(Cr + Al) value of coexisting accessory chromite (0.81-0.70). Subsequently, at subsolidus conditions, the chromite equilibrated with the surrounding silicates producing Fe-rich spinel while Al-rich spinel exsolved chromian picotite and chromian titanomagnetite. This generated the wide compositional ranges typical for spinel from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes world wide. Laser ablation analyses (LA-ICPMS) reveal that clinopyroxene from dunites and clinopyroxenite from all three complexes have similar REE patterns with an enrichment of LREE (0.5-5.2 prim. mantle) and other highly incompatible elements (U, Th, Ba, Rb) relative to the HREE (0.25-2.0 prim. mantle). This large concentration range implies the extensive crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene together with spinel from a continuously replenished, tapped and crystallizing magma chamber. Final crystallization of the melt in the pore spaces of the cooling cumulate pile explains the large variation in REE concentrations on the scale of a thin

  15. The petrogenesis of late Neoproterozoic mafic dyke-like intrusion in south Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azer, M. K.; Abu El-Ela, F. F.; Ren, M.

    2012-08-01

    New field, petrographical and geochemical studies are presented here for the late Neoproterozoic Rimm intrusion (˜15 km long) exposed in the southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Field relations indicate that the Rimm intrusion is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and calc-alkaline syn-tectonic granodiorite and it was not affected by regional metamorphism. The anorogenic peralkaline granite of Gebel Serbal crosscuts the Rimm intrusion. The Rimm intrusion is made up of several consanguineous rock types with gradational contacts. It is composed chiefly of pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and minor quartz diorite. The chemical composition of the mafic minerals indicated that the studied rocks derived from calc-alkaline mafic magma. Geochemically, the studied rocks are characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and LREE relative to HREE [(Ce/Yb)N = 4.50-6.36]. Quartz diorite display slightly concave HREE pattern and slightly negative Eu-anomaly [(Eu/Eu*)n = 0.91] which may be the result of fractionation of amphibole and plagioclase from the source melt, respectively. The Rimm intrusion evolved from mafic mantle magma into different type rocks by fractional crystallization with minor crustal contamination. The initial magma corresponds to pyroxene-hornblende gabbro and the crystallization of hornblende was caused by slight H2O increase in magma after crystallization of near-liquidus clinopyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. Amphiboles geobarometer indicate that the gabbroic rocks of the Rimm intrusion crystallized at pressures between 4.8 and 6.4 Kb, while quartz diorite crystallized at 1.3-2.1 Kb. Crystallization temperatures range between 800 and 926 °C for the gabbros and between 667 and 784 °C for the quartz diorite. The Rimm intrusion represents a post-orogenic phase formed during the crustal thinning and extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Oblique Impacts: Impact Melt and Transient Cavity Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    We present 3D hydrocode numerical modeling for oblique impacts (i) to estimate the melt production and (ii) to trace the evolution of the transient cavity shape till the crater collapse. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Geologic history of Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034: Evidence for hydrothermal activity and lithologic diversity in the Martian crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Novak-Szabo, Timea; Santos, Alison; Tartese, Romain; Muttik, Nele; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Steele, Andrew; Elardo, Stephen M.; Rahman, Zia; Anand, Mahesh; Delhaye, Thomas; Agee, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The timing and mode of deposition for Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 were determined by combining petrography, shape analysis, and thermochronology. NWA 7034 is composed of igneous, impact, and brecciated clasts within a thermally annealed submicron matrix of pulverized crustal rocks and devitrified impact/volcanic glass. The brecciated clasts are likely lithified portions of Martian regolith with some evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Represented lithologies are primarily ancient crustal materials with crystallization ages as old as 4.4 Ga. One ancient zircon was hosted by an alkali-rich basalt clast, confirming that alkalic volcanism occurred on Mars very early. NWA 7034 is composed of fragmented particles that do not exhibit evidence of having undergone bed load transport by wind or water. The clast size distribution is similar to terrestrial pyroclastic deposits. We infer that the clasts were deposited by atmospheric rainout subsequent to a pyroclastic eruption(s) and/or impact event(s), although the ancient ages of igneous components favor mobilization by impact(s). Despite ancient components, the breccia has undergone a single pervasive thermal event at 500–800°C, evident by groundmass texture and concordance of ~1.5 Ga dates for bulk rock K-Ar, U-Pb in apatite, and U-Pb in metamict zircons. The 1.5 Ga age is likely a thermal event that coincides with rainout/breccia lithification. We infer that the episodic process of regolith lithification dominated sedimentary processes during the Amazonian Epoch. The absence of pre-Amazonian high-temperature metamorphic events recorded in ancient zircons indicates source domains of static southern highland crust punctuated by episodic impact modification.

  18. Chicxulub Impact Crater and Yucatan Carbonate Platform - Stratigraphy and Petrography of PEMEX Borehole Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Cirlos, A. G.; Perez-Drago, G.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Chicxulub impact crater is the best preserved of the three large multi-ring structures documented in the terrestrial record. Chicxulub, formed 65 Ma ago, is associated with the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layer and the impact related to the organism extinctions and events marking the boundary. The crater is buried under Tertiary sediments in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The structure was initially recognized from gravity and magnetic anomalies in the PEMEX exploration surveys of the northwestern Yucatan peninsula. The exploration program included eight deep boreholes completed from 1952 through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large complex impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the PEMEX decades-long exploration program. However, despite frequent use of PEMEX information and core samples, significant parts of the database and cores remain to be evaluated, analyzed and incorporated with results from recent efforts. Access to PEMEX Core Repository has permitted to study the cores and collect new samples from some of the boreholes. We analyzed cores from Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, Sacapuc-1, Ticul-1, Yucatan-1 and Yucatan-4 boreholes to make new detailed stratigraphic correlations and petrographic characterization, using information from PEMEX database and the recent studies. In C-1 cores, breccias show 4-8 cm clasts of fine grained altered melt dispersed in a medium to coarse grained matrix composed of pyroxene and feldspar with little macroscopic alteration. Clasts contain 0.2 to 0.1 cm fragments of silicate material (basement) that show variable degrees of digestion. Melt samples from C-1 N10 comes from interval 1,393-1,394 m, and show a fine-to-medium grained coherent microcrystalline groundmass. Melt and breccias in Y-6 extend from about 1,100 m to more than 1,400 m. Sequence is well sorted, with an apparent gradation in both the lithic and melt clasts. In this presentation we report on

  19. Impact-generated carbonate melts: evidence from the Haughton structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Spray, John G.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence is presented for the melting of dolomite-rich target rocks during formation of the 24 km diameter, 23 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island in the Canadian high Arctic. Field studies and analytical scanning electron microscopy reveal that the >200 m thick crater-fill deposit, which currently covers an ˜60 km2 area in the center of the structure, comprises fragmented target rocks set within a carbonate-silicate matrix. The silicate component of the matrix consists of Si-Al-Mg-rich glass. The carbonate component is microcrystalline calcite, containing up to a few wt% Si and Al. The calcite also forms spherules and globules within the silicate glass, with which it develops microtextures indicative of liquid immiscibility. Dolomite clasts exhibit evidence of assimilation and may show calcite and rare dolomite overgrowths. Some clasts are penetrated by calcite and silicate injections. Along with the carbonate-silicate glass textures, the presence of pigeonite and spinifex-textured diopside suggests that the matrix to the crater-fill deposit was originally molten and was rapidly cooled. This indicates that the impact event that generated Haughton caused fusion of the predominantly dolomitic target rocks. It appears that the Ca-Mg component of the dolomite may have dissociated, with Mg entering the silicate melt phase, while the Ca component formed a CaCO3-dominant melt. The silicates were derived by the fusion of Lower Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, shales and impure dolomites. Evidence for melting is corroborated by a review of theoretical and experimental work, which shows that CaCO3 melts at >10 GPa and >2000 K, instead of dissociating to release CO2. This work indicates that carbonate-rich sedimentary targets may also undergo impact melting and that the volume of CO2 released into the atmosphere during such events may be considerably less than previously estimated.

  20. Monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.; Horton, J. Wright; Chou, I-Ming; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirm a rare terrestrial occurrence of monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Eyreville B drill core in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The monoclinic tridymite occurs with quartz paramorphs after tridymite and K-feldspar in a microcrystalline groundmass of devitrified glass and Fe-rich smectite. Electron-microprobe analyses revealed that the tridymite and quartz paramorphs after tridymite contain different amounts of chemical impurities. Inspection by SEM showed that the tridymite crystal surfaces are smooth, whereas the quartz paramorphs contain irregular tabular voids. These voids may represent microporosity formed by volume decrease in the presence of fluid during transformation from tridymite to quartz, or skeletal growth in the original tridymite. Cristobalite locally rims spherulites within the same drill core interval. The occurrences of tridymite and cristobalite appear to be restricted to the thickest clast-rich impact melt body in the core at 1402.02–1407.49 m depth. Their formation and preservation in an alkali-rich, high-silica melt rock suggest initially high temperatures followed by rapid cooling.

  1. Understanding the monotonous life of open vent mafic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Rodriguez, F.; Ruth, D. C. S.; Bornas, M.; Rivera, D. J. V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Mafic open vent volcanoes display prominent degassing plumes during quiescence but also erupt frequently, every few months or years. Their small and mildly explosive eruptions (<0.1 km3, VEI 2-3) typically produce the same magma composition and phenocryst content for decades (e.g. Arenal, Mayon, Llaima). This monotonous activity may be punctuated by subplinian or plinian events every hundred years or so. What processes drive the repetitive eruptions of the same magma composition for decades at these volcanoes? We address this question with a new dataset of nine historical eruptions that span the last 100 years of Mayon volcano (Philippines). All samples are basaltic andesitic (SiO2 55 wt%, 4 wt% MgO) with high phenocryst contents (50 ± 7 vol %). Plag shows numerous dissolution and sieve textures and alternating changes of composition (mainly An55 to An85). Opx (Mg# 60-86) and Cpx (Mg# 66-86) phenocrysts typically consist of low Mg/Fe subrounded cores with dissolution zones mantled by higher Mg/Fe rims. The low Mg/Fe cores ( 1000 ±15 °C) crystallized about 30 °C lower than the high Mg/Fe rims ( 1030 ±20 °C). H concentrations in pyroxenes and previously reported melt inclusion volatile contents indicate that the magma reservoir system extends at least to 5 km depth. Mg/Fe pyroxene zoning and diffusion modeling suggests that mafic magma intrusion in a shallow, crystal-rich and more evolved reservoir has occurred repeatedly. The time scale for this process is the same for all 9 events, starting about 2 years prior and continuing up to eruption. We estimate the relative proportions of injecting to resident magma that vary from about 0.2 to 0.7, probably reflecting the local crystal-melt interaction during intrusion. The near constant magma composition is probably the result of buffering of new incoming magma by a crystal-rich upper reservoir, and erupted magmas are physical mixtures. However, we do not find evidence of large-scale crystal recycling from one

  2. U Pb zircon age, geochemical and Sr Nd Pb Hf isotopic constraints on age and origin of alkaline intrusions and associated mafic dikes from Sulu orogenic belt, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong; Gao, Shan; Feng, Caixia; Qi, Youqiang; Wang, Tao; Feng, Guangying; Coulson, Ian M.

    2008-12-01

    Post-orogenic alkaline intrusions and associated mafic dikes from the Sulu orogenic belt of eastern China consist of quartz monzonites, A-type granites and associated mafic dikes. We report here U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data for these rocks. The SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses yield consistent ages ranging from 120.3 ± 2.1 Ma to 126.9 ± 1.9 Ma for five samples from the felsic rocks, and two crystallization ages of 119.0 ± 1.7 Ma and 120.2 ± 1.9 Ma for the mafic dikes. The felsic rocks and mafic dikes are characterized by high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i ranging from 0.7079 to 0.7089, low ɛNd( t) values from - 15.3 to - 19.2, 206Pb/ 204Pb = 16.54-17.25, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.38-15.63, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 37.15-38.45, and relatively uniform ɛHf( t) values of between - 21.6 ± 0.6 and - 23.7 ± 1.0, for the magmatic zircons. The results suggest that they were derived from a common enriched lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by foundered lower crustal eclogitic materials before magma generation. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics imply that the primary magma to these rocks originated through partial melting of ancient lithospheric mantle that was variably hybridized by melts derived from foundered lower crustal eclogite. The mafic dikes may have been generated by subsequent fractionation of clinopyroxene, whereas the felsic rocks resulted from fractionation of potassium feldspar, plagioclase and ilmenite or rutile. Both were not affected by crustal contamination. Combined with previous studies, these findings provide new evidence that the intense lithospheric thinning beneath the Sulu belt of eastern China occurred between 119 and 127 Ma, and that this was caused by the removal of the lower lithosphere (mantle and lower crust).

  3. Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Regolith Particle 65903,16-7: Evidence for Extreme Reduction and Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Kremser, D. T.; Haskin, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Apollo 16 particle 65903,16-7 is a magnesian, alkali-rich impact melt breccia. Low Fe/Mn and high phosphide/phosphate ratios are evidence of severe reduction during impact-melt cooling. Presence of carbonate and FeOOH is evidence for later oxidation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Evidence for a chondritic impactor, evaporation-condensation effects and melting of the Precambrian basement beneath the 'target' Deccan basalts at Lonar crater, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Rahul; Banerjee, Anupam; Goderis, Steven; Claeys, Philippe; Vanhaecke, Frank; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2017-10-01

    of Th relative to that of the average basalt) as well as fractionated La/Sm(N), and higher large ion lithophile element (LILE) concentrations compared to the basalts. The relatively more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd isotopic composition of the impact breccia and non-spherical impact glasses compared to the target basalts are consistent with melting and mixing of the Precambrian basement beneath the Deccan basalt with up to 15 wt% contribution of the basement to these samples. Variations in the moderately siderophile element (MSE) concentration ratios of the impact breccia as well as all the spherules are best explained by contributions from three components - a chondritic impactor, the basaltic target rocks at Lonar and the basement underlying the Deccan basalts. The large variations in concentrations of volatile elements like Zn and Cu and correlated variations of EFCu-EFZn, EFPb-EFZn, EFK-EFZn and EFNa-EFZn, particularly in the Group 1a spherules, are best explained by evaporation-condensation effects during impact. While most spherules, irrespective of their general major and trace element composition, show a loss in volatile elements (e.g., Zn and Cu) relative to the target basalts, some spherules, mainly of Group 1, display enrichments in these elements that are interpreted to reflect the unique preservation of volatile-rich vapour condensates resulting from geochemical fractionation in a vertical direction within the vapour cloud.

  5. Field geology, geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Alxa, China: Implications for Late Permian accretionary tectonics in the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianyun, Feng; Wenjiao, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    The termination of orogenesis for the southern Altaids has been controversial. Systematical investigations of field geology, geochronology and geochemistry on mafic-ultramafic rocks from the northern Alxa of the southern Altaids were conducted to address the termination controversy. The newly discriminated mafic-ultramafic rocks belt is located at Bijiertai, Honggueryulin, and Qinggele areas, stretching from west to east for about 100 km in length. All of the three rock associations contact tectonically with the adjacent metamorphic and deformed Precambrian rocks as tectonic blocks or lenses, and are composed of peridotite, pyroxenite, gabbro, and serpentinite, most of which have subjected to pronounced alteration, i.e., serpentinization and chloritization. Geochemically, the rocks are characterized by a uniform trend of compositional distribution, e.g., with low SiO2-contents (42.51-52.21 wt.%) and alkalinity (Na2O+K2O) (0.01-5.45 wt.%, mostly less than 0.8 wt.%), and enriched in MgO (7.37-43.36 wt.%), with Mg# = 52.75-91.87. As the rocks have had strong alteration and have a wide range of loss-on-ignition (LOI: 0.44-14.07 wt.%), the rocks may be subjected to considerable alteration by either sea-water or metamorphic fluid. The REE and trace element patterns for the rocks show a relatively fractionated trend with LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, similar to that of T-MORB between N-MORB and E-MORB, indicating that the parental melt resulted from the partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle overprinted by fluid alteration of island-arc subsequently. The ultramafic rocks are relics derived from the magma after large degree of partial melting of the oceanic lithospheric mantle with overprinted by island-arc processes under the influence of mid-ocean-ridge magmatism. LA - ICP MS U - Pb zircon ages of gabbros from the three spots are 274 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.35), 306 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.49), 262 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), respectively, representing the formation ages of

  6. Petrogenesis of siliceous high-Mg series rocks as exemplified by the Early Paleoproterozoic mafic volcanic rocks of the Eastern Baltic Shield: enriched mantle versus crustal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexeii

    2015-04-01

    The Early Paleoproterozoic stage in the Earth's evolution was marked by the initiation of global rift systems, the tectonic nature of which was determined by plume geodynamics. These processes caused the voluminous emplacement of mantle melts with the formation of dike swarms, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, and volcanic rocks. All these rocks are usually considered as derivatives of SHMS (siliceous high-magnesian series). Within the Eastern Baltic Shield, the SHMS volcanic rocks are localized in the domains with different crustal history: in the Vodlozero block of the Karelian craton with the oldest (Middle Archean) crust, in the Central Block of the same craton with the Neoarchean crust, and in the Kola Craton with a heterogeneous crust. At the same time, these rocks are characterized by sufficiently close geochemical characteristics: high REE fractionation ((La/Yb)N = 4.9-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-3.6, (Gd/Yb)N =1.66-2.74)), LILE enrichment, negative Nb anomaly, low to moderate Ti content, and sufficiently narrow variations in Nd isotope composition from -2.0 to -0.4 epsilon units. The tectonomagmatic interpretation of these rocks was ambiguous, because such characteristics may be produced by both crustal contamination of depleted mantle melts, and by generation from a mantle source metasomatized during previous subduction event. Similar REE patterns and overlapping Nd isotope compositions indicate that the studied basaltic rocks were formed from similar sources. If crustal contamination en route to the surface would play a significant role in the formation of the studied basalts, then almost equal amounts of contaminant of similar composition are required to produce the mafic rocks with similar geochemical signatures and close Nd isotopic compositions, which is hardly possible for the rocks spaced far apart in a heterogeneous crust. This conclusion is consistent with analysis of some relations between incompatible elements and their ratios. In particular, the

  7. Sudbury Igneous Complex: Impact melt or igneous rock? Implications for lunar magmatism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.

    1992-01-01

    The recent suggestion that the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) is a fractionated impact melt may have profound implications for understanding the lunar crust and the magmatic history of the Moon. A cornerstone of much current thought on the Moon is that the development of the lunar crust can be traced through the lineage of 'pristine' igneous rocks. However, if rocks closely resembling those from layered igneous intrusions can be produced by differentiation of a large impact melt sheet, then much of what is thought to be known about the Moon may be called into question. This paper presents a brief evaluation of the SIC as a differentiated impact melt vs. endogenous igneous magma and possible implications for the magmatic history of the lunar crust.

  8. NWA 7034 Martian breccia: Ar/Ar ages of ca. 1.2 to 1.4 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. E.; Mark, D. F.; Cassata, W.; Lee, M. R.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NWA 7034 and its paired stones are some of the oldest and most diverse of the Martian meteorites. They are complex polymict breccias of impact, igneous, and sedimentary clasts set in a dark grey matrix [1; 2]. The rock also contains angular mineral fragments, including K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and pyroxene [1; 2]. Mineral fragments are often > 1 mm wide, and clasts can be > 1 cm. This diverse breccia assemblage indicates formation via repeated impact events, supported by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb ages ranging from 1.3 to 4.4 Ga [1, 2, and references therein]. In this study we investigate the distribution of ages yielded by Ar/Ar, with nine aliquots analyzed to date, and additional analyses planned. In order to analyze only single phases, chips of matrix/clasts were restricted to visibly monomict fragments < 1 mm diameter, while mineral separates were analyzed as single crystals. Cosmogenic Ar corrections are from [3]. Analyses were undertaken at SUERC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the results pooled. The bulk of aliquots (n = 8) yielded ages of ca. 1.2-1.4 Ga indicating a major thermal event occurred at around the same time as crystallization of the Nakhlite group of meteorites. Select step ages are considerably older (> 2 Ga), supporting results of other chronometers that much older material is present in this sample. These results also demonstrate that some older fragments retained Ar during breccia formation. [1] Wittmann A. et al. (2015) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 50, 326-352. [2] Santos A. R. et al. (2015) GCA, 157, 56-85. [3] Cassata W. S., and Borg L. E. (2015) 46th LPSC, Abstract #2742.

  9. Oligocene ash flow volcanism, northern Sierra Madre Occidental: Role of mafic and intermediate-composition magmas in rhyolite genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David A.

    1991-07-01

    Field, geochemical, and isotopic data from the Tomochic volcanic center in Chihuahua, Mexico, are interpreted to indicate a genetic relationship between large-volume rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and associated more mafic lithologies. These lithologies include (1) porphyritic, two-pyroxene andesite (>35 Ma) that was extruded mostly before ash-flow volcanism, and (2) crystal-poor basaltic andesite that was erupted mostly after ash-flow activity (˜30 Ma) but which was also extruded earlier (˜34 Ma) with hybrid intracaldera lavas. Major silicic units at Tomochic include the Vista (˜34 Ma) and Rio Verde (˜32 Ma) rhyolite ash-flow tuffs; also present are ash-flow tuffs (˜38, 36, and 29 Ma) erupted from other sources. A model of rhyolite genesis by closed-system crystal fractionation of andesite is consistent with geochemical and isotopic data. The least evolved Vista rhyolite was formed by fractionation of ˜65% the original mass of andesite; an additional ˜55% fractionation of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, FeTi oxides, and sphene generated the most evolved Vista sample. Rio Verde rhyolites were generated from andesite by ˜50% mass fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, pyroxene, and FeTi oxides. Initial Nd and Sr isotope ratios of andesite-dacite lavas (ɛNd = -2.3 to -5.2; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7060 to 0.7089) and of rhyolites (ɛNd = +0.5 to -2.7; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7053 to 0.7066) partly overlap and extend from values near the mantle array toward values typical of old continental crust on an ɛNd-87Sr/86Sr diagram. These isotope ratios, which do not correlate with indices of differentiation, are interpreted to indicate that parental andesite already contained a crustal component (possibly >20%) before fractionation to rhyolite. The isotopic and geochemical signatures of andesites apparently reflect the incorporation of crust by subduction-related, mafic melts represented by (but more primitive than) exposed basaltic andesites

  10. A potpourrie of regolith breccias: ``New'' samples from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.; Heiken, Grant H.; Vaniman, David T.

    1987-09-01

    Forty suspected regolith breccias from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites were studied as part of a search for regolith samples exotic to the small traverse areas associated with these missions, as well as a general effort to constrain the nature and origins of regolith breccias. Of these 40 samples, 31 are indeed regolith breccias. Regolith breccias from Apollo 14 exhibit much greater compositional diversity than their soil (sensu stricto) counterparts: 14004,55 displays incompatible element concentrations about 1.4× those found in typical Apollo 14 regolith, while 14315 is radically different in many respects (higher Al, lower Mg and Fe, lower incompatible elements) from all other Apollo 14 regolith materials, and hence probably exotic to the Apollo 14 traverse area. Application of ``mixing'' models to Apollo 14 regolith materials suggests that whereas ``normal'' Apollo 14 regolith contains only slightly more ferroan anorthosite (FA) than alkali anorthosite (AA) and far more KREEP than FA and AA combined, 14315 contains more FA than KREEP and roughly 10 times more FA than AA. Three ``new'' regolith breccias from Apollo 16 bring to 20 the total number of regolith breccias that have been analyzed for Mg and Fe from the site. The molar Mg/)Mg+Fe) (or mg*) ratios of lunar regolith breccias are of great interest, because lunar meteorite ALH81005 has a much higher mg* than two other lunar meteoritic regolith breccias (Y791197 and Y82192/3), even though these three samples are remarkably similar in all other compositional respects. A bimodality in mg* among Apollo 16 regolith breccias may result from: (1) statistical scattering among the small number of samples, (2) a tendency for older regolith breccias from this site to be compositionally distinct form their younger counterparts, or (3) differences between the Cayley and Descartes Formations. Among 10 samples from Apollo 17, all but one proved to be typical Apollo 17 regolith breccias. However, 72504,10 is >99

  11. Unmelted Meteoritic Debris Collected from Eltanin Ejecta in Polarstern Cores from Expedition ANT XII/4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1.7g of unmelted meteorite particles have been recovered from FS Polarstern piston cores collected on expedition ANT XII/4 that contain ejecta from the Eltanin impact event. Most of the mass (1.2 g) is a large, single specimen that is a polymict breccia, similar in mineralogy and chemistry to howardites or the silicate fraction of mesosiderites. Most of the remaining mass is in several large individual pieces (20-75mg each) that are polymict breccias, fragments dominated by pyroxene, and an igneous rock fragment. The latter has highly fractionated REE, similar to those reported in mafic clasts from mesosiderites. Other types of specimens identified include fragments dominated by maskelynite or olivine. These pieces of the projectile probably survived impact by being blown off the back surface of the Eltanin asteroid during its impact into the Bellingshausen Sea.

  12. Igneous history of the aubrite parent asteroid - Evidence from the Norton County enstatite achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okada, Akihiko; Keil, Klaus; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Newsom, Horton

    1988-01-01

    Numerous specimens of the Norton County enstatite achondrite (aubrite) were studied by optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and neutron-activation analysis. Norton County is found to be a fragmental impact breccia, consisting of a clastic matrix made mostly of crushed enstatite, into which are embedded a variety of mineral and lithic clasts of both igneous and impact melt origin. The Norton County precursor materials were igneous rocks, mostly plutonic orthopyroxenites, not grains formed by condensation from the solar nebula. The Mg-silicate-rich aubrite parent body experienced extensive melting and igneous differentiation, causing formation of diverse lithologies including dunites, plutonic orthopyroxenites, plutonic pyroxenites, and plagioclase-silica rocks. The presence of impact melt breccias (the microporphyritic clasts and the diopside-plagioclase-silica clast) of still different compositions further attests to the lithologic diversity of the aubrite parent body.

  13. Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine

  14. Major element chemistry of Apollo 14 mare basalt clasts and highland plutonic clasts from lunar breccia 14321: Comparison with neutron activation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of lithic components in lunar breccias have documented a wide variety of rock types and magma suites which are not found among large, discrete lunar samples. Rock types found exclusively or dominantly as clasts in breccias include KREEP basalts, VHK mare basalts, high-alumina mare basalts, olivine vitrophyres, alkali anorthosites, and magnesian anorthosites and troctolites. These miniature samples are crucial in petrogenetic studies of ancient mare basalts and the highlands crust of the western nearside, both of which have been battered by basin-forming impacts and no longer exist as distinct rock units.

  15. Apollo 14 regolith breccias - Different glass populations and their potential for charting space time variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Apollo 14 regolith breccias (14313, 14307, 14301, 14049, 14047) have been found to have different populations of nonagglutinitic, mare-derived glasses. These variations appear to not only reflect different source regoliths but also different closure ages for these breccias. Based upon these different glass populations, 14301 is inferred to have a closure age sometime during the epoch of mare volcanism. All of the other four breccias were formed after the termination of mare volcanism with a possible age sequence from old to young of the following: 14307, 14313, 14049, 14047. Due to the relative simplicity of acquiring high-quality chemical data on large numbers of glasses by electron microprobe, mare glass populations allow: (1) classification of regolith breccias with respect to provenance and (2) estimation of their relative and absolute closure ages. The determination of (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) ages on individual glass spherules within breccias using the laser probe should in the future prove to be a promising extension of the present study.

  16. Digital outcrop model of stratigraphy and breccias of the southern Franklin Mountains, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellian, Jerome A.; Kerans, Charles; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The breccias of the SFM were previously described as the result of collapsed paleocaves that formed during subaerial exposure related to the Sauk-Tippecanoe unconformity. A new approach in this work uses traditional field mapping combined with high-resolution (1-m [3.3-ft] point spacing) airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data over 24 km2 (9 mi2) to map breccia and relevant stratal surfaces. Airborne LIDAR data were used to create a digital outcrop model of the SFM from which a detailed (1:2000 scale) geologic map was created. The geologic map includes formation, fault, and breccia contacts. The digital outcrop model was used to interpret three-dimensional spatial relationships of breccia bodies with respect to the current understanding of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the SFM. The data presented here are used to discuss potential stratigraphic, temporal, and tectonic controls on the formation of caves within the study area that eventually collapsed to form the breccias currently exposed in outcrop.

  17. Early Permian mafic dikes in the Nagqu area, central Tibet, China, associated with embryonic oceanic crust of the Meso-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.; Fan, W. M.; Shi, R. D.; Gong, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    During the latest Carboniferous to early Permian, a mantle plume initiated continental rifting along the northern Gondwana margin, which subsequently developed into the Meso-Tethys Ocean. However, the nature and timing of the embryonic oceanic crust of the Meso-Tethys Ocean remains poorly understood. Here, we present for the first time a combined analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for mafic rocks from the Nagqu area, central Tibet. Zircons from the mafic rocks yield a concordant age of ca. 277.8±1.8 Ma, which is slightly younger than the age of mantle plume activity (ca. 300-279 Ma), as represented by the large igneous province (LIP) on the northern Gondwana margin. Geochemical features suggest that the Nagqu mafic rocks, which display normal mid ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) affinities, are different from those of the LIP, which display oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type affinities. The Nagqu mafic rocks result from a relatively high degree of melting of depleted asthenospheric mantle. Combined with observations from previous studies, we suggest that the late early Permian Nagqu magmatism fully records processes of early stage rifting and incipient formation of oceanic crust. Moreover, the patterns of magmatism are consistent with patterns of rift-related sedimentation that records the transition from predominantly continental to marine deposition in the region during the Carboniferous-Permian. We therefore suggest that rifting of the eastern Cimmerian and northern Gondwana continents started at ca. 277.8 Ma, and the rifting culminated in the opening of the Meso-Tethys Ocean.

  18. Diffusive exchange of trace elements between basaltic-andesite and dacitic melt: Insights into potential metal fractionation during magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, A.; Ruprecht, P.; Simon, A. C.; Holtz, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mafic magma recharge is a common process that triggers physical and chemical mixing in magmatic systems and drives their evolution, resulting in, e.g., hybridization and volcanic eruptions. Once magma-magma contact is initiated, rapid heat-flux commonly leads to the formation of a cooling-induced crystal mush on the mafic side of the interface. Here, on a local scale (µm to cm), at the magma-magma interface, melt-melt diffusive exchange is required to approach equilibrium. Significant chemical potential gradients drive a complex, multi-element mass flux between the two systems (Liang, 2010). This diffusive-equilibration often controls crystal dissolution rates within the boundary layers and, thus, the formation of interconnected melt or fluid networks. Such networks provide important pathways for the transport of volatiles and trace metals from the mafic recharge magma to the felsic host magma, where the latter may feed volcanic activities and ore deposits. While major element diffusion in silicate melts is mostly well understood, even in complex systems, the available data for many trace element metals are limited (Liang, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). Differences in diffusivity in a dynamic, mixing environment can cause trace element fractionation, in particular during crystallization and volatile exsolution and separation. This may affect trace element signatures in phenocrysts and magmatic volatile phases that can form near a magma-magma boundary. As a result, the chemistry of volcanic gases and magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits may be partially controlled by such mixing phenomena. We performed melt-melt diffusion-couple experiments at 150 MPa, 1100°C, FMQ, FMQ+1 and FMQ+3 (FMQ: fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen fugacity buffer). Hydrated, sulfur-bearing cylinders of dacite and basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 20 h. Major and trace element gradients were measured by using laser-ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe analyses. The results we will

  19. Age Distribution of Lunar Impact-Melt Rocks in Apollo Drive-Tube 68001/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, N. M.; Bower, D. M.; Frasl, B.; Cohen, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    Apollo 16 double-drive tube 68001 /68002 provides impact and volcanic materials along a depth of approximately 60 cm in five compositional distinct units. 68001 /2 offers the potential to study distinct populations of impact melts with depth to understand how 'gardening' affects these samples. We will use unbiased major-element chemistry, mineralogy, and age to understand the impact history of Apollo 16 landing site. The study demonstrates the techniques that landed missions require to identify lithologies of interest (e.g., impact melts).

  20. Possible long-term decline in impact rates. 2. Lunar impact-melt data regarding impact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.; Quantin, Cathy; Mangold, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Crater counts at lunar landing sites with measured ages establish a steep decline in cratering rate during the period ˜3.8 to ˜3.1 Gyr ago. Most models of the time dependence suggest a roughly constant impact rate (within factor ˜2) after about 3 Gyr ago, but are based on sparse data. Recent dating of impact melts from lunar meteorites, and Apollo glass spherules, clarifies impact rates from ˜3.2 to ˜2 Gyr ago or less. Taken together, these data suggest a decline with roughly 700 Myr half-life around 3 Gyr ago, and a slower decline after that, dropping by a factor ˜3 from about ˜2.3 Gyr ago until the present. Planetary cratering involved several phases with different time behaviors: (1) rapid sweep-up of most primordial planetesimals into planets in the first hundred Myr, (2) possible later effects of giant planet migration with enhanced cratering, (3) longer term sweep-up of leftover planetesimals, and finally (4) the present long-term "leakage" of asteroids from reservoirs such as the main asteroid belt and Kuiper belt. In addition, at any given point on the Moon, a pattern of "spikes" (sharp maxima of relatively narrow time width) will appear in the production rate of smaller craters (≲500 m?), not only from secondary debris from large primary lunar impacts at various distances from the point in question, but also from asteroid breakups dotted through Solar System history. The pattern of spikes varies according to type of sample being measured (i.e., glass spherules vs impact melts). For example, several data sets show an impact rate spike ˜470 Myr ago associated with the asteroid belt collision that produced the L chondrites (see Section 3.6 below). Such spikes should be less prominent in the production record of craters of D≳ few km. These phenomena affect estimates of planetary surfaces ages from crater counts, as discussed in a companion paper [Quantin, C., Mangold, N., Hartmann, W.K., Allemand, P., 2007. Icarus 186, 1-10]. Fewer impact melts and

  1. A new method to quantify the real supply of mafic components to a hybrid andesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, M. C. S.; Edmonds, M.; Plail, M.; Barclay, J.; Parkes, D.; Christopher, T.

    2013-01-01

    The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, has been ongoing since 1995. The volcano is erupting a crystal-rich hornblende-plagioclase andesite with ubiquitous mafic inclusions, indicating mixing with mafic magma. This mafic magma is thought to be the driving force of the eruption, supplying heat and volatiles to the andesite resident in the magma chamber. As well as producing macroscopic mafic inclusions, the magma mixing process involves incorporation of phenocrysts from the andesite into the mafic magma. These inherited phenocrysts show clear disequilibrium textures (e.g. sieved plagioclase rims and thermal breakdown rims on hornblende). Approximately 25 % of all phenocrysts in the andesite show these textures, indicating very extensive mass transfer between the two magma types. Fragments of mafic inclusions down to sub-mm scale are found in the andesite, together with mafic crystal clusters, which are commonly found adhered to the rims of phenocrysts with disequilibrium features. Mineral chemistry also points to the transfer of microlites or microphenocrysts, initially formed in the mafic inclusions, into the andesite. This combined evidence suggests that some of the mafic inclusions disaggregate during mingling and/or ascent, possibly due to shearing, and raises the question: What proportion of the andesite `groundmass' actually originated in the mafic inclusions, and thus, what is the true amount of mafic magma in the magmatic system? We present a new method for quantifying the relative proportions of groundmass plagioclase derived from mafic and andesitic magma, based on analysis of back-scattered electron images of the groundmass. Preliminary results indicate that approximately 16 % of all groundmass plagioclase belongs genetically to the mafic inclusions. Together with the crystal clusters, disequilibrium phenocryst textures and mm-scale inclusions, there is a `cryptic' mafic component in the andesite of approximately 6 % by volume. This is

  2. New Investigations of the Gow Lake Impact Structure, Saskatchewan, Canada: Impact Melt Rocks, Astronaut Training, and More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Singleton, A. C.; Ozaruk, A.; Hansen, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    New investigations of the Gow Lake impact structure has revealed an almost complete sequence of impactites from the crater floor upward through a series of melt-free and melt-bearing rocks. This research involved an astronaut training component.

  3. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.

    2012-04-01

    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblende±biotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclase±biotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartz±plagioclase±muscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with

  4. Breccia-Conglomerate Rocks on Lower Mount Sharp, Mars Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-19

    This stereo scene from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover shows boulders composed, in part, of pebble-size (0.2 to 2.6 inches, or 0.5 to 6.5 centimeters across) and larger rock fragments. The size and shape of the fragments provide clues to the origins of these boulders. This image is an anaglyph that appears three dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The separate right-eye and left-eye views combined into the stereo version are Figure 1 and Figure 2. Mastcam's right-eye camera has a telephoto lens, with focal length of 100 millimeters. The left-eye camera provides a wider view, with a 34-millimeter lens. These images were taken on July 22, 2016, during the 1,408th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. For scale, the relatively flat rock at left is about 5 feet (1.5 meters) across. The rock in the foreground at right is informally named "Balombo." The group of boulders is at a site called "Bimbe." The Curiosity team chose to drive the rover to Bimbe to further understand patches of boulders first identified from orbit and seen occasionally on the rover's traverse. The boulders at Bimbe consist of multiple rock types. Some include pieces, or "clasts," of smaller, older rock cemented together, called breccias or conglomerates. The shapes of the inclusion clasts -- whether they are rounded or sharp-edged -- may indicate how far the clasts were transported, and by what processes. Breccias have more angular clasts, while conglomerates have more rounded clasts. As is clear by looking at these boulders, they contain both angular and rounded clasts, leading to some uncertainty about how they formed. Conglomerate rocks such as "Hottah" were inspected near Curiosity's landing site and interpreted as part of an ancient streambed. Breccias are generally formed by consolidation of fragments under pressure. On Mars such pressure might come from crater-forming impact, or by deep burial and exhumation

  5. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    by mantle decompression melting provided heat for extracting melts from the middle or lower crust. Continual addition of mafic magmas to the base of the subcontinental lithosphere, in a back-arc setting, remelted calc-alkaline rocks enriched in metals that were stored in the crust.The St. Francois Mountains terrane is adjacent to the regional TDM line (defined at a value of 1.55 Ga) that separates ~1600 Ma basement to the west, from younger basements to the east. Data for Pea Ridge straddle the TDM values proposed for the line. The Sm-Nd isotope system has been closed since formation of the deposit and the original igneous signatures have not been affected by cycles of alteration or superimposed mineralizing events. No evidence exists for externally derived Nd or Sm. The source region for metals within the Pea Ridge deposit had a moderate compositional variation and the REE-rich breccias and mineralized rocks are generally isotopically homogeneous. The Pea Ridge deposit thus constitutes a distinctive isotopic target for use as a model in identifying other mineralized systems that may share the same metal source in the St. Francois Mountains terrane and elsewhere in the eastern Granite-Rhyolite province.

  6. Crustal Anatexis by Upwelling Mantle Melts in the N.Atlantic Igneous Province: the Isle of Rum, NW Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertogen, J.; Meyer, R.; Nicoll, G.; Troll, V. R.; Ellam, R. M.; Emeleus, C. H.

    2008-12-01

    Crustal anatexis is a common process in the rift-to-drift evolution during continental breakup and the formation of Volcanic Rifted Margins (VRM) systems. 'Early felsic-later mafic' volcanic rock associations on the Continent Ocean Boundary (COB) of the N.Atlantic Ocean have been sampled by ODP drilling on the SE Greenland margin and the the Vøring Plateau (Norwegian Sea). Such associations also occur further inland in the British Paleocene Igneous Province, such as on the Isle of Rum (e.g., Troll et al., Contrib. Min. Petrol., 2004, 147, p.722). Sr and Nd isotope and trace element geochemistry show that the Rum rhyodacites are the products of melting of Lewisian amphibolite gneiss. There are no indications of a melt contribution from Lewisian granulite gneiss. The amphibolite gneiss parent rock had experienced an ancient Cs and Rb loss, possibly during a Caledonian event, which caused 87Sr/86Sr heterogeneity in the crustal source of silicic melts. The dacites and early gabbros of Rum are mixtures of crustal melts and primary mantle melts. Rare Earth Element modelling shows that late stage picritic melts on Rum are close analogues for the parent melts of the Rum Layered Suite, and for the mantle melts that caused crustal anatexis of the Lewisian gneiss. These primary mantle melts have close affinities to MORB whose trace element content varies from slightly depleted to slightly enriched. The 'early felsic-later mafic' volcanic associations from Rum, and from the now drowned seaward dipping wedges on the shelf of SE Greenland and on the Vøring Plateau show geochemical differences that result from variations in the regional crustal composition and the depth at which crustal anatexis took place.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impacts: Modeling and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document covers the following topics: Cratering on Titan: Projectiles, Craters and Impact Melt; The Cratering Database: Making Code Jockeys Honest; Popigai Impact Structure Modeling: Morphology and Worldwide Ejecta; Anhydrite EOS and Phase Diagram in Relation to Shock Decomposition; Computational Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure; Hydrocode Simulations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact; Lockne Crater as a Result of Oblique Impact; The Influence of a Deep Shelf Sea on the Excavation and Modification of a Marine-Target Crater, the Lockne Crater, Central Sweden; Pre-Drilling Investigation of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater: Constraints from Geophysics and Numerical Modelling; Central Uplift Formation at the Middlesboro Impact Structure, Kentucky, USA; A SRTM Investigation of Serra da Cangalho Impact Structure, Brazil; Brazilian Impact Craters: A Review; Flynn Creek Impact Structure: New Insights from Breccias, Melt Features, Shatter Cones, and Remote Sensing; The Howell Structure, Lincoln County, Tennessee: A Review of Past and Current Research; After the Chicxulub Impact: Control on Depositional and Diagenetic History of the Cenozoic Carbonate Formations of the Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; Ni Contents by Non-Destructive In-Situ XRF Method of Takamatsu-Kagawa Crater District in Japan; and Akiyoshi Limestone Blocks Transported by the P/T Boundary Event to Japan Islands.

  8. Regional Changes in Icescape Impact Shelf Circulation and Basal Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnon, E. A.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Rintoul, S. R.; Legrésy, B.; Williams, G. D.; Fraser, A. D.; Hunter, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Ice shelf basal melt is the dominant contribution to mass loss from Antarctic ice shelves. However, the sensitivity of basal melt to changes in icescape (grounded icebergs, ice shelves, and sea ice) and related ocean circulation is poorly understood. Here we simulate the impact of the major 2010 calving event of the Mertz Glacier Tongue (MGT), East Antarctica, and related redistribution of sea ice and icebergs on the basal melt rate of the local ice shelves. We find that the position of the grounded tabular iceberg B9B controls the water masses that reach the nearby ice shelf cavities. After the calving of the MGT and the removal of B9B, warmer water is present both within the MGT cavity and on the continental shelf driving a 57% increase of the deep MGT basal melting. Major changes in icescape influence the oceanic heat flux responsible for basal ice shelf melting.

  9. Formation of sinoite in EL chondrites by impact melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately 10-200-micron-sized sunhedral and euhedral grains of twinned, optically zoned sinoite associated with euhedral enstatite and graphite within impact-melted portions of QUE94368, the first EL4 chondrite, suggest that sinoite formed by crystallization from a melt, not by thermal metamorphism. The occurrence of olivine and enstatite with undulose extinction in QUE94368 indicates that the rock is shock stage S2, corresponding to an equilibration shock pressure of about 5 GPa, as in EL5 and EL6 chondrites.

  10. High Spatial Resolution 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Lunar Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Cameron Mark

    Impact cratering has played a key role in the evolution of the solid surfaces of Solar System bodies. While much of Earth’s impact record has been erased, its Moon preserves an extensive history of bombardment. Quantifying the timing of lunar impact events is crucial to understanding how impacts have shaped the evolution of early Earth, and provides the basis for estimating the ages of other cratered surfaces in the Solar System. Many lunar impact melt rocks are complex mixtures of glassy and crystalline “melt” materials and inherited clasts of pre-impact minerals and rocks. If analyzed in bulk, these samples can yield complicated incremental release 40Ar/39Ar spectra, making it challenging to uniquely interpret impact ages. Here, I have used a combination of high-spatial resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal-kinetic modeling to gain new insights into the impact histories recorded by such lunar samples. To compare my data to those of previous studies, I developed a software tool to account for differences in the decay, isotopic, and monitor age parameters used for different published 40Ar/39Ar datasets. Using an ultraviolet laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) system I selectively dated melt and clast components of impact melt rocks collected during the Apollo 16 and 17 missions. UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for samples 77135, 60315, 61015, and 63355 show evidence of open-system behavior, and provide new insights into how to interpret some complexities of published incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Samples 77115, 63525, 63549, and 65015 have relatively simple thermal histories, and UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for the melt components of these rocks indicate the timing of impact events—spanning hundreds of millions of years—that influenced the Apollo 16 and 17 sites. My modeling and UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for sample 73217 indicate that some impact melt rocks can quantitatively retain evidence for multiple melt-producing impact events, and imply that such

  11. Iron Abundances in Lunar Impact Basin Melt Sheets From Orbital Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Joana S.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Kletetschka, Gunther

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field data acquired from orbit shows that the Moon possesses many magnetic anomalies. Though most of these are not associated with known geologic structures, some are found within large impact basins within the interior peak ring. The primary magnetic carrier in lunar rocks is metallic iron, but indigenous lunar rocks are metal poor and cannot account easily for the observed field strengths. The projectiles that formed the largest impact basins must have contained a significant quantity of metallic iron, and a portion of this iron would have been retained on the Moon's surface within the impact melt sheet. Here we use orbital magnetic field data to invert for the magnetization within large impact basins using the assumption that the crust is unidirectionally magnetized. We develop a technique based on laboratory thermoremanent magnetization acquisition to quantify the relationship between the strength of the magnetic field at the time the rock cooled and the abundance of metal in the rock. If we assume that the magnetized portion of the impact melt sheet is 1 km thick, we find average abundances of metallic iron ranging from 0.11% to 0.45 wt %, with an uncertainty of a factor of about 3. This abundance is consistent with the metallic iron abundances in sampled lunar impact melts and the abundance of projectile contamination in terrestrial impact melts. These results help constrain the composition of the projectile, the impact process, and the time evolution of the lunar dynamo.

  12. Osmium-Isotope and Platinum-Group-Element Systematics of Impact-Melt Rocks, Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seung Ryeol; Wright Horton, J., Jr.; Walker, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Osmium (Os) isotopes and platinum-group elements (PGEs) are useful for geochemically identifying a meteoritic component within impact structures, because meteorites are typically characterized by low (187)Os/(188)Os ratios and high PGE concentrations. In contrast, most types of crustal target rocks have high radiogenic Os and very low PGE concentrations. We have examined Os isotope and PGE systematics of impact-melt rocks and pre-impact target rocks from a 2004 test hole in the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure and from nearby coreholes. Our goal is to determine the proportion of the projectile component in the melt rock Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  13. Breccia-pipe uranium mining in northern Arizona; estimate of resources and assessment of historical effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Brown, Kristin M.; Alpine, Andrea E.; Otton, James K.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Tillman, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    About 1 million acres of Federal land in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona were temporarily withdrawn from new mining claims in July 2009 by the Secretary of the Interior because of concern that increased uranium mining could have negative impacts on the land, water, people, and wildlife. During a 2-year interval, a Federal team led by the Bureau of Land Management is evaluating the effects of withdrawing these lands for extended periods. As part of this team, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of short-term studies to examine the historical effects of breccia-pipe uranium mining in the region. The USGS studies provide estimates of uranium resources affected by the possible land withdrawal, examine the effects of previous breccia-pipe mining, summarize water-chemistry data for streams and springs, and investigate potential biological pathways of exposure to uranium and associated contaminants. This fact sheet summarizes results through December 2009 and outlines further research needs.

  14. 2D Models for the evolving distribution of impact melt at the lunar near-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Michael, G. G.; Oberst, J.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the cumulative effect of the impact gardening process. The lateral distribution of the melt with diverse ages is traced in this model. Using the observed distribution of melt age in lunar samples and meteorites, the possible scenarios of the lunar impact history can be discriminated. The record is also helpful for the future lunar sampling, guiding the choice of site to obtain samples from different impact basins, and to understand the mixture of melt ages observed at any one site.

  15. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  16. Apollo 16 - Impact melt sheets, contrasting nature of the Cayley plains and Descartes mountains, and geologic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, J. P.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Apollo 16 stations four and five rake samples have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe and INAA. Lithologic abundances support the idea (Korontev, 1981) that the variation of soil composition at Apollo 16 results from mixing between a component represented by station five and components much like either the dimict breccias or feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition. Pyroxene, olivine, and coexisting plagioclase compositions from within the anorthosite portions of dimict breccias bridge the gap between the Mg-rich and ferroan anorthosite fields. Analyses from associated cumulate and granulitic clasts indicate that they are the source of the intermediate material. Dimict breccias formed about 3.92 b.y. ago, the nectaris event occurred 3.84-3.92 b.y. ago, and the Cayley plains were deposited as a result of the Imbrium event sometime later than 3.84 b.y.

  17. Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type mafic achondrites - basalts and gabbros composed of ferroan pigeonite, ferroan augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites. However, high precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some mafic achondrites have small, well-resolved, non-mass-dependent differences that have been interpreted as indicating derivation from different asteroids. Some of these O-anomalous mafic achondrites also have anomalous petrologic characteristics, strengthening the case that they hail from distinct parent asteroids. We present the results of bulk compositional studies of a suite of normal and anomalous eucrite-type basalts and cumulate gabbros.

  18. A comprehensive survey of faults, breccias, and fractures in and flanking the eastern Española Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Minor, Scott A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Budahn, James R.; Keren, Tucker T.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of geologic structures formed in the Earth’s brittle regime in the eastern Española Basin and flank of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveals a complex and protracted record of multiple tectonic events. Data and analyses from this representative rift flank-basin pair include measurements from 53 individual fault zones and 22 other brittle structures, such as breccia zones, joints, and veins, investigated at a total of just over 100 sites. Structures were examined and compared in poorly lithified Tertiary sediments, as well as in Paleozoic sedimentary and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Data and analyses include geologic maps; field observations and measurements; orientation, kinematic, and paleostress analyses; statistical examination of fault trace lengths derived from aeromagnetic data; mineralogy and chemistry of host and fault rocks; and investigation of fault versus bolide-impact hypotheses for the origin of enigmatic breccias found in the Proterozoic basement rocks. Fault kinematic and paleostress analyses suggest a record of transitional, and perhaps partitioned, strains from the Laramide orogeny through Rio Grande rifting. Normal faults within Tertiary basin-fill sediments are consistent with more typical WNW-ESE Rio Grande rift extension, perhaps decoupled from bedrock structures due to strength contrasts favoring the formation of new faults in the relatively weak sediments. Analyses of the fault-length data indicate power-law length distributions similar to those reported from many geologic settings globally. Mineralogy and chemistry in Proterozoic fault-related rocks reveal geochemical changes tied to hydrothermal alteration and nearly isochemical transformation of feldspars to clay minerals. In sediments, faulted minerals are characterized by mechanical entrainment with minor secondary chemical changes. Enigmatic breccias in rift-flanking Proterozoic rocks are autoclastic and isochemical with respect to their protoliths and

  19. Isotope analysis of crystalline impact melt rocks from Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13, North Ray Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Wooden, J. L.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The North Ray Crater Target Rock Consortium was formed to study a large number of rake samples collected at Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13 with comparative chemical, mineralogical, and chronological techniques in order to provide a larger data base for the discussion of lunar highland evolution in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing region. The present investigation is concerned with Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of a number of whole-rock samples of feldspathic microporhyritic (FM) impact melt, a sample type especially abundant among the North Ray crater (station 11) sample collection. Aspects of sample mineralogy and analytical procedures are discussed, taking into account FM impact melt rocks 6715 and 63538, intergranular impact melt rock 67775, subophitic impact melt rock 67747, subophitic impact melt rock 67559, and studies based on the utilization of electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy.

  20. The Formation and Chronology of the PAT 91501 Impact-Melt L-Chondrite with Vesicle-Metal-Sulfide Assemblages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2007-01-01

    The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 41 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up approximately 2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. Ar-39-Ar-40 measurements date the time of impact at 4.461 +/- 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and Be-10 and Al-2l activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S2 (approximately 15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over approximately 2 hours. During this time, approximately 90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced the unique assemblage observed in PAT 91501.

  1. Geochronology, geochemistry, and petrogenesis of late Permian to early Triassic mafic rocks from Darongshan, South China: Implications for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granite generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wang-Chun; Luo, Bi-Ji; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2018-05-01

    The role of the mantle in generating ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and peraluminous S-type granites, and the extent of crust-mantle interaction are topics fundamental to our understanding of the Earth's evolution. In this study we present geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for dolerites and mafic volcanic rocks from the Darongshan granite complex belt in western Cathaysia, South China. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses yielded magma crystallization ages of ca. 250-248 Ma for the dolerites, which are coeval with eruption of the mafic volcanic rocks, ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism, and emplacement of S-type granites in the Darongshan granite complex belt. The mafic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline or shoshonitic, enriched in Th, U, and light rare earth elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. The dolerites are characterized by high Fe2O3tot (11.61-20.39 wt%) and TiO2 (1.62-3.17 wt%), and low MgO (1.73-4.38 wt%), Cr (2.8-10.8 ppm) and Ni (2.5-11.4 ppm). Isotopically, the mafic volcanic rocks have negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-6.7 to -9.0) and high ISr values (0.71232 to 0.71767), which are slightly depleted compared with the dolerite samples (εNd(t) = -10.3 to -10.4 and ISr = 0.71796 to 0.71923). Zircons in the dolerites have εHf(t) values of -7.6 to -10.9. The mafic volcanic rocks are interpreted to have resulted from the partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination during ascent, whereas the dolerites formed by late-stage crystallization of enriched lithospheric mantle-derived magmas after fractionation of olivine and pyroxene. The formation of these mantle-derived mafic rocks may be attributed to transtension along a NE-trending strike-slip fault zone that was related to oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath South China. Such underplated mafic magmas would provide sufficient heat for the generation of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granites, and

  2. Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R J; Caulfield, J B.D.; Harlow, G E

    The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries betweenmore » clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks.« less

  3. Planetary Accretion as Informed by Meteoritic Samples of Early Solar System Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Meteoritic impact melts and impact breccias contain information about the timing and sizes of collisions, which, when augmented with hints about impactor compositions, provide clues about mixing and the dynamical situation in the early solar system.

  4. Slab and Sediment Melting during Subduction Initiation: Mantle Plagiogranites from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Granitoid dykes up to several hundred metres wide and 2 km long are found in depleted harzburgites in the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite. They vary in composition from tonalite to potassic granite and are generally more potassic than the crustal plagiogranites found within the sheeted dyke complex higher up within the ophiolite stratigraphy. Some granites are strongly peraluminous and contain garnet and andalusite. They are geochemically variable, some with REE that are relatively unfractionated ((La/Yb)n= 3.5-6.0, flat middle to heavy REE, steep light REE) to those which are highly fractionated ((La/Yb)n= 28-220). On primitive-mantle normalised plots some have very high concentrations of fluid-mobile elements - Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb. Few have significant Ta-Nb anomalies. On the Ca-Fe-Mg-Ti discrimination diagram of Patino Douce (J. Petrol., 1999) whole-rock compositions define a spectrum between felsic-pelite derived melts and amphibolite-derived melts. There is a chemical similarity between the least REE fractionated plagiogranites (generally tonalites and granodiorites) and melts of an amphibolitic parent. This is supported by the occurrence of mafic xenoliths in some dykes, the presence of hornblende and highly calcic cores (up to An85) in some plagioclase grains. Trace element modelling using Oman Geotimes lavas as the starting composition indicates that melting took place in the garnet stability field, although enrichment in the melt in Cs, Rb, Ba and Pb suggests that there was another component present in addition to the mafic parent. Other plagiogranites (trondhjemites and granites) have a strongly peraluminous chemistry and mineralogy and geochemical similarities with the Himalayan leucogranites implying that they were derived from a sedimentary protolith. These mantle plagiogranites are more prevalent in the northern outcrops of the ophiolite. The volume of granitoid melt and the depth of melting preclude their derivation from the sole of the

  5. K/T age for the popigai impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deino, A. L.; Garvin, J. B.; Montanari, S.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-ringed POPIGAI structure, with an outer ring diameter of over 100 km, is the largest impact feature currently recognized on Earth with an Phanerozoic age. The target rocks in this relatively unglaciated region consist of upper Proterozoic through Mesozoic platform sediments and igneous rocks overlying Precambrian crystalline basement. The reported absolute age of the Popigai impact event ranges from 30.5 to 39 Ma. With the intent of refining this age estimate, a melt-breccia (suevite) sample from the inner regions of the Popigai structure was prepared for total fusion and step-wise heating Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis. Although the total fusion and step-heating experiments suggest some degree of age heterogeneity, the recurring theme is an age of around 64 to 66 Ma.

  6. Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1992-01-01

    The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

  7. Melting, vaporization, and energy partitioning for impacts on asteroidal and planetary objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smither, Catherine L.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code was used to model normal and oblique impacts of silicate projectiles on asteroidal and planetary bodies. The energy of the system, initially in the kinetic energy of the impactor, is partitioned after impact into internal and kinetic energy of the impactor and the target body. These simulations show that, unlike the case of impacts onto a half-space, a significant amount of energy remains in the kinetic energy of the impacting body, as parts of it travel past the main planet and escape the system. This effect is greater for more oblique impacts, and for impacts onto the small planets. Melting and vaporization of both bodies were also examined. The amount of the target body melted was much greater in the case of smaller targets than for an impact of a similar scale on a larger body.

  8. The Sudbury-Serenitatis analogy and 'so-called' pristine nonmare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin is the one lunar basin from which we confidently identify a suite of samples as pieces of the impact melt sheet: the distinctive Apollo 17 noritic breccias. Recent studies of the Sudbury Complex indicate that its 'irruptive' is almost entirely of impact-melt origin, making it the closest terrestrial analog to the Serenitatis melt sheet. Any attempt to model the evolution of the Moon's crust should be compatible with the relatively well-understood Sudbury Complex. However, the Sudbury-Moon analogy might be a misleading oversimplification, if applied too rigidly. The cause of evolutionary differences between the Serenitatis impact melt and the Sudbury impact melt is discussed.

  9. Ar-Ar dating techniques for terrestrial meteorite impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S. P.

    2003-04-01

    The ages of the largest (>100 km) known impacts on Earth are now well characterised. However the ages of many intermediate sized craters (20-100 km) are still poorly known, often the only constraints are stratigraphic - the difference between the target rock age and the age of crater filling sediments. The largest impacts result in significant melt bodies which cool to form igneous rocks and can be dated using conventional radiometric techniques. Smaller impacts give rise to thin bands of melted rock or melt clasts intimately mixed with country rock clasts in breccia deposits, and present much more of a challenge to dating. The Ar-Ar dating technique can address a wide variety of complex and heterogeneous samples associated with meteorite impacts and obtain reasonable ages. Ar-Ar results will be presented from a series of terrestrial meteorite impact craters including Boltysh (65.17±0.64 Ma, Strangways (646±42 Ma), and St Martin (220±32 Ma) and a Late Triassic spherule bed, possibly representing distal deposits from Manicouagan (214±1 Ma) crater. Samples from the Boltysh and Strangways craters demonstrate the importance of rapid cooling upon the retention of old ages in glassy impact rocks. A Late Triassic spherule bed in SW England is cemented by both carbonate and K-feldspar cements allowing Ar-Ar dating of fine grained cement to place a mimimum age upon the age of the associated impact. An age of 214.7±2.5 Ma places the deposit with errors of the age of the Manicouagan impact, raising the possibility that it may represent a distal deposit (the deposit lay around 2000 km away from the site of the Manicouagan crater during the Late Triassic). Finally the limits of the technique will be demonstrated using an attempt to date melt rocks from the St Martin Crater in Canada.

  10. Multiple magmatism in an evolving suprasubduction zone mantle wedge: The case of the composite mafic-ultramafic complex of Gaositai, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Tang, Li; Teng, Xueming

    2017-07-01

    The suprasubduction zone mantle wedge of active convergent margins is impregnated by melts and fluids leading to the formation of a variety of magmatic and metasomatic rock suites. Here we investigate a composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion at Gaositai, in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The hornblende gabbro-serpentinite-dunite-pyroxenite-gabbro-diorite suite surrounded by hornblendites of this complex has long been considered to represent an "Alaskan-type" zoned pluton. We present petrologic, mineral chemical, geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf data from the various rock types from Gaositai including hornblende gabbro, serpentinite, dunite, pyroxenite, diorite and the basement hornblendite which reveal the case of multiple melt generation and melt-peridotite interaction. Our new mineral chemical data from the mafic-ultramafic suite exclude an "Alaskan-type" affinity, and the bulk geochemical features are consistent with subduction-related magmatism with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. Zircon U-Pb geochronology reveals that the hornblendites surrounding the Gaositai complex are nearly 2 billion years older than the intrusive complex and yield early Paleoproterozoic emplacement ages (2433-2460 Ma), followed by late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1897 Ma). The serpentinites trace the history of a long-lived and replenished ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle with the oldest zircon population dated as 2479 Ma and 1896 Ma, closely corresponding with the ages obtained from the basement rock, followed by Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon growth. The oldest member in the Gaositai composite intrusion is the dunite that yields emplacement age of 755 Ma, followed by pyroxenite formed through the interaction of slab melt and wedge mantle peridotite at 401 Ma. All the rock suites also carry multiple population of younger zircons ranging in age from Paleozoic to

  11. Evidence for Impact Shock Melting in CM and CI Chondrite Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Le, Loan

    2014-01-01

    C class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent. One particularly important example appears to be near-Earth asteroid 1999 JU3, the target of the Hayabusa II sample return mission [1], although not all spectra indicate this. In fact most spectra of 1999 JU3 are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to explain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites, but has not been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites. What evidence is there for significant shock melting in the very abundant CMs, or less abundant but still important CI chondrites?

  12. Well-Preserved Impact Ejecta and Impact Melt-Rich Deposits in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    This image of a well-preserved unnamed elliptical crater in Terra Sabaea, is illustrative of the complexity of ejecta deposits forming as a by-product of the impact process that shapes much of the surface of Mars. Here we see a portion of the western ejecta deposits emanating from a 10-kilometer impact crater that occurs within the wall of a larger, 60-kilometer-wide crater. In the central part is a lobe-shaped portion of the ejecta blanket from the smaller crater. The crater is elliptical not because of an angled (oblique) impact, but because it occurred on the steep slopes of the wall of a larger crater. This caused it to be truncated along the slope and elongated perpendicular to the slope. As a result, any impact melt from the smaller crater would have preferentially deposited down slope and towards the floor of the larger crater (towards the west). Within this deposit, we can see fine-scale morphological features in the form of a dense network of small ridges and pits. These crater-related pitted materials are consistent with volatile-rich impact melt-bearing deposits seen in some of the best-preserved craters on Mars (e.g., Zumba, Zunil, etc.). These deposits formed immediately after the impact event, and their discernible presence relate to the preservation state of the crater. This image is an attempt to visualize the complex formation and emplacement history of these enigmatic deposits formed by this elliptical crater and to understand its degradation history. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA13078

  13. Rusty rock 66095 - A paradigm for volatile-element mobility in highland rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    The ultimate goals of Apollo 16 consortia investigations are related to a determination of the nature of the early crust of the moon, taking into account questions regarding the petrogenesis of highland breccias and melt-rocks. In addition to these potential objectives, the consortia study of 66095 has also the goal to provide information for an understanding of the origin of volatile elements. Since 66095 is the most volatile-rich sample returned by the Apollo missions and its elemental ratios mimic those in many Apollo 16 breccias, it was selected as a paradigm for the highland breccias. 66095 is a clast-laden, impact-melt breccia. The volatile-rich nature is manifest in the presence of rust, schreibersite, and minor volatile-bearing compounds, usually in association with native metal and/or troilite. Attention is given to aspects of petrography, mineral chemistry, major element chemistry, the volatile bearing phases, and the history of the volatiles starting with their ultimate origin.

  14. The formation and chronology of the PAT 91501 impact-melt L chondrite with vesicle metal sulfide assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2008-05-01

    The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike [Mittlefehldt D. W. and Lindstrom M. M. (2001) Petrology and geochemistry of Patuxent Range 91501 and Lewis Cliff 88663. Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 36, 439-457]. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite, and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up ˜2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. 39Ar- 40Ar measurements probably date the time of impact at 4.461 ± 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and 10Be and 26Al activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S 2 (˜15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over ˜2 h. During this time, ˜90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal-sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced

  15. Impact Record of a Asteroid Regolith Recorded in a Carbonaceous Chrondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Le, Loan; Kring, David; Cato, Michael; Fagan, Amy L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    C-class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamor-phosed carbonaceous chondrites [1], or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent [2]. One particularly important example appears to be asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of the Hayabusa 2 mission [1], although most spectra of Ryugu are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith [3]. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C-class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to ex-plain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites [4], but has rarely been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites [5]. Jbilet Winselwan (JW) is a very fresh CM breccia from Morocco, with intriguing characteristics. While some lithologies are typical of CM2s (Figure 1, top), other clasts show evidence of brief, though significant impact brecciation and heating. The first evidence for this came from preliminary petrographic and stable isotope studies [6,7]. We contend that highly-brecciated, partially-shocked, and dehydrated lithologies like those in JW dominate C-class asteroid regolith.

  16. Geologic columns for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Impactites and crystalline rocks, 1766 to 1096 m depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Gibson, R.L.; Reimold, W.U.; Wittmann, A.; Gohn, G.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville drill cores from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure provide one of the most complete geologic sections ever obtained from an impact structure. This paper presents a series of geologic columns and descriptive lithologic information for the lower impactite and crystalline-rock sections in the cores. The lowermost cored section (1766-1551 m depth) is a complex assemblage of mica schists that commonly contain graphite and fibrolitic sillimanite, intrusive granite pegmatites that grade into coarse granite, and local zones of mylonitic deformation. This basement-derived section is variably overprinted by brittle cataclastic fabrics and locally cut by dikes of polymict impact breccia, including several suevite dikes. An overlying succession of suevites and lithic impact breccias (1551-1397 m) includes a lower section dominated by polymict lithic impact breccia with blocks (up to 17 m) and boulders of cataclastic gneiss and an upper section (above 1474 m) of suevites and clast-rich impact melt rocks. The uppermost suevite is overlain by 26 m (1397-1371 m) of gravelly quartz sand that contains an amphibolite block and boulders of cataclasite and suevite. Above the sand, a 275-m-thick allochthonous granite slab (1371-1096 m) includes gneissic biotite granite, fine- and medium-to-coarse-grained biotite granites, and red altered granite near the base. The granite slab is overlain by more gravelly sand, and both are attributed to debris-avalanche and/or rockslide deposition that slightly preceded or accompanied seawater-resurge into the collapsing transient crater. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

    As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

  18. Trace element partitioning in rock forming minerals of co-genetic, subduction-related alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e.g. temperature, pressure and chemical composition of the minerals and the coexisting melt. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopyroxene in a suite of co-genetic alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks from the Ural Mountains (Russia) were calculated. The results give insights to the influence of the chemical composition of the parental melt on the partitioning behaviour of the REE. Nepheline-bearing, alkaline melanogabbros (tilaites) are assumed to represent the most fractionated products of the melt that formed the ultramafic cumulates in zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Ural Mountains. Co-genetic with the latter is a suite of olivine gabbros, gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros formed from a tholeiitic parental melt. Negative anomalies for the HFSE along with low Nb and Ta contents and a positive Sr anomaly indicate a subduction related origin of all parental melts. The nepheline gabbros consist predominantly of coarse-grained clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine grained clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, K-feldspar and nepheline with accessory apatite. The tholeiitic gabbros have equigranular to porphyric textures with phenocrysts of olivine, pyroxene and hornblende in a plagioclase rich matrix with olivine hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite. Element concentrations of adjacent matrix grains and rims of phenochrysts were measured with LA-ICPMS. The distribution of REE between hornblende and clinopyroxene in the tholeiitic rocks is similar for most of the elements (DHbl•Cpx(La-Tm) = 2.7-2.8, decreasing to 2.6 and 2.4 for Yb and Lu, respectively). These values are about two times higher than published data (e.g. Ionov et al. 1997). Partition coefficients for orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene systematically decrease from the HREE

  19. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  20. Upper Albian to Lower Turonian deposits and associated breccias along the Dahar cuestas (southeastern Tunisia): Origin and depositional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimi, Mabrouk; Ouaja, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    The carbonate Zebbag Formation of Upper Albian to Lower Turonian age which outcrops along the Dahar cuestas (south eastern Tunisia) includes several breccia intervals. The stratigraphic hierarchy of these breccia levels led to achieving a detailed sequential analysis within a spectrum of depositional environments extending from subtidal to inner to middle ramp settings. Six major transgressive/regressive sequences make up the stacking of the elementary sequences beginning with transgressive and/or storm wave breccias capped by desiccation and/or collapse breccias. The stratigraphic evolutionary history of the breccia facies are interpreted as the result of the interplay between eustatic and tectonic factors. This model is in accord with the tectonic activities common during Upper Albian-Lower Turonian responsible for the sequences onlapping.

  1. Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at the Chicxulub Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, D. A.; Zurcher, L.; Abramov, O.

    2007-05-01

    Borehole samples recovered from PEMEX exploration boreholes and an ICDP scientific borehole indicate the Chicxulub impact event generated hydrothermal alteration throughout a large volume of the Maya Block beneath the crater floor and extending across the bulk of the ~180 km diameter crater. The first indications of hydrothermal alteration were observed in the crater discovery samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole and manifest itself in the form of anhydrite and quartz veins. Continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole reveal a more complex and temporally extensive alteration sequence: following a brief period at high temperatures, impact- melt-bearing polymict breccias and a thin, underlying unit of impact melt were subjected to metasomatism, producing alkali feldspar, sphene, apatite, and magnetite. As the system continued to cool, smectite-series phyllosilicates appeared. A saline solution was involved. Stable isotopes suggest the fluid was dominated by a basinal brine created mostly from existing groundwater of the Yucatan Peninsula, although contributions from down-welling water also occurred in some parts of the system. Numerical modeling of the hydrothermal system suggests circulation occurred for 1.5 to 2.3 Myr, depending on the permeability of the system. Our understanding of the hydrothermal system, however, is still crude. Additional core recovery projects, particularly into the central melt sheet, are needed to better evaluate the extent and duration of hydrothermal alteration.

  2. Luna 24 regolith breccias: A possible source of the fine size material of the Luna 24 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rode, O. D.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The regolith breccias from the Luna 24 core were analyzed. The Luna 24 regolith is a mixture of fine and coarse grain materials. The comparable analysis of the grain size distributions, the modal and chemical compositions of the breccias, and the regolith from the same levels show that the friable slightly litificated breccia with a friable fine grain matrix may be a source of fine grain material of the Luna 24 present day regolith.

  3. Heterogeneous dissemination of projectile materials in the impact melts from Wabar crater, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horz, F.; See, T. H.; Murali, A. V.; Blanchard, D. P.

    The initial observations of Spencer (1933) that two distinct impact melts coexist at the 90-m-diameter Wabar crater, Saudi Arabia, is confirmed. A dark or 'black' melt contains on the order of 4 percent meteoritic contamination, while the transparent or 'white' melt contains less than 1 percent. The Fe/Ni ratios in both varieties exhibit considerable scatter on electron-microprobe scales, akin to those reported by others for metal spherules in the black melt. If the meteoritic component is subtracted, both melts are chemically very similar. Clasts engulfed by the Wabar melts were investigated also, as they represent the progenitor lithologies from which the melts formed. Bulk compositions for these clasts reveal subtle differences in modal feldspar content within the quartz-rich Wabar target. Both melts require that a minimum of two target lithologies be present in the Wabar melt zone.

  4. Initial Observations of Lunar Impact Melts and Ejecta Flows with the Mini-RF Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, Paul D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Cahill, Joshua T.; Raney, R. Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-RF radar on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's spacecraft has revealed a great variety of crater ejecta flow and impact melt deposits, some of which were not observed in prior radar imaging. The craters Tycho and Glushko have long melt flows that exhibit variations in radar backscatter and circular polarization ratio along the flow. Comparison with optical imaging reveals that these changes are caused by features commonly seen in terrestrial lava flows, such as rafted plates, pressure ridges, and ponding. Small (less than 20 km) sized craters also show a large variety of features, including melt flows and ponds. Two craters have flow features that may be ejecta flows caused by entrained debris flowing across the surface rather than by melted rock. The circular polarization ratios (CPRs) of the impact melt flows are typically very high; even ponded areas have CPR values between 0.7-1.0. This high CPR suggests that deposits that appear smooth in optical imagery may be rough at centimeter- and decimeter- scales. In some places, ponds and flows are visible with no easily discernable source crater. These melt deposits may have come from oblique impacts that are capable of ejecting melted material farther downrange. They may also be associated with older, nearby craters that no longer have a radar-bright proximal ejecta blanket. The observed morphology of the lunar crater flows has implications for similar features observed on Venus. In particular, changes in backscatter along many of the ejecta flows are probably caused by features typical of lava flows.

  5. Geological Mapping of Impact Melt Deposits at Lunar Complex Craters: New Insights into Morphological Diversity, Distribution and the Cratering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, D.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have completed high resolution geological mapping of impact melt deposits at the young lunar complex craters (<1 billion years) Copernicus, Jackson and Tycho using data from recent missions. Crater floors being the largest repository of impact melt, we have mapped their morphological diversity expressed in terms of varied surface texture, albedo, character and occurrence of boulder units as well as relative differences in floor elevation. Examples of wall and rim impact melt units and their relation to floor units have also been mapped. Among the distinctive features of these impact melt deposits are: 1) Impact Melt Wave Fronts: These are extensive (sometimes several kilometers in length) and we have documented their occurrence and distribution in different parts of the crater floor at Jackson and Tycho. These features emphasize melt mobility and style of emplacement during the modification stage of the craters. 2) Variations in Floor Elevations: Spatially extensive and coherent sections of crater floors have different elevations at all the three craters. The observed elevation differences could be caused by subsidence due to cooling of melt and/or structural failure, together with a contribution from regional slope. 3) Melt-Covered Megablocks: We also observe large blocks/rock-fragments (megablocks) covered in impact melt, which could be sections of collapsed wall or in some cases, subdued sections of central peaks. 4) Melt-Covered Central Peaks: Impact melt has also been mapped on the central peaks but varies in spatial extent among the craters. The presence of melt on peaks must be taken into account when interpreting peak mineralogy as exposures of deeper crust. 5) Boulder Distribution: Interesting trends are observed in the distribution of boulder units of various sizes; some impact melt units have spatially extensive boulders, while boulder distribution is very scarce in other units on the floor. We interpret these distributions to be influenced by a) the

  6. Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the El Capitan Granite, California, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratajeski, K.; Sisson, T.W.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial melting of mafic intrusions recently emplaced into the lower crust can produce voluminous silicic magmas with isotopic ratios similar to their mafic sources. Low-temperature (825 and 850??C) partial melts synthesized at 700 MPa in biotite-hornblende gabbros from the central Sierra Nevada batholith (Sisson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635-661, 2005) have major-element and modeled trace-element (REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Th, U) compositions matching those of the Cretaceous El Capitan Granite, a prominent granite and silicic granodiorite pluton in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith (Yosemite, CA, USA) locally mingled with coeval, isotopically similar quartz diorite through gabbro intrusions (Ratajeski et al. in Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1486-1502, 2001). These results are evidence that the El Capitan Granite, and perhaps similar intrusions in the Sierra Nevada batholith with lithospheric-mantle-like isotopic values, were extracted from LILE-enriched, hydrous (hornblende-bearing) gabbroic rocks in the Sierran lower crust. Granitic partial melts derived by this process may also be silicic end members for mixing events leading to large-volume intermediate composition Sierran plutons such as the Cretaceous Lamarck Granodiorite. Voluminous gabbroic residues of partial melting may be lost to the mantle by their conversion to garnet-pyroxene assemblages during batholithic magmatic crustal thickening. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Studies of K-Ar dating and xenon from extinct radioactivities in breccia 14318; implications for early lunar history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Davis, P. K.; Srinivasan, B.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar breccia 14318 is one of three Apollo-14 breccias containing substantial amounts of parentless xenon from the spontaneous fission of extinct Pu-244. The argon and xenon contained in this breccia were studied by stepwise heating of pristine and neutron-irradiated samples. The isotopic composition of xenon from fission, determined by an improved method, is shown to be from Pu-244. Concentrations of this fissiogenic xenon are in substantial excess (15-fold) of what could be produced by spontaneous fission of U-238. The breccia is found to contain abundant trapped argon with an Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio of roughly 14. Otherwise, the argon is radiogenic and gives a convincing K-Ar age of 3.69 plus or minus 0.09 b.y. by the stepwise Ar-40/Ar-39 method, nearly in agreement with ages for other Apollo-14 breccias.

  8. High crustal density at Mafic Mound in South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.; Kiefer, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The bulk density of a planetary surface is dependent on the porosity and composition of the crust, which are quantities of interest for exploration as well as science. We present new methods for characterizing noise in gravity data, which allow us to include more high-degree data, reduce uncertainties, and resolve smaller features. We apply these methods to an enigmatic geologic complex in the lunar South Pole-Aitken basin called "Mafic Mound". We studied Mafic Mound using GRAIL gravity [1] and the predicted gravity from a LOLA lunar shape model ("gravity-from-topography"), and these datasets are tapered within a 50-km radius. We apply a spectral taper between spherical harmonic degrees l=150 and l=585; the lower limit is selected so as to limit sensitivity to the crust-mantle interface, and the upper limit corresponds to a 2:1 signal/noise ratio [2]. A weighted linear regression of filtered gravity and gravity-from-topography reveals a density of 3190 ± 110 kg/m3 at Mafic Mound. This is a remarkably high density: similar analyses at six adjacent terrains yield densities 400-610 kg/m3 less dense than Mafic Mound. However, two lines of evidence suggest that this high estimate for bulk density may be influenced by the internal structure of Mafic Mound. First, gravity has a weaker correlation with topography in Mafic Mound than in any of the surrounding terrains, as would be expected if subsurface mass concentrations contributed heavily to the gravity anomaly. Second, a high-pass filter (l > 300) of gravity yields a lower density estimate of 2760 ± 110 kg/m3, which is only about 110 kg/m3 denser than the surrounding terrains. Forward modeling reveals that approximately half of the high-pass gravity signal energy is produced by masses at depths shallower than 3 km. We conclude that Mafic Mound is underlain at several kilometers depth by high-density crust, caused by some combination of relatively low porosity and relatively high grain densities. While alternative

  9. New Elemental and Isotopic Data From Mafic Lavas on the Puna Plateau and Re-Examining the Geochemical Signature of Convective Lithospheric Removal in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K. E.; Ducea, M. N.; Reiners, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Foundering or delamination of the lower lithosphere into the convecting mantle is required by mass balance in convergent orogens such as the central Andes. In the central Andean volcanic zone (CVZ), late Miocene to Recent mafic lavas erupted on the Puna plateau are small volume fissure flows and cinder cones classically cited as evidence of convective lithospheric removal, in concert with a suite of observations including high surface elevation (>4000m) and anomalously thin lithosphere relative to other parts of the CVZ. Mafic lavas provide the best available geochemical window into the recent history of the upper mantle in this and other regions. However, an increasing number of elemental and isotopic data suggest that these melts are less distinct from the neighboring arc magmatism than originally predicted. This observation weakens the hypothesis that there is a distinct geochemical fingerprint for so-called delamination magmatism, while advancing our understanding of the size of delaminating bodies and the timescales over which they detach from the lithosphere and interact with the mantle wedge. In this contribution, we present elemental and radiogenic isotopic data from 20 newly sampled mafic lavas from the Puna plateau (24.5°S to 27°S). Preliminary major element analyses show that the Puna lavas are high-K to shoshonitic in composition, in broad agreement with other mafic lavas sampled though out the region. Several sampled flows contain xenotliths of granitoid composition, which likely represent the crustal end member that contributed to the more evolved lavas. Along with major, trace and rare earth element analyses, we will present 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd data to further characterize source regions of these melts. In sum, these data will allow us to (1) expand the spatial coverage of this dataset in the central Andes, (2) contribute to the effort to parse contributions from the subcontinental lithosphere, asthenosphere, subduction-related fluids, and

  10. Sudbury Breccia and suevite as glacial indicators transported 800 km to Kentland Astrobleme, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, John F.; Dietz, Robert S.; Peredery, Walter V.

    1992-01-01

    A glacial erratic whose place of origin is known by direct comparison with bedrock is known as an indicator. In 1971, while visiting the known astrobleme at Kentland, Indiana, Peredery recognized and sampled in the overlying glacial drift deposits a distinctive boulder of Sudbury suevite (black member, Onaping Formation) that normally occurs within the Sudbury Basin as an impact fall-back or wash-in deposit. The rock was sampled (but later mislaid) from a farmer's cairn next to a cleared field. Informal reports of this discovery prompted the other authors to recently reconnoiter the Kentland locality in an attempt to relocate the original boulder. Several breccia blocks were sampled but laboratory examination proved most of these probably to be diamictites from the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, which outcrops extensively in the southern Ontario. However, one sample was confirmed as typical Sudbury Breccia, which outcrops in the country rock surrounding the Sudbury Basin. Thus two glacial indicators were transported by Pleistocene continental glaciers about 820 km over a tightly proscribed path and, curiously, from one astrobleme to another. Brecciated boulders in the Illinois/Indiana till plain are usually ascribed to the Gowganda or Mississagi formations in Ontario. But impact-generated rocks need not be confused. The carbonaceous matrix of the suevite, for example, was sufficiently distinctive to assign it to the upper portion of the black Onaping. The unique and restricted source area of these indicators provide an accurate and reliable control for estimating Pleistocene ice movement.

  11. Thermodynamic controls on element partitioning between titanomagnetite and andesitic-dacitic silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievwright, R. H.; Wilkinson, J. J.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Berry, A. J.

    2017-08-01

    Titanomagnetite-melt partitioning of Mg, Mn, Al, Ti, Sc, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf and Ta was investigated experimentally as a function of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) and temperature ( T) in an andesitic-dacitic bulk-chemical compositional range. In these bulk systems, at constant T, there are strong increases in the titanomagnetite-melt partitioning of the divalent cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+) and Cu2+/Cu+ with increasing fO2 between 0.2 and 3.7 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer. This is attributed to a coupling between magnetite crystallisation and melt composition. Although melt structure has been invoked to explain the patterns of mineral-melt partitioning of divalent cations, a more rigorous justification of magnetite-melt partitioning can be derived from thermodynamic principles, which accounts for much of the supposed influence ascribed to melt structure. The presence of magnetite-rich spinel in equilibrium with melt over a range of fO2 implies a reciprocal relationship between a(Fe2+O) and a(Fe3+O1.5) in the melt. We show that this relationship accounts for the observed dependence of titanomagnetite-melt partitioning of divalent cations with fO2 in magnetite-rich spinel. As a result of this, titanomagnetite-melt partitioning of divalent cations is indirectly sensitive to changes in fO2 in silicic, but less so in mafic bulk systems.

  12. Impactites from Popigai Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masaitis, V. L.

    1992-01-01

    Impactites (tagamites and suevites) from Popigai impact crater, whose diameter is about 100 km, are distributed over an area of 5000 sq km. The continuous sheet of suevite overlies the allogenic polymict breccia and partly authogenic breccia, and may also be observed in lenses or irregular bodies. The thickness of suevites in the central part of the crater is more than 100 m. Suevites may be distinguished by content of vitroclasts, lithoclasts, and crystalloclasts, by their dimensions, and by type of cementation, which reflects the facial settings of ejection of crushed and molten material, its sedimentation and lithification. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are distributed on the surface predominantly in the western sector of the crater. The most characteristic are thick sheetlike bodies overlying the allogenic breccia and occurring in suevites where minor irregular bodies are widespread. The maximal thickness of separate tagamite sheets is up to 600 m. Tagamites, whose matrix is crystallized to a different degree, include fragments of minerals and gneiss blocks, among them shocked and thermally metamorphosed ones. Tagamite sheets have a complex inner structure; separate horizontal zones distinguish in crystallinity and fragment saturation. Differentiation in the impact melt in situ was not observed. The average chemical compositions of tagamites and suevites are similar, and correspond to the composition of biotite-garnet gneisses of the basement. According to the content of supplied Ir, Ni, and other siderophiles, impact melt was contaminated by 5 percent cosmic matter of collided body, probably ordinary chondrite. The total volume of remaining products of chilled impact melt is about 1750 cu km. Half this amount is represented by tagamite bodies. Though impact melt was in general well homogenized, the trend analysis showed that the concentric zonation is distribution of SiO2, MgO, and Na2O and the bandlike distribution of FeO and Al2O3 content testifies to a

  13. Reverse polarity magnetized melt rocks from the Chicxulub impact structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Marin, Luis E.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Quezada, Juan Manuel

    1993-03-01

    Further paleomagnetic data for core samples of melt rock recovered in the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory wells within the Chicxulub structure, northern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico are reported. A previous report by Sharpton showed that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts, and an Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.2 plus or minus 0.4 Ma. The geomagnetic polarity determined for two samples is reverse (R) and was correlated with chron 29R that includes the K/T boundary. Our present analysis is based on two samples from each of three clasts of the melt rock from PEMEX well Y6-N17 (1295 to 1299 m b.s.l.). This study concentrates on the vectorial nature and stability of the remanence (NRM), the magnetic mineralogy and remanence carriers (i.e., the reliability and origin of the record), and on the implications (correlation with expected paleolatitude and polarity). The relative orientation of the drill core samples with respect to the horizontal is known. Samples were stable under alternating field (AF) and thermal treatments, and after removal of a small component they exhibited single-vectorial behavior. The characteristic remanence inclinations show small dispersion and a mean value (-43 deg) in close agreement with the expected inclination and paleolatitude (derived from the North American apparent polar wander path). Isothermal remenence (IRM) acquisition experiments, Lowrie-Fuller tests, coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra of NRM and saturation IRM, susceptibility and Q-coefficient analyses, and the single-component nature indicate a dominant mineralogy of iron-rich titanomagnetites with single or pseduo-single domain states. The stable characteristic magnetization may be interpreted as a result of shock heating of the rock at the time of formation of the inpact structure and its polarity, age, and paleolatitude are consistent with a time about the K/T boundary.

  14. Reverse polarity magnetized melt rocks from the Chicxulub impact structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Marin, Luis E.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Quezada, Juan Manuel

    1993-01-01

    Further paleomagnetic data for core samples of melt rock recovered in the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory wells within the Chicxulub structure, northern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico are reported. A previous report by Sharpton showed that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts, and an Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.2 plus or minus 0.4 Ma. The geomagnetic polarity determined for two samples is reverse (R) and was correlated with chron 29R that includes the K/T boundary. Our present analysis is based on two samples from each of three clasts of the melt rock from PEMEX well Y6-N17 (1295 to 1299 m b.s.l.). This study concentrates on the vectorial nature and stability of the remanence (NRM), the magnetic mineralogy and remanence carriers (i.e., the reliability and origin of the record), and on the implications (correlation with expected paleolatitude and polarity). The relative orientation of the drill core samples with respect to the horizontal is known. Samples were stable under alternating field (AF) and thermal treatments, and after removal of a small component they exhibited single-vectorial behavior. The characteristic remanence inclinations show small dispersion and a mean value (-43 deg) in close agreement with the expected inclination and paleolatitude (derived from the North American apparent polar wander path). Isothermal remenence (IRM) acquisition experiments, Lowrie-Fuller tests, coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra of NRM and saturation IRM, susceptibility and Q-coefficient analyses, and the single-component nature indicate a dominant mineralogy of iron-rich titanomagnetites with single or pseduo-single domain states. The stable characteristic magnetization may be interpreted as a result of shock heating of the rock at the time of formation of the inpact structure and its polarity, age, and paleolatitude are consistent with a time about the K/T boundary.

  15. Mihi Breccia: A stack of lacustrine sediments and subaqueous pyroclastic flows within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Drew

    2016-01-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, encompasses a wide variety of arc-related strata, although most of its small-volume (non-caldera-forming) eruptions are poorly-exposed and extensively hydrothermally altered. The Mihi Breccia is a stratigraphic sequence consisting of interbedded rhyolitic pyroclastic flows and lacustrine sediments with eruption ages of 281 ± 18 to at least 239 ± 6 ka (uncertainties at 2σ). In contrast to other small-volume rhyolitic eruptions within the TVZ, Mihi Breccia is relatively well-exposed within the Paeroa fault block, and contains minimal hydrothermal alteration. Pyroclastic flow characteristics and textures including: 1) breadcrusted juvenile clasts, 2) lack of welding, 3) abundant ash-rich matrix, 4) lack of fiamme and eutaxitic textures, 5) lack of thermal oxidation colors, 6) lack of cooling joints, 7) exclusive lacustrine sediment lithic clasts, and 8) interbedding with lacustrine sediments, all indicating that Mihi Breccia strata originated in a paleo-lake system. This ephemeral paleo-lake system is inferred to have lasted for > 50 kyr (based on Mihi Breccia age constraints), and referred to as Huka Lake. Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flow juvenile clast geochemistry and petrography correspond with similar-aged (264 ± 8, 263 ± 10, and 247 ± 4 ka) intra-caldera rhyolite domes filling the Reporoa caldera (source of the 281 ± 81 Kaingaroa Formation ignimbrite). These exposed intra-caldera rhyolite domes (as well as geophysically inferred subsurface domes) are proposed to be source vents for the Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flows. Soft-sediment deformation associated with Mihi Breccia strata indicate either seismic shock, rapid sediment loading during pyroclastic flow emplacement, or both. Thus, the Mihi Breccia reflects a prolonged series of subaqueous rhyolite dome building and associated pyroclastic flows, accompanied by seismic activity, emplaced into a large paleo-lake system within the TVZ.

  16. Mihi Breccia: A stack of lacustrine sediments and subaqueous pyroclastic flows within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Drew T.

    2016-11-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, encompasses a wide variety of arc-related strata, although most of its small-volume (non-caldera-forming) eruptions are poorly-exposed and extensively hydrothermally altered. The Mihi Breccia is a stratigraphic sequence consisting of interbedded rhyolitic pyroclastic flows and lacustrine sediments with eruption ages of 281 ± 18 to at least 239 ± 6 ka (uncertainties at 2σ). In contrast to other small-volume rhyolitic eruptions within the TVZ, Mihi Breccia is relatively well-exposed within the Paeroa fault block, and contains minimal hydrothermal alteration. Pyroclastic flow characteristics and textures include: 1) prismatically jointed juvenile clasts, 2) lack of welding, 3) abundant ash-rich matrix, 4) lack of fiamme and eutaxitic textures, 5) lack of thermal oxidation colors, 6) lack of cooling joints, 7) exclusive lacustrine sediment lithic clasts, and 8) interbedding with lacustrine sediments, all indicating that Mihi Breccia strata originated in a paleo-lake system. This ephemeral paleo-lake system is inferred to have lasted for > 50 kyr (based on Mihi Breccia age constraints), and referred to as Huka Lake. Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flow juvenile clast geochemistry and petrography correspond with similar-aged (264 ± 8, 263 ± 10, and 247 ± 4 ka) intra-caldera rhyolite domes filling the Reporoa caldera (source of the 281 ka Kaingaroa Formation ignimbrite). These exposed intra-caldera rhyolite domes (as well as geophysically inferred subsurface domes) are proposed to be source vents for the Mihi Breccia pyroclastic flows. Soft-sediment deformation associated with Mihi Breccia strata indicates either seismic shock, rapid sediment loading during pyroclastic flow emplacement, or both. Thus, the Mihi Breccia reflects a prolonged series of subaqueous rhyolite dome building and associated pyroclastic flows, accompanied by seismic activity, emplaced into a large paleo-lake system within the TVZ.

  17. Melting Conditions of Basaltic Volcanism from Collision to Escape in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, P. M.; Reid, M. R.; Cosca, M. A.; Gencalioglu Kuscu, G.

    2013-12-01

    Both Miocene and Quaternary mafic volcanics have erupted in the vicinity of the present-day Central Anatolian fault zone since the cessation of Afro-Arabian subduction and continent-continent collision, and the initiation of tectonic escape. We report results for samples from the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (near Hasan volcano) and the Sarkisla region of the Sivas basin (250 km NE of Hasandag) analyzed with the goal of understanding the melting conditions responsible for the post-collisional magmatism in these regions. New 40Ar/39Ar dates for basalts erupted near Hasan range in age from 2.58 +/- 0.08 Ma to 62 +/- 4 ka. A majority of the dates cluster at ~400 ka, ages similar to those documented by Notsu et al, 1995. These subalkaline basalts have Zn/Fe and FC3MS [(FeO*/CaO)-3x(MgO/SiO2)] concentrations (10.0-11.4 and 0.05-0.39, respectively) expected for basalts produced by melting of peridotite (Le Roux et al, 2011, Yang and Zhou, 2013). Using olivine-opx-melt thermobarometry (Lee et al, 2009), the samples are determined to have been extracted from the mantle at 1.2-1.8 GPa and 1314-1391 °C. Clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Putirka, 2003) shows that they then crystallized at 0.7 GPa and ~1200°C. Enrichments in LILE:HFSE, most likely imparted to the magmas from mantle lithosphere which has been enriched by previous subduction zone metasomatism, is present in all of the samples. Accordingly, basalts sampled near Hasan are derived from a shallow lithospheric mantle peridotite source that has been affected by Afro-Arabian subduction prior to collision. New 40Ar/39Ar dates for basanites and basalts from the Sarkisla region show that they erupted between 17.6 +/- 0.4 Ma and 14.09 +/- 0.09 Ma. They have elsewhere been reported to be Plio-Pleistocene in age (Parlak et al., 2001). Zn/Fe and FC3MS for these basalts (Zn/Fe: 10.4-12.6, FC3MS: 0.29-0.91) range to values above the maximum value produced by peridotite melts (~10.8 and 0.65, respectively). Therefore

  18. Chemical Zoning of Feldspars in Lunar Granitoids: Implications for the Origins of Lunar Silicic Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D; Simon, J. I.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z..

    2014-01-01

    Fine-scale chemical and textural measurements of alkali and plagioclase feldspars in the Apollo granitoids (ex. Fig. 1) can be used to address their petrologic origin(s). Recent findings suggest that these granitoids may hold clues of global importance, rather than of only local significance for small-scale fractionation. Observations of morphological features that resemble silicic domes on the unsampled portion of the Moon suggest that local, sizable net-works of high-silica melt (>65 wt % SiO2) were present during crust-formation. Remote sensing data from these regions suggest high concentrations of Si and heat-producing elements (K, U, and Th). To help under-stand the role of high-silica melts in the chemical differentiation of the Moon, three questions must be answered: (1) when were these magmas generated?, (2) what was the source material?, and (3) were these magmas produced from internal differentiation. or impact melting and crystallization? Here we focus on #3. It is difficult to produce high-silica melts solely by fractional crystallization. Partial melting of preexisting crust may therefore also have been important and pos-sibly the primary mechanism that produced the silicic magmas on the Moon. Experimental studies demonstrate that partial melting of gabbroic rock under mildly hydrated conditions can produce high-silica compositions and it has been suggested by that partial melting by basaltic underplating is the mechanism by which high-silica melts were produced on the Moon. TEM and SIMS analyses, coordinated with isotopic dating and tracer studies, can help test whether the minerals in the Apollo granitoids formed in a plutonic setting or were the result of impact-induced partial melting. We analyzed granitoid clasts from 3 Apollo samples: polymict breccia 12013,141, crystalline-matrix breccia 14303,353, and breccia 15405,78

  19. Magmatic structure and geochemistry of the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex: Further constraints for the PGE-mineralized magmatism in Carajás, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Eduardo Teixeira; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    The Luanga Complex is part of the Serra Leste Magmatic Suite, a cluster of PGE-mineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions located in the northeastern portion of the Carajás Mineral Province. The Luanga Complex is a medium-sized layered intrusion consisting of three main zones: i. the lower Ultramafic Zone comprising ultramafic adcumulates (peridotite), ii. the Transition Zone comprising interlayered ultramafic and mafic cumulates (harzburgite, orthopyroxenite and norite) and iii. the upper Mafic Zone comprising a monotonous sequence of mafic cumulates (norite) with minor orthopyroxenite layers. Several PGE-mineralized zones occur in the Transition Zone but the bulk of the PGE resources are hosted within a 10-50 meter thick interval of disseminated sulfides at the contact of the Ultramafic and Transition Zones. The compositional range of cumulus olivine (Fo78.9-86.4) is comparable to those reported for layered intrusions originated from moderate primitive parental magmas. Mantle normalized alteration-resistant trace element patterns of noritic rocks are fractionated, as indicated by relative enrichment in LREE and Th, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies, suggesting assimilation of older continental crust. Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex (up to 7500 ppm) stand among the highest values reported in layered intrusions globally. The highest Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex occur in distinctively PGE enriched (Pt + Pd > 1 ppm) intervals of the Transition Zone, in both sulfide-poor and sulfide bearing (1-3 vol.%) rocks. The origin of the PGE- and Ni-rich parental magma of the Luanga Complex is discussed considering the upgrading of magmas through dissolution of previously formed Ni-rich sulfide melts. Our results suggest that high Ni contents in olivine and/or orthopyroxene provide an additional exploration tool for Ni-PGE deposits, particularly useful for target selection in large magmatic provinces.

  20. Widespread Magmatism as a Result of Impact Related Decompression Melting on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Flat-floored craters on Mars have been observed since early spacecraft viewed the surface. Early work characterized these craters as infilled by sedimentary materials [e.g. Christensen, 1983] but later work using THEMIS thermal inertia determined these craters contain some of the rockiest materials on the planet and not sedimentary materials [Edwards et al., 2009]. Here we investigate the distribution, physical properties (morphology and thermal inertia), and composition of these craters over the entire planet. We find the majority of rocky crater floors identified (~3300) are concentrated in the low albedo (0.1-0.17), cratered southern highlands. These craters are associated with the highest thermal inertia values (e.g. > 500 to 2000 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), some of the most mafic materials on the planet (enriched in olivine/pyroxene vs. high-Si phases/plagioclase, often with >10-15% olivine areal abundance), and formed ~3.5 billion years ago. Based on the properties of the crater fill materials described, three mechanisms are considered for the formation of flat-floored, high thermal inertia crater floors on Mars including: 1) the lithification/induration of sediments, 2) the ponding of crustal melt material related to the heat generated during the impact process, and 3) infilling by volcanic materials. We find the only likely scenario is volcanic infilling through fractures created in the impact event. Furthermore, we find the generation of the primitive magma would be directly sourced from the decompression melting of the martian mantle due to the removal of several kilometers of overlying crustal material by the impactor. As the ancient martian crust was likely thin and the geothermal gradients were significantly higher than present day [e.g. Zuber, 2001], the decompression melting of the mantle [Bertka and Holloway, 1994] would be more likely to occur on early Mars then under present day conditions. This is borne out by the ancient ages (~3-4Ga) of the crater floors

  1. Lower continental crust formation through focused flow in km-scale melt conduits: The zoned ultramafic bodies of the Chilas Complex in the Kohistan island arc (NW Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, O.; Müntener, O.; Burg, J.-P.; Ulmer, P.; Jagoutz, E.

    2006-02-01

    Whole-rock and Sm-Nd isotopic data of the main units of the Chilas zoned ultramafic bodies (Kohistan paleo-island arc, NW Pakistan) indicate that ultramafic rocks and gabbronorite sequences stem from a common magma. However, field observations rule out formation of both ultramafic and mafic sequences in terms of gravitational crystal settling in a large magma chamber. Contacts between ultramafic and gabbronorite sequences show emplacement of the dunitic bodies into a semi-consolidated gabbronoritic crystal-mush, which in turn has intruded and reacted with the ultramafic rocks to produce concentric zoning. Field and petrological observations indicate a replacive origin of the dunite. Bulk Mg#'s of dunitic rocks range from 0.87-0.81 indicating that the dunite-forming melt underwent substantial fractionation-differentiation and that percolative fractional crystallization probably generated the dunitic core. The REE chemistry of clinopyroxene in primitive dunite samples and the Nd isotopic composition of ultramafic rocks are in equilibrium with the surrounding gabbronorite. Accordingly, liquids that formed the dunitic rocks and later the mafic sequence derived from a similar depleted source ( ɛNd˜4.8). We propose a mechanism for the comagmatic emplacement, where km-scale ultramafic bodies represent continuous channels reaching down into the upper mantle. The melt-filled porosity in these melt channels diminishes the mean-depth-integrated density difference to the surrounding rocks. Due to buoyancy forces, melt channels raise into the overlying crustal sequence. In the light of such processes, the ultramafic bodies are interpreted as melt channels through which the Chilas gabbronorite sequence was fed. The estimated basaltic-andesitic, low Mg# (˜0.53) bulk composition of the Chilas gabbronorite sequence closely matches estimates of lower crustal compositions. Since the mafic sequence originated from a primary, high Mg# (> 0.7) basaltic arc magma, differentiation of

  2. Slab break-off and the formation of Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in southern margin of Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Xie, Wei; Deng, Yu-Feng; Crawford, Anthony J.; Zheng, Wen-Qin; Zhou, Guo-Fu; Deng, Gang; Cheng, Song-Lin; Li, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The Baishiquan and Pobei Early Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions were emplaced into Proterozoic metamorphic rocks in the Central Tianshan and the Beishan Fold Belt, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The Baishiquan intrusion comprises mainly gabbro, and mela-gabbro sills occurring within and along the margins of the gabbro body. In the Pobei intrusion, two distinct gabbroic packages, a lower gabbro and the main gabbro, are intruded and overlain by small cumulate wehrlite bodies. Both intrusions are characterized by enrichments of large ion lithophile elements and Th and U relative to the high field strength elements, and show strong negative Nb and Ta anomalies and positive K and Pb anomalies, leading to higher Th/Yb and Nb/Yb than in mid-ocean ridge basalt and ocean island basalt. These features are comparable with subduction-related mafic rocks and post-collisional magmas. Geological and geochemical considerations indicate that the parental magmas of the two intrusions were derived from decompression melting of ascending asthenosphere and reacted with overlying subduction-modified lithospheric mantle. We believe that these parental magmas were generated by post-collisional extension along the Chinese Tianshan, perhaps triggered by slab break-off or delamination of thickened lithosphere. Relatively lower (143Nd/144Nd)i and higher (87Sr/86Sr)i than other Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the eastern Chinese Tianshan indicate that the parental magmas of these two intrusions experienced significant contamination by old crustal rocks.

  3. Petrology of Impact-Melt Rocks at the Chicxulub Multiring Basin, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    Compositions and textures of melt rocks from the upper part of the Chicxulub structure are typical of melt rocks at other large terrestrial impact structures. Apart from variably elevated iridium concentrations (less than 1.5 to 13.5 +/- 0.9 ppb) indicating nonuniform dissemination of a meteoritic component, bulk rock and phenocryst compositions imply that these melt rocks were derived exclusively from continental crust and platform-sediment target lithologies. Modest differences in bulk chemistry among samples from wells located approximately 40 km apart suggest minor variations in relative contributions of these target lithologies to the melts. Subtle variations in the compositions of early-formed pyroxene and plagioclase also support minor primary differences in chemistry between the melts. Evidence for pervasive hydrothermal alteration of the porous mesostasis includes albite, K-feldspar, quartz, epidote, chlorite, and other phyllosilicates, as well as siderophile element-enriched sulfides, suggesting the possibility that Chicxulub, like Sudbury, may host important ore deposits.

  4. C Chondrite Clasts in H Chondrite Regolith Breccias: Something Different

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Utas, J.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Ito, M.; Nakashima, D.; Greenwood, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Zag (H3-6) and Monahans (1998) (H5) are regolith breccias that contain 4.5 GY old halite crystals which in turn contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics [1-4]. We have previously proposed that these halites originated on a hydro-volcanically-active C-class asteroid, probably Ceres [3-7]. We have begun a detailed analysis of the included solids and organics and are re-examining the related carbonaceous (C)) chondrite clast we previously reported in Zag [5-7]. These new investigations will potentially reveal the mineralogy of asteroid Ceres. We report here on potentially identical C chondrite clasts in the H chondrite regolith breccias Tsukuba (H5-6) and Carancas (H4-5). The clast in Tsukuba was known before [8], but the Carancas clast is newly recognized.

  5. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  6. The Gardnos Impact Structure, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dons, J. A.; Naterstad, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Gardnos area is situated 9 km north of the village Nesbyen in the county of Buskerud, south-central Norway. The peculiar "Gardnos breccia" was first described in 1945 and ascribed to explosive volcanic activity in Permian time. This conclusion has lately been questioned, and preliminary field and microscopic investigations by the authors in 1990-91 substantiated a theory of impact origin for the breccia and the structure. The Gardnos Impact Structure is the first of its kind to be described from Norway. Its geographical position is lat. 60 degrees 39'N, long. 9 degrees 00'E. The topography surrounding the structure ranges from 200 m.a.s.l. in the main Hallingdalen valley to more than 1000 m.a.s.l. in the high mountains nearby. At heights of 900-1000 m erosion has cut through the important, more or less horizontal boundary between a complex Precambrian crystalline basement and a deformed Caledonian cover sequence of Cambro-Ordovician sediments and overthrust nappes. Rocks of the latter sequence are however, still preserved in outliers no more than 3 km from the Gardnos structure. Erosional remnants of the Gardnos structure rocks are found within a semicircular area of 4-5 km diameter. Topographically the eroded structure now appears as a bowl-shaped, hanging side valley to Hallingdal. Wooded, late-Quaternary moraines and fluvioglacial deposits cover to a great extent the solid rocks, but the beds of many branching creeks provide good exposures. Thus a great variety of rocks formed within the Gardnos structure can be studied from approximately 350 m.a.s.l. up to more than 800 m.a.s.l. A variety of rocks from the Precambrian basement complex have been affected by the impact. This gives a unique opportunity to study shock-metamorphic effects on varying lithologies. Among the impact-produced structures and rock types that can easily be identified is an outer zone of breccia veining in the varied Precambrian lithologies, a lowermost lens of autochthonous breccia, the

  7. Carbonate Melt Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.; Lee, P.

    2002-01-01

    The target rocks at the Haughton impact structure, Canada, are predominantly carbonates. The well preserved allochthonous crater-fill deposits are reinterpreted here as being carbonatitic impact melt rocks. The implications of our findings will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Early Jurassic mafic dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit in South China: Geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Mafic dykes are abundant and widely distributed in many granite-hosted uranium ore deposits in South China. However, their geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization were poorly constrained. In this study, apatite U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analysis were conducted for the dolerite dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit. Apatite U-Pb isotopic data indicate that the mafic dykes were emplaced at Early Jurassic (189 ± 4 Ma), which provides new evidence for the rarely identified Early Jurassic magmatism in South China. Pyroxene from the dykes is mainly augite, and plagioclase belongs to albite. The dolerite samples have relatively low SiO2 contents (45.33-46.79 wt%), relatively high total alkali contents (K2O + Na2O = 4.11-4.58 wt%) and Al2O3 contents (13.39-13.80 wt%), and medium MgO contents (4.29-5.16 wt%). They are enriched in Nb, Ta, Ti, rare earth elements and depleted in Rb, K, Sr, Th, showing the typical OIB-like geochemical affinity. All the dolerite samples show homogeneous Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, with (87Sr/86Sr)i varying from 0.706049 to 0.707137, εNd(t) from +4.6 to +5.2, 206Pb/204Pb from 19.032 to 19.126 and 207Pb/204Pb from 15.641 to 15.653. The mafic dykes in the Aigao deposit should be derived from the partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle and formed in a within-plate extensional environment. The emplacement age of the mafic dykes is older than the uranium mineralization age. Therefore, CO2 in ore-forming fluids couldn't originate from the basaltic magma as suggested by previous studies. The dolerite dykes might only provide a favorable reducing environment to promote the precipitation of uraninite from oxidize hydrothermal fluids.

  9. Some Pecularities of Solidification of the Almandine Impact Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, V. I.; Kozlov, E. A.; Zhugin, Yu. N.

    1996-03-01

    SOME PECULIARITIES OF SOLIDIFICATION OF THE ALMANDINE IMPACT MELT. Feldman V.I. Moscow State University, Geological Faculty, Department of Petrology, 119899, Moscow, Russia. Kozlov E.A., Zhugin Yu.N. Russian Federal nuclear Center - Research Institute of Technical Physics, P.O.Box 245, 456770, Snezhinsk, Russia. The aim of these investigations is a description of the experiments and the first results of a loading of the garnet sand by spherical converging shock waves. These experiments show that impact liquid have by solidification three stage of liquid immiscibility.

  10. An experimental investigation of agglutinate melting mechanisms - Shocked mixtures of Apollo 11 and 16 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Horz, F.; See, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of chemically contrasting lunar soils have been shocked at pressures ranging from 18.2-62.0 GPa. Other than the generation of impact melts, modal and textural changes caused by shock include destruction of pore space and fused soil clasts and conversion of plagioclase to maskelynite. The loss of the fused soil component in these runs indicates that low agglutinate contents in shocked and/or compacted regolith breccias cannot be considered by themselves to be evidence of formation from immature regolith. From the petrographic and chemical data it appears that the impact glass formed mainly from the fine fraction and the fused soil component in the target, with relatively minor contributions from the other coarse clasts. The impact glasses exhibit the same chemical enrichments and depletions as their corresponding fine fractions and plot on or near a mixing line between the bulk and fine fraction of the soil in which they were formed. From this as well as several other studies it appears that the fusion of the finest fraction model is valid and that it accurately predicts the chemical systematics of impact glass formed from lunar soil. In addition, fusion of agglutinates present in the target soil is an important process.

  11. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Petrology, chemistry, and origin of breccia formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Deutsch, A.; Avermann, M.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Sudbury Project of the University of Muenster and the Ontario Geological Survey special emphasis was put on the breccia formations exposed at the Sudbury structure (SS) because of their crucial role for the impact hypothesis. They were mapped and sampled in selected areas of the north, east, and south ranges of the SS. The relative stratigraphic positions of these units are summarized. Selected samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, microprobe, XRF and INAA, Rb-Sr and SM-Nd-isotope geochemistry, and carbon isotope analysis. The results of petrographic and chemical analysis for those stratigraphic units that were considered the main structural elements of a large impact basin are summarized.

  12. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.

    2018-01-01

    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  13. Lateral and Vertical Heterogeneity of Thorium in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane: As Reflected in the Ejecta Deposits of Post-Imbrium Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    1999-01-01

    discussed above and their ejecta, with the goal of describing the materials they excavate. One interpretation for the origin of the high-Th material is that subsurface KREEPy materials have been excavated by impact craters. The material excavated may be either volcanic KREEP (e,g., Apennine Bench Formation), KREEPy impact-melt breccia formed by the Imbrium impact (e.g., Fra Mauro Formation), or other KREEP-rich crustal material. Determining which type of material is responsible for the elevated Th and its extent is important to understanding the premare and possibly the prebasin stratigraphy of the Imbrium-Procellarum Region. Merging the 5 deg. Th data with the shaded relief map, we observe that the highest Th concentrations are not related to pre-Imbrium upper crustal materials. The Apennines, Alpes, and Caucasus Mountains represent the pre-Imbrian highlands material and do not express concentrations of Th, FeO, and TiO2 as high as the most Th-fich materials exposed within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. We observe that, in general, these massifs contain 10-14 wt% FeO and 4-7 ppm Th. Determining whether the Th signal is from KREEP basalts or KREEPy impact-melt breccias cannot be done with the Clementine data because the two rock types are compositionally and mineralogically too similar (e.g., the Th-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias in the Apollo sample collection are dominated by a KREEP-basalt like component. Mapping-the distribution and sizes of craters and whether they display elevated Th concentrations or not, should reveal the depth and thickness of the KREEP-rich materials, and whether they are ubiquitous (i.e., impact-melt breccia) or more randomly distributed; this might be taken as an indicator of localized KREEP-basalt flows. Within the southeastern region of the Imbrium basin, there are two Th hot spots. The first is associated with the crater Aristillus, and the latter with the Apennine Bench Formation. Adjacent to these two hot spots are craters with a lower Th

  14. Experimental shock metamorphism of lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Horz, F.

    1980-01-01

    Shock experiments in the pressure range 15-73 GPa were performed on lunar soil 15101 in order to investigate the effect of a single impact event on the formation of soil breccias and agglutinates. The study has demonstrated that the propagation of a shock wave emanating from a single impact in porous particulate samples causes collision and shear of grains, collapse of pore spaces, and compaction which is sufficient to indurate soil at low pressures (15-18 GPa) without significant melting (less than 5%). These low pressures create soil breccias or weakly shocked soil fragments from loose regolith. At pressures above 65 GPa, shock melting produces a pumiceous whole-soil glass which is equivalent to agglutinate glass, glass fragments, or ropy glasses depending on the abundance of lithic fragments and relict grains.

  15. Linking magnetic fabric and cumulate texture in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Driscoll, B.; Stevenson, C.; Magee, C.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the magnetic fabrics of igneous rocks, pioneered by Balsley and Buddington[1] and Khan[2], has greatly contributed to our understanding of magma dynamics in lava flows, sheet intrusions and plutons over the past five decades. However, considerably few magnetic fabric studies have focused on layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, particularly ';lopolithic' intrusions, despite the fact that such rocks may preserve a large range of small-scale kinematic structures potentially related to important magma chamber processes. This may be partly due to the fact that mafic-ultramafic cumulates commonly exhibit visible planar fabrics (mineral lamination), as well as compositional layering, in contrast to the frequent absence of such features in granite bodies or fine-grained mafic lava flows. Indeed, debates in the 1970s and 1980s on the development of layering and mineral fabrics in mafic-ultramafic intrusions, focused around the crystal settling versus in situ crystallisation paradigms, are classic in the subject of igneous petrology. Central to these debates is the notion that a wide range of magma chamber processes occur in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions that are not frequently considered to occur in their relatively viscous granitic counterparts; in essence, the latter have historically been viewed as much more likely to ';freeze-in' a primary magma flow fabric whilst mafic-ultramafic intrusions are subjected to a more protracted solidification history. This wide array of potential initial sources for layering and mineral fabrics in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, together with the possible modification of textures at the postcumulus stage, demands a cautious application of any fabric analysis and presents a problem well-suited to interrogation by the AMS technique. The purpose of this contribution is to provide specific context on the application of AMS to elucidating the formation of cumulates in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Examples of AMS

  16. LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in glass spherules of the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Leonie; Deutsch, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The 3.58±0.04 Ma old El'gygytgyn impact structure (Central Chukotka, NE Siberia) with a diameter of 18 km (Gurov and Gurova 1979, Layer 2000) is one of only two terrestrial craters with a volcanic target; therefore, analysis of its target and impact lithologies is of basic interest for comparative planetology. Lake El'gygytgyn is a very valuable climate archive in the Arctic as it was neither covered by glaciers (Melles et al. 2007) nor has the lake ever fallen dry. Climate and impact research were the rationale for the ICDP drilling project that finished successfully in spring 2009. Impactites like melt rocks and breccias are rarely found in outcrops yet are present in the 80 m terrace of Lake El'gygytgyn (Gurov and Gurova 1979). Numerous investigations on petrography, shock metamorphism, and geochemistry of impactites from El'gygytgyn have been published so far (e.g. Gurov et al. 2007). We report the first trace element data for seven 30- to 760-μm-sized impact glass spherules that have been collected about10 km off the crater center from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River outside the crater rim. The spherules are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black; they contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments. Major elements were measured with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe, 31 trace elements were analyzed with the Finnigan Element2 LA-ICP-MS with 5 Hz, 8-9 J/cm2 at with Si as internal, and NIST612 as external standard (Institut f. Mineralogie, WWU Münster). The spot size was 60 μm. All spherules show a very homogeneous major and trace element distribution yet clear differences exist between the samples in the SiO2 content (in weight percent) 53-68: four of the glasses are dacitic, two andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic in composition. In addition, MgO (2.1-9.2), K2O (0.6-3.3), and (in ppm) Ni (317-1096), Co (25-79), Zr (100-169), Rb (18-107), and Ba (459-1092) display wide

  17. Fluid inclusion studies on the mineralized quartz-rich hydrothermal breccias and quartz veins of the Kay Tanda epithermal gold deposit, Lobo, Batangas, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, S. M. P.; Takahashi, R.; Imai, A.; Blamey, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Kay Tanda epithermal deposit in Lobo, Batangas, Philippines is mainly hosted in quartz-rich hydrothermal breccia and quartz veins. These contain varying gold grades with some reaching bonanza gold grades as high as 200 ppm Au. They also contain varying amounts of base metal sulfides such as sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite whose abundances increase with depth. Petrographic analysis of the samples revealed different quartz textures such as colloform textures in quartz veins at shallow levels and feathery, flamboyant and mosaic textures in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias at deeper levels. These textures are indicative of boiling conditions. To elucidate the fluid conditions, fluid source, composition and processes during the formation of the deposit, fluid inclusion microthermometry, quantitative fluid inclusion gas analysis and laser Raman spectroscopy were conducted. Doubly polished thin wafers prepared from the quartz veins and quartz crystals in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias. Microthermometric analysis of primary fluid inclusions included measurements of the freezing temperature Tf, the temperature of ice melting Tm, and the homogenization temperature of the fluid phase by disappearance of vapor Th. Liquid-to-vapor (L-V) ratios are variable, thus, liquid-rich liquid-vapor inclusions and vapor-rich liquid-vapor inclusions coexist in some samples. The sizes of the primary fluid inclusions may reach 100 micrometers. The homogenization temperatures range 200 °C to 380 °C, with the mode around 250 °C to 280 °C. Salinities range from 2 to 7 wt% NaCl equivalent, with the mode around 4 to 5 wt% NaCl equivalent. Trends of the distribution of fluid inclusion populations based on their homogenization temperature and salinity suggest boiling which is consistent with the variable liquid to vapor ratios, i.e. coexistence of liquid-rich inclusions and vapor-rich inclusions.

  18. Atmospheric river impacts on Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, K.; Mote, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated during the early part of the 21st Century. Several episodes of widespread GrIS melt in recent years have coincided with intense poleward moisture transport by atmospheric rivers (ARs), suggesting that variability in the frequency and intensity of these events may be an important driver of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS. ARs may contribute to GrIS surface melt through the greenhouse effect of water vapor, the radiative effects of clouds, condensational latent heating within poleward-advected air masses, and the energy provided by liquid precipitation. However, ARs may also provide significant positive contributions to GrIS SMB through enhanced snow accumulation. Prior research on the role of ARs in Arctic climate has consisted of case studies of ARs associated with major GrIS melt events or examined the effects of poleward moisture flux on Arctic sea ice. In this study, a long-term (1979-2016) record of intense moisture transport events affecting Greenland is compiled using a conventional AR identification algorithm as well as a self-organizing map (SOM) classification applied to integrated water vapor transport (IVT) data from several atmospheric reanalysis datasets. An analysis of AR effects on GrIS melt and SMB is then performed with GrIS surface melt data from passive microwave satellite observations and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model. Results show that meltwater production is above normal during and after AR impact days throughout the GrIS during all seasons, with surface melt enhanced most by strong (> 85th percentile IVT) and extreme (> 95th percentile IVT) ARs. This relationship holds at the seasonal scale, as the total amount of water vapor transported to the GrIS by ARs is significantly greater during above-normal melt seasons. ARs exert a more complex influence on SMB. Normal (< 85th percentile IVT) ARs generally do not have a substantial impact on

  19. Unique Moon Formation Model: Two Impacts of Earth and After Moon's Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Moon rocks are mixed with two impact-processes of Earth's impact breccias and airless Moon's impact breccias; discussed voids-rich texture and crust-like composition. The present model might be explained as cave-rich interior on the airless-and waterless Moon.

  20. Dismantling processes of basaltic shield volcanoes - origin of the Piton des Neiges breccias - Reunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, A.; Bachèlery, B.; Cruchet, C.

    2003-04-01

    Reunion Island is mainly composed by two volcanic massifs: the active Piton de la Fournaise to the southeast and the Piton des Neiges to the northwest that has been inactive for about 12000 years. The latter corresponds to a dismantled volcanic massif, deeply cut by valleys and by three vast depressions, called “cirques” around the centre of the volcano. They offer the opportunity to observe the inside of a basaltic shield volcano. The first work dealing with the origin of the “cirques” very quickly showed the existence of a significant cover of breccia deposits. These breccias were often interpreted as the result of a major stage of erosion considered as partly at the origin of the “cirques” formation. Geological campaigns mainly achieved in the “cirque de Salazie” (eastern of the Piton des Neiges), allow to establish a first typology based on morphological, phenomenological and sedimentary features of the deposits. Two main complexes of breccias have been distinguished. An old complex outcropping in the internal parts of the cirque and an upper complex generally overlaying the lower complex. The old complex comprises two main units of breccias. These units show a strong alteration marked by the presence of clays, chlorites, serpentines and zeolites. In the inner part of the cirque, these breccias are closely related to the old lava formations from which they come. These units show frequent jigsaw-cracks, a chaotic stratigraphy, as well as large amounts of chlorite. The upper complex is constituted by four main units which are more or less geographically separated in the cirque of Salazie. Their limits are not yet well identified because of the significant relief and a strong vegetable cover. Several units display a very strong fracturation, jigsaw-cracks and a chaotic stratigraphy whereas many lava flows are pulverised and locally injected in scoria levels. Recent work on Saint-Gilles breccias (Fèvre et al., this meeting) allowed to identify

  1. Geologic implications of the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro breccias and comparison with ejecta from the Ries Crater, Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of petrographic and laboratory and active seismic data for the Fra Mauro breccias, and by comparison with the nature and distribution of the ejecta from the Ries crater, Germany, some tentative conclusions regarding the geologic significance of the Fra Mauro Formation on the moon can be drawn. The Fra Mauro Formation, as a whole, consists of unwcldcd, porous ejecta, slightly less porous than the regolith. It contains hand-specimen and larger size clasts of strongly annealed complex breccias, partly to slightly annealed breccias, basalts, and perhaps spherule-rich breccias. These clasts are embedded in a matrix of porous aggregate dominated by mineral and breccia fragments and probably largely free of undevitrified glass. All strongly annealed hand-specimen-size breccias are clasts in the Fra Mauro Formation. To account for the porous, unwelded state of the Fra Mauro Formation, the ejecta must have been deposited at a temperature below that required for welding and annealing. Large boulders probably compacted by the Cone crater event occur near the rim of the crater. They probably consist of a similar suite of fragments, but are probably less porous than the formation. The geochronologic clocks of fragments in the Fra Mauro Formation, with textures ranging from unannealed to strongly annealed, were not reset or strongly modified by the Imbrian event. Strongly annealed breccia clasts and basalt clasts are pre-Imbrian, and probably existed as ejecta mixed with basalt flows in the Imbrium Basin prior to the Imbrian event. The Imbrian event probably occurred between 3.90 or 3.88 and 3.65 b.y. ago.

  2. Possible Mafic Patches at Mons Malapert and Scott Crater Highlight the Value of Site Selection studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Possible areas of mafic material on the rim and floor of Scott crater (82.1 S, 48.5 E) and on the northeast flank of Mons Malapert (85.5 S, 0 E) are suggested by analysis of shadow-masked Clementine false-colorration images. Mafic materials can produce more oxygen than can highlands materials, and mafic materials close to the south pole may be important for propellant production for a future lunar mission. If the dark patches are confirmed as mafic materials, this finding would suggest that other mafic patches may also exist, perhaps even closer to the poles. These preliminary findings illustrate the need for additional site selection studies in the lunar polar regions, to improve our capability to "live off the land".

  3. Melt/mantle interaction and melt evolution in the Sartohay high-Al chromite deposits of the Dalabute ophiolite (NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.-F.; Robinson, P. T.; Malpas, J.; Aitchison, J.; Sun, M.; Bai, W.-J.; Hu, X.-F.; Yang, J.-S.

    2001-06-01

    The Sartohay block of the Dalabute ophiolite consists chiefly of mantle harzburgite and lherzolite with minor dunite. These rocks host voluminous chromite deposits with lenticular or vein-like shapes. The podiform chromitites are associated with, and cross-cut by, numerous troctolite dykes. Chromite in the chromitites has Al 2O 3 (23-31 wt%), TiO 2 (0.29-0.44 wt%), and Cr 2O 3 contents (<45 wt%) with Cr#s [100Cr/(Cr+Al)] (<60), typical of high-Al chromite deposits. The host peridotites in Sartohay have been texturally and geochemically modified by magmas from which the high-Al chromitites and mafic dykes formed. Dunites commonly envelop the podiform chromite bodies and show transitional contacts with the peridotites. Some of the peridotites and chromitites contain plagioclase that crystallized from impregnated melts. The dunite locally grades into troctolite with increasing plagioclase contents. As a result of melt impregnation, peridotites and dunites show variable Ca and Al contents and LREE enrichment. The parental magma of the chromitites was likely tholeiitic in composition, derived from partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle in a rising diapir. The interaction between this magma and pre-existing lithospheric mantle, composed of depleted lherzolite, would have formed a more silicic, tholeiitic magma from which high-Al chromitites crystallized. During this interaction, harzburgite and dunite were depleted in modal pyroxene and enriched in some incompatible elements (such as Al, Ca and LREE) due to melt impregnation.

  4. Timing, mantle source and origin of mafic dykes within the gravity anomaly belt of the Taihang-Da Hinggan gravity lineament, central North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Feng, Guangying; Xu, Mengjing; Coulson, Ian M.; Guo, Xiaolei; Guo, Zhuang; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Six mafic dyke swarms crop out in Hebei Province within the Taihang-Da Hinggan gravity lineament magmatic belt, China, and were sampled. Here, we present new zircon laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry U-Pb age, whole rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data for the six areas where these mafic dykes occur. The mafic (dolerite) dykes formed between 131.6 ± 1.6 and 121.6 ± 1.1 Ma, and are enriched in the light rare earth elements (LREE), some of the large ion lithophile elements (LILE; e.g., Rb, Ba, and Sr) and Pb, and are depleted in Th, U, Nb and Ta; some samples are also depleted in Eu. The dykes have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7055-0.7057), negative εNd (t) values (-12.5 to -11.9), relatively constant Pb isotopic ratios ((206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.45-16.51, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.44-15.51, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.49-36.53), negative εHf (t) values (-18.2 to -15.1), and old Nd (TNdDM2; 2.17-2.47 Ga) and Hf (THfDM2; 2.28-2.33 Ga) model ages. These geochronological, geochemical, and isotopic data indicate that the dykes were derived from magmas generated by low to moderate degree partial melting (1.0%-10%) of an EM1-like garnet lherzolite mantle source; these magmas fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and hornblende prior to emplacement, and assimilated minimal amounts of crustal material. Several possible models have previously been proposed to explain the origin of Mesozoic magmatism in this region. However, here we propose a foundering model for these studied mafic dykes, involving the foundering of eclogite from thickened lower crust due to the collision between the Siberian Craton and the North China Craon.

  5. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Jonathan; Carlson, Richard W.

    2017-03-01

    Geologic processing of Earth’s surface has removed most of the evidence concerning the nature of Earth’s first crust. One region of ancient crust is the Hudson Bay terrane of northeastern Canada, which is mainly composed of Neoarchean felsic crust and forms the nucleus of the Northeastern Superior Province. New data show these ~2.7-billion-year-old rocks to be the youngest to yield variability in neodymium-142 (142Nd), the decay product of short-lived samarium-146 (146Sm). Combined 146-147Sm-142-143Nd data reveal that this large block of Archean crust formed by reworking of much older (>4.2 billion-year-old) mafic crust over a 1.5-billion-year interval of early Earth history. Thus, unlike on modern Earth, mafic crust apparently could survive for more than 1 billion years to form an important source rock for Archean crustal genesis.

  6. Geochemical exploration for mineralized breccia pipes in northern Arizona, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipe crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northern Arizona. Over 80 of these are known to contain U or Cu mineralized rock. The high-grade U ore associated with potentially economic concentrations of Ag, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in some of these pipes has continued to stimulate mining and exploration activity in northern Arizona, despite periods of depressed U prices. Large expanses of northern Arizona are comprised of undissected high plateaus; recognition of pipes in these areas is particularly important because mining access to the plateaus is far better than to the canyons. The small size of the pipes, generally less than 600 ft (200 m) in diameter, and limited rock outcrop on the plateaus, compounds the recognition problem. Although the breccia pipes, which bottom in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone, are occasionally exposed on the plateaus as circular features, so are unmineralized near-surface collapse features that bottom in the Permian Kaibab and Toroweap Formations. The distinction between these two classes of circular features is critical during exploration for this unique type of U deposit. Various geochemical and geophysical exploration methods have been tested over these classes of collapse features. Because of the small size of the deposits, and the low-level geochemical signatures in the overlying rock that are rarely dispersed for distances in excess of several hundred feet, most reconnaissance geochemical surveys, such as hydrogeochemistry or stream sediment, will not delineete mineralized pipes. Several types of detailed geochemical surveys made over collapse features, located through examination of aerial photographs and later field mapping, have been successful at delineating collapse features from the surrounding host rock: (1) Rock geochemistry commonly shows low level Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn anomalies over mineralized breccia pipes; (2) Soil surveys appear to have the greatest

  7. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.

    2018-04-01

    , the clearly resolvable inter-mineral Mg isotope differences imply that crystallization or preferential melting of isotopically distinct minerals such garnet, spinel, and clinopyroxene should cause Mg isotope fractionation between bulk melt and residue. Calculated Mg isotope variations during partial mantle melting indeed predict differences between melt and residue, but these are analytically resolvable only for melting of mafic lithologies, that is, garnet pyroxenites. Contributions from garnet pyroxenite melts may thus account for some of the isotopically light δ26Mg observed in ocean island basalts and trace lithological mantle heterogeneity. Consequently, applications for high-temperature Mg isotope fractionations are promising and diverse, and recent advances in analytical precision may allow the full petrogenetic potential inherent in the sub per mill variations in δ26Mg in magmatic rocks to be exploited.

  8. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Ries Bunte Breccia revisited: Indications for the presence of water in Itzing and Otting drill cores and implications for the emplacement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrek, Alexa; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We reassessed two drill cores of the Bunte Breccia deposits of the Ries crater, Germany. The objectives of our study were the documentation of evidence for water in the Bunte Breccia, the evaluation of how that water influenced the emplacement processes, and from which preimpact water reservoir it was derived. The Bunte Breccia in both cores can be structured into a basal layer composed mainly of local substrate material, overlain by texturally and compositionally diverse, crater-derived breccia units. The basal layer is composed of the youngest sediments (Tertiary clays and Upper Jurassic limestone) and has a razor-sharp boundary to the upper breccia units, which are composed of older rocks of Upper Jurassic to Upper Triassic age. Sparse material exchange occurred between the basal layer and the rest of the Bunte Breccia. Fluids predominantly came from the Tertiary and the Upper Triassic sandstone formation. In the basal layer, Tertiary clays were subjected to intense, ductile deformation, indicating saturation with water. This suggests that water was mixed into the matrix, creating a fluidized basal layer with a strong shear localization. In the upper units, Upper Triassic sandstones are intensely deformed by granular flow. The texture requires that the rocks were disaggregated into granular sand. Vaporization of pore water probably aided fragmentation of these rocks. In the Otting core, hot suevite (T > 600 °C) covered the Bunte Breccia shortly after its emplacement. Vertically oriented gas escape pipes in suevite partly emanate directly at the contact to the Bunte Breccia. They indicate that the Bunte Breccia contained a substantial amount of water in the upper part that was vaporized and escaped through these vents.

  10. Composition of the Cayley Formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from impact melt splashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Horz, Friedrich; See, Thomas H.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of major and trace elements and magnetic properties of 50 impact melt splashes (IMSs) from the Apollo 16 landing site are analzyed to determine the composition of their meteoritic component. MgO-Sc and Ca-Sc variation diagrams and least-squares mixing models are utilized to analyze the IMS, soil, and rock data. Consideration is given to progenitor lithologies of the IMS, the number of impact events represented by the IMS, and the heterogeneity of impact melts from single events. It is observed that the IMSs are composed of either a mixture of anorthosite and low-Sc impact melt rocks or anorthositic norite. It is determined that the surface Cayley layer is composed of TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.69, and 7.1 wt pct and 10.5 and 21.2 microg/g, respectively and 0.38 and 5.9 wt pct and 6.1 and 11.8 microg/g, respectively, for the subsurface Cayley layer. The Descartes Formation composition is estimated as TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.25, and 3.5 wt pct and 7.7 and 2.2 microg/g, respectively.

  11. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; hide

    2011-01-01

    relatively strong mafic absorption features, suggesting either a concentration of mafic materials or that materials exposed have been less affected by space weathering products. These combined initial observations indicate some space weathering processes are active in this part of the main asteroid belt, but are highly variable across the surface of Vesta. Such processes include: impacts from wandering asteroidal debris and local mixing at both micro- and macro-scales, irradiation by solar wind and galactic particles, production and distribution of impact breccias or melt products, and local movement of materials to gravity lows (gradual as well as sudden).

  12. Mafic mantle sources indicated by the olivine-spinifex basalt-ferropicrite lavas in the accreted Permian oceanic LIP fragments and Miocene low-Ni basalt and adakite lavas in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, A.; Ichiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Katsuragi, T.; Tsuchihashi, H.

    2008-12-01

    Melting of mafic (eclogitic) rocks in the peridotite mantle diapir may be important to generate a large quantity of magma in a short period of time as required for the LIP basaltic magmatism (e.g. Takahashi et al. 1998; EPSL, 162, 63-). Ferropicritic rocks also occur in some LIPs, and Ichiyama et al. (2006; Lithos, 89, 47-) propose a non-peridotitic, Ti- and Fe-rich eclogitic source (recycled oceanic ferrogabbro?) entrained in the peridotitic LIP mantle plume for the origin of ferropicritic rocks, that occur with olivine-spinifex basalt (Ichiyama et al., 2007; Island Arc, 16, 493-) in a Permian LIP fragment that was captured in the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex in central Japan. Although Ti-poor ferrokomatiitic magma might form through high- degree melting of a primitive chondritic mantle (25wt% MgO and 25wt% Fe+FeO), Ti- and HFSE-rich ferropicritic and meimechitic magmas can not form in this way. On the other hand, Miocene volcanic rocks distributed along the Japan Sea coast of central Japan also represent a product of large-scale arc magmatism that happened coeval to the spreading of the Japan Sea floor. The chemical and isotopic signatures of the magmas are consistent with the secular change of tectonic setting from continental arc (22- 20 Ma) to island arc (15-11 Ma) (Shuto et al. 2006; Lithos, 86, 1-). Some adakites have already been found from these Miocene volcanic rocks by Shuto"fs group, and mafic rock melting in either subducting slab or lower arc crust has been proposed. We have recently found a wide distribution of low-Ni basalt from Fukui City. The low-Ni basalt contains olivine phenocrysts which are one order of magnitude poorer in Ni (less than 0.02 wt% NiO at Fo87) than those in normal basalt (more than 0.2 wt% NiO at Fo87). The rock is also poor in bulk-rock Ni, rich in K and Ti, and may have formed from an olivine-free pyroxenitic source. Close association of adakite and low-Ni basalt with normal tholeiitic basalt, calc-alkaline andesite

  13. Ages of pristine noritic clasts from lunar breccias 15445 and 15455

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Dasch, E. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for two Apollo 15 pristine lunar breccias, 15445 and 15455, collected near Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The analyses of mineral separates from two norite samples in breccia 15445 showed that the Sm-Nd isotopic system for both norites from the large Clast B of 15445 was well defined, yielding precise ages of 4.28 +/- 0.03 Ga and 4.46 +/- 0.07 Ga, suggesting that the Cast B is a mixture of two or more lithologies. The overall age results indicate that some Mg-suite rocks are as old as ferroan-anorthosite-suite rocks. Moreover, age data of three major crustal rocks (a Mg suite, a ferroan-anorthosite suite, and an evolved suite) show that they all have variable ages.

  14. Interaction of coeval felsic and mafic magmas from the Kanker granite, Pithora region, Bastar Craton, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, R.; Krishna, Kumar; Vishwakarma, Neeraj; Hari, K. R.; Ram Mohan, M.

    2017-10-01

    Field and petrographic studies are carried out to characterize the interactions of mafic and felsic magmas from Pithora region of the northeastern part of the Bastar Craton. The MMEs, syn-plutonic mafic dykes, cuspate contacts, magmatic flow textures, mingling and hybridization suggest the coeval emplacement of end member magmas. Petrographic evidences such as disequilibrium assemblages, resorption textures, quartz ocelli, rapakivi and poikilitic textures suggest magma mingling and mixing phenomena. Such features of mingling and mixing of the felsic and mafic magma manifest the magma chamber processes. Introduction of mafic magmas into the felsic magmas before initiation of crystallization of the latter, results in hybrid magmas under the influence of thermal and chemical exchange. The mechanical exchange occurs between the coexisting magmas due to viscosity contrast, if the mafic magma enters slightly later into the magma chamber, then the felsic magma starts to crystallize. Blobs of mafic magma form as MMEs in the felsic magma and they scatter throughout the pluton due to convection. At a later stage, if mafic magma enters the system after partial crystallization of felsic phase, mechanical interaction between the magmas leads to the formation of fragmented dyke or syn-plutonic mafic dyke. All these features are well-documented in the study area. Field and petrographic evidences suggest that the textural variations from Pithora region of Bastar Craton are the outcome of magma mingling, mixing and hybridization processes.

  15. The Breccia Museo formation, Campi Flegrei, southern Italy: Geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Lanphere, M.; Melluso, L.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Ricci, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar - Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (???39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  16. Melting behavior and phase relations of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to show that feldspar would float during melting. Large anorthite crystals were placed beneath a silicate glass representative of liquid in which plagioclase accumulation is thought to have occurred. In less than 3 hours at 1,300 C, the crystals rose to the top in a Pt crucible 3 cm deep equilibrated in air and in a Mo crucible 1.5 cm deep equilibrated in an H2/CO2 gas stream of log PO2 = -10.9 (below Fe/FeO). These results suggest that lunar crustal formation by feldspar flotation is possible without special recourse to differential sinking of plagioclase versus mafic minerals or selective elutriation of plagioclase.

  17. Formation Ages of the Apollo 16 Regolith Breccias: Implications for Accessing the Bombardment History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Kring, D. A.; Bogard, D. D.; Zolensky, M. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Regolith breccias are lithified samples of the regolith that have been fused together by impact shock and thermal metamorphism. In lunar regolith samples, the ratio of trapped 40Ar/36Ar is a useful indicator of antiquity and can be used to model the closure age/lifithication event of the regolith (i.e. the apparent time when Ar became trapped [1]), thus providing an important insight into specific times when that regolith was interacting with the the dynamic inner solar system space environment [2-4].

  18. Mineralogical diversity (spectral reflectance and Moessbauer data) in compositionally similar impact melt rocks from Manicouagan Crater, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Golden, D. C.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic impacts under oxidizing surface conditions occur on both earth and Mars. Oxidative alteration of impact melt sheets is reported at several terrestrial impact structures including Manicouagan, West Clearwater Lake, and the Ries Basin. A number of studies have advocated that a significant fraction of Martian soil may consist of erosional products of oxidatively altered impact melt sheets. If so, the signature of the Fe-bearing mineralogies formed by the process may be present in visible and near infrared reflectivity data for the Martian surface. Of concern is what mineral assemblages form in i