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Sample records for magnesium sulphate mgso4

  1. Thiopental and halothane dose-sparing effects of magnesium sulphate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos L; Savvas, Ioannis; Kazakos, George M; Raptopoulos, Dimitris; Ververidis, Haralabos; Roubies, Nikolaos

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre- and intraoperatively administered magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) on the induction dose of thiopental and of halothane for maintenance of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six healthy, ASA physical status 1 dogs, scheduled for elective OHE. The dogs were randomly assigned to receive a bolus of 50 mg kg(-1) MgSO(4) intravenously (IV), just before induction of anaesthesia, followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 12 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) MgSO(4) intraoperatively (group Mg, n = 27) or a placebo bolus and CRI of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) (group C, n = 19), approximately 30 minutes after premedication with acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1), intramuscularly, IM) and carprofen (4 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, SC). Anaesthesia was induced with thiopental administered to effect and maintained with halothane in oxygen. End-tidal halothane (ET(hal)) was adjusted to achieve adequate depth of anaesthesia. Blood samples were obtained pre- and postoperatively for measurement of total serum magnesium concentration. The mean dose of thiopental was statistically lower (p < 0.0005) and the mean standardized ET(hal) concentration and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pe'CO(2)) areas under the curve were statistically smaller (p < 0.0005 and 0.014 respectively) in group Mg. Postoperatively the mean total serum magnesium concentration was statistically higher than the preoperative value (p < 0.0005) in group Mg, but not in group C. Nausea, associated with the MgSO(4) bolus injection, was observed in six dogs in group Mg, two of which vomited prior to induction of anaesthesia. Magnesium sulphate administration reduced the induction dose of thiopental and ET(hal) concentration for maintenance of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing OHE. Observed side effects were nausea and vomiting.

  2. Sensitivity of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) to MgSO4 and Na2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellemu, E. C.; Mensah, P. K.; Griffin, N. J.; Odume, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) continues to deteriorate water quality in freshwater ecosystems. Sulphates, a major salt component in AMD, can exacerbate AMD effects in freshwater because salts are toxic to aquatic life in high concentrations. Sulphates are predominant in South African AMD impacted freshwater ecosystems. In this study, the sensitivity of nymphs of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) was investigated by exposing the organisms to magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) as models of mining salinisation in short-term (96 h) and long-term (240 h) in static system tests. Short-term and long-term lethal concentrations of each salt were estimated using regression analyses. The results indicated that A. auriculata was more sensitive to MgSO4 (LC50 = 3.81 g/L) than Na2SO4 (LC50 = 8.78 g/L) after short-term exposures. However, this species became sensitive to Na2SO4 (LC10 = 0.19 g/L) but tolerant to MgSO4 (LC10 = 0.35 g/L) after long-term exposures. These results suggest that the 0.25 g/L sulphate compliance limit for South Africa is inadequate to protect A. auriculata from Na2SO4 toxicity in the long-term, yet it overprotects this species from MgSO4 exposures in the short-term. The findings of this study are an important major step in understanding the ecological effects of AMD to aquatic life.

  3. [Prenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate: Initial clinical outcomes in pre-term infants less than 29 weeks and correlation with neonatal magnesium levels].

    PubMed

    García Alonso, Laura; Pumarada Prieto, Marcelino; González Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro Guisán, Ana; Suárez Albo, María; Durán Fernández-Feijoo, Cristina; González Durán, Luisa; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Antenatal magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) administration has shown to be effective in minimising cerebral palsy and severe motor dysfunction at the age of 2 years. The aim of this study is to analyse the initial clinical outcome of preterm neonates less than 29 weeks who have received prenatal MgSO 4 , as well as to determine the relationship between the magnesium dose delivered to the mother and the magnesium concentration in the neonates. A prospective cohort study was conducted on neonates of less than 29 weeks gestation admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Hospital Universitario de Vigo from December 2012 to July 2015. Comparative analysis was performed on the perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity, mortality, and magnesium levels between the groups of neonates exposed to magnesium sulphate and the control group. A total of 42 neonates were included in the study. The mothers of 28 of them had received MgSO4 as a neuroprotective agent. Statistical significance was obtained in the mortality variable. There were no significant differences in the rest of studied variables. There was a significant correlation between the full dose of MgSO4 received by the mother and the levels of magnesium in the neonate in the first 24hours of life (r 2 0.436; P<.001). A lower mortality was observed in the group that had been exposed to MgS04. No significant side effects were found as a result of administering of MgS04. The MgS04 dose received by mother has a linear relationship with the magnesium levels obtained in neonates. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnocaine: Physical Compatibility and Chemical Stability of Magnesium Sulphate and Lidocaine Hydrochloride in Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Sara; Decarie, Diane; Benes, Cindy; Cleve, Richard; Vidler, Marianne; Magee, Laura A; Ensom, Mary H H; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the physical compatibility and chemical stability of mixtures of magnesium sulphate and lidocaine in order to determine the feasibility of manufacturing a prefilled syringe combining these two drugs for use as an intramuscular (IM) loading dose for eclampsia prevention and/or treatment. This ready-to-use mixture will provide a more tolerable and accessible route of administration appropriate for widespread use. Physical compatibility (pH, colour, and formation of precipitate) and chemical stability (maintaining > 90% of initial concentrations) of mixtures of MgSO 4 , using both commercially available MgSO 4 (50%) and MgSO 4 reconstituted from salt (61%), with lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) were evaluated every 14 days over six months. The concentration of lidocaine was determined by a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method, while the concentration of magnesium was determined by an automated chemistry analyzer. No changes in pH, color or precipitates were observed for up to 6 months. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that only the admixtures of commercially-available magnesium sulfate and lidocaine as well as the 61% magnesium sulfate solution (reconstituted from salt) maintained at least 90% of the initial concentration of both drugs at 25°C and 40°C at 6 months. Commercially available MgSO4 and lidocaine hydrochloride, when combined, are stable in a pre-filled syringe for at least six months in high heat and humidity conditions. This finding represents the first step in improving the administration of magnesium sulphate in the treatment and prevention of eclampsia in under-resourced settings. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Local and systemic tolerability of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, M; Heilmann, L; Berg, C; Wallwiener, D; Grischke, E; Münstedt, K; Spindler, A; Lang, U

    2003-04-25

    An open-label, randomised, parallel-group, study was conducted in three study centres in women with premature labor and indication for a single agent intravenous tocolysis therapy with magnesium sulphate. The aim of this study was to examine the local and general tolerability and side-effects of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Furthermore, we tested the tolerability of a ready-for-use magnesium solution. No measurements of efficacy were performed during this study. Initially, patients received a loading dose of 4.0 g magnesium sulphate administered over 30 min. Thereafter, a continuous intravenous infusion of 1-2 g magnesium sulphate per hour up to 21 days was given. Venous score (Maddox), vital signs, adverse events as well as general tolerability (assessed by investigator and patients) and blood parameters were assessed. We showed good local and systemic tolerability of high dose magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Only seven patients (15%) were withdrawn from the study prematurely due to minor adverse events. Potential serious complications of MgSO(4) such as respiratory arrest or clinically relevant respiratory depression were not observed. The most frequently reported local adverse events were injection site pain, itching, erythema, swelling, induration and palpable venous cord. The most common systemic adverse events considered to be possibly related to the study drugs involved the nervous system (dizziness) followed by the digestive system (nausea, constipation). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure changed only slightly during the treatment. Respiratory rate and body temperature remained stable also. Toxic magnesium levels (>2.5 mmol/l) were not observed. The assessment of the clinical investigators with regard to tolerability was very good or good in 72.5% of the patients. The introduction of the ready-to-use solution has the advantage of eliminating the need to mix the solution prior to administration. This means a lower risk of overdose and

  6. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  7. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  8. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding

  9. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  10. Economic evaluation of nebulized magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Boland, Angela; Khan, Kamran; Powell, Colin; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Lowe, John; Doull, Iolo; Hood, Kerry; Williamson, Paula

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of nebulized magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in acute asthma in children from the perspective of the UK National Health Service and personal social services. An economic evaluation was conducted based on evidence from a randomized placebo controlled multi-center trial of nebulized MgSO4 in severe acute asthma in children. Participants comprised 508 children aged 2-16 years presenting to an emergency department or a children's assessment unit with severe acute asthma across thirty hospitals in the United Kingdom. Children were randomly allocated to receive nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium bromide mixed with either 2.5 ml of isotonic MgSO4 or 2.5 ml of isotonic saline on three occasions at 20-min intervals. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were constructed around the Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) after 60 min of treatment; whilst cost-utility outcomes were constructed around the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) metric. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to present cost-effectiveness acceptability curves at alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds for either: (i) a unit reduction in ASS; or (ii) an additional QALY. MgSO4 had a 75.1 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 1,000 (EUR 1,148) per unit decrement in ASS threshold, an 88.0 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of reducing the ASS) and a 36.6 percent probability of being less costly. MgSO4 also had a 67.6 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 20,000 (EUR 22,957) per QALY gained threshold, an 8.5 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of generating increased QALYs) and a 69.1 percent probability of being less costly. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the economic evaluation were particularly sensitive to the methods used for QALY estimation. The probability of cost-effectiveness of nebulized isotonic MgSO4, given as an adjuvant to standard treatment of severe acute

  11. Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.

  12. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    antenatal placebo or no alternative tocolytic drug, a borderline increased risk of total death (fetal, neonatal, infant) was seen (risk ratio (RR) 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 20.86; two trials, 257 babies); none of the comparisons between magnesium sulphate and other classes of tocolytic drugs showed differences for this outcome (10 trials, 991 babies). The outcomes of neonatal and/or infant deaths and of fetal deaths did not show differences between magnesium sulphate and no magnesium sulphate, whether compared with placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, or any specific class of tocolytic drug. For most of the other secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between magnesium sulphate and the control groups for risk of preterm birth (except for a significantly lower risk with magnesium sulphate when compared with barbiturates in one trial of 65 women), gestational age at birth, interval between trial entry and birth, other neonatal morbidities, or neurodevelopmental outcomes. Duration of neonatal intensive care unit stay was significantly increased in the magnesium sulphate group compared with the calcium channel blocker group, but not when compared with cox inhibitors or prostaglandin inhibitors. No maternal deaths were reported in the four trials reporting this outcome. Significant differences between magnesium sulphate and controls were not seen for maternal adverse events severe enough to stop treatment, except for a significant benefit of magnesium sulphate compared with betamimetics in a single trial. Magnesium sulphate is ineffective at delaying birth or preventing preterm birth, has no apparent advantages for a range of neonatal and maternal outcomes as a tocolytic agent and its use for this indication may be associated with an increased risk of total fetal, neonatal or infant mortality (in contrast to its use in appropriate groups of women for maternal, fetal, neonatal and infant neuroprotection where beneficial effects have been

  13. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  14. Predictors of extra care among magnesium sulphate treated eclamptic patients at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Shagdara, Mohammed S

    2011-06-03

    The inclusion of Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) as a gold standard in the treatment of eclampsia has substantially reduced incidences of repeated fits, eclamptic morbidity and deaths. However, despite treatment with MgSO4, a proportion of patients need extra medical/nursing attention and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). The literature on the underlying factors for the need of extra care in the MgSO4 era is lacking. This study sought to establish predictors of extra care in ICU among eclamptic patients after treatment with MgSO4 at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Data were obtained from hospital records of eclamptic patients who were admitted at MNH and treated with MgSO4 from January 1st to December 31st, 2008. Based on set criteria, patients who needed extra care were identified. Analysis was performed using PASW statistics 18 whereby frequencies, cross-tabulations, bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed. A total of 366 eclamptic patients were admitted and treated with MgSO4 at MNH during a 12 month study period in 2008. Most of these (76%) were referred from district hospitals and 132 (36%) met the criteria for extra care in ICU. After adjusting for other variables, the risk of extra care in ICU for patients who were admitted with altered consciousness was double (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0) that of the ones admitted in alert state. The risk or need of extra care increased by increasing time to delivery and was doubled (OR = 2.0; 95% CI:1.1-3.7) if it was between 12 and 24 hours and tenfold elevated (OR = 10.0; 95% CI:4.3-23.6) if beyond 24 hours as compared to when time to delivery was less than 12 hours.Abdominal delivery was also independently associated with increased risk compared to vaginal delivery (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.4-4.5). The type of referral and number of fits were associated with extra care in ICU but this association was wholly explained by the clinical status of the patient on admission to MNH and prolonged time

  15. Predictors of extra care among magnesium sulphate treated eclamptic patients at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The inclusion of Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) as a gold standard in the treatment of eclampsia has substantially reduced incidences of repeated fits, eclamptic morbidity and deaths. However, despite treatment with MgSO4, a proportion of patients need extra medical/nursing attention and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). The literature on the underlying factors for the need of extra care in the MgSO4 era is lacking. This study sought to establish predictors of extra care in ICU among eclamptic patients after treatment with MgSO4 at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Methods Data were obtained from hospital records of eclamptic patients who were admitted at MNH and treated with MgSO4 from January 1st to December 31st, 2008. Based on set criteria, patients who needed extra care were identified. Analysis was performed using PASW statistics 18 whereby frequencies, cross-tabulations, bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed. Results A total of 366 eclamptic patients were admitted and treated with MgSO4 at MNH during a 12 month study period in 2008. Most of these (76%) were referred from district hospitals and132 (36%) met the criteria for extra care in ICU. After adjusting for other variables, the risk of extra care in ICU for patients who were admitted with altered consciousness was double (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0) that of the ones admitted in alert state. The risk or need of extra care increased by increasing time to delivery and was doubled (OR = 2.0; 95% CI:1.1-3.7) if it was between 12 and 24 hours and tenfold elevated (OR = 10.0; 95% CI:4.3-23.6) if beyond 24 hours as compared to when time to delivery was less than 12 hours. Abdominal delivery was also independently associated with increased risk compared to vaginal delivery (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.4-4.5). The type of referral and number of fits were associated with extra care in ICU but this association was wholly explained by the clinical status of the patient on admission

  16. Magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children (MAGNETIC): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Colin; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Lowe, John; Boland, Angela; Petrou, Stavros; Doull, Iolo; Hood, Kerenza; Williamson, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Little evidence is available for the effect of nebulised magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in acute asthma in children. We assessed the effect of MgSO(4) treatment in children with severe acute asthma. In this randomised placebo-controlled, multi-centre, parallel trial, we enrolled children (aged 2-16 years) with severe acute asthma who did not respond to standard inhaled treatment from 30 hospitals in the UK. Children were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive nebulised salbutamol and ipratropium bromide with either 2·5 mL of isotonic MgSO(4) (250 mmol/L; 151 mg per dose; MgSO(4) group) or 2·5 mL of isotonic saline (placebo group) on three occasions at 20-min intervals. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated randomisation sequence, with random block sizes of two to four. Both patients and researchers were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) at 60 min post-randomisation. We used a statistical significance level of p<0·05 for a between-group difference, but regarded a between-group difference in ASS of 0·5 as the minimal clinically significant treatment effect. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN81456894. Between Jan 3, 2009, and March 20, 2011, we recruited and randomly assigned 508 children to treatment: 252 to MgSO(4) and 256 to placebo. Mean ASS at 60 min was lower in the MgSO(4) group (4·72 [SD 1·37]) than it was in the placebo group (4·95 [SD 1·40]; adjusted difference -0·25, 95% CI -0·48 to -0·02; p=0·03). This difference, however, was not clinically significant. The clinical effect was larger in children with more severe asthma exacerbation (p=0·03) and those with symptoms present for less than 6 h (p=0·049). We detected no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between groups. Overall, nebulised isotonic MgSO(4), given as an adjuvant to standard treatment, did not show a clinically significant

  17. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-11-10

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of eclampsia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (4 June 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant, or comparisons of different drugs, for pre-eclampsia. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 15 trials. Six (11,444 women) compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or no anticonvulsant: magnesium sulphate more than a halved the risk of eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 100, 95% CI 50 to 100), with a non-significant reduction in maternal death (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.10) but no clear difference in serious maternal morbidity (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.32). It reduced the risk of placental abruption (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; NNTB 100, 95% CI 50 to 1000), and increased caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). There was no clear difference in stillbirth or neonatal death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.15). Side effects, primarily flushing, were more common with magnesium sulphate (24% versus 5%; RR 5.26, 95% CI 4.59 to 6.03; number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 6, 95% CI 5 to 6).Follow-up was reported by one trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo: for 3375 women there was no clear difference in death (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.53) or morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.26) (median follow-up 26 months); for 3283 children exposed in utero

  18. Effects of valproic acid and magnesium sulphate on rocuronium requirement in patients undergoing craniotomy for cerebrovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, M-H; Hwang, J-W; Jeon, Y-T; Do, S-H

    2012-09-01

    Many anti-epileptics cause resistance to non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, but this has not been reported for valproic acid (VPA). We hypothesized that VPA would increase the rocuronium requirement and that magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) may reduce this increase. Fifty-five patients undergoing cerebrovascular surgeries were studied. Subjects were allocated into three groups at a 1:1:1 ratio: Groups VM, VC, and C. Groups VM and VC were given VPA premedication; Group C was not. A rocuronium injection (0.6 mg kg(-1) i.v.) was administered to Group VM, followed by MgSO(4) as a 50 mg kg(-1) i.v. bolus and 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion. The same volume of 0.9% saline was administered to the other groups. Supplementary rocuronium (0.15 mg kg(-1)) was given whenever the train-of-four count reached 2. Rocuronium requirements (primary outcome), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), nausea, vomiting, shivering, and use of anti-emetics and nicardipine were compared. Group VC showed the highest rocuronium requirement [mg kg(-1) h(-1): 0.47 (0.08) vs 0.33 (0.12) (Group C), 0.31 (0.07) (Group VM); P<0.001]. MAP, intraoperative HR, nausea, vomiting, shivering, and use of anti-emetics and nicardipine were not significantly different among the groups. Postoperative HR was lower in Group VM than in Group VC. VPA increased the rocuronium requirement, and MgSO(4) infusion attenuated this increase.

  19. MAGNEsium Trial In Children (MAGNETIC): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial and economic evaluation of nebulised magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Powell, C V E; Kolamunnage-Dona, R; Lowe, J; Boland, A; Petrou, S; Doull, I; Hood, K; Williamson, P R

    2013-10-01

    There are few data on the role of nebulised magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the management of acute asthma in children. Those studies that have been published are underpowered, and use different methods, interventions and comparisons. Thus, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Does the use of nebulised MgSO4, when given as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute severe asthma in children, result in a clinical improvement when compared with standard treatment alone? Patients were randomised to receive three doses of MgSO4 or placebo, each combined with salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, for 1 hour. The Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) was measured at baseline, randomisation, and at 20, 40, 60 (T60), 120, 180 and 240 minutes after randomisation. Emergency departments and children's assessment units at 30 hospitals in the UK. Children aged 2-15 years with acute severe asthma. Patients were randomised to receive nebulised salbutamol 2.5 mg (ages 2-5 years) or 5 mg (ages ≥ 6 years) and ipratropium bromide 0.25 mg mixed with either 2.5 ml of isotonic MgSO4 (250 mmol/l, tonicity 289 mOsm; 151 mg per dose) or 2.5 ml of isotonic saline on three occasions at approximately 20-minute intervals. The primary outcome measure was the ASS after 1 hour of treatment. Secondary measures included 'stepping down' of treatment at 1 hour, number and frequency of additional salbutamol administrations, length of stay in hospital, requirement for intravenous bronchodilator treatment, and intubation and/or admission to a paediatric intensive care unit. Data on paediatric quality of life, time off school/nursery, health-care resource usage and time off work were collected 1 month after randomisation. A total of 508 children were recruited into the study; 252 received MgSO4 and 256 received placebo along with the standard treatment. There were no differences in baseline characteristics. There was a small, but statistically significant difference in ASS at T60 in those children who received

  20. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of tetanus in adults.

    PubMed

    Mathew, P J; Samra, T; Wig, J

    2010-01-01

    There are reports that suggest that magnesium sulphate alone may control muscle spasms thereby avoiding sedation and mechanical ventilation in tetanus, but this has not been confirmed. We examined the efficacy and safety of intravenous magnesium sulphate for control of rigidity and spasms in adults with tetanus. A prospective clinical study of intravenous magnesium sulphate was carried out over a period of two years in a tertiary care teaching hospital. In addition to human tetanus immunoglobulin and parenteral antibiotics, patients with tetanus received magnesium sulphate 70 mg/kg intravenously followed by infusion. The infusion was increased by 0.5 g/hour every six hours until cessation of spasms or abolishment of patellar tendon jerk. The primary outcome measure was efficacy determined by control of spasms. Secondary outcomes included frequency of autonomic instability, duration of ventilatory support, hospital stay and mortality. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. At presentation, the incidence of severity of tetanus was as follows: Grade I: 5 (15%), Grade II: 13 (39%), Grade III: 14 (42%) and Grade IV: 1 (3%). Rigidity and mild spasms were controlled with magnesium therapy alone in six patients; all were Grades I or II. Additional sedatives were required in severe forms of tetanus. The average duration of ventilatory support was 18.3 +/- 16.0 days and the overall mortality was 22.9%. Asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was a universal finding. Magnesium sulphate therapy alone may not be efficacious for the treatment of severe tetanus.

  1. Study of Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Management of Acute Organophosphorous Pesticide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, H N; Kannan, Sudheesh; Tejasvi, C; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Veeranna Gowda, K M; Nethra, S S

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO 4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution. One hundred patients (50 in each group) of OPCP, confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged between 18 and 60 years were studied. Magnesium group (Group M) received 4 g of 20% MgSO 4 infusion over 30 min at admission to ICU, control group (Group C) received normal saline placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed for the need for intubation, requirement of atropine, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, and its effect on mortality. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for categorical data, independent sample t -test, and paired t -test for nominal data. Demographics and basal serum magnesium levels were comparable. Atropine requirement was higher in Group C (74.82 ± 22.39 mg) compared to Group M (53.11 ± 45.83 mg) ( P < 0.001). A total of 33 patients in Group C and 23 patients in Group M required intubation, respectively ( P = 0.043). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.51 ± 2 days in Group C compared to 4.13 ± 1.6 days in Group M ( P = 0.45). ICU stay was 5.36 ± 2.018 days in Group C compared to 4.54 ± 1.581 days in Group M ( P = 0.026). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups. Four grams of MgSO 4 given to OPCP patients within 24 h of admission to ICU, decreases atropine requirement, need for intubation, and ICU stay.

  2. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection: benefits and challenges of a systematic knowledge translation project in Canada.

    PubMed

    Teela, Katherine C; De Silva, Dane A; Chapman, Katie; Synnes, Anne R; Sawchuck, Diane; Basso, Melanie; Liston, Robert M; von Dadelszen, Peter; Magee, Laura A

    2015-12-22

    Administration of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) to women with imminent preterm birth at <34 weeks is an evidence-based antenatal neuroprotective strategy to prevent cerebral palsy. Although a Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) national guideline with practice recommendations based on relevant clinical evidence exists, ongoing controversies about aspects of this treatment remain. Given this, we anticipated managed knowledge translation (KT) would be needed to facilitate uptake of the guidelines into practice. As part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded MAG-CP (MAGnesium sulphate to prevent Cerebral Palsy) project, we aimed to compare three KT methods designed to impact both individual health care providers and the organizational systems in which they work. The KT methods undertaken were an interactive online e-learning module available to all SOGC members, and at MAG-CP participating sites, on-site educational rounds and focus group discussions, and circulation of an anonymous 'Barriers and Facilitators' survey for the systematic identification of facilitators and barriers for uptake of practice change. We compared these strategies according to: (i) breadth of respondents reached; (ii) rates and richness of identified barriers, facilitators, and knowledge needed; and (iii) cost. No individual KT method was superior to the others by all criteria, and in combination, they provided richer information than any individual method. The e-learning module reached the most diverse audience of health care providers, the site visits provided opportunity for iterative dialogue, and the survey was the least expensive. Although the site visits provided the most detailed information around individual and organizational barriers, the 'Barriers and Facilitators' survey provided more detail regarding social-level barriers. The facilitators identified varied by KT method. The type of knowledge needed was further defined by the e

  3. Administration of magnesium sulphate before rocuronium: effects on speed of onset and duration of neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Kussman, B; Shorten, G; Uppington, J; Comunale, M E

    1997-07-01

    The speeds of onset of pancuronium, atracurium and vecuronium are increased by prior administration of magnesium sulphate. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical study was performed to examine the effects of prior i.v. administration of magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 on the neuromuscular blocking effects of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 during isoflurane anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was measured electromyographically (Relaxograph) in 30 patients who received either magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 or normal saline, 1-min before rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1. Mean onset times were similar in the two groups (magnesium sulphate 71 (SD 20) s; normal saline 75 (23) s), but times to initial, 10% and 25% recovery from neuromuscular block were significantly longer in the magnesium sulphate group (42.1 (16.3), 49.0 (12.4) and 56.5 (13.2) min, respectively) than in the saline group (25.1 (9.1), 33.0 (11.1) and 35.6 (13.2) min, respectively) (P < 0.05 in all three cases). Administration of magnesium sulphate was not associated with adverse haemodynamic effects. Prior administration of magnesium sulphate, under the study conditions described, prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block but did not increase speed of onset.

  4. I.V. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anaesthesia improves postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Na, H-S; Jeon, Y-T; Ro, Y-J; Kim, C-S; Do, S-H

    2010-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, prospective study, we have evaluated the effect of i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anaesthesia on postoperative analgesia and postoperative analgesic requirements. Forty patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia were included. After the induction of spinal anaesthesia, the magnesium group (Group M) received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) for 15 min and then 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by continuous i.v. infusion until the end of surgery. The saline group (Group S) received the same volume of isotonic saline over the same period. After surgery, a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device containing morphine and ketorolac was provided for the patients. Postoperative pain scores, PCA consumption, and the incidences of shivering, postoperative nausea, and vomiting were evaluated immediately after surgery, and at 30 min, 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Serum magnesium concentrations were checked before the induction of anaesthesia, immediately after surgery, and at 1 and 24 h after surgery. Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in Group M at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery (P<0.05). Cumulative postoperative PCA consumptions were also significantly lower in Group M at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery (P<0.05). Postoperative magnesium concentrations were higher in Group M (P<0.05 at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery), but no side-effects associated with hypermagnesemia were observed. Haemodynamic variables and the incidences of shivering, nausea, and vomiting were similar in the two groups. I.V. magnesium sulphate administration during spinal anaesthesia improves postoperative analgesia.

  5. Magnesium sulphate attenuates arterial pressure increase during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jee, D; Lee, D; Yun, S; Lee, C

    2009-10-01

    Magnesium is well known to inhibit catecholamine release and attenuate vasopressin-stimulated vasoconstriction. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuates the haemodynamic stress responses to pneumoperitoneum by changing neurohumoral responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups; a control group was given saline, and a magnesium group received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) immediately before pneumoperitoneum. Arterial pressure, heart rate, serum magnesium, plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamine, cortisol, and vasopressin levels were measured. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the magnesium group at 10, 20, and 30 min post-pneumoperitoneum. Norepinephrine or epinephrine levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher in the control group than in the magnesium group at 5 [211 (37) vs 138 (18)] or 10 min [59 (19) vs 39 (9)] post-pneumoperitoneum, respectively (P<0.05). In the control group, vasopressin levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher compared with the magnesium group at 5 [64 (18) vs 35 (9), P<0.01] and 10 min [65 (18) vs 47 (11), P<0.05] post-pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the groups in PRA and cortisol levels. I.V. magnesium sulphate before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin, or both.

  6. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34 weeks' gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA)--study protocol.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Wilkinson, Dominic; Ashwood, Pat; Haslam, Ross

    2013-04-09

    Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years' corrected age. Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate.Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo.Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes.Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years' corrected age. 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost consequences of cerebral palsy for the child, family and society, a trial of magnesium sulphate for women at

  7. Phase equilibria of the magnesium sulfate-water system to 4 kbars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenboom, D. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Ganasan, J. P.; Lee, L.

    1993-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate is the most abundant salt in carbonaceous chondrites, and it may be important in the low-temperature igneous evolution and aqueous differentiation of icy satellites and large chondritic asteroids. Accordingly, we are investigating high-pressure phase equilibria in MgSO4-H2O solutions under pressures up to four kbars. An initial report was presented two years ago. This abstract summarizes our results to date including studies of solutions containing 15.3 percent, 17 percent, and 22 percent MgSO4. Briefly, these results demonstrate that increasing pressure causes the eutectic and peritectic compositions to shift to much lower concentrations of magnesium sulfate, and the existence of a new low-density phase of magnesium sulfate hydrate.

  8. Controlled hypotension for middle ear surgery: a comparison between remifentanil and magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J-H; Sohn, I-S; Do, S-H

    2009-10-01

    This prospective, randomized study was designed to compare remifentanil and magnesium sulphate during middle ear surgery in terms of postoperative pain and other complications. Eighty patients undergoing middle ear surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups of 40 to receive remifentanil (Group R) or magnesium sulphate (Group M) infusion. Propofol 2 mg kg(-1) was administered to induce anaesthesia, which was maintained using sevoflurane. Group R received a continuous infusion of remifentanil titrated between 3 and 4 ng ml(-1) using target-controlled infusion, whereas Group M received an i.v. magnesium sulphate bolus of 50 mg kg(-1) followed by a 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 60 and 70 mm Hg. Haemodynamic variables, surgical conditions, postoperative pain, and adverse effects, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and shivering, were recorded. Controlled hypotension was well maintained in both groups. MAP and heart rate were higher in Group R than in Group M after operation. Surgical conditions were not different between the two groups. Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in Group M than in Group R (P<0.05). Seventeen patients in Group R (43%) and seven patients in Group M (18%) developed PONV (P=0.01). Both magnesium sulphate and remifentanil when combined with sevoflurane provided adequate controlled hypotension and proper surgical conditions for middle ear surgery. However, patients administered magnesium sulphate had a more favourable postoperative course with better analgesia and less shivering and PONV.

  9. The magnesium sulfate-water system at pressures to 4 kilobars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenboom, D. L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Ganasan, J. P.; Lewis, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrated magnesium sulfate constitutes up to 1/6 of the mass of carbonaceous chondrites, and probably is important in many icy asteroids and satellites. It occurs naturally in meteorites mostly as epsomite. MgSO4, considered anhydrously, comprises nearly 3/4 of the highly soluble fraction of C1 chondrites. Thus, MgSO4 is probably an important solute in cryovolcanic brines erupted on certain icy objects in the outer solar system. While the physiochemical properties of the water-magnesium sulfate system are well known at low pressures, planetological applications of these data are hindered by a dearth of useful published data at elevated pressures. Accordingly, solid-liquid phase equilibria was recently explored in this chemical system at pressures extending to about 4 kilobars. The water magnesium sulfate system in the region of the eutectic exhibits qualitatively constant behavior between pressures of 1 atm and 2 kbar. The eutectic melting curve closely follows that for water ice, with a freezing point depression of about 4 K at 1 atm decreasing to around 3.3 K at 2 kbars. The eutectic shifts from 17 pct. MgSO4 at 1 atm to about 15.3 pct at 2 kbars. Above 2 kbars, the eutectic melting curve again tends to follow ice.

  10. Effects of magnesium sulphate on postoperative coagulation, measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)).

    PubMed

    Na, H S; Chung, Y H; Hwang, J W; Do, S H

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of magnesium sulphate on blood coagulation profiles using rotational thromboelastometry in gynaecological patients undergoing pelviscopic surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to the magnesium group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The magnesium group received magnesium sulphate (50 mg.kg(-1) followed by continuous infusion of 15 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas the control group received the same volume of isotonic saline according to the same methods. Mean (SD) postoperative serum magnesium levels were 1.58 (0.17) mmol.l(-1) in the magnesium group compared with 0.98 (0.06) mmol.l(-1) in the control group (p < 0.001). Postoperative clotting time, clot formation time, α-angle and maximum clot firmness of INTEM, and clot formation time, α-angle, and maximum clot firmness of EXTEM were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Intra-operative infusion of magnesium sulphate seems to attenuate postoperative hypercoagulability by maintaining magnesium levels at the upper limit of the normal range. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. [Effects of atracurium pretreatment with magnesium on speed of onset, duration, and recovery of neuromuscular blockade].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Liang; Ye, Tie-Hu; Sun, Li

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effects of atracurium pretreatment with magnesium on speed of onset, duration, and recovery of neuromuscular block. Thirty patients who were undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopic examination and treatments under general anesthesia were randomized into magnesium group (n = 15) and control group (n = 15). Before induction of general anesthesia, patients in magnesium group intravenously received MgSO4 30 mg/kg in saline within 5 minutes, and patients in control group received the same volume of saline without MgSO4. In both groups, the train-of-four (TOF) responses to stimuli of the ulnar nerve were measured at intervals of 12 seconds. Anesthesia was induced with Fentanyl and Propofol through target controlled infusion (TCI), and tracheal intubation was performed with 0.5 mg/kg atracurium after stabilization of the electromyography recording. The onset time of muscle relaxation, clinical duration of action, recovery index, and recovery time were recorded. To determine serum magnesium and calcium levels, blood samples were collected before MgSO4/saline infusion and at the end of operation. Haemodynamic changes and other responses during induction were also recorded. The onset time from the end of injection to maximum neuromuscular blockade was significantly shorter in magnesium group than in control group (P < 0.01). Duration of relaxant action, recovery index, and recovery time in magnesium group were significantly prolonged than in control group (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium level significantly decreased after management (P < 0.01), and there was also a decrease trend in magnesium group. No change of serum calcium levels in both groups was observed. No adverse event was reported. Prior administration of magnesium sulphate can increase the onset speed of atracurium and prolong the duration of atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  12. The effects of magnesium sulphate and EDTA in the hypercholesterolaemic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Tariq, M; Sujata, B; McCann, G; Sobki, S

    2001-12-01

    Numerous clinical reports suggest the beneficial effects of chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive and controversial. The purpose of this present study was to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of chelation liquid (CHL) in experimental atherosclerosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 45 days. In the prophylactic phase of the study subcutaneous 300 mg EDTA + 500 mg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) injections (five rabbits) and isotonic saline (five rabbits) were given to test and control groups, respectively, along with cholesterol rich diet. The CHL treatment ameliorated the rise of serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, lowered serum calcium concentrations and reduced the aortic atheroma. In the therapeutic phase of the experiment the cholesterol diet was stopped and the remaining 10 animals were returned to normal diet. Five of these rabbits were given CHL injections and other five animals were given isotonic saline injections for 121 days. Although the level of cholesterol and triglyceride were not significantly different in the two groups, the serum calcium concentration and the percentage of the area of flate aortic specimen occupied by atheroma were significantly lower in the CHL treated rabbits as compared to controls. It is concluded that CHL injections have a definite prophylactic effect on atherogenesis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, and may have some therapeutic value in the regression phase. Further confirmatory studies are suggested.

  13. Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ushida, Takahiro; Iwatsu, Osamu; Shimo, Kazuhiro; Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Arai, Young-Chang P; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Nishihara, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+) are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+). To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short), tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia. PMID:19715604

  14. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women’s experiences with this treatment. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. Primary outcomes were life-threatening adverse effects of treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest). For randomised controlled trials, data were meta-analysed, and risk ratios (RR) pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models. For non-randomised studies, data were tabulated by design, and presented as RR, odds ratios or percentages, and summarised narratively. Results A total of 143 publications were included (21 randomised trials, 15 non-randomised comparative studies, 32 case series and 75 reports of individual cases), of mixed methodological quality. Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. Magnesium sulphate significantly increased the risk of 'any adverse effects’ overall (RR 4.62, 95% CI 2.42-8.83; 4 trials, 13,322 women), and treatment cessation due to adverse effects (RR 2.77; 95% CI 2.32-3.30; 5 trials, 13,666 women). Few subgroup differences were observed (between indications for use and treatment regimens). In one trial, a lower dose regimen (2 g/3 hours) compared with a higher dose regimen (5 g/4 hours) significantly reduced treatment cessation (RR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.39, 126 women). Adverse effect estimates from studies of other designs largely supported data from randomised

  15. Effects of magnesium sulphate on coagulation after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM® ).

    PubMed

    Na, H S; Shin, H J; Kang, S B; Hwang, J W; Do, S H

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of magnesium sulphate on blood coagulation profiles using rotational thromboelastometry in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to the magnesium group (n = 22) or control group (n = 22). The magnesium group received intravenous magnesium sulphate (50 mg.kg(-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 15 mg.kg(-1) .h(-1) ), whereas the control group received the same volume of isotonic saline. Mean (SD) postoperative serum magnesium levels were 1.60 (0.13) mmol.l(-1) in the magnesium group compared with 0.98 (0.06) mmol.l(-1) in the control group (p < 0.001). All maximum clot firmness values of ROTEM analysis were significantly lower on the third postoperative day in the magnesium group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). We conclude that ROTEM analysis demonstrated that intra-operative administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate reduces blood hypercoagulability in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Experimentally determined standard thermodynamic properties of synthetic MgSO(44H(2)O (Starkeyite) and MgSO(4)·3H(2)O: a revised internally consistent thermodynamic data set for magnesium sulfate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Grevel, Klaus-Dieter; Majzlan, Juraj; Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar; Steiger, Michael; Fortes, A Dominic; Marler, Bernd

    2012-11-01

    The enthalpies of formation of synthetic MgSO(44H(2)O (starkeyite) and MgSO(4)·3H(2)O were obtained by solution calorimetry at T=298.15 K. The resulting enthalpies of formation from the elements are [Formula: see text] (starkeyite)=-2498.7±1.1 kJ·mol(-1) and [Formula: see text] (MgSO(4)·3H(2)O)=-2210.3±1.3 kJ·mol(-1). The standard entropy of starkeyite was derived from low-temperature heat capacity measurements acquired with a physical property measurement system (PPMS) in the temperature range 5 KMgSO(4)·nH(2)O system was refined by a mathematical programming (MAP) analysis. As can be seen from the resulting phase diagrams, starkeyite is metastable in the entire T-%RH range. Due to kinetic limitations of kieserite formation, metastable occurrence of starkeyite might be possible under martian conditions.

  17. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no; SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim; Orsáková, D.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding formore » NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.« less

  18. Magnesium sulphate: an adjuvant to tracheal intubation without muscle relaxation--a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Younes; Qamous, Youssef; Serghini, Issam; Zoubir, Mohammed; Salim, Jaafar Lalaoui; Boughalem, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    Tracheal intubation without administration of a neuromuscular blocking drug is used frequently in anaesthesia. Several techniques and adjuvants have been tried to improve intubating conditions. Magnesium sulphate is an agent with analgesic, anaesthetic and muscle relaxant effects. To assess the effect of magnesium sulphate on intubating conditions after induction of anaesthesia without a neuromuscular blocking drug. Double-blinded randomised study. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1/2 scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included. Avicenna Military Hospital between June 2010 and March 2011. Before induction of general anaesthesia, patients were assigned to receive either a 10-min infusion of magnesium sulphate 45 mg kg(-1) in 100 ml of isotonic saline (magnesium group, n = 30) or the same volume of saline (control group, n = 30). Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg kg(-1) followed 3 min later by propofol 2.5 mg kg(-1). Intubating conditions were evaluated by a blinded anaesthesiologist using the criteria of the Copenhagen consensus conference: ease of laryngoscopy, vocal cord position and/or movement and response to intubation or cuff inflation (cough or diaphragmatic movement). Intubating conditions were considered as acceptable (excellent or good) or unacceptable (poor). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were also recorded during the study period. The two groups were comparable in their demographic profiles. Clinically acceptable intubating conditions were observed more frequently in the magnesium group than in the control group: 25 (83%) vs. 18 patients (60%) (P = 0.042). There was no failed intubation. There were no differences between the groups with regard to haemodynamic variables. Addition of magnesium sulphate to propofol and fentanyl at induction of anaesthesia significantly improved intubating conditions without administration of a neuromuscular blocking drug.

  19. The effect of MgSO4 addition and the increasing doses of calcium and phosphorus during ending drying period on the occurrence of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bodarski, R; Kinal, S; Preś, J; Slupczyńska, M; Twardoń, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was the estimation of optimal Ca and P levels applied before calving together with anionic salt addition, as an element of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia prevention. The experiment was carried out during the dry period on 48 cows with similar milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were divided into four groups. In group I (control) the amount of minerals was in accordance to NRC standards. In experimental groups (groups II-IV), two weeks before calving, cows received 140 g/day/head of hydrated magnesium sulphate to achieve dietary cation-anion difference at the level of about 50 mEq/kg DM. In groups II and III cows received calcium carbonate (100 g/day) 10 days a.p. (antepartum) (group II), or 5 days a.p. (group III), while cows in IV group received dicalcium phosphate (100 g/day) for 5 days a.p. Application of MgSO4 x 7H20 significantly affected the urine pH of cows from group III and IV 4-5 d. before calving - 6.45 and 6.81, respectively. The acidification of urine was observed after calving in group IV (7.13). In cows from group II (100 CaCO3 10 days a.p.) urine pH decline was not found (7.97-7.75). In that group the incidences of hypophosphatemia were noted (blood serum inorganic P level 1.41-1.46 mmol/1). Addition of magnesium sulphate prevented hypocalcaemia occurrence -- 4-5 d. before calving the concentration of ionized Ca in blood serum was 1.11, 1.13 and 1.16 mmol/1 (respectively for group II, III and IV). Reproductive functions were significantly improved after the application of CaCO3 and CaHPO4 for 5 days a.p. in comparison with control and group II -- progesterone concentration in the blood serum on the 45th day of lactation was 1.396 - 1.409 versus 0.799 - 0.401. The correlation between progesterone and inorganic P level in serum was almost significant. Based on the obtained results a treatment optimal in prevention of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia is the application of 50 g CaCO3 and 50 g of CaHPO4 for

  20. Therapeutic effect of magnesium sulphate on carbon monoxide toxicity-mediated brain lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Y; Mollaoglu, H; Yürümez, Y; Ucok, K; Duran, L; Tünay, K; Akgün, L

    2013-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity primarily results from cellular hypoxia caused by impedance of oxygen delivery. Studies show that CO may cause brain lipid peroxidation and leukocyte-mediated inflammatory changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnesium sulphate could prevent or diminish brain lipid peroxidation caused by carbon monoxide toxicity in rats. Fourty rats were divided into five groups of 8 rats each. Group l was not received any agent during the experiment. Group 2 was inhaled CO gas followed by intraperitoneally normal saline 30 minutes (min) later. Group 3 was inhaled CO gas followed by 100 mg/kg magnesium sulphate intraperitoneally 30 min later. Group 2 and Group 3 rats was undergone laparotomy and craniotomy while still under anesthesia at 6 hour, and tissue sample was obtained from the cerebrum. Group 4 was inhaled CO gas followed by intraperitoneally normal saline 30 min later. Group 5 was inhaled CO gas followed by 100 mg/kg magnesium sulphate intraperitoneally 30 min later. Group 4 and Group 5 rats was undergone laparotomy and craniotomy while still under anesthesia at 24 hour, and tissue sample was obtained from the cerebrum. Nitric oxide levels were no significantly different between all groups. Malonyldialdehyde levels increased in intoxication group (group 2) and decreased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of superoxide dismutase decreased in intoxication group (group 2) and increased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of catalase increased in intoxication group (group 2) and decreased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased in intoxication group (group 4) and increased in treatment group (group 5). CO poisoning caused significant damage, detected within the first 6 hours. Due to antioxidant enzymes, especially GSH-Px activity reaching the top level within 24th hours, significant oxidative damage was not observed. The protective effect against oxidative

  1. Magnesium sulphate has beneficial effects as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kwon, I C

    2009-12-01

    The use of low concentrations of volatile anaesthetics with avoidance of opioids may induce intraoperative awareness and adverse haemodynamic responses during Caesarean section. Magnesium is well known to reduce anaesthetic requirements and to block noxious stimuli. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate modulates anaesthetic depth and analgesic efficacy during Caesarean section. Seventy-two patients undergoing Caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive i.v. saline (control group) or magnesium sulphate 30 mg kg(-1) bolus+10 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion (Mg 30 group) or 45 mg kg(-1) bolus+15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion (Mg 45 group) after induction. Bispectral index (BIS) value, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and midazolam, fentanyl, and atracurium consumptions were recorded. BIS values [mean (sd)] at 7.5 and 10 min after surgery and before delivery in the control [64 (9), 66 (8), 67 (8), P<0.001] and the Mg 30 groups [62 (8), P<0.01; 64 (7), 63 (9), P<0.001] were higher than in the Mg 45 group [56 (8), 55 (8), 55 (7)]. MAP was greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the Mg 30 and Mg 45 groups during the pre-delivery period. The magnesium groups required less midazolam (P<0.05), fentanyl (Mg 30, P<0.05; Mg 45, P<0.01), and atracurium (P<0.001) vs the control group. Preoperative i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuated BIS and arterial pressure increases during the pre-delivery period. Magnesium sulphate can be recommended as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section to avoid perioperative awareness and pressor response resulting from inadequate anaesthesia, analgesia, or both.

  2. Magnesium sulphate for prevention of eclampsia: are intramuscular and intravenous regimens equivalent? A population pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Salinger, D H; Mundle, S; Regi, A; Bracken, H; Winikoff, B; Vicini, P; Easterling, T

    2013-06-01

    To compare magnesium sulphate concentrations achieved by intramuscular and intravenous regimens used for the prevention of eclampsia. Low-resource obstetric hospitals in Nagpur and Vellore, India. Pregnant women at risk for eclampsia due to hypertensive disease. A pharmacokinetic study was performed as part of a randomised trial that enrolled 300 women comparing intramuscular and intravenous maintenance regimens of magnesium dosing. Data from 258 enrolled women were analysed in the pharmacokinetic study. A single sample was drawn per woman with the expectation of using samples in a pooled data analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of magnesium distribution and clearance. Magnesium clearance was estimated to be 48.1 dl/hour, volume of distribution to be 156 dl and intramuscular bioavailability to be 86.2%. The intramuscular regimen produced higher initial serum concentrations, consistent with a substantially larger loading dose. At steady state, magnesium concentrations in the intramuscular and intravenous groups were comparable. With either regimen, a substantial number of women would be expected to have serum concentrations lower than those generally held to be therapeutic. Clinical implications were that a larger loading dose for the intravenous regimen should be considered; where feasible, individualised dosing of magnesium sulphate would reduce the variability in serum concentrations and might result in more women with clinically effective magnesium concentrations; and lower dose magnesium sulphate regimens should be considered with caution. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  3. Stability of Magnesium Sulfate Minerals in Martian Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    Viking Lander, Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions to Mars have found abundant sulfur in surface soils and rocks, and the best indications are that magnesium sulfates are among the key hosts. At Meridiani Planum, MgSO4 salts constitute 15 to 40 wt.% of sedimentary rocks. Additional S is hosted by gypsum and jarosite. Reflectance and thermal emission spectroscopy is consistent with the presence of kieserite (MgSO4 H2O) and epsomite (MgSO4*7H2O). Theoretically, the dodecahydrate (MgSO4*12H2O) should also have precipitated. We first examine theoretically which MgSO4 minerals should have precipitated on Mars, and then how dehydration might have altered these minerals.

  4. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sarah N; Nelson, Rachel A; Potter, Julie A; Norwitz, Errol R; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2018-04-30

    Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO 4 modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent. Human FM explants were treated with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); with or without MgSO 4 added either: 1 hour before LPS; at the same time as LPS; 1 hour post-LPS; or 2 hours post-LPS. Explants were also treated with or without viral dsRNA and LPS, alone or in combination; and MgSO 4 added 1 hour post-LPS After 24 hours, supernatants were measured for cytokines/chemokines; and tissue lysates measured for caspase-1 activity. Lipopolysaccharide-induced FM inflammation by upregulating the secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Magnesium sulfate administered 1-hour post-LPS inhibited FM secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, RANTES, and TNFα. Magnesium sulfate administered 2 hours post-LPS augmented FM secretion of these factors as well as IL-8, IFNγ, VEGF, GROα and IP-10. Magnesium sulfate delivered 1- hour post-LPS inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activity, and inhibited the augmented IL-1β response triggered by combination viral dsRNA and LPS. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates LPS-induced FM inflammation in a time-dependent manner, in part through its modulation of caspase-1 activity. Thus, the timing of MgSO 4 administration may be critical in optimizing its anti-inflammatory effects in the clinical setting. MgSO 4 might also be useful at preventing FM inflammation triggered by a polymicrobial viral-bacterial infection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  7. Magnesium Sulfate and Betamethasone Reduce NUR77 Expression in a Preterm Labor Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-29

    Women in preterm labor are commonly treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and betamethasone (BMTZ) to reduce complications of prematurity including...neurologic injury. MgSO4, however, prevents cerebral palsy in only 1 in 40 women who receive it. Understanding the cellular responses to MgSO4/BMTZ

  8. Experimentally Determined Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Synthetic MgSO4·4H2O (Starkeyite) and MgSO4·3H2O: A Revised Internally Consistent Thermodynamic Data Set for Magnesium Sulfate Hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Majzlan, Juraj; Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar; Steiger, Michael; Fortes, A. Dominic; Marler, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The enthalpies of formation of synthetic MgSO4·4H2O (starkeyite) and MgSO4·3H2O were obtained by solution calorimetry at T=298.15 K. The resulting enthalpies of formation from the elements are \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document}$$\\Delta_{ \\rm f}H^0_{298}$$\\end{document} (starkeyite)=−2498.7±1.1 kJ·mol−1 and \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document}$$\\Delta_{ \\rm f}H^0_{298}$$\\end{document} (MgSO4·3H2O)=−2210.3±1.3 kJ·mol−1. The standard entropy of starkeyite was derived from low-temperature heat capacity measurements acquired with a physical property measurement system (PPMS) in the temperature range 5 K

  9. Molecular and phenetic characterization of the bacterial assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an environment with high concentrations of magnesium sulphate, and its relevance to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, Brian R.; Eberl, Timothy C.; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned to Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulphur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulphates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids.

  10. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy with magnesium sulphate and low-volume polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Tepeš, Bojan; Mlakar, Dominika N; Metličar, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Patient compliance with bowel cleansing procedures represents one of the most objectionable aspects of colonoscopy. Adverse reactions to the purgative may result in failure to complete the preparation, inadequate visualization of the colon, polyp and even carcinoma miss rate and unwillingness to attend a follow-up colonoscopy. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bowel cleansing with magnesium sulphate and low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) with electrolytes. The second objective was to evaluate whether bowel cleansing was better in participants scheduled for morning colonoscopies or afternoon colonoscopies. Magnesium sulphate mineral water (2 l) and 2 l of low-volume PEG and electrolytes solution were used as our bowel cleansing protocol. A total of 13 914 participants, who participated in the Slovenian colorectal cancer screening programme in the period between 2009 and 2011, were included. Excellent bowel preparation was achieved in 11 484 (82.61%) participants; 1894 (13.62%) participants had good bowel preparation, 439 (3.16%) participants had fair bowel preparation and 85 (0.61%) participants had poor bowel preparation. Better results were achieved in the afternoon colonoscopies and in younger participant groups (P<0.001). No serious side effects of bowel cleansing were reported. This is the first study to use magnesium sulphate mineral water and PEG plus electrolytes for bowel cleansing. We found excellent bowel cleansing in 82.61% participants and in more participants if colonoscopy was performed in the afternoon.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs...

  13. Intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion in the management of very severe tetanus in a child: a descriptive case report.

    PubMed

    Puliyel, Mammen M; Pillai, Rajappan; Korula, Sophy

    2009-02-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy with very severe tetanus treated with continuous infusion of magnesium sulphate for the control of spasms and severe autonomic dysfunction which was refractory to deep sedation and mechanical ventilation. The infusion was not associated with any adverse effects and he made an uneventful recovery. We recommend the use of intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion as an inexpensive and highly effective modality in severe tetanus.

  14. Preventing cerebral palsy in preterm labour: a multiorganisational quality improvement approach to the adoption and spread of magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Burhouse, Anna; Lea, Charlotte; Ray, Stephen; Bailey, Hannah; Davies, Ruth; Harding, Hannah; Howard, Rachel; Jordan, Sharon; Menzies, Noshin; White, Sarah; Phillips, Kathryn; Luyt, Karent

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium sulphate has been demonstrated to be an effective neuroprotectant for babies delivered prematurely (under 37 weeks’ gestational age). Antenatal administration reduces infant mortality and cerebral palsy (CP); however, uptake in the UK has been significantly lower than other countries. A quality improvement (QI) project (PReventing Cerebral palsy in Pre Term labour (PReCePT)) was carried out in the West of England, UK, to raise awareness of evidence and to improve the uptake of magnesium sulphate as neuroprotectant in preterm deliveries. Five National Health Service (NHS) Trusts and the West of England Academic Health Science Network participated in the QI project. The project was underpinned by a multifaceted QI approach that included: patient and clinical coproduction of resources; recruitment of clinical champions to support the local microsystems and create a stimulating/supporting environment for change; Plan, Do, Study, Act cycles; training for over 600 NHS staff and awareness raising and strategic influencing of key leaders. A baseline audit and regular measurement of the number of eligible women receiving magnesium sulphate was undertaken at each hospital site, and the overall programme was evaluated using data from an international benchmarking organisation for neonatal care outcomes—the Vermont Oxford Network. During the project 664 staff received magnesium sulphate training. The use of magnesium sulphate increased across the West of England from an average baseline of 21% over the 2 years preceding the project to 88% by the conclusion of the project. The project was also able to influence the development of a national data collection process for benchmarking the use of magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection in preterm deliveries in the U.K. PReCePT appears to have had a favourable effect on the uptake of magnesium sulphate across the West of England. The project has also provided learning about how to stimulate adoption and spread of

  15. Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew; Lees, Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    The Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial is a multicentre,randomised, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) funded by the UK Medical Research Council. When complete, it will be the largest single neuroprotective study undertaken to date. Conscious patients presenting within 12 h of acute stroke with limb weakness are eligible. The primary outcome measure is combined death and disability as measured using the Barthel Index at 90-day follow up. By randomizing 2700 patients, the study will have 84% power to detect a 5.5% absolute reduction in the primary end-point. By April 2000, 86 centres were participating, with representation in Canada, USA, Europe, South America, Singapore and Australia. So far, 1206 patients have been randomised, of whom 37% were treated within 6 h. Overall 3-month mortality was 20% and the primary outcome event rate was 43%. The study is ongoing and centres worldwide are encouraged to participate.

  16. The effect of magnesium ion concentration on the fibrocartilage regeneration potential of goat costal chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hagandora, Catherine K; Tudares, Mauro A; Almarza, Alejandro J

    2012-03-01

    Magnesium has recently been explored as a potential biomaterial for degradable orthopedic implants but its effect on fibrocartilage remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of high concentrations of magnesium ions on the matrix production of goat costal fibrochondrocytes in vitro. Cells were cultured using a scaffoldless approach with media containing magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) at concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 mM in addition to the baseline magnesium concentration of 0.8 mM MgSO(4). At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences in compressive tangent modulus and total matrix production between constructs cultured in 20 mM Mg(2+) and the 0.8 mM Mg(2+) control (435 ± 47 kPa). There was a significant decrease in compressive tangent modulus compared to the 0.8 mM Mg(2+) constructs in the 50 mM MgCl(2) and MgSO(4) groups, while the 100 mM groups were not mechanically testable (p < 0.05). The collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of the 50 and 100 mM MgCl(2) and MgSO(4) constructs was significantly lower than the control (6.9 ± 0.5% and 16.5 ± 1.3% per dry weight, respectively) (p < 0.05). The results show that goat costal fibrochondrocytes exhibit a high degree of resiliency to magnesium ion concentrations up to 20 mM in vitro.

  17. Phase II study of magnesium sulfate in acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Basher, A; Rahman, S H; Ghose, A; Arif, S M; Faiz, M A; Dawson, A H

    2013-01-01

    Acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning is relatively common and a major cause of death from poisoning in developing countries. Magnesium has been shown to be of benefit in animal models. We conducted a phase II study of bolus doses of (MgSO4) in 50 patients with acute organophosphate poisoning. Patients eligible for inclusion had ingested OP and had cholinergic symptoms consistent with moderate or severe poisoning. All patients received standard care of atropinization titrated to control muscarinic symptoms and pralidoxime. The trial was run in 4 sequential groups of patients. Participants in each group received a different total dose of MgSO4 (20%) administered as intermittent bolus doses infused over 10-15 min or placebo. There was one control patient for every 4 patients who received MgSO4. Group A (16 patients) received a total of 4 gm MgSO4 as a single bolus, group B (8 patients) received 8 gm (in two 4 gm doses q4H), group C (8 patients) received 12 gm (in three 4 gm doses q4H) group D (8 patients) received 16 gm (in four 4 gm doses q4H) and control (10 patients) received placebo). Patients were closely monitored for any adverse reaction like significant clinical neuromuscular disturbance and respiratory depression. No adverse reactions to magnesium were observed. The 24 hour urinary magnesium concentration were statistically different between 16 gm (234.74 ± 74.18 mg/dl) and control (118.06 ± 30.76 mg/dl) (p = 0.019), while it was much lower than the 80% of the intravenous magnesium load. Six patients died in control group compared to 3 in 4 gm, 2 in 8 gm and 1 in 12 gm group. There was no mortality in 16 gm group. Magnesium was well tolerated in this study. Larger studies are required to examine for efficacy.

  18. Reversal with sugammadex for rocuronium-induced deep neuromuscular block after pretreatment of magnesium sulfate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Kyo Sang; Song, Shin Mi

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) has been used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, hypertension and arrhythmia. Magnesium enhances the neuromuscular block of rocuronium. This study has been conducted to evaluate the reversal efficacy of sugammadex from deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during consistent pretreatment of MgSO 4 in rabbits. Twenty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, a control group or study groups (50% MgSO 4 150-200 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg/h IV), and received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. When post-tetanic count 1-2 appeared, sugammadex 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg was administered in the 2-mg group, control and 4-mg group, and 8-mg group, respectively. The recovery course after reversal of sugammadex administration was evaluated in each group. The mean serum concentration of magnesium was maintained at more than 2 mmol/L in the study groups, and the total dose of MgSO 4 was more than 590 mg. The reversal effect of sugammadex on rocuronium-induced NMB in pretreated MgSO 4 was not different from that in the group without MgSO 4 . The recovery time to train-of-four ratio 0.9 after sugammadex administration in the 2-mg group was longer than in the other groups (P < 0.001); there were no other significant differences among the groups. The reversal of sugammadex from a deep rocuronium-induced NMB during large pretreatment of MgSO 4 was not affected. However, we should consider that the reversal effect of sugammadex varied depending on the dose.

  19. Effects of magnesium sulphate on intraoperative anaesthetic requirements and postoperative analgesia in gynaecology patients receiving total intravenous anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J-H; Kang, M-H; Park, K-S; Do, S-H

    2008-03-01

    This randomized, double-blind, prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of magnesium sulphate on anaesthetic requirements and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total i.v. anaesthesia (TIVA). Fifty patients who underwent gynaecological surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Before induction of anaesthesia, the magnesium group (Group M) received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) i.v. as a bolus and then 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) i.v. by continuous infusion. The control group (Group S) received the same amount of isotonic saline. TIVA (propofol+remifentanil) was administered under bispectral index monitoring during anaesthesia induction and maintenance. Rocuronium was administered before orotracheal intubation and during surgery when the train-of-four count was 2 or more. After operation, patient-controlled analgesia with a solution of ketorolac and morphine was used and the consumption of this solution was recorded. Pain scores at rest and upon movement were evaluated 30 min, 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Patients in Group M required less rocuronium than those in Group S [mean (SD) 0.44 (0.09) vs 0.35 (0.07) microg kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.05]. The total amounts of propofol and remifentanil administered were similar in the two groups. Postoperative pain scores, cumulative analgesic consumption, and shivering incidents were significantly lower in Group M (P<0.05). Mean arterial pressure just after intubation and during the immediate postoperative period was also significantly lower in Group M (P<0.05). I.v. magnesium sulphate during TIVA reduced rocuronium requirement and improved the quality of postoperative analgesia.

  20. Biosedimentary and geochemical constraints on the precipitation of mineral crusts in shallow sulphate lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabestrero, Óscar; del Buey, Pablo; Sanz-Montero, M. Esther

    2018-04-01

    Seasonal desiccation of Mg2+-(Na+)-(Ca2+)-SO42--(Cl-) saline lakes in La Mancha (Central Spain) that host microbial mats led to the precipitation of hydrated Na-Mg sulphates and gypsum. Sulphates precipitated in the submerged conditions form extensive biolaminites, whilst in marginal areas they produce thin crusts. Sedimentological, mineralogical, petrographic and high resolution textural studies reveal that the crusts were formed within the benthic microbial mats that thrive at salinities ranging from 160 to 340 g·L-1. The minerals of the crusts are primary bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O), epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), as well as secondary hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O) and thenardite (Na2SO4). Primary bloedite crystals, which form the framework of surficial and submerged crusts are seen to nucleate subaqueously and grow incorporatively within the matgrounds. Displacive and incorporative epsomite grows on previous bloedite crystals and also on the ground. Mirabilite is precipitated rapidly at the brine-air interface over bloedite and epsomite. Hexahydrite and thenardite are formed due to dehydration of epsomite and mirabilite, respectively. Hydrochemical modeling with PHREEQC indicated that evaporitic biolaminites are forming from brines undersaturated with respect to bloedite, epsomite and mirabilite, which suggests that the microorganisms contribute to the heterogeneous nucleation of the sulphates in the microbial mats. Unlike carbonates, the influence of microbes on the growth and morphology of complicated double salts such as bloedite has not been documented previously and provides a new perspective on the formation of hydrated sulphate minerals that are common on Earth as well as other planets.

  1. Magnesium and calcium sulfate stabilities and the water budget of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate probably plays a dominant role in the water cycle of Mars away from the polar ice caps through hydration and dehydration reactions. This prominence is due to its abundance, its occurrence in numerous hydration states, and its ability to hydrate and dehydrate rapidly. New experimental studies on the metastable reaction between hexahydrite (MgSO4??6H2O) and starkeyite (MgSO4-4H2O) as a function of temperature and relative humidity, supplemented by recent investigations of the stable reaction between epsomite (MgSO4??7H2O) and hexahydrite and by phase equilibrium calculations, suggest that the most important magnesium sulfate phases involved in the Martian water cycle are MgSO4??11 H2O, epsomite, starkeyite, and possibly kieserite (MgSO4??H2O). Hexahydrite is not predicted to be stable on the surface of Mars. During diurnal variations in temperature and relative humidity, 1 kg of MgSO4 can release or remove from the atmosphere 1.5 kg of H2O by cycling between kieserite and MgSO4??11 H2O. Despite subequal abundances of calcium sulfate, calcium sulfates are not likely to be important in the water cycle of the planet because of sluggish rates of hydration and dehydration and a more limited range of H2O concentrations per kilogram of CaSO4 (0.00 to 0.26 kg kg-1). Modern or recent erosion on Mars attributed to liquid water may be due to the dehydration Of MgSO4??11 H2O because of the inferred abundance and likelihood of occurrence of this phase and its limited stability relative to known variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  2. Incorporating Density Properties of MgSO4 Brines Into Icy World Ocean Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2011-12-01

    The structure and flow of the subsurface oceans in icy worlds depends on the sources of buoyancy within these oceans. Buoyancy is determined by the equation of state, in which density is a nonlinear function of temperature, salinity, and pressure. Equations of state for terrestrial seawater (with Na and Cl as the principal dissolved species) are well-developed, but icy world oceans may contain a different balance of species, including Na, Mg, SO4, and NH4 (Kargel et al, 2000). Recent work by Vance and Brown (2011, pers. comm.) has mapped out the density and thermodynamic properties of MgSO4 brines under icy world conditions. We have developed code to incorporate this equation of state data for MgSO4 brines into two different ocean simulation models. First, we investigate a single-column convection model, which is able to find the equilibrium structure and heat transport of an icy world ocean. We explore the heat transport through the ocean subject to a variety of assumptions about ocean salinity and seafloor heat and salt flux. We resolve the paradox posed by Vance and Brown (2004): warm salty MgSO4 brine emitted by a seafloor hydrothermal system may be positively buoyant at the seafloor, but become negatively buoyant (sinking) at lower pressure. How does heat escape the ocean, if it cannot be transported by convection? Second, we add MgSO4 dynamics to a full 3-D time-dependent general circulation model (the MIT GCM), which is able to simulate both the global-scale circulation of the world's ocean and investigate the highly turbulent dynamics of buoyant hydrothermal systems. We ask, "Are buoyancy-driven flows in a MgSO4 brine ocean significantly different than similarly-driven flows in terrestrial seawater?"

  3. Optimizing protease production from an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans using response surface methodology and its larvicidal activity on horse cyathostomins.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Soares, F E F; Araujo, J M; Genier, H L A; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Queiroz, J H; Ferreira, S R

    2011-06-01

    Protease production from Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) was optimized and the larvicidal activity of the enzymatic extract was evaluated on infective horse cyathostomin larvae (L3). Duddingtonia flagrans was grown in liquid medium with eight different variables: glucose, casein, bibasic potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4) and temperature. The Plackett-Burman analysis showed a significant influence of MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein (P < 0.05) on protease production by D. flagrans in liquid medium. Central composite design indicated that the highest proteolytic activity was 39.56 U/ml as a function of the concentrations of casein (18.409 g/l), MgSO4 (0.10 g/l) and CuSO4 (0.50 mg/l). A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found for the larval number between the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. A reduction of 95.46% in the number of free-living larvae was found in the treated group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that protease production by D. flagrans (AC001) in liquid medium was optimized by MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein, showing that the optimized enzymatic extract exerted larvicidal activity on cyathostomins and therefore may contribute to large-scale industrial production.

  4. The effect of magnesium sulfate on bleeding time and nitric oxide production in preeclamsia.

    PubMed

    Moslemizade, Narges; Rafiei, Alireza; Yazdani, Fereshteh; Hosseini-khah, Zahra; Yusefnezhad, Keyvan

    2011-01-15

    Preeclampsia is a disease regarding with altered vascular reactivity leading to hypertension of the mother and metabolic alterations in the fetus. This study aimed to assess nitric oxide and bleeding time following administration of magnesium sulfate to preeclamtic patients compared to normotensive pregnant women. A total of 112 subjects (56 preeclamtic patients and 56 normotensive pregnant controls) were enrolled in this case-control study. Cases and controls were matched for age, BMI, gestational age, parity and gravidity. Total concentration of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) was measured before and during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) treatment using a modified Griess-based method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased during MgSO4 treatment in preeclamtic patients (p < 0.0001). NOx levels were significantly increased in preeclamtic women after MgSO4 administration (33.7 +/- 18.5 vs. 50.2 +/- 21.6, p < 0.0001) but it was not seen in normotensive parturients (52.4 +/- 28.9 vs. 57.3 +/- 21.7, p = 0.362). The bleeding time was scarcely increased following magnesium sulfate treatment in preeclamptic patients compared to normotensive pregnant women but it was not significant (p = 0.18). In addition, there was only a significantly reverse correlation between NOx levels and systolic or diastolic blood pressure in preeclamtic parturients after MgSO4 treatment (r = -0384; p = 0.003 and r = -0.29; p = 0.03, respectively). This study demonstrates that administrating MgSO4 to preeclamtic patients induced significant changes in NOx production which had a major role in modulating vasculature changes in preeclamsia.

  5. Effects of magnesium sulphate on intraoperative neuromuscular blocking agent requirements and postoperative analgesia in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Na, H-S; Lee, J-H; Hwang, J-Y; Ryu, J-H; Han, S-H; Jeon, Y-T; Do, S-H

    2010-03-01

    In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effects of magnesium sulphate on neuromuscular blocking agent requirements and analgesia in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly divided 61 children with CP undergoing orthopaedic surgery into two groups. The magnesium group (Group M) received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) i.v. as a bolus and 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by continuous infusion during the operation. The control group (Group S) received the same amount of isotonic saline. Rocuronium was administered 0.6 mg kg(-1) before intubation and 0.1 mg kg(-1) additionally when train-of-four counts were 2 or more. I.V. fentanyl and ketorolac were used to control postoperative pain. Total infused analgesic volumes and pain scores were evaluated at postoperative 30 min, and at 6, 24, and 48 h. The rocuronium requirement of Group M was significantly less than that of Group S [0.29 (0.12) vs 0.42 (0.16) mg kg(-1) h(-1), P<0.05]. Cumulative analgesic consumption in Group M was significantly less after operation at 24 and 48 h (P<0.05), and pain scores in Group M were lower than in Group S during the entire postoperative period (P<0.05). Serum magnesium concentrations in Group M were higher until 24 h after operation (P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and rescue drug injections was similar in the two groups. No shivering or adverse effects related to hypermagnesaemia were encountered. I.V. magnesium sulphate reduces rocuronium requirements and postoperative analgesic consumption in children with CP.

  6. Barriers and enablers to implementing antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection guidelines: a study using the theoretical domains framework.

    PubMed

    Bain, Emily; Bubner, Tanya; Ashwood, Pat; Van Ryswyk, Emer; Simmonds, Lucy; Reid, Sally; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-08-18

    Strong evidence supports administration of magnesium sulphate prior to birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation to prevent very preterm babies dying or developing cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken as part of The WISH (Working to Improve Survival and Health for babies born very preterm) Project, to assess health professionals' self-reported use of antenatal magnesium sulphate, and barriers and enablers to implementation of 2010 Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines. Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted with obstetric and neonatal consultants and trainees, and midwives in 2011 (n = 24) and 2012-2013 (n = 21) at the Women's and Children's Hospital, South Australia. Transcribed interview data were coded using the Theoretical Domains Framework (describing 14 domains related to behaviour change) for analysis of barriers and enablers. In 2012-13, health professionals more often reported 'routinely' or 'sometimes' administering or advising their colleagues to administer magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection (86% in 2012-13 vs. 46% in 2011). 'Knowledge and skills', 'memory, attention and decision processes', 'environmental context and resources', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'social influences' were key domains identified in the barrier and enabler analysis. Perceived barriers were the complex administration processes, time pressures, and the unpredictability of preterm birth. Enablers included education for staff and women at risk of very preterm birth, reminders and 'prompts', simplified processes for administration, and influential colleagues. This study has provided valuable data on barriers and enablers to implementing magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection, with implications for designing and modifying future behaviour change strategies, to ensure optimal uptake of this neuroprotective therapy for very preterm infants.

  7. Effects of magnesium sulfate on airway smooth muscle contraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Betul Altinisik, Hatice; Kirdemir, Pakize; Altinisik, Ugur; Gokalp, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) at different doses on isolated tracheal smooth muscle contraction in rats induced by different mechanisms. Methods Twelve rats' tracheas were placed into organ bath. Consecutively, acetylcholine (10-6,10-5,10-4 M), histamine(10-8,10-5,10-3 M) and KCl (30,60 mM) solutions was administered for contractions. MgSO4 from 10-4 to 10-1 M concentrations were subsequently administered after each constrictive agent and relaxation degrees were recorded. Results In the acetylcholine and KCl groups, dose dependent strong contractions were observed, but not in the histamine group and that group was excluded. Significant relaxation occurred with gradually increasing doses of MgSO4. In the high dose KCl group, a slight increase in contractions after the administration of 10-4 and 10-3 M MgSO4 was recorded. Conclusion We suggest that MgSO4 is effective in relaxing airway smooth muscle contractions caused by different factors; however, it must be considered that low doses of MgSO4 may only lead to a slight increase in contractions. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  8. Efficacy of Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjunct to Ropivacaine in Local Infiltration for Postoperative Pain Following Lower Segment Caesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Kundra, Sandeep; Singh, Rupinder M; Singh, Gaganpreet; Singh, Tania; Jarewal, Vikrant; Katyal, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous and peri-articular magnesium has been shown to reduce perioperative analgesic consumption. With this background, subcutaneous infiltration was hypothesized to potentiate the subcutaneous infiltration of local anaesthetic agent. To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to ropivacaine in local infiltration for postoperative pain following lower segment cesarean section. Sixty parturients undergoing cesarean delivery were randomized to either group A or B in a double blinded manner. After uterine and muscle closure but before skin closure, Group A was administered local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Injection (Inj) ropivacaine 0.75% 150 milligram (mg) or 20 millilitres(ml) whereas, group B patients were given a local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Inj magnesium sulphate 750 mg (1.5 ml of Inj 50% Magnesium sulphate) added to Inj ropivacaine 0.75% (18.5 ml) making a total volume of 20 ml. In postoperative period, Heart rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Visual Analogue Score (VAS), supplemental analgesic consumption and timing of each subsequent analgesic was noted for the initial 24 hours. There was no difference in the timings for the requirement of first Intravenous (IV) rescue analgesic among both the groups (p=0.279). However, the need for 2(nd) and 3(rd) doses of rescue analgesics was significantly later in group B and the difference was statistically significant with p-value of 0.034 and 0.031 respectively. The number of patients who were administered 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) doses of rescue analgesics was significantly greater in group A as compared to group B. None of the patients in group B needed more than 4 doses of rescue analgesia while in group A, 5 patients were administered a rescue analgesic for 5(th) time. The cumulative analgesic requirement in the initial 24 hours was also greater in group A as compared to group B and the difference was statistically significant (p =0.01). The incidence of

  9. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Maternal side effects & fetal neuroprotection according to body mass index after magnesium sulfate in a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vilchez, Gustavo; Dai, Jing; Lagos, Moraima; Sokol, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Evidence supports the need of dose-adjustment of several drugs according to body mass index (BMI) to prevent toxicity in the underweight, and ensure efficacy in obese women. However, for MgSO 4 neuroprotection, the effect of BMI on maternal toxicity and fetal neuroprotection is understudied. We analyze the effect of BMI on maternal/infant outcomes after MgSO 4 . Secondary analysis of a clinical trial that studied MgSO 4 neuroprotection. Maternal side effects, magnesium cord levels, and offspring cerebral palsy/death were analyzed along BMI strata using ANOVA and chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios according to the treatment and BMI, using nonobese that received placebo as reference. Interaction analyses were performed to validate differential efficacy of BMI. From 2241 women, more side effects and higher magnesium cord levels were seen in underweight women (p = 0.05). MgSO 4 neuroprotection was effective in the non-obese (p = 0.02), but not in obese women (p = 1.00). In multivariate analyses, MgSO 4 significantly reduced cerebral palsy only in nonobese women. Interaction analyses showed the moderator effect of BMI (p = 0.169). Increasing MgSO 4 dose in obese mothers may ensure neuroprotective efficacy without representing increased maternal risks. Considering costs of studying this association, current analysis may form the basis for reasonable practice.

  11. Magneto-optical investigation of MgSO3·6H2O with polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, P.

    2017-10-01

    The crystals of magnesium sulphite hexahydrate (MgSO3·6H2O) belong to point group C3 (no center of symmetry). They possess gyrotropy and nonlinear optical properties. The refractive index no and ne, the angle of Faraday rotation φ(λ), the Verdet constant V(λ), the magneto-optic anomaly factor γ(λ) and the density of oscillators N of MgSO3·6H2O single crystals have been studied in the present work. The investigations were carried out in the spectral range 300 - 800 nm with linear polarized light E ⃗ ⊥ c ̅ , E ⃗ | | c ̅ (c ̅ is the optical axis of MgSO3·6H2O) propagated in the direction (10 1 ̅ 0) .

  12. Investigation of the effects of intravenous magnesium sulphate on cardiac rhythm in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Roffe, C.; Fletcher, S.; Woods, K. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect of doubling serum magnesium concentration on the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Randomised double blind clinical trial. SETTING--Coronary care unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Clinical data were collected on 2316 randomised patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Holter monitoring was performed in a subgroup of 70 patients and analysed in 48 patients in whom acute myocardial infarction was confirmed. INTERVENTIONS--By random allocation, patients received either an intravenous loading dose of 8 mmol magnesium sulphate over five minutes plus 65 mmol over the next 24 hours, or equal volumes of saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--(a) Clinically documented arrhythmias; (b) use of antiarrhythmic treatments, cardioversion, and insertion of a pacemaker; (c) incidence of all abnormal rhythms during Holter monitoring. RESULTS--In the main trial the incidence of rhythm disturbance while in the coronary care unit (expressed as the odds ratio (OR) for magnesium: placebo and its 95% confidence interval) was not significantly different between treatment groups for ventricular fibrillation (OR 0.74; 0.46 to 1.20), ventricular tachycardia (OR 0.87; 0.63 to 1.20), supraventricular tachycardia (OR 0.69; 0.38 to 1.26), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.92; 0.69 to 1.23), or heart block of any degree (OR 1.17; 0.83 to 1.65). Sinus bradycardia was significantly more common in the magnesium group (OR 1.38; 1.03 to 1.85; p = 0.02). These findings were corroborated by the use of treatments for rhythm disturbance and the data from Holter monitoring. CONCLUSION--The regimen of intravenous magnesium sulphate used here had no significant effect on arrhythmia in acute myocardial infarction. The reduction in mortality that has been shown with this form of treatment is not attributable to suppression of life threatening rhythm disturbances. PMID:8130021

  13. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ran D; Mounstephen, William; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Friedman, Jeremy N

    2013-12-01

    Vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) are the most common complication of sickle cell disease in children. Treatment with magnesium seems to improve cellular hydration and may result in reduced vaso-occlusion. This study aimed to determine if intravenous (IV) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) reduces length of stay (LOS) in hospital, pain scores, and cumulative analgesia when compared with placebo. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children aged 4 to 18 years requiring admission to hospital with a sickle cell disease VOE requiring IV analgesia. Participating children received IV MgSO4 (100 mg/kg) every 8 hours or placebo in addition to standard therapy. We used a t test or Mann-Whitney test (continuous variables), Fisher's exact test, or χ2 test (frequencies). P values were considered significant if <.05, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the difference between groups. One hundred six children were randomly assigned to the study, and 104 were included. Fifty-one (49%) received MgSO4. Children's mean age was 12.4 years (range: 4-18 years; SD: 3.8 years), and 56 (54%) were females. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome measure, LOS in hospital, with a mean of 132.6 and 117.7 hours in the MgSO4 and placebo groups, respectively (P = .41). There was no significant difference between groups for the secondary outcomes of mean pain scores (4.9 ± 2.6 vs 4.8 ± 2.6, respectively; P = .92) or analgesic requirements (continuous morphine infusion [P = .928], boluses of IV morphine [P = .82], acetaminophen [P = .34], ibuprofen [P = .15], naproxen [P = .10]). Only minor adverse events were recorded in both groups. Pain at the infusion site was more common in the MgSO4 group. IV MgSO4 was well tolerated but had no effect on the LOS in hospital, pain scores, or cumulative analgesia use in admitted children with a VOE.

  14. Effect of magnesium sulfate nebulization on the incidence of postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Monu; Chalumuru, Nitish; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a well-recognized complication after general anesthesia (GA). Numerous nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures have been used for attenuating POST with variable success. The present study was conducted to compare the efficiency of preoperative nebulization of normal saline and magnesium sulfate in reducing the incidence of POST following GA. Following institutional ethical committee approval and written informed consent, a prospective randomized double-blinded study was conducted in 100 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group A are nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group B are nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min, 5 min before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing and any undue complaints at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h in the postoperative period are evaluated. There is no significant difference in POST at rest during 0(th), 2(nd) and 4(th) h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 24(th) h, where MgSO4 lessens POST. There is no significant difference in POST on swallowing during 0(th) and 2(nd) h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 4(th) h, where MgSO4 has been shown to lessen POST. MgSO4 significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline.

  15. Effect of magnesium sulfate and thyroxine on inflammatory markers in a rat model of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore we investigated the effects of levothyroxine and MgSO4 on inflammatory markers as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in hypothyroid rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups; normal, normal + MgSO4, hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism + levothyroxine, hypothyroidism + MgSO4, and hypothyroidism + levothyroxine + MgSO4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured in all rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased TSH, CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 and decreased triiodothronine and thyroxine. Treatment of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine or MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Combined therapy of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine and MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 compared with hypothyroid rats either untreated or treated with levothyroxine or MgSO4. This study demonstrates that hypothyroid rats have chronic low grade inflammation, which may account for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Combined levothyroxine and MgSO4 is better than levothyroxine or MgSO4 alone in alleviating the chronic low grade inflammatory status and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid animals.

  16. Magnesium sulfate treatment for juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.

    PubMed

    Di Curzio, Domenico L; Turner-Brannen, Emily; Mao, Xiaoyan; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2016-04-27

    Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes in ferrets with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin at 15 days. MRI was performed at 29 days to assess ventricle size and stratify ferrets to treatment conditions. Beginning at 31 days age, they were treated daily for 14 days with MgSO4 (9 mM/kg/day) or sham saline therapy, and then imaged again before sacrifice. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Histological and biochemical ELISA and myelin enzyme activity assays were performed at 46 days age. Hydrocephalic ferrets exhibited some differences in weight and behavior between treatment groups. Those receiving MgSO4 weighed less, were more lethargic, and displayed reduced activity compared to those receiving saline injections. Hydrocephalic ferrets developed ventriculomegaly, which was not modified by MgSO4 treatment. Histological examination showed destruction of periventricular white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content, myelin basic protein content, and myelin enzyme activity did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The hydrocephalus-associated disturbances in juvenile ferret brains are not ameliorated by MgSO4 treatment, and lethargy is a significant side effect.

  17. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation.

  18. Research on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yubo; Han, Peiwei; Ye, Shufeng; Wei, Lianqi; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Guoyan; Yu, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The solidification of cyanide slag by using basic magnesium salts could reduce pollution and protect the environment. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of age, mixing amount of cyanide slag, water cement ratio and molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body in the present paper. It was found that compressive strength of solidified body increased with the increase of age, and decreased with the increase of mixing amount of cyanide slag and water cement ratio. The molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 should be controlled in the range from 9 to 11 when the mixing amount of cyanide slag was larger than 80 mass%.

  19. Liquid-liquid phase separation in internally mixed magnesium sulfate/glutaric acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng-Min; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2018-04-01

    The confocal Raman microscopy is utilized to investigate the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of mixed magnesium sulfate/glutaric acid (MgSO4/GA) droplets deposited on a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate and a hydrophilic quartz substrate. Raman spectra collected from different regions of the mixed droplets provide detailed information of component distributions for MgSO4 and GA. During the dehydration process, the MgSO4/GA mixed particles show the initial liquid-liquid phase separation between 85% and 80% relative humidity (RH) on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates. For the droplets deposited on the two substrates, the inner phase of droplets is dominated by aqueous MgSO4, which is surrounded by a rich GA organic layer due to the surface tension effects. In addition, the crystallization of GA could be observed in the organic aqueous phase while it is inhibited in the inner MgSO4 phase due to the effects of gel formation of MgSO4 at low RH. The Raman spectra reveal that with decreasing RH the morphology of the mixed droplet evolves from a uniform droplet to the structure of LLPS with the GA crystallizing in the outer layer and MgSO4 gel formed in the inner phase. These findings contribute to the further understanding of the role of interactions between inorganic salts and organic acids on the morphological evolution and environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols under ambient RH conditions.

  20. Short-term morbidities and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants exposed to magnesium sulphate treatment.

    PubMed

    Morag, Iris; Yakubovich, Daniel; Stern, Orly; Siman-Tov, Maya; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Strauss, Tzipi; Simchen, Michal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to examine whether baseline serum Mg concentration has an impact on short-term and long-term outcomes in preterm infants exposed antenatally to MgSO4. Participants included all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at <32 weeks of gestational age. Infant serum Mg concentration (iMgC) was examined immediately after birth in those exposed to maternal MgSO4. Data for short-term outcomes were collected from the infants' computerised charts. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6-12 months corrected age were assessed using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales. Of 197 eligible infants, 145 were exposed to MgSO4. Baseline iMgC was available for 88 infants. Mean iMgC was 3.5 ± 0.88 mg/dL (1.6-5.7 mg/dL). Baseline iMgC was not associated with an increased risk for neither early morbidities nor adverse long-term outcome. However, iMgC above the mean (>3.5 mg/dL) was associated with significantly lower scores on locomotor (P = 0.016) and personal-social (0.041) scales in the first year of life. In a cohort of preterm infants antenatally exposed to MgSO4, elevated baseline iMgC (>3.5 mg/dL) was associated with lower locomotor scores. Further research is needed in order to study the relationship between supra-physiologic iMgC and its effect on the developing brain. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Intravenous magnesium sulphate and sotalol for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Jones, J; Frampton, G K; Tanajewski, L; Turner, D; Price, A

    2008-06-01

    To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of magnesium sulphate compared with sotalol, and to assess the clinical effectiveness of magnesium sulphate compared with placebo in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who have had a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Major electronic databases were searched from December 2003 to May 2007. Selected studies were assessed, subjected to data extraction using a standard template and quality assessment using published criteria. A simple short-term economic model was developed, informed by a systematic review of economic evaluations and populated with data from a review of costing/resource-use studies and other published studies. The cost-effectiveness of magnesium sulphate as prophylaxis was estimated for a set of base-case assumptions and the robustness of these results was assessed using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-two papers met the inclusion criteria reporting 15 trials which all compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or control. They ranged in size from 15 to 176 patients randomised, and were conducted in Europe, the USA and Canada. The standard of reporting was generally poor, with details of key methodological attributes difficult to elucidate. No trials were identified that specifically aimed to compare magnesium sulphate with sotalol. Of 1070 patients in the pooled magnesium group, 230 (21%) developed postoperative AF, compared with 307 of 1031 (30%) patients in the placebo or (control) group. Meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model generated a pooled odds ratio (OR) that was significantly less than 1.0 [OR=0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.79, test for overall effect p<0.0001], but with statistically significant heterogeneity (I2=63.4%, p=0.0005). Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were notable as they had relatively lower ORs in favour of magnesium sulphate. When these were removed from the analyses the pooled OR remained statistically

  2. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Foscarnet-Induced Ionized Hypocalcemia and Hypomagnesemia in Patients with AIDS and Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huycke, Mark M.; Naguib, M. Tarek; Stroemmel, Mathias M.; Blick, Kenneth; Monti, Katherine; Martin-Munley, Sarah; Kaufman, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Foscarnet (trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate) is an antiviral agent used to treat cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompromised patients. One common side effect is acute ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia following intravenous administration. Foscarnet-induced ionized hypomagnesemia might contribute to ionized hypocalcemia by impairing excretion of preformed parathyroid hormone (PTH) or by producing target organ resistance. Prevention of ionized hypomagnesemia following foscarnet administration could blunt the development of ionized hypocalcemia. To determine whether intravenous magnesium ameliorates the decline in ionized calcium and/or magnesium following foscarnet infusions, MgSO4 at doses of 1, 2, and 3 g was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial to 12 patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus disease. Overall, increasing doses of MgSO4 reduced or eliminated foscarnet-induced acute ionized hypomagnesemia. Supplementation, however, had no discernible effect on foscarnet-induced ionized hypocalcemia despite significant increases in serum PTH levels. No dose-related, clinically significant adverse events were found, suggesting that intravenous supplementation with up to 3 g of MgSO4 was safe in this chronically ill population. Since parenteral MgSO4 did not alter foscarnet-induced ionized hypocalcemia or symptoms associated with foscarnet, routine intravenous supplementation for patients with normal serum magnesium levels is not recommended during treatment with foscarnet. PMID:10898688

  3. Effects of antenatal magnesium sulfate treatment for neonatal neuro-protection on cerebral oxygen kinetics.

    PubMed

    Stark, Michael J; Hodyl, Nicolette A; Andersen, Chad C

    2015-09-01

    The underlying neuro-protective mechanisms of antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) in infants born preterm remain poorly understood. Early neonatal brain injury may be preceded by low cerebral blood flow (CBF) and elevated cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE). This study investigated the effect of antenatal MgSO(4) on cerebral oxygen delivery, consumption, and cFTOE in preterm infants. CBF and tissue oxygenation index were measured, and oxygen delivery, consumption, and cFTOE calculated within 24 h of birth and at 48 and 72 h of life in 36 infants ≤ 30 wk gestation exposed to MgSO(4) and 29 unexposed infants. Total internal carotid blood flow and cerebral oxygen delivery did not differ between the groups at the three study time-points. Cerebral oxygen consumption and cFTOE were lower in infants exposed to antenatal MgSO(4) (P = 0.012) compared to unexposed infants within 24 h of delivery. This difference was not evident by 48 h of age. Fewer infants in the MgSO(4) group developed P/IVH by 72 h of age (P = 0.03). Infants exposed to MgSO(4) had similar systemic and cerebral hemodynamics but lower cFTOE compared to nonexposed. These findings suggest reduced cerebral metabolism maybe a component of the neuro-protective actions of antenatal MgSO(4).

  4. Raman Spectroscopic Observations of the Ion Association between Mg(2+) and SO4(2-) in MgSO4-Saturated Droplets at Temperatures of ≤380 °C.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ye; Wang, Xiaolin; Hu, Wenxuan; Chou, I-Ming

    2015-08-27

    Liquid–liquid phase separation was observed in aqueous MgSO4 solutions with excess H2SO4 at elevated temperatures; the aqueous MgSO4/H2SO4 solutions separated into MgSO4-rich droplets (fluid F1) and a MgSO4-poor phase (fluid F2) during heating. The phase separation temperature increases with SO4(2–)/Mg2+ ratio at a constant MgSO4 concentration. At a MgSO4/H2SO4 ratio of 5, the liquid–liquid phase separation temperature decreases with an increase in MgSO4 concentration up to ∼1.0 mol/kg and then increases at higher concentrations, showing a typical macroscale property of polymer solutions with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of ∼271.4 °C. In situ Raman spectroscopic analyses show that the MgSO4 concentration in fluid F1 increases with an increase in temperature, whereas that in fluid F2 decreases with an increase in temperature. In addition, HSO4(–), which does not readily form complexes with Mg(2+), tends to accumulate in fluid F2. Analyses of the v1(SO4(2–)) bands confirmed the presence of four-sulfate species of unassociated SO4(2–) (∼980 cm(–1)), contact ion pairs (CIPs; ∼995 cm(–1)), and triple ion pairs (TIPs; ∼1005 cm(–1)) in aqueous solution, and more complex ion pair chain structure (∼1020 cm(–1)) in fluid F1. Comparison of the sulfate species in fluids F1 and F2 at 280 °C suggests that SO4(2–) in fluid F2 is less associated with Mg(2+). On the basis of in situ visual and Raman spectroscopic observations, we suggest that the formation of the complex Mg(2+)–SO4(2–) ion association might be responsible for the liquid–liquid phase separation. In addition, Raman spectroscopic analyses of the OH stretching bands indicate that the hydrogen bonding in fluid F1 is stronger than that in fluid F2, which might be ascribed to the increasing probability of collision of H2O with Mg(2+) and SO4(2–) in fluid F1.

  5. Intravenous magnesium for chronic complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sigrid G L; Collins, Susan; Boogaard, Sabine; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of intravenous administration of magnesium on complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-six patients with CRPS-1 (International Association for the Study of Pain Orlando criteria) received MgSO(4) 70 mg/kg or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) in 4 hours over 5 consecutive days. Pain (BOX-11 and McGill), the level of impairment (Impairment level Sum Score [ISS]), functional limitations (Radboud Skills Questionnaire, Walking Skills Questionnaire/questionnaire rising and sitting down), participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy [IPA]), and quality of life (Short Form-36, EuroQol, IPA) were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. No significant differences were found between MgSO(4) and placebo on the BOX-11 and ISS at different time points during the trial on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. A significant improvement on the BOX-11 was found after the first week of the trial in both groups (mean 0.7; standard deviation 1.1). For the MgSO(4) group, a clinically relevant and statistically significant improvement on the ISS at 1 week (median 5, interquartile range [IQR] -1 to 8) and a significant improvement on the McGill up to 6 weeks (median 2 words, IQR 0-4.5) were found compared with baseline, which were not found in the placebo group. Significant improvement in perceived job participation was found for the MgSO(4) group at 12 weeks (median improvement 1.44-1.17; P = 0.01). ISS improved significantly more in patients with a low Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score (≤10) in the MgSO(4) group (mean 4.4 vs mean -3.1; P = 0.02). Administration of the physiological competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist magnesium in chronic CRPS provides insufficient benefit over placebo. Future research should focus on patients with acute CRPS and early signs and symptoms of central sensitization. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Magnesium: does it reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in an adnexal torsion rat model?

    PubMed Central

    Celik Kavak, Ebru; Gulcu Bulmus, Funda; Bulmus, Ozgur; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kocaman, Nevin

    2018-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced ovarian damage in a rat ovarian torsion model. Methods Forty-two female Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. They were divided into six groups as Group 1, sham; Group 2, bilateral ovarian torsion; Group 3, bilateral ovarian torsion–detorsion; Group 4, MgSO4–sham; Group 5, MgSO4–bilateral ovarian torsion; Group 6, bilateral ovarian torsion–MgSO4–detorsion. Both torsion and detorsion periods lasted 3 hours. In Groups 4, 5 and 6, MgSO4 (600 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before sham operation, torsion and detorsion, respectively. At the end of the study period, both ovaries were removed. One of the ovaries was used for histopathological analyses and the other for biochemical analyses. Results In the torsion–detorsion group, all the histopathological scores were higher compared to the sham and torsion only group (p<0.05). Administration of MgSO4 only caused significant decrease in the inflammatory cell scores of the torsion–detorsion group (p<0.05). MgSO4, whether given before torsion or before detorsion, suppressed malondialdehyde levels when compared to the untreated groups (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher in the MgSO4 applied torsion and detorsion groups than Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.05, for both). Administration of MgSO4 also caused an increase in glutathione levels in the torsion and detorsion groups compared to the torsion only and detorsion only groups (p<0.05, for both). Also, total oxidant status levels decreased in the MgSO4 applied torsion and detorsion groups compared to the untreated corresponding ones (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). MgSO4 significantly decreased the Oxidative Stress Index levels in the torsion–detorsion group compared to Group 2 (p<0.001). Conclusion Histopathological and biochemical

  7. Habit modification of epsomite in the presence of urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingom, S.; Podder, J.; Narayana Kalkura, S.; Bocelli, G.

    2003-01-01

    The pure and urea doped epsomite (MgSO 4·7H 2O) crystals were grown at low temperature by the slow cooling technique. The effect of pH on the growth rate of pure MgSO 4·7H 2O was studied. It was found that the higher pH values increased the growth rate and the size of the crystals. The quantity of urea present in the doped magnesium sulphate crystals was estimated. The incorporation of urea into the mother solution was found to promote the growth rate. The habit of the crystals changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal. Further, there was an increase of microhardness of the crystals on doping of urea.

  8. Magnesium sulfate versus esomeprazole impact on the neonates of preeclamptic rats.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Amani N; Khattab, Mahmoud A; Osman, Ahmed H

    2018-06-01

    Preeclampsia represents a major complication of pregnancy, associated with greater maternal and fetal complications. We compared the effects of esomeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the deleterious effects observed on the mother and neonates in experimentally induced preeclampsia in rats. Preeclampsia was induced in pregnant rats with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) starting from day 10-till end of pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups: control pregnant; untreated preeclampsia; preeclamptic rats treated with MgSO4 and preeclamptic treated with esomeprazole. Treatment was started on day 14 and continued until end of pregnancy. Systolic blood pressure, gestation duration, the total number of pups/fetal resorption, pups birth weight, and histopathology examination of the pup's organs were recorded. In comparison with the L-NAME group, the MgSO4 and esomeprazole treatment reduced the values of systolic blood pressure; MgSO4 normalized gestational duration while esomeprazole prolonged it (post-term pregnancy); both restored number of delivered pups; with no statistical differences between the numbers of died pups between the four groups studied while with esomeprazole, out of 10 pregnant females, 2 of them had complete intrauterine fetal resorption; esomeprazole normalized birth weight and histological structure of fetal liver, kidney, and brain. On the other side, MgSO4 treatment gave rise to lower than normal birth weight and minimal tissue damage. Esomeprazole and MgSO4 improved systolic blood pressure, prevented preterm labor and restored numbers of pups delivered and fetal weight. Esomeprazole prolonged gestational period post-term with subsequent improving reproductive outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of a natural mineral water rich in magnesium and sulphate for bowel function: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Gordana; Coh, Aljaz; Auinger, Annegret

    2017-03-01

    The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial aimed to investigate whether a natural mineral water rich in magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate (Donat Mg) may help to improve bowel function. A total of 106 otherwise healthy subjects with functional constipation were randomly assigned to consume 300 or 500 mL of a natural mineral water as compared to placebo water, over a course of 6 weeks. The 300-mL arms were terminated due to the results of a planned interim analysis. Subjects documented the complete spontaneous bowel movements, spontaneous and overall bowel movements/week, stool consistency, gastrointestinal symptoms and general well-being in a diary. Change in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements was defined as the primary outcome. For the 75 subjects in the 500-mL arms, the change in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week tended to be higher in the active group when compared to placebo after 6 weeks (T2 = 1.8; p value  = 0.036; one-sided). The mean number of spontaneous bowel movements significantly increased over the course of the study, with significant differences between study arms considering the whole study time (F test = 4.743; p time × group  = 0.010, 2-sided). Stool consistency of spontaneous bowel movements (p < 0.001) and the subjectively perceived symptoms concerning constipation (p = 0.005) improved significantly with the natural mineral water as compared to placebo. The daily consumption of a natural mineral water rich in magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate improved bowel movement frequency and stool consistency in subjects with functional constipation. Moreover, the subjects' health-related quality of life improved. EudraCT No 2012-005130-11.

  10. Pretreatment with magnesium sulfate attenuates white matter damage by preventing cell death of developing oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Takahiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Iriyama, Takayuki; Imada, Shinya; Ichinose, Mari; Toshimitsu, Masatake; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Asou, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    Antenatal maternal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) reduces cerebral palsy in preterm infants. However, it remains controversial as to whether it also reduces occurrence of white matter damage, or periventricular leukomalacia. We assessed the effect of MgSO 4 against white matter damage induced by hypoxic-ischemic insult using a neonatal rat model and culture of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OL). Rat pups at postnatal day (P) 6 were administered either MgSO 4 or vehicle intraperitoneally before hypoxic-ischemic insult (unilateral ligation of the carotid artery followed by 6% oxygen for 1 h). The population of oligodendrocyte (OL) markers and CD-68-positive microglia at P11, and TdT-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells at P8 were evaluated in pericallosal white matter. Primary cultures of mouse pre-OL were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation condition, and the lactate dehydrogenase release from culture cells was evaluated to assess cell viability. Pretreatment with MgSO 4 attenuated the loss of OL markers, such as myelin basic protein and Olig2, in ipsilateral pericallosal white matter and decreased the number of CD-68-positive microglia and TUNEL-positive cells in vivo. Pretreatment with MgSO 4 also inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release from pre-OL induced by oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro. Pretreatment with MgSO 4 attenuates white matter damage by preventing cell death of pre-OL. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Theoretical Study of Infrared and Raman Spectra of Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Huo, Winifred M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies, as well as infrared and Raman intensities, are calculated for MgSO4.nH20 (n=1-3). Electronic structure theory at the second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level with a triple-zeta + polarization (TZP) basis set is used to determine the geometry, properties, and vibrational spectra of pure and hydrated MgSO4 salts. The direct vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected (CC-VSCF) extension are used to determine anharmonic corrections to vibrational frequencies and intensities for the pure MgSO4 and its complex with one water molecule. Very significant differences are found between vibrational of water molecules in complexes with MgSO4 and pure water. Some of the O-H stretching frequencies are shifted to the red very significantly (by up to 1500-2000/cm) upon complexation with magnesium sulfate. They should be observed between 1700 and 3000/cm in a region very different from the corresponding O-H stretch frequency region of pure water (3700-3800/cm). In addition, the SO2 stretching vibrations are found at lower frequency regions than the water vibrations. They can serve as unique identifiers for the presence of sulfate salts. The predicted infrared and Raman spectra should be of valuable help in the design of future missions and analysis of observed data from the ice surface of Jupiter's moon Europa that possibly contains hydrated MgSO4 salts.

  12. [Magnesium sulfate in the prophylaxis of eclampsia: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Bourret, B; Compère, V; Torre, S; Azhougagh, K; Provost, D; Rachet, B; Gillet, R; Rieu, M; Marpeau, L; Dureuil, B

    2012-12-01

    The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) has been advocated since 2000 in France in the management of eclampsia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use of this treatment for eclampsia in a French department. All patients obstetrical patients admitted to Critical Care Units of Seine-Maritime for eclampsia over a period of 7 years (2002-2008) were included. Obstetric data, the treatment used for eclampsia and pre-eclampsia and maternofetal complications were collected. The primary outcome parameter was the use of MgSO(4) in the secondary prevention of eclampsia. Thirty-nine patients were included. Nineteen patients (48%) had eclampsia in prepartum, three (8%) in per-partum and 17 (44%) in post-partum periods. The use of MgSO(4) in the secondary prevention of eclampsia was observed in 92% of cases (36/39). Primary prevention was seen in 8% of cases. The duration of treatment was 2 days (1-7 days). The maternal and perinatal mortality was respectively 2.5 and 11%. In this study, the use of MgSO(4) in the secondary prevention is frequent. This result emphasizes the importance of the recommendations of learned societies in the homogenization of the management of rare but serious conditions such as eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Speciation in Aqueous MgSO4 Fluid at High Pressures and Temperatures Studied by First-Principles Modeling and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-12-01

    Aqueous fluids play an essential role in mass and energy transfer in the lithosphere. Their presence has also a large effect on physical properties of rocks, e.g. the electrical conductivity. Many chemical and physical properties of aqueous fluids strongly depend on the speciation, but very little is known about this fundamental parameter at high pressures and temperatures, e.g. at subduction zone conditions. Here we use a combined approach of first-principles molecular dynamics simulation and Raman spectroscopy to study the molecular structure of aqueous 2~mol/kg MgSO4 fluids up to pressures of 3~GPa and temperatures of 750~°C. MgSO4-H2O is selected as a model system for sulfate bearing subduction zone fluids. The simulations are performed using Car-Parrinello dynamics, a system size of 120 water and four MgSO4 molecules with production runs of at least 10~ps at each P and T. Raman spectra were obtained in situ using a Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with external heating. Both simulation and spectroscopic data show a dynamic co-existence of various associated molecular species as well as dissociated Mg2+ and SO42- in the single phase fluid. Fitting the Raman signal in the frequency range of the ν1-SO42- stretching mode yields the P-T dependence of the relative proportions of different peaks. The latter can be assigned to species based on literature data and related to the species found in the simulation. The dominant associated species found in the P-T range of interest here are Mg-SO4 ion pairs with one (monodentate) and two (bidentate) binding sites. At the highest P and T, an additional peak is identified. At low pressures and high temperature (T>230~°C), kieserite, MgSO4·H2O, nucleated in the experiment. At the same conditions the simulations show a clustering of Mg, which is interpreted as a precursor of precipitation. In conclusion, the speciation of aqueous MgSO4 fluid shows a complex behavior at high P and T that cannot be extrapolated

  14. The effect of magnesium sulfate concentration on the effective concentration of rocuronium, and sugammadex-mediated reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm preparations from the rat.

    PubMed

    Cho, Choon-Kyu; Sung, Tae-Yun; Choi, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hey-Ran; Kim, Yong Beom; Lee, Jung-Un; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2018-05-30

    Perioperative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used for analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, and obstetric purposes. The effects of MgSO4 on the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium, and the sugammadex reversal thereof, have not been clearly quantified. We investigated the effect increase concentrations of MgSO4 on the NMB by rocuronium, and sugammadex reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm (PNHD) preparations from the rat. Rat PNHD preparations were randomly allocated to one of four groups varying in terms of MgSO4 concentration (1, 2, 3, and 4 mM, each n = 10, in Krebs solution). The train-of-four (TOF) and twitch height responses were recorded mechanomyographically. The preparations were treated with incrementally increasing doses of rocuronium and each group's effective concentration (EC)50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium were calculated via nonlinear regression. Then, sugammadex was administered in doses equimolar to rocuronium. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and the time to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.9 after sugammadex administration were measured. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium fell significantly as the magnesium level increased. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium did not differ between the 3 and 4 mM groups. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and time to a TOFR >0.9 after sugammadex administration did not differ among the four groups. Increases in the magnesium concentration in rat PNHD preparations proportionally enhanced the NMB induced by rocuronium but did not affect reversal by equimolar amounts of sugammadex.

  15. Beyond Chloride Brines: Variable Metabolomic Responses in the Anaerobic Organism Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to NaCl and MgSO4 at Identical Water Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schwendner, Petra; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra; Beblo-Vranesevic, Kristina; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Perras, Alexandra K.; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggó T.; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Westall, Frances; Riedo, Andreas; Monaghan, Euan P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Cockell, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975). Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways. PMID:29535699

  16. A comparison of amorphous calcium carbonate crystallization in aqueous solutions of MgCl2 and MgSO4: implications for paleo-ocean chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mei; Zhao, Yanyang; Zhao, Hui; Han, Zuozhen; Yan, Huaxiao; Sun, Bin; Meng, Ruirui; Zhuang, Dingxiang; Li, Dan; Liu, Binwei

    2018-04-01

    Based on the terminology of "aragonite seas" and "calcite seas", whether different Mg sources could affect the mineralogy of carbonate sediments at the same Mg/Ca ratio was explored, which was expected to provide a qualitative assessment of the chemistry of the paleo-ocean. In this work, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was prepared by direct precipitation in anhydrous ethanol and used as a precursor to study crystallization processes in MgSO4 and MgCl2 solutions having different concentrations at 60 °C (reaction times 240 and 2880 min). Based on the morphology of the aragonite crystals, as well as mineral saturation indices and kinetic analysis of geochemical processes, it was found that these crystals formed with a spherulitic texture in 4 steps. First, ACC crystallized into columnar Mg calcite by nearly oriented attachment. Second, the Mg calcite changed from columnar shapes into smooth dumbbell forms. Third, the Mg calcite transformed into rough dumbbell or cauliflower-shaped aragonite forms by local dissolution and precipitation. Finally, the aragonite transformed further into spherulitic radial and irregular aggregate forms. The increase in Ca2+ in the MgSO4 solutions compared with the MgCl2 solutions indicates the fast dissolution and slow precipitation of ACC in the former solutions. The phase transition was more complete in the 0.005 M MgCl2 solution, whereas Mg calcite crystallized from the 0.005 M MgSO4 solution, indicating that Mg calcite could be formed more easily in an MgSO4 solution. Based on these findings, aragonite and Mg calcite relative to ACC could be used to provide a qualitative assessment of the chemistry of the paleo-ocean. Therefore, calcite seas relative to high-Mg calcite could reflect a low concentration MgSO4 paleo-ocean, while aragonite seas could be related to an MgCl2 or high concentration of MgSO4 paleo-ocean.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted leaching of rare earths from the weathered crust elution-deposited ore using magnesium sulfate without ammonia-nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shaohua; Pei, Jiannan; Jiang, Feng; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo; Ju, Shaohua; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar

    2018-03-01

    The in situ leaching process of China's unique ion-adsorption rare earth ores has caused severe environmental damages due to the use of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solution. This study reports that magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) as a leaching agent would replace (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 by ultrasonically assisted leaching to deal with the ammonia-nitrogen pollution problem and enhance leaching process. At leaching conditions of 3wt% MgSO 4 concentration, 3:1L/S ratio and 30min, the total rare earth leaching efficiency reaches 75.5%. Ultrasound-assisted leaching experiments show that the leaching efficiency of rare earths is substantially increased by introducing ultrasound, and nearly completely leached out after two stage leaching process. Thus, ultrasonic-assisted leaching process with MgSO 4 is not only effective but also environmentally friendly, and beneficial to leach rare earths at laboratory scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of magnesium as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Vohra, V; Sood, J

    2006-11-01

    Magnesium sulphate is used extensively in the treatment of eclampsia, and is also used to treat refractory arrhythmias, asthma, myocardial ischaemia and acute respiratory failure. We studied the interaction between magnesium sulphate and the anaesthetic agents propofol, rocuronium bromide and fentanyl citrate. This randomised, double blind study was conducted in 50 patients. The magnesium group A (n = 25) received 30 mg x kg(-1) magnesium sulphate before induction of anaesthesia and 10 mg x kg(-1) continuously intra-operatively until the end of surgery. Group B (n = 25) received the same volume of isotonic saline. Propofol, rocuronium and fentanyl infusions were started and the patients lungs' were ventilated with 33% oxygen in nitrous oxide. Anaesthetic depth was maintained at a bispectral index value of between 40 and 60. Muscle relaxation was maintained at a train-of-four count of 1 throughout surgery using neuromuscular monitoring. The fentanyl infusion was titrated to haemodynamic variables: heart rate and blood pressure. We concluded that magnesium sulphate has anaesthetic, analgesic and muscle relaxation effects and significantly reduces the drug requirements of propofol, rocuronium and fentanyl during anaesthesia.

  19. Growth Performance and Root Transcriptome Remodeling of Arabidopsis in Response to Mars-Like Levels of Magnesium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Anne M.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Kirst, Matias; Guy, Charles L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Martian regolith (unconsolidated surface material) is a potential medium for plant growth in bioregenerative life support systems during manned missions on Mars. However, hydrated magnesium sulfate mineral levels in the regolith of Mars can reach as high as 10 wt%, and would be expected to be highly inhibitory to plant growth. Methodology and Principal Findings Disabling ion transporters AtMRS2-10 and AtSULTR1;2, which are plasma membrane localized in peripheral root cells, is not an effective way to confer tolerance to magnesium sulfate soils. Arabidopsis mrs2-10 and sel1-10 knockout lines do not mitigate the growth inhibiting impacts of high MgSO4·7H2O concentrations observed with wildtype plants. A global approach was used to identify novel genes with potential to enhance tolerance to high MgSO4·7H2O (magnesium sulfate) stress. The early Arabidopsis root transcriptome response to elevated concentrations of magnesium sulfate was characterized in Col-0, and also between Col-0 and the mutant line cax1-1, which was confirmed to be relatively tolerant of high levels of MgSO4·7H2O in soil solution. Differentially expressed genes in Col-0 treated for 45 min. encode enzymes primarily involved in hormone metabolism, transcription factors, calcium-binding proteins, kinases, cell wall related proteins and membrane-based transporters. Over 200 genes encoding transporters were differentially expressed in Col-0 up to 180 min. of exposure, and one of the first down-regulated genes was CAX1. The importance of this early response in wildtype Arabidopsis is exemplified in the fact that only four transcripts were differentially expressed between Col-0 and cax1-1 at 180 min. after initiation of treatment. Conclusions/Significance The results provide a solid basis for the understanding of the metabolic response of plants to elevated magnesium sulfate soils; it is the first transcriptome analysis of plants in this environment. The results foster the development of Mars

  20. Porous magnesium loaded with gentamicin sulphate and in vitro release behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiang, Guofeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Huang; Ding, Liang; He, Guo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a biocompatible bone repair material that has the advantage of preventing postoperative infections. Finally, the porous magnesium (p-Mg) loaded with gentamicin sulphate (GS-loaded Mg-G) was fabricated. The GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated. The effective release time of GS reached to 14days. In addition, the effects of porosity and pore diameter of p-Mg on the GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G were studied. In the initial burst release stage, the GS release rate of the GS-loaded Mg-G increased with the increasing porosity or the increasing pore diameter of p-Mg. The GS-loaded Mg-G with larger original pore diameter has higher burst release of GS. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial test of the GS-loaded Mg-G indicated that this biomaterial has obvious antibacterial effect. This study can provide information for p-Mg loaded with drug(s) as functional bone repair materials with drug-delivery capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, J E; Sugumaran, G; Cogburn, J N

    1993-01-01

    Mouse mastocytoma cells were cultured in medium containing [3H]GlcN and concentrations of [35S]sulphate varying from 0.01 to 0.5 mM. Intracellular [35S]sulphate incorporation increased severalfold from the lowest concentrations, reaching a maximum at 0.1-0.2 mM, whereas incorporation of [3H]hexosamine remained constant at all sulphate concentrations. Proteo[3H]-chondroitin [35S]sulphate was isolated and incubated with chondroitin ABC lyase, yielding 35S-labelled and/or 3H-labelled delta Di-0S and delta Di-4S disaccharide products. The increasing percentage of delta Di-4S was consistent with the increasing sulphate incorporation at each higher [35S]sulphate concentration. Examination of proteochondroitin [35S]sulphate size by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography indicated a range consistent with various numbers of glycosaminoglycan chains on the protease-resistant serglycin core protein. Alkali-cleaved chondroitin [35S]sulphate products indicated similar size distributions at all sulphate concentrations with no indication of preferential sulphation being related to smaller or larger size. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate glycosaminoglycans indicated a random undersulphation as [35S]sulphate concentration was lowered. Addition of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside to the cultures resulted in a 2-2.5-fold stimulation of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate synthesis with formation of beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate which was much smaller, as estimated by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, than the decreased amount of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate derived from proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate. Much higher concentrations of sulphate were necessary to produce sulphation of the beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin comparable with that of proteo[3H]-chondroitin, as indicated by chondroitin ABC lyase products and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The specific radioactivities of the [3H]GalN in the proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate and beta-xyloside-[3

  2. High-Energy-Density Aqueous Magnesium-Ion Battery Based on a Carbon-Coated FeVO4 Anode and a Mg-OMS-1 Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-12-01

    Porous FeVO 4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating with carbon to obtain FeVO 4 /C with a hierarchical pore structure. FeVO 4 /C is used as an anodic electrode in aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. The FeVO 4 /C material not only has improved electrical conductivity as a result of the carbon coating layer, but also has an increased specific surface area as a result of the hierarchical pore structure, which is beneficial for magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, an aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion full battery is successfully constructed with FeVO 4 /C as the anode, Mg-OMS-1 (OMS=octahedral molecular sieves) as the cathode, and 1.0 mol L -1 MgSO 4 as the electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the Mg-OMS-1//FeVO 4 /C aqueous battery is 58.9 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 ; this value is obtained by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7 % after 100 cycles, with almost 100 % coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system has a good electrochemical reversibility. Additionally, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg -1 , which provides powerful evidence that an aqueous magnesium-ion battery is possible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Mechanism and technology of recovery flue gas desulphurization with magnesium oxide].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ke; Chai, Ming; Xu, Kang-fu; Ma, Yong-liang

    2006-05-01

    Taking magnesium oxide slurry as absorption solution, the simulation of bubbling absorption process of mixed SO2 gases was observed in laboratory. Experiment results show that with a high efficiency and stable situation, acidification of absorbing solution was caused by HSO3-; the acidification trend was in accordance with the pattern of hydrolyzing of SO2, pH changes slowly at high pH value with SO3(2-) and rapidly at low value with HSO3-. The experiments also show the insensitive effect of liquid temperature on the high desulphurization efficiency. With relatively high dissolution rate and oxidizability of MgSO3 as well as the high solubility of MgSO4, the desulphurization efficiency utilization of MgO. Industrial experiment of FGD of coal-fired boiler showed that by recycling absorbing liquid could be raised to the concentration of MgSO4 to the saturation concentration at the operation temperature (40-50 degrees C) without any adverse effects on FGD efficiency. Refinement and enrichment of active substance could promote the desulphurization process, thus showed the availability of technical and economy feasibility of recovery technology.

  4. Batch and fixed-bed assessment of sulphate removal by the weak base ion exchange resin Amberlyst A21.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

    2014-09-15

    This paper investigated sulphate removal from aqueous solutions by Amberlyst A21, a polystyrene weak base ion exchange resin. Both the pH and initial sulphate concentration were observed to strongly affect sorption yields, which were largest in acidic environments. Working under optimum operational conditions, sulphate sorption by Amberlyst A21 was relatively fast and reached equilibrium after 45 min of contact between the solid and liquid phases. Sorption kinetics could be described by either the pseudo-first order (k1=3.05 × 10(-5)s(-1)) or pseudo-second order model (k2=1.67 × 10(-4)s(-1)), and both the Freundlich and Langmuir models successfully fitted the equilibrium data. Sulphate uptake by Amberlyst A21 was a physisorption process (ΔH=-25.06 kJ mol(-1)) that occurred with entropy reduction (ΔS=-0.042 kJ mol(-1)K(-1)). Elution experiments showed that sulphate is easily desorbed (∼ 100%) from the resin by sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10 or pH 12. Fixed-bed experiments assessed the effects of the initial sulphate concentration, bed height and flow rate on the breakthrough curves and the efficiency of the Amberlyst A21 in the treatment of a real effluent. In all studied conditions, the maximum sulphate loading resin varied between 8 and 40 mg(SO4(2-))mL(resin)(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of a clinical practice guideline for antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bain, Emily; Bubner, Tanya; Ashwood, Pat; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2013-02-01

    Health professionals at 25 Australian and New Zealand tertiary maternity hospitals were surveyed about local implementation of a clinical practice guideline for antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection. Seventy-six percent of respondents reported that their hospital is currently following a guideline; 36% confirmed that their hospital is auditing uptake. Estimates of uptake ranged from 53 to 90%. Ongoing education and support are needed to ensure that the guidelines are optimally implemented, and uptake and important health outcomes are monitored. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  7. Magnesium Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Modulates Lipogenesis and Lipolysis via PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK Pathways in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chuan-Chuan; Wu, Kun; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Han; Li, Dan-Dan; Luo, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis. Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO 4 -containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C). Growth performance, cell viability, triglyceride (TG) concentrations, and expression of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. Results: Compared with fish fed low magnesium, those fed intermediate or high magnesium had lower hepatic lipids (18%, 22%) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD; 3.7%, 3.8%) and malic enzyme (ME; 35%, 48%) activities and greater mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes adipose triacylglyceride lipase ( atgl ; 82% and 1.7-fold) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( ppara ; 18% and 1.0-fold), respectively ( P < 0.05). Relative mRNA levels of AMP-activated protein kinase ( ampk ) a1 , ampka2 , ampkb1 , ampkb2 , ampkg1a , ampkg1b , Janus kinase (jak) 2a , jak2b, and signal transducers and activators of transcription ( stat ) 3 in fish fed high magnesium were higher (24% to 3.1-fold, P < 0.05) than in those fed low or intermediate magnesium. Compared with cells incubated with MgSO 4 alone, those incubated with MgSO 4 and pretreated with AG490, GW6471, or Compound C had greater TG concentrations (42%, 31%, or 56%), g6pd (98%, 59%, or 51%), 6pgd (68%, 73%, or 32%) mRNA expression, and activities of G6PD (35%, 45%, or 16%) and ME (1.5-fold, 1.3-fold, or 13%), and reduced upregulation (61%, 25%, or 45%) of the lipolytic gene, atgl ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: Magnesium reduced hepatic lipid

  8. The sulphation of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic chicken cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Whole tissue preparations and subcellular fractions from embryonic chicken cartilage were used to measure the rate of incorporation of inorganic sulphate into chondroitin sulphate in vitro. 2. In cartilage from 14-day-old embryos, [35S]sulphate is incorporated to an equal extent into chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate at a rate of 1·5nmoles of sulphate/hr./mg. dry wt. of cartilage. 3. Microsomal and soluble enzyme preparations from embryonic cartilage catalyse the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate into both chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate. 4. The effects of pH, ionic strength, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration and acceptor chondroitin sulphate concentration on the soluble sulphotransferase activity were examined. These factors all influence the activity of the sulphotransferase, and pH and incubation time also influence the percentage of chondroitin 4-sulphate formed. PMID:5807213

  9. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of K2 Mg(SO4 )2 :Eu and evaluation of its kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Archana; Dhoble, N S; Gedam, S C; Dhoble, S J

    2017-08-01

    The K 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 2 :Eu phosphor, synthesized by a solid-state diffusion method, was studied for its photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the material was matched with the standard JCPDF No. 36-1499. For PL characteristics, K 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 2 :Eu 2 + showed an emission peak at 474 nm when excited at 340 nm, while it showed Eu 3 + emission at 580 nm, and 594 nm splitting at 613 nm and 618 nm for an excitation of 396 nm wavelength due to radiative transitions from 5 D 0 to 7 F j (j = 0, 1, 2, 3). The Commission International de I' Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates were also calculated for the K 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 2 :Eu phosphor, and were close to the NTSC standard values. For the TL study, the prepared sample was irradiated using a 60 Co source of γ-irradiation at the dose rate of 0.322 kGy/h for 2 min. The formation of traps in K 2 Mg (SO 4 ) 2 :Eu and the effects of γ-radiation dose on the glow curve are discussed. Well defined broad glow peaks were obtained at 186°C. With increasing γ-ray dose, the sample showed linearity in intensity. The presence of a single glow peak indicated that there was only one set of traps being activated within the particular temperature range. The presented phosphors were also studied for their fading, reusability and trapping parameters. There was just 2% fading during a period of 30 days, indicating no serious fading problem. Kinetic parameters were calculated using the initial rise method and Chen's half-width method. Activation energy and frequency factor were found to be 0.77 eV and 1.41 × 10 6  sec -1 . Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Growth morphology of epsomite (MgSO 4·7H 2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbo, Marco; Aquilano, Dino; Franchini-Angela, Marinella; Sgualdino, Giulio

    1985-06-01

    A first approach to the study of the growth properties of epsomite (MgSO 4·7H 2O) is presented. Particular attention is payed to the growth forms and to epitaxy relations between epsomite and some known habit modifiers. The starting point of the study is the Hartman and Perdok PBC analysis. It proves to be essential for knowing the actual surface profiles. Successively the theoretical growth morphology is given taking into account: the broken-bond model of Wolff and Broder, the energies associated to the hydrogen bonds only, and finally the attachment energies calculated on the basis of the Coulomb potential. Furthermore an analysis of 2D coincidence lattices leads us to the conclusion that a 2D epitaxy of both Na 2B 4O 7·lOH 2O and/or Na 2SO 4·lOH 2O on {111} and/or ? forms of epsomite explains the effect of borax and Glauber's salt as habit modifiers.

  11. The effects of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulphate in adult patients undergoing endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma: A double-blind randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Rabie; Fouad, Eman

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Transnasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours is associated with blood loss and wide fluctuations in haemodynamic parameters. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulphate during the transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours. Methods: The study was a double-blind, randomised study and included 152 patients classified randomly into two groups: Group D: Dexmedetomidine was given as a loading dose 1 μg/kg over 10 min before induction followed by an infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/h during the surgery. Group M: Magnesium sulphate was given as loading dose of 50 mg/kg over 10 min followed by an infusion at 15 mg/kg/h during the surgery. The systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures, in addition to the amount of blood loss were measured at specific timepoints. Data were described in terms of mean ± standard deviation, median, frequencies, 95% confidence of interval of mean and percentages. Results: Mean bleeding score was lower in Group D than Group M (1.36 ± 0.48 vs. 3.05 ± 0.65, respectively; P = 0.002). Mean blood loss was lower in Group D (157.43 ± 48.79 ml vs.299.47 ± 77.28 ml in Group M; P < 0.001)Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, fentanyl requirements, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, and extubation and emergence times were lower, while incidence of bradycardia and hypotension were higher in Group D. Conclusions: During transsphenoidal pituitary resection, dexmedetomidine, compared to magnesium, is associated with lower blood loss and better operating conditions but with more hypotension and bradycardia PMID:28584351

  12. Ketamine versus Ketamine / magnesium Sulfate for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azizkhani, Reza; Bahadori, Azadeh; Shariati, Mohammadreza; Golshani, Keyhan; Ahmadi, Omid; Masoumi, Babak

    2018-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) when combined with ketamine in patients with fractures in emergency departments and required short and painful emergency procedures. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients with fractures and dislocations who were presented to the emergency departments and required PSA for short and painful emergency procedures were randomly allocated to groups of ketamine plus MgSO4 or ketamine alone. Train of four (TOF) stimulation pattern was assessed using nerve stimulator machine and compared between groups. Results: The mean age of studied patients was 46.9 ± 9.3 years old. 48% were male and 52% were female. No significant differences were noted between groups in demographic variables. The status of TOF, 2 min after the injection of ketamine (1.5 mg/kg), in both groups was similar. After the injection of the second dose of ketamine (1 mg/kg) the status of TOF in four patients in ketamine plus MgSO4 (0.45 mg/kg) group changed, it was three quarters but in ketamine group, the status of TOF in all patients was four quarters. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). Conclusion: The findings revealed that for muscle relaxation during medical procedures in the emergency department, ketamine in combination with MgSO4 with this dose was not effective for muscle relaxation during procedures. PMID:29456990

  13. Ketamine versus Ketamine / magnesium Sulfate for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, Reza; Bahadori, Azadeh; Shariati, Mohammadreza; Golshani, Keyhan; Ahmadi, Omid; Masoumi, Babak

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) in procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) when combined with ketamine in patients with fractures in emergency departments and required short and painful emergency procedures. In this study, 100 patients with fractures and dislocations who were presented to the emergency departments and required PSA for short and painful emergency procedures were randomly allocated to groups of ketamine plus MgSO 4 or ketamine alone. Train of four (TOF) stimulation pattern was assessed using nerve stimulator machine and compared between groups. The mean age of studied patients was 46.9 ± 9.3 years old. 48% were male and 52% were female. No significant differences were noted between groups in demographic variables. The status of TOF, 2 min after the injection of ketamine (1.5 mg/kg), in both groups was similar. After the injection of the second dose of ketamine (1 mg/kg) the status of TOF in four patients in ketamine plus MgSO 4 (0.45 mg/kg) group changed, it was three quarters but in ketamine group, the status of TOF in all patients was four quarters. The difference between groups was not statistically significant ( P = 0.12). The findings revealed that for muscle relaxation during medical procedures in the emergency department, ketamine in combination with MgSO 4 with this dose was not effective for muscle relaxation during procedures.

  14. Influence of magnesium sulfate on HCO3/Cl transmembrane exchange rate in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, Ekaterina S; Zaikina, Yulia S; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Yurkin, Maxim A; Serebrennikova, Elena S; Volkov, Leonid; Maltsev, Valeri P; Chernyshev, Andrei V

    2016-03-21

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is widely used in medicine but molecular mechanisms of its protection through influence on erythrocytes are not fully understood and are considerably controversial. Using scanning flow cytometry, in this work for the first time we observed experimentally (both in situ and in vitro) a significant increase of HCO3(-)/Cl(-) transmembrane exchange rate of human erythrocytes in the presence of MgSO4 in blood. For a quantitative analysis of the obtained experimental data, we introduced and verified a molecular kinetic model, which describes activation of major anion exchanger Band 3 (or AE1) by its complexation with free intracellular Mg(2+) (taking into account Mg(2+) membrane transport and intracellular buffering). Fitting the model to our in vitro experimental data, we observed a good correspondence between theoretical and experimental kinetic curves that allowed us to evaluate the model parameters and to estimate for the first time the association constant of Mg(2+) with Band 3 as KB~0.07mM, which is in agreement with known values of the apparent Mg(2+) dissociation constant (from 0.01 to 0.1mM) that reflects experiments on enrichment of Mg(2+) at the inner erythrocyte membrane (Gunther, 2007). Results of this work partly clarify the molecular mechanisms of MgSO4 action in human erythrocytes. The method developed allows one to estimate quantitatively a perspective of MgSO4 treatment for a patient. It should be particularly helpful in prenatal medicine for early detection of pathologies associated with the risk of fetal hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The degradation of intravenously injected chondroitin 4-sulphate in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Keith M.; Wusteman, Frederick S.; Curtis, C. Gerald

    1973-01-01

    The degradation of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate isolated from chick-embryo cartilage was studied in the rat by experiments on free-range animals, on wholly anaesthetized animals with ureter cannulae, by perfusion of isolated liver, by whole-body radioautography and by isolation of liver lysosomes. After injection into rats 68% of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine after 24h, approximately one-half of this being in the form of low-molecular-weight material, chiefly inorganic sulphate. Cannulation experiments demonstrated that the proportion of low-molecular-weight components excreted in the urine increased with time until, after 12h, virtually all was inorganic sulphate. Whole-body radioautography identified the liver as the major site of radioisotope accumulation after injection of labelled polysaccharide. Perfusion through isolated liver indicated that this organ has the ability to metabolize the polymer with the release of low-molecular-weight products, principally inorganic sulphate. Incubation of a lysosomal fraction prepared from rat liver after injection of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate gave rise to degradation products of low molecular weight, and experiments in vitro with rat liver lysosomes confirmed that these organelles are capable of the entire degradative process from chondroitin sulphate to free inorganic sulphate. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4762749

  16. Sultr4;1 mutant seeds of Arabidopsis have an enhanced sulphate content and modified proteome suggesting metabolic adaptations to altered sulphate compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulphur is an essential macronutrient needed for the synthesis of many cellular components. Sulphur containing amino acids and stress response-related compounds, such as glutathione, are derived from reduction of root-absorbed sulphate. Sulphate distribution in cell compartments necessitates specific transport systems. The low-affinity sulphate transporters SULTR4;1 and SULTR4;2 have been localized to the vacuolar membrane, where they may facilitate sulphate efflux from the vacuole. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that the Sultr4;1 gene is expressed in developing Arabidopsis seeds to a level over 10-fold higher than the Sultr4;2 gene. A characterization of dry mature seeds from a Sultr4;1 T-DNA mutant revealed a higher sulphate content, implying a function for this transporter in developing seeds. A fine dissection of the Sultr4;1 seed proteome identified 29 spots whose abundance varied compared to wild-type. Specific metabolic features characteristic of an adaptive response were revealed, such as an up-accumulation of various proteins involved in sugar metabolism and in detoxification processes. Conclusions This study revealed a role for SULTR4;1 in determining sulphate content of mature Arabidopsis seeds. Moreover, the adaptive response of sultr4;1 mutant seeds as revealed by proteomics suggests a function of SULTR4;1 in redox homeostasis, a mechanism that has to be tightly controlled during development of orthodox seeds. PMID:20426829

  17. Three-week combination treatment with ACTH + magnesium sulfate versus ACTH monotherapy for infantile spasms: a 24-week, randomized, open-label, follow-up study in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Xu; Dong, Chang-Hong; Chen, Chun-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Ruo-Yan

    2010-04-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) is an age-specific and severe epileptic encephalopathy that occurs in infancy and early childhood and is usually refractory to conventional antiepileptic drugs. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been the treatment of choice for IS, but ACTH use has been associated with infection and hypertension. Magnesium ion is an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-noncompetitive antagonist that might inhibit NMDA activity and has antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of ACTH + magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) versus ACTH monotherapy for the treatment of IS. This 24-week, randomized, open-label follow-up study enrolled male and female infants with IS. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ACTH 25 U/d + MgSO(4) 0.25 g/kg/d, or ACTH 25 U/d only (control), intravenously for 3 weeks. Efficacy was assessed over a period of 24 weeks based on seizure frequency, EEG, and Gesell testing of psychomotor skills (subscales: language, motor, adaptive, and personal-social skills; measured using a developmental quotient [DQ] ). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring for adverse events using laboratory analysis and clinical evaluation. Thirty-eight infants were enrolled (23 male, 15 female; median age, 9.2 months; 19 patients per group). At 12 weeks, 14 patients (73.7%) who received ACTH + MgSO(4) and 9 patients (47.4%) in the control group were seizure free. At 24 weeks, seizure-free rates were 12 (63.2%) in the ACTH + MgSO(4) group and 10 (52.6%) in the control group. On EEG, 9 patients (47.4%) in the ACTH + MgSO(4) group achieved complete recovery (normalized EEG), 5 (26.3 %) attained partial improvement (multifocal spike wave), and 5 (26.3%) had no improvement (hypsarrhythmia or modified hypsarrhythmia). At 4 weeks, in the control group, 5 patients (26.3 %) achieved complete recovery, 6 (31.6%) achieved partial improvement, and 8 (42.1%) had no improvement. Of the 12 patients who were seizure free at 24 weeks in

  18. Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O) I: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of quenched polycrystalline aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Browning, Frank; Wood, Ian G.

    2012-05-01

    Meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, is the most highly hydrated phase in the binary MgSO4-H2O system. Lower hydrates in the MgSO4-H2O system have end-member analogues containing alternative divalent metal cations (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Co2+) and exhibit extensive solid solution with MgSO4 and with one another, but no other undecahydrate is known. We have prepared aqueous MgSO4 solutions doped with these other cations in proportions up to and including the pure end-members. These liquids have been solidified into fine-grained polycrystalline blocks of metal sulfate hydrate + ice by rapid quenching in liquid nitrogen. The solid products have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction, and the onset of partial melting has been quantified using a thermal probe. We have established that of the seven end-member metal sulfates studied, only MgSO4 forms an undecahydrate; ZnSO4 forms an orthorhombic heptahydrate (synthetic goslarite), MnSO4, FeSO4, and CoSO4 form monoclinic heptahydrates (syn. mallardite, melanterite, bieberite, respectively), and CuSO4 crystallises as the well-known triclinic pentahydrate (syn. chalcanthite). NiSO4 forms a new hydrate which has been indexed with a triclinic unit cell of dimensions a = 6.1275(1) Å, b = 6.8628(1) Å, c = 12.6318(2) Å, α = 92.904(2)°, β = 97.678(2)°, and γ = 96.618(2)°. The unit-cell volume of this crystal, V = 521.74(1) Å3, is consistent with it being an octahydrate, NiSO4·8H2O. Further analysis of doped specimens has shown that synthetic meridianiite is able to accommodate significant quantities of foreign cations in its structure; of the order 50 mol. % Co2+ or Mn2+, 20-30 mol. % Ni2+ or Zn2+, but less than 10 mol. % of Cu2+ or Fe2+. In three of the systems we examined, an `intermediate' phase occurred that differed in hydration state both from the Mg-bearing meridianiite end-member and the pure dopant end-member hydrate. In the case of CuSO4, we observed a melanterite-structured heptahydrate at Cu

  19. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  20. Health System Barriers to Access and Use of Magnesium Sulfate for Women with Severe Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia in Pakistan: Evidence for Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Zafar, Shamsa; Assad, Hafeez; Ghaffar, Adbul

    2013-01-01

    Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are rare but serious complications of pregnancy that threaten the lives of mothers during childbirth. Evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as the first line treatment option for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third major cause of maternal mortality in Pakistan. As in many other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), it is suspected that MgSO4 is critically under-utilized in the country. There is however a lack of information on context-specific health system barriers that prevent optimal use of this life-saving medicine in Pakistan. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, namely policy document review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation at health facility, we explored context-specific health system barriers and enablers that affect access and use of MgSO4 for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. Our study finds that while international recommendations on MgSO4 have been adequately translated in national policies in Pakistan, the gap remains in implementation of national policies into practice. Barriers to access to and effective use of MgSO4 occur at health facility level where the medicine was not available and health staff was reluctant to use it. Low price of the medicine and the small market related to its narrow indications acted as disincentives for effective marketing. Results of our survey were further discussed in a multi-stakeholder round-table meeting and an action plan for increasing access to this life-saving medicine was identified. PMID:23555626

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: A dissolution and carbonation optimisation study.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Steel, Luc; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2017-03-15

    The use of NaHSO 4 to leach out Mg fromlizardite-rich serpentinite (in form of MgSO 4 ) and the carbonation of CO 2 (captured in form of Na 2 CO 3 using NaOH) to form MgCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 was investigated. Unlike ammonium sulphate, sodium sulphate can be separated via precipitation during the recycling step avoiding energy intensive evaporation process required in NH 4 -based processes. To determine the effectiveness of the NaHSO 4 /NaOH process when applied to lizardite, the optimisation of the dissolution and carbonation steps were performed using a UK lizardite-rich serpentine. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, concentration and molar ratio were evaluated. An optimal dissolution efficiency of 69.6% was achieved over 3 h at 100 °C using 1.4 M sodium bisulphate and 50 g/l serpentine with particle size 75-150 μm. An optimal carbonation efficiency of 95.4% was achieved over 30 min at 90 °C and 1:1 magnesium:sodium carbonate molar ratio using non-synthesised solution. The CO 2 sequestration capacity was 223.6 g carbon dioxide/kg serpentine (66.4% in terms of Mg bonded to hydromagnesite), which is comparable with those obtained using ammonium based processes. Therefore, lizardite-rich serpentinites represent a valuable resource for the NaHSO 4 /NaOH based pH swing mineralisation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cerebral Magnesium Levels in Preeclampsia; A Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Nelander, Maria; Weis, Jan; Bergman, Lina; Larsson, Anders; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Wikström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used as a prophylaxis for eclamptic seizures. The exact mechanism of action is not fully established. We used phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to investigate if cerebral magnesium (Mg2+) levels differ between women with preeclampsia, normal pregnant, and nonpregnant women. This cross-sectional study comprised 28 women with preeclampsia, 30 women with normal pregnancies in corresponding gestational week (range: 23-41 weeks) and 11 nonpregnant healthy controls. All women underwent 31P-MRS from the parieto-occipital region of the brain and were interviewed about cerebral symptoms. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. Correlations between Mg2+ levels and specific neurological symptoms were estimated with Spearman's rank test. Mean maternal cerebral Mg2+ levels were lower in women with preeclampsia (0.12 mM ± 0.02) compared to normal pregnant controls (0.14 mM ± 0.03) (P = 0.04). Nonpregnant and normal pregnant women did not differ in Mg2+ levels. Among women with preeclampsia, lower Mg2+ levels correlated with presence of visual disturbances (P = 0.04). Plasma levels of Mg2+ did not differ between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Women with preeclampsia have reduced cerebral Mg2+ levels, which could explain the potent antiseizure prophylactic properties of MgSO4. Within the preeclampsia group, women with visual disturbances have lower levels of Mg2+ than those without such symptoms. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Efficacy of spinal additives neostigmine and magnesium sulfate on characteristics of subarachnoid block, hemodynamic stability and postoperative pain relief: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Khadke, Suchita; Khadke, V. V.; Patel, S. J.; Borse, Y. M.; Kelkar, K. V.; Dighe, J. P.; Subhedar, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intrathecal neostigmine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) produce substantial antinociception, potentiate analgesia of bupivacaine without neurotoxicity. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of neostigmine and MgSO4 on characteristics of spinal anesthesia (SA), hemodynamic stability and postoperative analgesia when added to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for SA. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study 75 American Society of Anesthesiologist status I and II adult females posted for major gynecological surgery were assigned to one of the three groups (n = 25). Group N received Neostigmine 25 μg, Group M received MgSO4 50 mg, Group C received 0.5 ml saline as an adjuvant to 17.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine. Onset, duration of block, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, postoperative analgesia, analgesic requirement, and adverse effects were recorded. Data expressed as mean (standard deviation) or number (%). P <0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The three groups were comparable in characteristics of SA. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group N (5.1 h) followed by Group M (4.2 h) and Group C (3.8 h) (P = 0.0134). Analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group N followed by Group M and Group C (P = 0.00232). The pain score was significantly less in Group M (P < 0.05). The incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement was lowest (48%) in Group N than in Group M (64%) and Group C 84% (P = 0.0276). The incidence of bradycardia and atropine requirement was the lowest in Group M (P = 0.0354). Sedation was observed in 56% patients in Group M compared to 20% in Group N and 8% in Group C (P = 0.0004). Conclusion: Intrathecal Neostigmine and MgSo4 does not affect characteristics of SA. Postoperative analgesia of neostigmine was better than MgSO4. Neostigmine provides some protection against hypotension of SA whereas MgSO4 protects against bradycardia. PMID:25886423

  4. Synthesis and conformational studies of carrabiose and its 4'-sulphate and 2,4'-disulphate.

    PubMed

    Parra, E; Caro, H N; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M; Bernabé, M

    1990-12-15

    Methyl alpha-carrabioside (13), and its 4-sulphate (19) and 2,4-disulphate (20) have been synthesised via glycosylation of methyl 3,6-anhydro-2-O-benzyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-benzyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl bromide and subsequent partial or complete debenzylation, sulphation, and deprotection of the resulting disaccharide derivatives. Conformational studies have been carried out on 13, 19, and 20 on the basis of 1D and 2D 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations.

  5. Magnesium sulphate and (123)I-MIBG in pheochromocytoma: Two useful techniques for a complicated disease.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, M; Martín, N; Tejedor, A; Ortiz, J T; Muxí, À; Taurà, P

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumour of the chromaffin tissue. It may, through catecholamine release, have deleterious effects on myocardial structure. A 48-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus (ASA II) was diagnosed of pheochromocytoma-induced myocarditis, which caused severe cardiogenic shock, with an ejection fraction of 20%. Extreme blood pressure swings required aggressive therapy with vasoactive drugs (norepinephrine and dopamine) and an intra-aortic balloon pump, despite which severe haemodynamic instability persisted. Finally, the use of magnesium sulphate allowed for cardiovascular stabilization and weaning off vasoactive drugs prior to surgery. (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy helps not only to functionally confirm tumour tissue, but also to assess severity and prognosis of cardiac failure. Prognosis of pheochromocytoma-induced heart failure can be very poor. The use of these two well-known and relatively simple 'tools' for treatment and prognosis is a helpful option to keep in mind. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of magnesium on arrhythmia incidence in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Towfighi, Farshad; Jafari, Naser

    2018-06-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is a common complication of cardiac surgery. The effect of serum magnesium, hypomagnesaemia treatment and prophylactic administration of magnesium in the development and prevention of arrhythmias is controversial and there are many different ideas. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of magnesium in cardiac arrhythmia after CABG surgery. The clinical trial enrolled 250 patients who underwent CABG. Based on the initial serum levels of magnesium, patients were divided into two groups: hypomagnesium and normomagnesium. Based on bioethics committee requirements, patients in the hypo-magnesium group received magnesium treatments until they attained normal magnesium blood levels. Both groups underwent CABG with normal blood levels of magnesium. After surgery, each group was randomly divided into two subgroups: one subgroup received a bolus dose of magnesium sulphate (30 mg/kg in 5 min) and the other subgroup received a placebo. Subgroups were under observation in the intensive care unit for 3 days and arrhythmias were recorded. Data from all four subgroups were analysed statistically and interpreted. The results of this study showed that the occurrence of arrhythmia was not significantly different among subgroups (P > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between blood levels of magnesium and arrhythmia during the 3 days post-surgery (P > 0.05). The results of this study showed that magnesium sulphate administration did not significantly improve the incidence of arrhythmias in hypo- and normo-magnesium patients after CABG. There was no significant correlation between post-operative serum levels of magnesium and arrhythmia during 3 days. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  8. Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Kumar, P.; Burman, U.; Joshi, P.; Agrawal, A.; Raliya, R.; Tarafdar, J. C.

    2012-09-01

    Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

  9. The mode of action of 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside on the synthesis of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic-chicken sternum

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kenneth D.; Segen, Barbara J.

    1977-01-01

    1. Embryonic-chicken sterna, incubated in medium containing 0.1mm-4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside (4-methylcoumarin 7-β-d-xyloside), synthesize proteochondroitin sulphate that is significantly undersulphated and shorter than usual [Gibson, Segen & Audhya (1977) Biochem. J. 162, 217–233]. 2. Neither the β-d-galactoside nor the β-d-glucuronide of 4-methylumbelliferone, nor 4-methylumbelliferone itself, produced the effects. The only metabolites of 4-methylumbelliferone that were detected in cartilages exposed to 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside were unchanged xyloside and chondroitin sulphate covalently attached to 4-methylumbelliferone. 3. Gel filtration of salt extracts of sterna incubated in medium containing the xyloside showed that there were two pools of chondroitin sulphate in the tissue. One pool was identified, on the basis of its elution pattern and the linear kinetics of incorporation of sulphate into it, as proteochondroitin sulphate. Incorporation into the other pool, whose properties suggested that it was methylumbelliferyl-chondroitin sulphate, indicated that it underwent partial turnover. The molecular weight of this chondroitin sulphate was about 19000, and it appeared to be about 70% sulphated. 4. When sterna were incubated in medium containing the xyloside, there was a very large incorporation of sulphate and glucose into glycosaminoglycans that were released into the incubation medium. This contrasts with incubations of sterna in the absence of the xyloside, in which less than 5% of the sulphate incorporated could be recovered from the medium. The glycosaminoglycan released into the medium was 4-methylumbelliferyl-chondroitin sulphate, whose average molecular weight was 7000–8000 and degree of sulphation more than 95%. 5. Incorporation of sulphate into proteochondroitin sulphate was stimulated more than 3-fold by addition of 20% (v/v) human serum and 10nm-l-3,3′,5-tri-iodothyronine. Incorporation into methylumbelliferyl

  10. [Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of ischemic-hypoxic neonatal encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kornacka, M K

    2001-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains one of the most important neurological complications in full and near full term newborns. During HIE glutamate and other excitatory neurotransmitters are released and progressive energy failure in brain is observed. Toxicity of glutamate plays the main role in brain injury. Glutamate activates the specific receptors that, in turn, mediate an overwhelming influx of calcium into the postsynaptic neuron. The pathological changes are located particularly in hippocampus. Magnesium sulfate has been used safely for years to treat preclampsia. The animal experimental evidence support a neuroprotective role for magnesium in HIE.

  11. Quantitative studies of sulphate conjugation by isolated rat liver cells using [35S]sulphate.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J; Knowles, R G; Pogson, C I

    1991-06-21

    We have developed a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the study of sulphate conjugation in isolated liver cells based on the incorporation of 35S from [35S]sulphate. Excess [35S]sulphate is removed by a barium precipitation procedure, leaving [35S]sulphate conjugates in solution. We have used this method to examine the kinetics of sulphation of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetaminophen), 4-nitrophenol and 1-naphthol in isolated rat liver cells. The efficiency of recovery of the sulphate conjugates was greater than 86%. The method is applicable to the quantitative study of sulphate conjugation of any substrate which forms a sulphate conjugate that is soluble in the presence of barium, without the need for standards or radiolabelled sulphate acceptors.

  12. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnesium and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Soave, P M; Conti, G; Costa, R; Arcangeli, A

    2009-08-01

    to review current knowledge concerning the use of magnesium in anesthesiology, the role of hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia in perioperative period, analyzing the cardiologic problems related to blood serum concentration changes of magnesium that can interesting in primis the anaesthesist in perioperative period. References were obtained from Pubmed (1995 to 2009). All categories of articles were selected, such as reviews, meta-analyses, s, clinical trials etc). Magnesium is a bivalent ion, like calcium, the fourth most common cation in the body, and the second most common intracellular cation after potassium. Magnesium deficiency has been demonstrated in 7-11% of the hospitalized patients and it has been found to coexist with other electrolyte disorders, particulary hypokalaemia or hypophosphatemia and, to a less extent, hyponatraemia and hypocalcaemia, in more than 40% of patients. Hypomagnesemia needs to be detected and corrected to prevent increased morbidity and mortality. Historically, magnesium sulphate has been proposed as a general anaesthetic. Magnesium reduces the catecholamine release during the stressful manouvres like intubation. Magnesium has also anti-nociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain by blocking the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and the associated ion channels and thus preventing central sensitization caused by peripheral nociceptive stimulation. So for some authors it reduces the need for intraoperative anesthetics and relaxant drugs and reduces the amount of morphine for the treatment of pospoperative pain. The use of magnesium is extended not only to general anaesthesia but also in loco-regional anaesthesia. The role of magnesium has been extensively studied in cardiology especially during myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and cardiac surgery. Recent studies show the important of magnesium to prevent the postoperative neurocognitive impairment during carotid endoarterectomy and its utility in treatment of severe asthma

  14. Phenolic sodium sulphates of Frankenia laevis L.

    PubMed

    Hussein, S A M

    2004-04-01

    Four new phenolic anionic conjugates have been isolated from the whole plant aqueous alcohol extract of Frankenia laevis L. Their structures were established, mainly on the basis of ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic evidence, as gallic acid-3-methyl ether-5-sodium sulphate, acetophenone-4-methyl ether-2-sodium sulphate, ellagic acid-3,3'-dimethyl ether-4,4'-di-sodium sulphate and ellagic acid-3-methyl ether-4-sodium sulphate.

  15. Impurity characterization of magnesium diuranate using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raje, Naina; Ghonge, Darshana K.; Hemantha Rao, G. V. S.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Current studies describe the application of simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis - evolved gas analysis techniques for the compositional characterization of magnesium diuranate (MDU) with respect to the impurities present in the matrix. The stoichiometric composition of MDU was identified as MgU2O7ṡ3H2O. Presence of carbonate and sulphate as impurities in the matrix was confirmed through the evolved gas analysis using Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrometry detection. Carbon and magnesium hydroxide content present as impurities in magnesium diuranate have been determined quantitatively using TG and FTIR techniques and the results are in good agreement. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis of magnesium diuranate suggests the presence of magnesium hydroxide as impurity in the matrix. Also these studies confirm the formation of magnesium uranate, uranium sesquioxide and uranium dioxide above 1000 °C, due to the decomposition of magnesium diuranate.

  16. The Influence of Two Different Doses of Magnesium Sulfate on Intraocular Pressure Variations after Injection of Succinylcholine and Endotracheal Intubation: A Prospective, Randomized, Parallel Three-Arm, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Hany Mahmoud; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Tohamy; Mostafa Bayoumy, Ahmed Sherin; Bayoumy, Hasan Metwally; Taher, Sameh Galal

    2017-01-01

    The use of succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction in patients with open globe injuries may be detrimental to the eye. The aim of this study is to determine if the premedication with magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) could attenuate the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with succinylcholine injection and intubation. Operation theaters in a tertiary care University Hospital between December 2014 and July 215. This was a prospective, randomized, parallel three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. One hundred and thirteen patients' physical status ASA Classes I and II underwent elective cataract surgery under general anesthesia. These patients allocated into three groups: Group C (control group) received 100 ml normal saline, Group M1 received 30 mg/kg MgSO 4 in 100 ml normal saline, and Group M2 received 50 mg/kg MgSO 4 in 100 ml normal saline. IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) reported at 5-time points related to study drug administration. In addition, any adverse effects related to MgSO 4 were recorded. Intragroup and between-groups differences were examined by analysis of variance test. We noticed a significant decrease in IOP in M1 ( n = 38) and M2 ( n = 37) groups as compared with C group ( n = 38) after study drugs infusion, 2 and 5 min after intubation, P < 0.001. While the difference between M1 and M2 groups was insignificant, P = 0.296 and P = 0.647, respectively. There was a significant decrease in MAP and HR in M1 and M2 groups as compared with C group 2 and 5 min after intubation, P = 0.01. While the difference between M1 and M2 groups was insignificant, P = 1. MgSO 4 30 mg/kg as well as 50 mg/kg effectively prevented the rise in IOP, MAP, and HR associated with rapid sequence induction by succinylcholine and endotracheal intubation.

  17. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    PubMed

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  18. Additive effect of combined application of magnesium and MK-801 on analgesic action of morphine.

    PubMed

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Duda, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    As previously reported, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) administered in relatively low doses markedly potentiated opioid analgesia in neuropathic pain, in which the effectiveness of opioids is limited. Considering that Mg(2+) behaves like an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, the effect of this ion on the analgesic action of morphine was compared with that of MK-801. Acute pain was evoked by mechanical or thermal stimuli, whereas neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Magnesium sulphate (40 mg/kg i.p.) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) administered alone did not modify the nociceptive threshold to acute stimuli or the streptozotocin hyperalgesia but significantly augmented the analgesic action of morphine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Furthermore, if these drugs (i.e. magnesium sulphate and MK-801) were applied concomitantly, a clear additive effect on the analgesic action of morphine occurred in both models of pain. Possible explanations of these observations are discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY OF MAGNESIUM SULFITE HYDRATES IN MAGNESIUM OXIDE SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory studies defining the precipitation chemistry of MgSO3 hydrates. The results apply to the design of Mg-based scrubbing processes for SO2 removal from combustion flue gas. In Mg-based scrubbing processes, MgSO3 precipitates as either trihydrat...

  20. Determination of epsomite-hexahydrite equilibria by the humidity-buffer technique at 0.1 MPa with implications for phase equilibria in the system MgSO4-H2O.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Epsomite (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) and hexahydrite (MgSO(4).6H(2)O) are common minerals found in marine evaporite deposits, in saline lakes as precipitates, in weathering zones of coal and metallic deposits, in some soils and their efflorescences, and possibly on the surface of Europa as evaporite deposits. Thermodynamic properties of these two minerals reported in the literature are in poor agreement. In this study, epsomite-hexahydrite equilibria were determined along four humidity-buffer curves at 0.1 MPa and between 25 and 45 degrees C. Results obtained for the reaction epsomite = hexahydrite + H(2)O, as demonstrated by very tight reversals along each humidity buffer, can be represented by ln K(+/- 0.012) = 20.001 - 7182.07/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in Kelvin. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 10.13 +/- 0.07 kJ/mol, which is essentially the same value as that calculated from vapor pressure measurements reported in the literature. However, this value is at least 0.8 kJ/mol lower than those calculated from the data derived mostly from calorimetric measurements.

  1. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  2. Magnesium sulfate treatment decreases the initial brain damage alterations produced after perinatal asphyxia in fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe; Alvarez, Antonia; Lara-Celador, Idoia; Alvarez, Francisco J; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Hilario, Enrique

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of MgSO(4) treatment in the brain after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in premature fetal lambs. Injury was induced by partial occlusion of umbilical cord for 60 min, and then the preterm lambs (80-90% of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control group, in which the animals were managed by conventional mechanical ventilation for 3 hr; 3 hr postpartial cord occlusion (3-hr-PCO) group, in which injured animals were managed by ventilation and then sacrificed 3 hr after HI; and MgSO(4) group, in which animals received 400 mg/kg MgSO(4) for 20 min soon after HI was induced and were managed by ventilation for 3 hr. Brains were analyzed for apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Cell viability and intracellular state studies were assessed by flow cytometry. The delayed death index was significantly increased in the 3-hr-PCO group in comparison with control. Administration of MgSO(4) elicited a delay in cell death that was similar to that in the control group. The 3-hr-PCO group showed a significantly higher concentration of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial damage, and intracellular calcium in comparison with control and MgSO(4) - treated groups. Our results suggest that MgSO(4) treatment might have potential therapeutic benefits after the HI event. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Immobilized and MgSO4 induced cost effective bacterial disintegration of waste activated sludge for effective anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ushani, U; Rajesh Banu, J; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2017-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS) in a cost-effective way. During the first phase of this study, effective break down of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was performed by deflocculating WAS with 0.1 g/g SS of MgSO 4 . Deflocculation rate was 92% with discharge rate of extractable EPS at 185 mg/L. In the second phase, effective bacterial cell disintegration was obtained at 36 h post treatment. Maximum solubilization of deflocculated sludge was approximately 21%, which was higher than that of flocculated sludge (14.2%) or the control (4.5%). Biodegradability studies were assessed through kinetic analysis by non-linear regression modeling. Results revealed that the deflocculated sludge had higher methane generation (at about 235.8 mL/gVs) compared to flocculated sludge (at 146.1 mL/gVs) or the control (at 34.8 mL/gVs). Cost assessment of the present work revealed that the net yield for each ton of the deflocculated sludge was about 32.99 USD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antenatal magnesium sulfate is beneficial or harmful in very preterm and extremely preterm neonates: a new insight.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhawan Deep

    2018-01-17

    To evaluate whether antenatal MgSO 4 is beneficial or harmful in very preterm and extremely preterm neonates. We retrieved published literature through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and relevant observational studies. Evidence revealed that antenatal MgSO 4 has neuroprotective role in preterm neonates and it decreased the risk of cerebral palsy and gross motor dysfunction. Evidences regarding association of antenatal MgSO 4 with feed intolerance, NEC and SIP were from cohort studies and controversial. We should continue use antenatal MgSO 4 to all eligible patients according to protocol till the more robust evidence will suggest association with gastrointestinal complications. In the meantime, we should have a high index of suspicion of gastrointestinal complications in extremely preterms particularly <26 weeks of gestation.

  5. Conjugation of silica nanoparticles with cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol 300 membrane for reverse osmosis using MgSO4 solution.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Aneela; Shafiq, Muhammad; Islam, Atif; Jabeen, Faiza; Shafeeq, Amir; Ahmad, Adnan; Zahid Butt, Muhammad Taqi; Jacob, Karl I; Jamil, Tahir

    2016-01-20

    Thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) method was used to synthesize polymer matrix (PM) membranes for reverse osmosis from cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG300) conjugated with silica nanoparticles (SNPs). Experimental data showed that the conjugation of SNPs changed the surface properties as dense and asymmetric composite structure. The results were explicitly determined by the permeability flux and salt rejection efficiency of the PM-SNPs membranes. The effect of SNPs conjugation on MgSO4 salt rejection was more significant in magnitude than on permeation flux i.e. 2.38 L/m(2)h. FTIR verified that SNPs were successfully conjugated on the surface of PM membrane. DSC of PM-SNPs shows an improved Tg from 76.2 to 101.8 °C for PM and PM-S4 respectively. Thermal stability of the PM-SNPs membranes was observed by TGA which was significantly enhanced with the conjugation of SNPs. The micrographs of SEM and AFM showed the morphological changes and increase in the valley and ridges on membrane surface. Experimental data showed that the PM-S4 (0.4 wt% SNPs) membrane has maximum salt rejection capacity and was selected as an optimal membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction on batch reactors: Effect of inoculum-type and applied potential on sulphate consumption and pH.

    PubMed

    Gacitúa, Manuel A; Muñoz, Enyelbert; González, Bernardo

    2018-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis batch reactor systems were studied employing different conditions, paying attention on the effect that biocathode potential has on pH and system performance, with the overall aim to distinguish sulphate reduction from H 2 evolution. Inocula from pure strains (Desulfovibrio paquesii and Desulfobacter halotolerans) were compared to a natural source conditioned inoculum. The natural inoculum possess the potential for sulphate reduction on serum bottles experiments due to the activity of mutualistic bacteria (Sedimentibacter sp. and Bacteroides sp.) that assist sulphate-reducing bacterial cells (Desulfovibrio sp.) present in the consortium. Electrochemical batch reactors were monitored at two different potentials (graphite-bar cathodes poised at -900 and -400mV versus standard hydrogen electrode) in an attempt to isolate bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction from hydrogen evolution. At -900mV all inocula were able to reduce sulphate with the consortium demonstrating superior performance (SO 4 2- consumption: 25.71gm -2 day -1 ), despite the high alkalinisation of the media. At -400mV only the pure Desulfobacter halotolerans inoculated system was able to reduce sulphate (SO 4 2- consumption: 17.47gm -2 day -1 ) and, in this potential condition, pH elevation was less for all systems, confirming direct (or at least preferential) bioelectrochemical reduction of sulphate over H 2 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The extraction of plasma 3-hydroxy-17-oxo steroid sulphates and the measurement of the constituent dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Jean; Rippon, A. E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A simple method for the extraction of 17-oxo steroid sulphates of plasma is described; glucosiduronates and orthophosphates are extracted, but to a smaller extent. 2. Four methods of analyses of the extracts are given and are relatively simple. Three of these are specific for steroid sulphates and two measure the sulphate conjugates directly. 3. Values for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate concentrations of normal and pathological plasmas are given. PMID:14333546

  8. Oilfield scales: controls on precipitation and crystal morphology of barite (barium sulphate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, A. I. R.; Wogelius, R. A.; Vaughan, D. J.

    2003-04-01

    The precipitation and subsequent build up of barite (barium sulphate) inside extraction tubing presents a costly problem for off shore oil wells which use seawater to mobilize oil during hydrocarbon recovery. Mixing of reservoir formation water containing Ba2+ ions and seawater containing SO_42- ions results in barite precipitation within the reservoir well-bore region and piping. Great effort has been expended in designing strategies to minimize scale formation but details of the reaction mechanism and sensitivity to thermodynamic variables are poorly constrained. Furthermore, few detailed studies have been carried out under simulated field conditions. Hence an experimental programme was designed to study barite formation under environmentally relevant conditions with control of several system variables during the precipitation reaction. Synthetic sea-water and formation-water brines containing sodium sulphate and barium chloride, respectively, were mixed to induce BaSO_4 precipitation. Experiments were carried out at high temperature (100^oC) and high pressure (500 bars) in double rocking autoclave bombs. Barite formation as a function of the addition of calcium, magnesium, and a generic phosphonate based scale inhibitor was investigated whilst maintaining constant pH, temperature and ionic strength (0.5159). Additional experiments were performed at ambient conditions for comparison. Data concerning nucleation, growth rates, and crystal morphology were obtained. ICP-AES data from the supernatant product solutions showed considerable variation in quantity of barium sulphate precipitated as a function of the listed experimental variables. For example, ESEM analysis of barium sulphate crystals showed a dramatic shift in crystal habit from the typical tabular habit produced in control experiments; experiments performed in the presence of foreign cations produced more equant crystals, while those experiments completed in the presence of the phosphonate scale inhibitor

  9. Contribution of an ancient evaporitic-type reservoir to lake vostok chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Savarino, J.; Petit, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Accretion ice 1 (3538 to 3608 m) contents visible sediment inclusions likely incorporated into ice in a shallow bay upstream Vostok where glacier moves against a relief rise. Ion chromatography measurements indicate that elemental concentrations are linked to inclusions abundances. More than 80% of SO_42- is present as CaSO_4 or MgSO_4. While SO_42- concentrations and the relative proportion of CaSO_4 and MgSO_4 varies in a wide range in accreted ice, concentration profiles of Na and Cl, present as NaCl, are much more regular even along individual crystals. Question rises about the presence of such salts in lake water: The 17O anomaly of sulphate in one samples taken at 3570 m suggests that less than 10% of total sulphate comes from DMS oxidation, ruling out any significant contribution of glacer melt water. Fe concentrations are low (10 ppb) excluding sulphate production from the pyrite oxidation by biogenic in-situ activity. This conclusion is supported by the isotopic signature of 34S. Taken all together, these observations strongly suggest the contribution of an evaporitic-type basin to the lake salinity. Assuming that sediments accumulated in an isolated reservoir prior the lake formation, seismotectonic activated hydrothermal circulation may pulse NaCl rich water with sulphate salts through faults up to their vents in a shallow bay upstream Vostok, where they could be incorporated in the accreted ice and also contribute to lake salinity.

  10. Role of dietary sulphate in the regulation of methanogenesis in the human large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Christl, S U; Gibson, G R; Cummings, J H

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen produced during colonic fermentation may be excreted, or removed by H2 consuming bacteria such as methanogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria. In vitro, sulphate reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic bacteria for hydrogen when sulphate is present. In this study the hypothesis that sulphate in the diet could alter CH4 production in vivo has been tested. Six methane excreting volunteers were fed a low sulphate diet (1.6 mmol/d) for 34 days with the addition of 15 mmol sodium sulphate from days 11-20. Breath methane was measured and viable counts and metabolic activities of methanogenic bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria determined in faeces. Whole gut transit time and daily stool weight were also measured. When sulphate was added to the diet, breath methane excretion decreased in three of the subjects while faecal sulphate reduction rates rose from 7.5 (0.5) to 20.3 (4.3) nmol SO4 reduced/h/g faeces. Sulphate reducing bacteria, which were not detected during the control diet, were found and viable counts of methanogenic bacteria fell from 10(7)-10(9)/g faeces to 10(6)/g. Methanogenic counts and breath CH4 recovered after sulphate addition was stopped. No change was found in the other three subjects. Faecal weights and transit times were not different between study periods. It is concluded that methanogenesis is regulated by dietary sulphate if sulphate reducing bacteria are present. Dietary sulphate may allow growth of sulphate reducing bacteria which inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria. This may explain the absence of CH4 in the breath of many people in western populations. PMID:1427377

  11. Water-separated ion pairs cause the slow dielectric mode of magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatkulov, Shavkat I.; Rinne, Klaus F.; Buchner, Richard; Netz, Roland R.; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2018-06-01

    We compare the dielectric spectra of aqueous MgSO4 and Na2SO4 solutions calculated from classical molecular dynamics simulations with experimental data, using an optimized thermodynamically consistent sulfate force field. Both the concentration-dependent shift of the static dielectric constant and the spectral shape match the experimental results very well for Na2SO4 solutions. For MgSO4 solutions, the simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimental observation of a slow mode, the origin of which we trace back to the ion-pair relaxation contribution via spectral decomposition. The radial distribution functions show that Mg2+ and SO42 - ions form extensive water-separated—and thus strongly dipolar—ion pairs, the orientational relaxation of which provides a simple physical explanation for the prominent slow dielectric mode in MgSO4 solutions. Remarkably, the Mg2+-SO42 - ion-pair relaxation extends all the way into the THz range, which we rationalize by the vibrational relaxation of tightly bound water-separated ion pairs. Thus, the relaxation of divalent ion pairs can give rise to widely separated orientational and vibrational spectroscopic features.

  12. Sulphate transport by H+ symport and by the dicarboxylate carrier in mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Saris, N E

    1980-01-01

    1. Swelling of mitochondria was induced in non-respiring mitochondria by 30 mM or more Na2SO4 or by respiration in the presence of K2SO4. Respiration-drive swelling resulted in loss of respiratory control. Sulphate, when present at 10 mM concentration, promoted the release of accumulated Ca2+. 2. Swelling was prevented by N-ethylmaleimide and formaldehyde, known inhibitors of the phosphate carrier. Sulphate-induced swelling was more sensitive to the inhibitors than was phosphate-induced swelling. At lower concentration of sulphate, 5 mM, an alkalinisation of the medium was observed in addition of sulphate, indicating H+-sulphate symport. There was competition between sulphate and phosphate for transport by this mechanism. It is suggested that sulphate may be transported, though at a comparatively slow rate, by the phosphate carrier. 3. Uptake of sulphate was stimulated when preceded by energy-dependent accumulation of Ba2+, especially when acetate was also present, indicating precipitation of BaSO4 in the matrix. Using this system the influx of sulphate was studied at lower concentrations, 10 mM or less. the contributions of the H+ symporter (sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide) and the dicarboxylate carrier (sensitive to butylmalonate) could then be studied. The dicarboxylate carrier had a lower Km and was mainly responsible for sulphate transport at lower concentration range. At 10 mM-sulphate the transport rates by the two systems appeared to be similar; at still higher concentrations the H+ symporter may become more important. PMID:7236245

  13. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to various proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pitt-Rivers, Rosalind; Impiombato, F. S. Ambesi

    1968-01-01

    1. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to proteins by equilibrium dialysis was investigated. 2. Most of the proteins studied bound 90–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The glycoproteins studied bound 70–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate, calculated in terms of the polypeptide moiety of the molecule. 4. Proteins not containing S·S groups bound about 140% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 5. Reduction of four proteins containing S·S groups caused a rise in sodium dodecyl sulphate binding to 140% of the weight of protein. 6. The apparent micellar molecular weights of the protein–sodium dodecyl sulphate complexes were measured by the dye-solubilization method; they were all found to have approximately the same micellar molecular weight (34000–41000) irrespective of the molecular weight of the protein to which they were attached. PMID:4177067

  14. Characterization of the Surface Film Formed on Molten AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Atmospheres Containing SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Fei; Xiong, Shou-Mei

    2012-11-01

    The surface film formed on molten AZ91D magnesium alloy in an atmosphere containing SO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface film primarily contained MgO and MgS and had a network structure. MgS increased the Pilling-Bedworth ratio of the film and enhanced its protective capability. The films with a few pores at the surface consisted of two layers with an outer MgO layer and an inner layer of MgO and MgS. The film without pores at the surface also contained MgS and small amounts of MgSO4 in the outer layer. Increasing the SO2 content in the atmosphere promoted film growth and the formation of the protective film was prevented with the increased temperature.

  15. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-10-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential.

  16. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-01-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential. PMID:12812520

  17. [Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats].

    PubMed

    Kharitonova, M V; Zheltova, A A; Spasov, A A; Smirnov, A V; Pan'shin, N G; Iezhitsa, I N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content < 15 mg/kg) and demineralized water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twenty-four hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54.2 +/- 1.7% in Mg-deficient group and 38.9 +/- 1.9% in intact group, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol

  18. Nitrogen conservation in simulated food waste aerobic composting process with different Mg and P salt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Su, Bensheng; Liu, Jianlin; Du, Xianyuan; Huang, Guohe

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]/MgSO4, KH2PO4/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste was composted of potatoes, rice, carrots, leaves, meat, soybeans, and seed soil, and the ratio of C and N was 17:1. Runs R1-R3 were conducted with the addition of K3PO4/ MgSO4, K2HPO4/MgSO4, and KH2PO4/MgSO4 mixtures, respectively; run R0 was a blank performed without the addition of Mg and P salts. After composting for 25 days, the degrees of degradation of the organic materials in runs R0-R3 were 53.87, 62.58, 59.14, and 49.13%, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that struvite crystals were formed in runs R1-R3 but not in run R0; the gaseous ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) losses in runs R0-R3 were 21.2, 32.8, 12.6, and 3.5% of the initial total N, respectively. Of the tested Mg/P salt mixtures, the K2HPO4/ MgSO4 system provided the best combination of conservation of N and biodegradation of organic materials in this food waste composting process.

  19. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone (DMBQ) as Organic Cathode for Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Baofei; Zhou, Dehua; Huang, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) was reinvestigated as a cathode material with magnesium electrolytes that are capable of plating/stripping magnesium for rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. Two electrolytes, the magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide mixed with MgCl2 in dimethoxyethane (Mg(TFSI)(2)-2MgCl(2) in DME) electrolyte, and the Mg(TFSI)(2) in diglyme were selected. The Mg(TFSI)(2)-2MgCl(2) in DME enabled Mg-DMBQ batteries with a discharge potentials above 2.0 V vs Mg/Mg2+, which is superior to the previous reported potential in Mg-DMBQ batteries with conventional magnesium salt-based electrolytes (1.1 V, vs Mg/Mg2+), and also excels the well-known Chevrel phase Mo6S8 in magnesium-ion batteries (1.2 V, vs Mg/Mg2+).

  20. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  1. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  2. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  3. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  4. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  5. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  6. The crystal structure of tin sulphate, SnSO[subscript 4], and comparison with isostructural SrSO[subscript 4], PbSO[subscript 4], and BaSO[subscript 4

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.

    2012-10-23

    The crystal structure of tin (II) sulphate, SnSO{sub 4}, was obtained by Rietveld refinement using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The structure was refined in space group Pbnm. The unit-cell parameters for SnSO{sub 4} are a = 7.12322(1), b = 8.81041(1), c = 5.32809(1) {angstrom}, and V = 334.383(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average [12] distance is 2.9391(4) {angstrom}. However, the Sn{sup 2+} cation has a pyramidal [3]-coordination to O atoms and the average [3] = 2.271(1) {angstrom}. If Sn is considered as [12]-coordinated, SnSO{sub 4} has a structure similar to barite, BaSO{sub 4}, and its structuralmore » parameters are intermediate between those of BaSO{sub 4} and PbSO{sub 4}. The tetrahedral SO{sub 4} group has an average [4] = 1.472(1) {angstrom} in SnSO{sub 4}. Comparing SnSO{sub 4} with the isostructural SrSO{sub 4}, PbSO{sub 4}, and BaSO{sub 4}, several well-defined trends are observed. The radii, rM, of the M{sup 2+}(=Sr, Pb, Sn, and Ba) cations and average distances vary linearly with V because of the effective size of the M{sup 2+} cation. Based on the trend for the isostructural sulphates, the average [12] distance is slightly longer than expected because of the lone pair of electrons on the Sn{sup 2+} cation.« less

  7. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-01-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported. PMID:26067475

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  9. Stable isotopic evidence for anaerobic maintained sulphate discharge in a polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    To understand the sources and sinks of sulphate and associated biogeochemical processes in a High Arctic environment, late winter snowpacks, the summer melt-waters and rock samples were collected and analysed for major ions and stable isotope tracers (δ18O, δ34S). The SO42bar/Clbar ratio reveal that more than 87% of sulphate (frequently > 95%) of total sulphate carried by the subglacial runoff and proglacial streams was derived from non-snowpack sources. The proximity of non-snowpack sulphate δ34S (∼8-19‰) to the δ34S of the major rocks in the vicinity (∼-6 to +18‰) suggest that the non-snowpack sulphate was principally derived from rock weathering. Furthermore, Ca2++Mg2+/SO42ˉ molar shows that sulphate acquisition in the meltwaters was controlled by two major processes: 1) coupled-sulphide carbonate weathering (molar ratio ∼ 2) and, 2) re-dissolution of secondary salts (molar ratio ∼ 1). The δ34S-SO4 = +19.4‰ > δ34S-S of rock, accompanied by increased sulphate concentration also indicates an input from re-dissolution of secondary salts. Overall, δ18O composition of these non-snowpack sulphate (-11.9 to -2.2‰) mostly stayed below the threshold δ18O value (-6.7 to -3.3‰) for minimum O2 condition, suggesting that certain proportion of sulphate was regularly supplied from anaerobic sulphide oxidation.

  10. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, J.; Rodhe, H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Zimmermann, P.

    1992-10-01

    HUMAN activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei1-4. Here we use a global transport-chemistry model to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Our calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times.

  11. Impact of ammonia and sulphate concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Brekelmans, J; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of ammonia and sulphate on thermophilic anaerobic digestion (52 degrees C) was studied at laboratory-scale. The substrate consisted of a synthetic solution supplemented with ammonia and sodium sulphate. In terms of biogas production, the results showed that the C/N and C/SO(4)(2-) thresholds were 4.40 and 1.60, respectively, corresponding to 620 mg FA (free ammonia)/L and 1400 mg SO(4)(2-)/L. No reduction in biogas production was observed until reaching the above concentration of sulphate in the sulphate toxicity test. However, when the concentration of ammonia was increased to 620 mg FA/L in the ammonia toxicity test, a gradual decrease of 21% was observed for the biogas. In order to characterise each set of experiments kinetically, a biogas production first-order kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data. The proposed model accurately predicted the behaviour of the microorganisms affecting the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, allowing its evolution to be predicted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of autoclave scaling during acid pressure leaching of nickeliferous laterite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queneau, P. B.; Doane, R. E.; Cooperrider, M. W.; Berggren, M. H.; Rey, P.

    1984-09-01

    An operating problem encountered at the Moa Bay operation in Cuba, where nickeliferous laterite ore is processed by sulfuric acid pressure leaching, is the formation of alunite and hematite deposits on the autoclave walls. The AMAX Extractive Research & Development, Inc., metallurgical laboratory (Golden, Colorado) has made substantial improvements in the Moa Bay process in the area of metal recovery, energy consumption, and feed versatility. One of the advantages of AMAX's process is its ability to treat substantial portions of nickel-and magnesium-rich serpentine while maintaining acid utilization efficiency. Scale formation is minimized by combining staged acid addition with vigorous agitation and 270 °C operation. This paper describes how advantage can be taken of MgSO4· XH2O precipitation both to inhibit alunite scaling and to disperse hematite scale within the MgSO4 · XH2O matrix. Cooling the autoclave from its 270 ·C operating temperature down to 180 ·C takes advantage of the reverse solubility of magnesium sulfate. The magnesium dissolves, liberating entrained hematite, thus providing a means for control of autoclave scale with minimum process disruption.

  13. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  14. A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Leona T.Y.; Harris, Anthony M.; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Yagi, Naoto; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Caterson, Bruce; Quantock, Andrew J.; Young, Robert D.; Meek, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in collagen fibril architecture and the sulphation status of keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes from central to peripheral corneal regions. Freshly excised adult bovine corneal tissue was examined as a function of radial position from the centre of the cornea outwards. Corneal thickness, tissue hydration, hydroxyproline content, and the total amount of sulphated GAG were all measured. High and low-sulphated epitopes of keratan sulphate were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by ELISA. Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) distributions were observed by immunohistochemistry following specific enzyme digestions. Electron microscopy and X-ray fibre diffraction were used to ascertain collagen fibril architecture. The bovine cornea was 1021 ± 5.42 μm thick at its outer periphery, defined as 9–12 mm from the corneal centre, compared to 844 ± 8.10 μm at the centre. The outer periphery of the cornea was marginally, but not significantly, more hydrated than the centre (H = 4.3 vs. H = 3.7), and was more abundant in hydroxyproline (0.12 vs. 0.06 mg/mg dry weight of cornea). DMMB assays indicated no change in the total amount of sulphated GAG across the cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of both high- and low-sulphated epitopes of KS, as well as DS, throughout the cornea, and CS only in the peripheral cornea before the limbus. Quantification by ELISA, disclosed that although both high- and low-sulphated KS remained constant throughout stromal depth at different radial positions, high-sulphated epitopes remained constant from the corneal centre to outer-periphery, whereas low-sulphated epitopes increased significantly. Both small angle X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis revealed that collagen fibril diameter remained relatively constant until the outer periphery was reached, after which fibrils became more widely spaced (from small angle x-ray diffraction analysis

  15. Peculiarities of physical and chemical processes of clinker formation in raw mixes with increased content of magnesium oxide in presence of barite waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, I. N.; Novosyolov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the influence of barite waste on clinker formation processes in raw mixes with the increased content of magnesium oxide. A by-product of the barite concentrate manufacture of Tolcheinskoye deposit has been used as a barite waste, its predominant content of barium sulphate BaSO4 amounts to 76,11%. The impact of BaO and SO3 has been revealed, particularly the impact of barium oxide on clinker formation processes in raw mixes with the increased content of magnesium oxide. It has been clarified that the addition of barite waste into a raw mix causes the formation of dicalcium silicate in two modifications, reduces the amount of alite and influences on the composition of tricalcium aluminate. Barium mono-alluminate is formed in the composition of the intermediate material. Solid solutions with barium oxide are formed in clinker phases. The authors have determined the saturation speed of calcium oxide in magnesium-bearing raw mixes with saturation coefficient (SC) 0,91 and 0,80 in the presence of 2 and 3% barite waste in the temperature range 1300-1450°C.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the sulphate-halide mineral sulphohalite - implications for evaporites.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L

    2014-12-10

    The mineral sulphohalite - Na6(SO4)2FCl is a rare sodium halogen sulphate and occurs associated with evaporitic deposits. Sulphohalite formation is important in saline evaporites and in pipe scales. Sulphohalite is an anhydrous sulphate-halide with an apparent variable anion ratio of formula Na6(SO4)2FCl. Such a formula with oxyanions lends itself to vibrational spectroscopy. The Raman band at 1003cm(-1) is assigned to the (SO4)(2-) ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Shoulders to this band are found at 997 and 1010cm(-1). The low intensity Raman bands at 1128, 1120 and even 1132cm(-1) are attributed to the (SO4)(2-) ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Two symmetric sulphate stretching modes are observed indicating at least at the molecular level the non-equivalence of the sulphate ions in the sulphohalite structure. The Raman bands at 635 and 624cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 SO4(2-) bending modes. The ν2 (SO4)(2-) bending modes are observed at 460 and 494cm(-1). The observation of multiple bands supports the concept of a reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C3v or even C2v. No evidence of bands attributable to the halide ions was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nature of the interaction of chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin sulphate–proteoglycan with collagen

    PubMed Central

    Öbrink, Björn; Wasteson, Åke

    1971-01-01

    The electrostatic interaction of chondroitin sulphate and the chondroitin sulphate–proteoglycan with collagen was studied by chromatography of the glycosaminoglycan and the proteoglycan on a collagen gel. The observed binding between the macromolecules increased with decreasing pH and ionic strength, and was significant under physiological conditions. A study of the interaction between chondroitin sulphate and a preparation of soluble collagen, with a partition-equilibrium technique, afforded similar results. PMID:4256063

  18. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  1. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  2. Isobolographic analysis of the interaction between cadmium (II) and sodium sulphate: toxicological consequences.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Sulphate is an essential nutrient for autotrophic organisms and has been shown to have important implications in certain processes of tolerance to cadmium toxicity. Sodium sulphate is the main salt of sulphate in the natural environments. The concentration of this salt is increasing in the aquatic environments due to environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate, using an analysis of isobolograms, the type and the degree of the interaction between Cd(II) and sodium sulphate in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Two blocks of experiments were performed, one at sub-optimal sodium sulphate concentrations (<14.2 mg/L) and the other at supra-optimal concentrations (>14.2 mg/L). Three fixed ratios (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of the individual EC50 for cadmium and sodium sulphate were used within each block. The isobolographic analysis of interaction at sub-optimal concentrations showed a stronger antagonistic effect with values of interaction index (γ) between 1.46 and 3.4. However, the isobologram with sodium sulphate at supra-optimal concentrations revealed a slight but significant synergistic effect between both chemicals with an interaction index between 0.54 and 0.64. This synergic effect resulted in the potentiation of the toxic effects of cadmium, synergy that was related to the increase of the ionic strength and of two species of cadmium, CdSO4 (aq), and Cd(SO4)2(2-) , in the medium. Results of the current study suggest that sodium sulphate is able to perform a dual antagonist/synergist effect on cadmium toxicity. This role was concentration dependent.

  3. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  4. Daily magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentration among Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. The mean (+/-standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (+/-132), 323 (+/-163), and 322 (+/-147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (+/-standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (+/-2.83), 20.69 (+/-2.88), and 20.69 (+/-2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log(10)X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed.

  5. Renal excretion in channel catfish following injection of quinaldine sulphate or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Hunn, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, injected intraperitoneally with 2-methyl-quinoline sulphate (QdSO4) or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) eliminate most of the dose of these compounds by extra-renal routes. Patterns of renal excretion of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (pEq kg-1 h-1) appeared to be associated with the 'stress' of the urine collection technique rather than with the elimination of either compound. Concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (mEq/1) were determined in urine, plasma and gall bladder bile.

  6. The Effect of Sulphate Anions on the Ultrafine Titania Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsyubynsky, Volodymyr O.; Myronyuk, Ivan F.; Chelyadyn, Volodymyr L.; Hrubiak, Andriy B.; Moklyak, Volodymyr V.; Fedorchenko, Sofia V.

    2017-05-01

    The phenomenological model of sulphate anions effect on the nanodispersed titania synthesis during hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was studied. It was proposed that both chelating and bridging bidentate complexes formation between sulphate anions and octahedrally coordinated [Ti(OH)h(OH2)6-h](4-h)+ mononers is the determinative factor for anatase phase nucleation.

  7. Daily Magnesium Intake and Serum Magnesium Concentration among Japanese People

    PubMed Central

    Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Background The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. Methods The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. Results The mean (±standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (±132), 323 (±163), and 322 (±147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (±2.83), 20.69 (±2.88), and 20.69 (±2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log10X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. Conclusion The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed. PMID:18635902

  8. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  9. Regulation of Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase 1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Michael A.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    It was previously reported that magnesium ion inhibited carbonic anhydrase (Bamberger and Avron 1975 Plant Physiol 56: 481-485). Studies with partially purified carbonic anhydrase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts show that the effect was the result of the chloride counterion and not the magnesium ion. Enzyme activity was reduced 50% upon addition of 3 to 10 millimolar MgCl2 or KCl while all additions of MgSO4 between 0.3 and 10 millimolar were mildly stimulatory. PMID:16663052

  10. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulphate partitioning into calcite: Experimental verification of pH control and application to seasonality in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Borsato, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy; Frisia, Silvia; Baldini, James U. L.

    2018-04-01

    Carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS) is a useful carrier of palaeoenvironmental information throughout the geologic record, particularly through its stable isotope composition. However, a paucity of experimental data restricts quantitative understanding of sulphate incorporation into carbonates, and consequently CAS concentrations and their diagenetic modifications are rarely interpreted. However, in the case of calcite speleothems, the remarkably high-resolution CAS records which are obtainable via modern microanalytical techniques represent a potentially invaluable source of palaeoenvironmental information. Here, we describe the results of controlled experiments of sulphate co-precipitation with calcite in freshwater solutions where pH, saturation state, and sulphate concentration were varied independently of each other. Solution pH is confirmed as the principal control on sulphate incorporation into calcite. The relative efficiency of incorporation was calculated as a partition coefficient DSO4 = (mSO4/mCO3)solid/(mSO4/mCO3)solution. High crystal growth rates (driven by either pH or saturation state) encouraged higher values of DSO4 because of an increasing concentration of defect sites on crystal surfaces. At low growth rates, DSO4 was reduced due to an inferred competition between sulphate and bicarbonate at the calcite surface. These experimental results are applied to understand the incorporation of sulphate into speleothem calcite. The experimentally determined pH-dependence suggests that strong seasonal variations in cave air PCO2 could account for annual cycles in sulphate concentration observed in stalagmites. Our new experimentally determined values of DSO4 were compared with DSO4 values calculated from speleothem-drip water monitoring from two caves within the Austrian and Italian Alps. At Obir cave, Austria, DSO4 (×105) varies between 11.1 (winter) and 9.0 (summer) and the corresponding figures for Ernesto cave, Italy, are 15.4 (winter) and 14

  12. Metabolism of dietary sulphate: absorption and excretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Florin, T; Neale, G; Gibson, G R; Christl, S U; Cummings, J H

    1991-01-01

    Dietary sulphate may affect colonic pathophysiology because sulphate availability determines in part the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in the bowel. The main product of sulphate reducing bacterial oxidative metabolism, hydrogen sulphide, is potentially toxic. Although it is generally believed that the sulphate ion is poorly absorbed, there are no available data on how much sulphate reaches the colon nor on the relative contributions from diet and endogenous sources. To resolve these questions, balance studies were performed on six healthy ileostomists and three normal subjects chosen because they did not have detectable sulphate reducing bacteria in their faeces. The subjects were fed diets which varied in sulphate content from 1.6-16.6 mmol/day. Sulphate was measured in diets, faeces (ileal effluent in ileostomists), and urine by anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detection. Overall there was net absorption of dietary sulphate, with the absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract plateauing at 5 mmol/day in the ileostomists and exceeding 16 mmol/day in the normal subjects. Endogenous secretion of sulphate in the upper gastrointestinal tract was from 0.96-2.6 mmol/day. The dietary contribution to the colonic sulphate pool ranged up to 9 mmol/day, there being linear identity between diet and upper gastrointestinal losses for intakes above 7 mmol/day. Faecal losses of sulphate were trivial (less than 0.5 mmol/day) in the normal subjects at all doses. It is concluded that diet and intestinal absorption are the principal factors affecting the amounts of sulphate reaching the colon. Endogenous secretion of sulphate by colonic mucosa may also be important in determining amounts of sulphate in the colon. PMID:1855683

  13. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  14. Stem/Progenitor Cell Proteoglycans Decorated with 7-D-4, 4-C-3 and 3-B-3(-) Chondroitin Sulphate Motifs Are Morphogenetic Markers Of Tissue Development.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Anthony J; Smith, Susan M; Caterson, Bruce; Melrose, James

    2018-06-11

    This study reviewed the occurrence of chondroitin sulphate (CS) motifs 4-C-3, 7-D-4 and 3-B-3(-) which are expressed by progenitor cells in tissues undergoing morphogenesis. These motifs have a transient early expression pattern during tissue development and also appear in mature tissues during pathological remodeling and attempted repair processes by activated adult stem cells. The CS motifs are information and recognition modules, which may regulate cellular behavior and delineate stem cell niches in developmental tissues. One of the difficulties in determining the precise role of stem cells in tissue development and repair processes is their short engraftment period and the lack of specific markers, which differentiate the activated stem cell lineages from the resident cells. The CS sulphation motifs 7-D-4, 4-C-3 and 3-B-3 (-) decorate cell surface proteoglycans on activated stem/progenitor cells and appear to identify these cells in transitional areas of tissue development and in tissue repair and may be applicable to determining a more precise role for stem cells in tissue morphogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 AlphaMed Press.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4) occurs naturally as... a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate. Heating these...

  16. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz; Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was usedmore » for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.« less

  17. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... magnesium oxide. Heating the salts under more rigorous conditions (1200 °C for 12 hours) produces heavy...

  18. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of sorption of 2.4-dichlorophenol onto 2 mixtures: bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (BC) and hydroxyapatite plus bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (HBC), in a fluidized bed circulation column

    DOE PAGES

    Alamin, Ahmed Hassan; Kaewsichan, Lupong

    2016-06-30

    Sorption studies were carried out to investigate removal of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) from aqueous solution in a fluidized bed by two types of adsorbent mixtures: BC (Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate), and HBC (Hydroxyapatite plus Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate); both manufactured in ball shape. The main material bamboo char was characterized by FTIR, DTA and SEM. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed circulation column. Adsorption, isotherms and kinetic studies were established under 180 min operating process time, at different initial 2.4-DCP solution concentrations ranging from 5–10 mg/L, and at different flow rates ranging from 0.25–0.75 L/min. Themore » data obtained fitted well for both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; indicating favorable condition of monolayer adsorption. The kinetics of both adsorbents complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. BC was proven a new effective composite and low cost adsorbent which can be applied in the field of wastewater treatment, and it can also play an important role in industry water treatment« less

  19. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of sorption of 2.4-dichlorophenol onto 2 mixtures: bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (BC) and hydroxyapatite plus bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (HBC), in a fluidized bed circulation column

    SciTech Connect

    Alamin, Ahmed Hassan; Kaewsichan, Lupong

    Sorption studies were carried out to investigate removal of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) from aqueous solution in a fluidized bed by two types of adsorbent mixtures: BC (Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate), and HBC (Hydroxyapatite plus Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate); both manufactured in ball shape. The main material bamboo char was characterized by FTIR, DTA and SEM. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed circulation column. Adsorption, isotherms and kinetic studies were established under 180 min operating process time, at different initial 2.4-DCP solution concentrations ranging from 5–10 mg/L, and at different flow rates ranging from 0.25–0.75 L/min. Themore » data obtained fitted well for both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; indicating favorable condition of monolayer adsorption. The kinetics of both adsorbents complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. BC was proven a new effective composite and low cost adsorbent which can be applied in the field of wastewater treatment, and it can also play an important role in industry water treatment« less

  20. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate hydroxide. It is a white...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  4. Vacuum FTIR Observation on the Dynamic Hygroscopicity of Aerosols under Pulsed Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chun-Bo; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Chen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2015-08-04

    A novel approach based on a combination of a pulse RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) was utilized to investigate dynamic hygroscopicity of two atmospheric aerosols: ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). In this approach, rapid-scan infrared spectra of water vapor and aerosols were obtained to determine relative humidity (RH) in sample cell and hygroscopic property of aerosols with a subsecond time resolution. Heterogeneous nucleation rates of (NH4)2SO4 were, for the first time, measured under low RH conditions (<35% RH). In addition, studies of MgSO4 aerosols revealed that water mass transport may be limited by different processes depending on RH values (surface limited at 40% < RH < 52% and bulk phase limited at RH < 40%). Furthermore, we are also the first to report water diffusion constants in micron size MgSO4 aerosols at very low RH values. Our results have shown that the PRHCS-RSVFTIR is well-suited for determination of hygroscopicity of atmospheric aerosols and water transport and nucleation kinetics of liquid aerosols.

  5. Aluminum and sulphate removal by a highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Taborda, Rita; Silva, Gonçalo; Assunção, Ana; Matos, António Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2012-09-01

    A highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community was isolated from sludge of the wetland of Urgeiriça mine (community W). This community showed excellent sulphate removal at the presence of Al³⁺. After 27 days of incubation, 73, 86 and 81% of sulphate was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. Moreover, Al³⁺ was simultaneously removed: 55, 85 and 78% of metal was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. The dissociation of aluminium-lactate soluble complexes due to lactate consumption by dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria can be responsible for aluminum removal, which probably precipitates as insoluble aluminium hydroxide. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that this community was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. However, bacteria affiliated to Proteus and Ralstonia were also present in the community.

  6. Magnesium for treating sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Than, Nan Nitra; Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Palaniappan, Senthil K; Abas, Adinegara Bl; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2017-04-14

    included five randomized placebo-controlled studies with a total of 386 participants (aged three to 53 years). Two shorter parallel studies (n = 306) compared intravenous magnesium sulphate to placebo (normal saline) for admission to hospital due to a vaso-occlusive crisis, for which we were able to analyse data. The quality of evidence was moderate for studies presenting this comparison mainly due to limitations due to risk of bias and imprecision. Two of the three longer-term studies comparing oral magnesium pidolate to placebo had a cross-over design. The third was a parallel factorial study which compared hydroxyurea and oral magnesium to each other and to placebo over a longer period of time; we only present the comparison of oral magnesium to placebo from this study. The quality of evidence was very low with uncertainty of the estimation.The eight-hourly dose levels in the two studies of intravenous magnesium were different; one used 100 mg/kg while the second used 40 mg/kg. Only one of these studies (n = 104) reported the mean daily pain score while hospitalised (a non-significant difference between groups, moderate quality evidence). The second study (n = 202) reported a number of child- and parent-reported quality of life scores. None of the scores showed any difference between treatment groups (low quality evidence). Data from one study (n = 106) showed no difference in length of stay in hospital between groups (low quality evidence). Both studies reported on adverse events, but not defined by severity as we had planned. One study showed significantly more participants receiving intravenous magnesium experienced warmth at infusion site compared to placebo; there were no differences between groups for other adverse events (low quality evidence).Three studies (n = 80) compared oral magnesium pidolate to placebo. None of them reported data which we were able to analyse. One study (n = 24) reported on the number of painful days and stated there was no difference

  7. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  8. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  9. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Department of Materials, Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed andmore » that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.« less

  10. [Heparan sulphates, amyloidosis and neurodegeneration].

    PubMed

    Vera, C; Alvarez-Orozco, J A; Maiza, A; Chantepie, S; Chehin, R N; Ouidja, M O; Papy-Garcia, D

    2017-11-16

    A number of neurodegenerative disorders have been linked directly to the accumulation of amyloid fibres. These fibres are made up of proteins or peptides with altered structures and which join together in vivo in association with heparan sulphate-type polysaccharides. To examine the most recent concepts in the biology of heparan sulphates and their role in the aggregation of the peptide Abeta, of tau protein, of alpha-synuclein and of prions. The study also seeks to analyse their implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and prion diseases. In vitro, heparan sulphates have played an important role in the process of oligomerisation and fibrillation of amyloidogenic proteins or peptides, in the stabilisation of these bodies and their resistance to proteolysis, thereby participating in the formation of a wide range of amyloid fibres. Heparan sulphates have also been related to the internalisation of pro-amyloid fibres during the process of intercellular propagation (spreading), which is considered to be crucial in the development of proteinopathies, the best example of which is Alzheimer's disease. This study suggests that the fine structures of heparan sulphates, their localisation in cells and tissues, together with their local concentration, may regulate the amyloidosis processes. The advances made in the understanding of this area of glyconeurobiology will make it possible to improve the understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  12. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in themore » refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.« less

  13. Impact of intravenous magnesium infusion rate during ambulatory replacements on serum magnesium concentrations after allogeneic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Matthew; Shillingburg, Alexandra; Newton, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi; Kanate, Abraham S; Craig, Michael; Cumpston, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    For an outpatient cancer center to operate efficiently, optimizing the use of chair time is essential. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients are seen frequently in this setting after hospital discharge and regularly for several months thereafter. Aggressive electrolyte replacement is commonly required in these patients, primarily due to renal wasting with calcineurin inhibitor use. Frequent intravenous (IV) magnesium repletion, requiring several hours of infusion time, is often needed in these patients to adequately manage their magnesium deficiencies. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of extending the infusion rate of intravenous magnesium sulfate on the frequency and degree of IV magnesium replacements required in allo-HCT recipients. We conducted a retrospective study to compare two cohorts of patients administered IV magnesium sulfate at a rate of 4 g/1 h versus 4 g/2 h. A total of 103 continuous patients were assessed in two groups as cohort 1 at the 4 g/1 h rate and cohort 2 at the 4 g/2 h rate. Cohort 1 required less IV magnesium per outpatient visit (median 2.2 vs. 2.9 g/visit, P = 0.0211) and less total IV magnesium replacement through day +100 (median 68 vs. 85 g, P = 0.0479) than cohort 2. These data suggest that there is no apparent benefit of prolonging magnesium infusion from 1 to 2 h in our outpatient allo-HCT population.

  14. Infrared Spectra of Hydrated Magnesium Salts and their Role in the Search for Possible Life Conditions on Jupiter Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Huo, Winifred M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent observations from the Galileo satellite indicate that three of the Jupiter moons, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, may have subsurface oceans. Possible existence of such ocean and the nature of its composition are of great interest to astrobiologists. Data from Galileo's NIMS spectrometer indicate the possibility of hydrated salts on Europa's surface. To aid in the design of future missions, we investigated infrared spectra of MgSO4-nH20, n=1-3 using ab initio calculations. Geometry, energetics, dipole moments, vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of pure and hydrated MgSO4 salts were determined. Significant differences are found between vibrational spectra of water molecules in complexes with MgSO4 and pure water. Some of the O-H stretching frequencies in the complexes are shifted to the red by up to 1,500 - 2,000 per cm. In addition, the SO2 stretching vibrations are found at lower frequency regions than the water vibrations. The calculated bands of water and SO2 fragments can serve as markers for the existence of the salt-water complexes on the surface of Jupiter's moon.

  15. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    PubMed Central

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  17. Effects of a magnesium-free dialysate on magnesium metabolism during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Shah, G M; Winer, R L; Cutler, R E; Arieff, A I; Goodman, W G; Lacher, J W; Schoenfeld, P Y; Coburn, J W; Horowitz, A M

    1987-10-01

    While the use of magnesium-containing compounds is usually contraindicated in dialysis patients, the risk of toxicity from hypermagnesemia can be reduced by lowering the magnesium concentration in dialysate. We examined the effects of a magnesium-free dialysate on both serum magnesium level and the peritoneal removal rate of magnesium over 12 weeks in 25 stable patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). After 2 weeks, the serum magnesium level decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 mg/dL (0.9 to 0.8 mmol/L) (P less than .02) and the peritoneal removal rate increased from 66 to 83 mg/d (2.8 to 3.5 mmol/d) (P less than .05), with both values remaining stable thereafter. There was a strong association between these parameters (r = -0.62, P less than .05), suggesting that the serum magnesium level decreased as a result of the initial increased peritoneal removal rate. For an additional 4-week period, a subgroup of nine patients received magnesium-containing, phosphate binding agents instead of those containing only aluminum. During this phase, serum inorganic phosphorus was well controlled. The serum magnesium level increased only from 1.8 to 2.5 mg/dL (0.7 to 1.0 mmol/L) (P less than .05), due in great part to the concomitant 41% rise in peritoneal magnesium removal from 91 to 128 mg/d (3.8 to 5.3 mmol/d) (P less than .05). No toxicity was noted during the entire 16-week study period, nor did serum calcium change. Thus, serum magnesium levels remained within an acceptable range as magnesium-containing phosphate binders were given through the use of magnesium-free peritoneal dialysate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  19. Prevention of malathion-induced depletion of cardiac cells mitochondrial energy and free radical damage by a magnetic magnesium-carrying nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Hoda; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Hosseini, Asieh; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Bayrami, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The present work was designed to examine the effect of a new (25)Mg(2+)-carrying nanoparticle (PMC16) on energy and oxidative stress parameters inside the heart of the rats exposed to acute mild toxic dose of malathion, a widely used organophosphate. Post a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of malathion (0.25 of LD50), PMC16 at different doses (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 of LD50) was administered intravenously (iv) as a supplement to standard therapy of atropine and pralidoxime. MgSO(4) was used as another supplement for comparison with PMC16. Oxidative stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), ATP/ADP ratio, and Mg in the cardiac cells were determined. Results indicated a significant increase in LPO, ROS, ADP/ATP ratio, and a decrease in Mg post-malathion poisoning in comparison to controls. All of these parameters were improved by use of standard therapy either with MgSO4 or various doses of PMC16. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx did not change significantly in the present acute malathion poisoning model and neither MgSO(4) or PMC16 had no considerable improvement on these parameters. Comparing groups that received normal Mg and those of various doses of PMC16, a significant difference was found with the PMC16 (0.2 LD50) group. PMC16 0.2 reduced cardiac cells LPO and ROS of Mal-exposed animals rather than that of MgSO4. PMC16 0.2 was also significantly better than MgSO(4) in improving MAL-induced changes in ADP/ATP ratio and also intracellular Mg levels. This study illustrates that malathion-induced cardiac cells toxicity is improved by administration of Mg as a result of increasing cardiac ATP through active transport of Mg inside the cells. Finally, the results of this study support positive effects of this magnetic Mg nanoparticle carrier but do not confirm its absolute efficacy that remains to be explored by

  20. Biochemical properties of a keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan expressed in primate pluripotent stem cells*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Susan; Bennett, William; Andrade, Jessica; Reubinoff, Benjamin E; Thomson, James; Pera, Martin F

    2002-01-01

    We previously identified a pericellular matrix keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present on the surface of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells, cells whose differentiation mimics early development. Antibodies reactive with various epitopes on this molecule define a cluster of differentiation markers for primate pluripotent stem cells. We describe the purification of a form of this molecule which is secreted or shed into the culture medium. Biochemical analysis of the secreted form of this molecule shows that the monomeric form, whilst containing keratan sulphate, resembles mucins in its structure and its modification with O-linked carbohydrate. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting data show that monkey and human pluripotent stem cells react with antibodies directed against epitopes on either carbohydrate side chains or the protein core of the molecule. PMID:12033730

  1. Quantification of 19-nortestosterone sulphate and boldenone sulphate in urine from male horses using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grace, Philip B; Drake, Erica C; Teale, Philip; Houghton, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Following administration of the anabolic steroid 19-nortestosterone or its esters to the horse, a major urinary metabolite is 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The detection of 19-nortestosterone in urine from untreated animals has led to it being considered a naturally occurring steroid in the male horse. Recently, we have demonstrated that the majority of the 19-nortestosterone found in extracts of 'normal' urine from male horses arises as an artefact through decarboxylation of the 19-carboxylic acid of testosterone. The aim of this investigation was to establish if direct analysis of 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) had potential for the detection of 19-nortestosterone misuse in the male horse. The high concentrations of sulphate conjugates of the female sex hormones naturally present in male equine urine were overcome by selective hydrolysis of the aryl sulphates using glucuronidase from Helix pomatia; this was shown to have little or no activity for alkyl sulphates such as 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The 'free' phenolic steroids were removed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to LC/MS/MS analysis. The method also allowed for the quantification of the sulphate conjugate of boldenone, a further anabolic steroid endogenous in the male equine with potential for abuse in sports. The method was applied to the quantification of these analytes in a population of samples. This paper reports the results of that study along with the development and validation of the LC/MS/MS method. The results indicate that while 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate is present at low levels as an endogenous substance in urine from 'normal' male horses, its use as an effective threshold substance may be viable.

  2. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  3. Intravenous magnesium sulfate with and without EDTA as a magnesium load test-is magnesium deficiency widespread?

    PubMed

    Waters, Robert S; Fernholz, Karen; Bryden, Noella A; Anderson, Richard A

    2008-09-01

    Serum/plasma measurements do not reflect magnesium deficits in clinical situations, and magnesium load tests are used as a more accurate method to identify magnesium deficiency in a variety of disease states as well as in subclinical conditions. The objective of this study was to determine if people are indeed magnesium deficient or if the apparent magnesium deficiency is due to the composition of the infusate used in the load test. Magnesium load tests were performed on seven patients using three different Mg solution infusions-a Mg-EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid)-nutrient cocktail used in EDTA chelation therapy containing several components including vitamins and minerals, and the same cocktail without EDTA and an infusion of an identical amount of magnesium in normal saline solution. There was no significant difference in the amount of magnesium retained in the 24 h after infusion among the three infusates. All infusates resulted in very high magnesium retention compared to previous published magnesium load studies. Magnesium deficiency may be widespread, and the relationship of Mg deficiency to related diseases requires further study.

  4. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process ismore » employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.« less

  5. The Association Between Calcium, Magnesium, and Ratio of Calcium/Magnesium in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Miao, Maohua; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Kanglian; Wu, Bin; Dai, Qi; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationships between calcium, magnesium, and calcium/magnesium ratio in semen plasma and sperm quality. It was a cross-sectional study based on a program aiming at promoting the reproductive health in less-developed areas. A total of 515 men aged between 18 and 55 years provided semen specimens at family planning clinics in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations in semen plasma were measured with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sperm quality, including sperm motility and concentration, was evaluated by using a computer-assisted sperm analysis method. The medians of seminal plasma calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were 9.61, 4.41, and 2.23 mmol/l, respectively. Calcium concentration and calcium/magnesium ratio were negatively associated with sperm concentrations (β = -0.47, P = 0.0123 for calcium; β = -0.25, P = 0.0393 for calcium/magnesium ratio) after adjusting for zinc and other covariates. In stratified analyses, the association between calcium and sperm concentrations only persisted among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of ≤2.5 (β = -0.71, P = 0.0268). In the same stratum, magnesium was associated with increased sperm concentration (β = 0.73, P = 0.0386). Among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of >2.5, neither calcium nor magnesium was associated with sperm concentration. In conclusion, total calcium and magnesium concentrations were associated with sperm concentration among subjects with a lower calcium/magnesium ratio. The calcium and magnesium ratio had a modifying effect on the associations of calcium and magnesium with sperm concentration.

  6. Magnesium Gluconate

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  7. Metastable bcc mischmetal-magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sabariz, A.L.R.

    1989-02-01

    The bcc phase in the MM-Mg system can be metastably retained at room temperature for magnesium composition within the range 16 at.% - 20 at.%. The retention of a lower composition was restricted by quenching rate and at higher concentrations by intermetallic compound precipitation. The lattice parameter for the pure bcc mischmetal phase was determined by extrapolation. The value obtained (a/sub E/ = 4.131 /angstrom/) was in good agreement with the theoretical value (a/sub t/ = 4.156 /angstrom/). Magnetic susceptibility data suggested that bcc mischmetal-magnesium alloys underwent a change from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic behavior on cooling at /approximately/20 K, independentmore » of magnesium composition. The value found for the magnetic effective moment per gram-atom-magnetic-rare earth of each bcc MM-Mg alloy examined (MM - 16 Mg, MM - 18 Mg and MM - 20 Mg) was found to be constant (p/sub eff/ approx. 1.62 ..mu../sub B/), independent of the magnesium composition. The observed Curie-Weiss temperature values decreasing with the magnesium content increasing were due to magnetic dilution. The equilibrium reaction bcc ..-->.. dhcp + MMMg presented an undercooling effect of /approximately/40/degree/C around the eutectoid composition (/approximately/17 at.% Mg). The sluggish character of this reaction was considered the strongest effect for the bcc structure retention in the mischmetal-magnesium system. 16 refs., 27 figs.« less

  8. Sulphation of secreted phosphoprotein I (SPPI, osteopontin) is associated with mineralized tissue formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, T.; Todescan, R.; Goldberg, H.A.

    Secreted phosphoprotein I (SPPI) is a prominent structural protein in mineralized connective tissues. Rat bone cells in culture produce several forms of SPPI that differ in post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and sulphation. To determine the significance of protein sulphation in bone formation, the synthesis of SPPI was studied in vitro using rat bone marrow cells (RBMC) which form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of dexamethasone (Dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP). In the presence of 10(-7) M Dex SPPI expression was stimulated 4-5-fold. Radiolabelling multilayered RBMCs for 48 h with (35S)-methionine, Na2(35SO4), or Na3(32PO4) revealed that two major phosphorylatedmore » forms of SPPI were secreted into the culture medium: a highly phosphorylated form migrating at 44 kDa on 15% SDS-PAGE and a less phosphorylated 55 kDa form. In the mineralized tissue formed in the presence of Dex and beta-GP, both forms of SPPI, in addition to proteoglycans and a 67 kDa protein, incorporated significant amounts of (35SO4). Sulphation of SPPI was not observed in the absence of mineral formation, indicating that the sulphation of SPPI is closely associated with mineralization and that it can be used as a sensitive and specific marker for the osteoblastic phenotype.« less

  9. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  10. Novel Bio-functional Magnesium Coating on Porous Ti6Al4V Orthopaedic Implants: In vitro and In vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Gao, Peng; Wan, Peng; Pei, Yifeng; Shi, Lei; Fan, Bo; Shen, Chao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Ke; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys with various porous structures are one of the most important metals used in orthopaedic implants due to favourable properties as replacement for hard tissues. However, surface modification is critical to improve the osteointegration of titanium and its alloys. In this study, a bioactive magnesium coating was successfully fabricated on porous Ti6Al4V by means of arc ion plating, which was proved with fine grain size and high film/substrate adhesion. The surface composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Furthermore, the in vitro study of cytotoxicity and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells showed that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V had suitable degradation and biocompatibility. Moreover, the in vivo studies including fluorescent labelling, micro-computed tomography analysis scan and Van-Gieson staining of histological sections indicated that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V could significantly promote bone regeneration in rabbit femoral condylar defects after implantation for 4 and 8 weeks, and has better osteogenesis and osteointegration than the bare porous Ti6Al4V. Therefore, it is expected that this bioactive magnesium coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with improved osteointegration and osteogenesis functions can be used for orthopedic applications. PMID:28102294

  11. The origin of sulphur in gypsum and dissolved sulphate in the Central Namib Desert, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, F. D.; Spiro, B.

    1999-02-01

    This study investigates the sulphur source of gypsum sulphate and dissolved groundwater sulphate in the Central Namib Desert, home to one of Africa's most extensive gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) accumulations. It investigates previously suggested sulphate precursors such as bedrock sulphides and decompositional marine biogenic H 2S and studies the importance of other potential sources in order to determine the origin of gypsum and dissolved sulphate in the region. An attempt has been made to sample all possible sulphur sources, pathways and types of gypsum accumulations in the Central Namib Desert. We have subjected those samples to sulphur isotopic analyses and have compiled existing results. In addition, ionic ratios of Cl/SO 4 are used to determine the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) sulphur in groundwater and to investigate processes affecting groundwater sulphate. In contrast to previous work, this study proposes that the sulphur cycle, and the formation of gypsum, in the Namib Desert appears to be dominated by the deposition of atmospheric sulphates of phytoplanktonic origin, part of the primary marine production of the Benguela upwelling cells. The aerosol sulphates are subjected to terrestrial storage within the gypsum deposits on the hyper-arid gravel plain and are traceable in groundwater including coastal sabkhas. The hypothesis of decompositional marine biogenic H 2S or bedrock sulphide sources, as considered previously for the Namib Desert, cannot account for the widespread accumulation of gypsum in the region. The study area in the Central Namib Desert, between the Kuiseb and Omaruru rivers, features extensive gypsum accumulations in a ca. 50-70 km wide band, parallel to the shore. They consist of surficial or shallow pedogenic gypsum crusts in the desert pavement, hydromorphic playa or sabkha gypsum, as thin isolated pockets on bedrock ridges and as discrete masses of gypsum selenite along some faults. The sulphur isotopic values (δ 34S ‰CDT) of these

  12. Laboratory Study of Methane Flux from Acid Sulphate Soil in South Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annisa, W.; Cahyana, D.; Syahbuddin, H.; Rachman, A.

    2017-06-01

    Addition of organic matter in waterlogged conditions will enhance methanogenesis process that produces greenhouse gases. Fresh organic material is considered reactive because it contains carbons that is subject to decompose, therefore, when it exposed to acid sulphate soil, both in natural condition (aeration required) and intensive (aeration not required) will lower the value of redox potential. This experiment aimed to determine the flux of methane (CH4) from various locally available organic materials applied to acid sulphate soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial design with two factors. The first factor was the source of organic matter, i.e. fresh rice straw, fresh purun, fresh cattle manure, composted rice straw, composted purun and composted cattle manure, and control. The second factor was the management of organic matter i.e. placed on the soil surface with no tillage and mixed with soil during tillage. The results showed that application of fresh organic matter into inundated acid sulphate soil increased CH4 fluxes up to 23.78 µg CH4 g1 d1 which was higher than from composted organic matter (4.327 µg CH4.g1.d1). Methane flux due to organic matter management was significantly negatively (p=0.001) correlated with soil redox potential (Eh) with R2 of - 0.76. Organic matter placed on the soil surface with no tillage produced methane flux ranged from 0.33 to 20.78 g CH4 g1 d1, which was lower than methane flux produced from organic matter mixed with soil during tillage (0.38 to 27.27 g CH4 g1 d1). Composting organic matter before application and mixing them with the soil through tillage are highly recommended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated acid sulphate soils.

  13. Magnesium-DNA interactions and the possible relation of magnesium to carcinogenesis. Irradiation and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Anastassopoulou, J; Theophanides, T

    2002-04-01

    Magnesium deficiency causes renal complications. The appearance of several diseases is related to its depletion in the human body. In radiotherapy, as well as in chemotherapy, especially in treatment of cancers with cis-platinum, hypomagnesaemia is observed. The site effects of chemotherapy that are due to hypomagnesaemia are decreased using Mg supplements. The role of magnesium in DNA stabilization is concentration dependent. At high concentrations there is an accumulation of Mg binding, which induces conformational changes leading to Z-DNA, while at low concentration there is deficiency and destabilization of DNA. The biological and clinical consequences of abnormal concentrations are DNA cleavage leading to diseases and cancer. Carcinogenesis and cell growth are also magnesium-ion concentration dependent. Several reports point out that the interaction of magnesium in the presence of other metal ions showed that there is synergism with Li and Mn, but there is magnesium antagonism in DNA binding with the essential metal ions in the order: Zn>Mg>Ca. In the case of toxic metals such as Cd, Ga and Ni there is also antagonism for DNA binding. It was found from radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of the nucleoside 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) in the presence as well as in the absence of magnesium ions that, although the addition of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) has been increased by 2-fold, the opening of the imidazole ring of the guanine base was prevented. This effect was due to the binding of Mg2+ ions to N7 site of the molecule by stabilizing the five-member ring imitating cis-platinum. It was also observed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry that *OH radicals subtract H atoms from the C1', C4' and C5' sites of the nucleotide. Irradiation of 5'-GMP in the presence of oxygen (2.5 x 10(-4) M) shows that magnesium is released from the complex. There is spectroscopic evidence that

  14. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  15. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-12-07

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH(-) which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  16. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disease [bullet] a magnesium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201...., a magnesium or potassium-restricted diet. 1 See § 201.66(b)(4) of this chapter for definition of...

  17. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... disease [bullet] a magnesium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201...., a magnesium or potassium-restricted diet. 1 See § 201.66(b)(4) of this chapter for definition of...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disease [bullet] a magnesium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201...., a magnesium or potassium-restricted diet. 1 See § 201.66(b)(4) of this chapter for definition of...

  19. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  20. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  1. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  2. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  3. Timeline (Bioavailability) of Magnesium Compounds in Hours: Which Magnesium Compound Works Best?

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nazan; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Guvendi, Guven; Kandis, Sevim; Koc, Basar; Karakilic, Aslı; Camsari, Ulas M; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-04-21

    Magnesium is an element of great importance functioning because of its association with many cellular physiological functions. The magnesium content of foods is gradually decreasing due to food processing, and magnesium supplementation for healthy living has become increasingly popular. However, data is very limited on the bioavailability of various magnesium preparations. The aim of this study is to investigate the bioavailability of five different magnesium compounds (magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, magnesium acetyl taurate, magnesium citrate, and magnesium malate) in different tissues. Following a single dose 400 mg/70 kg magnesium administration to Sprague Dawley rats, bioavailability was evaluated by examining time-dependent absorption, tissue penetration, and the effects on the behavior of the animals. Pharmacokinetically, the area under the curve calculation is highest in the magnesium malate. The magnesium acetyl taurate was found to have the second highest area under the curve calculation. Magnesium acetyl taurate was rapidly absorbed, able to pass through to the brain easily, had the highest tissue concentration level in the brain, and was found to be associated with decreased anxiety indicators. Magnesium malate levels remained high for an extended period of time in the serum. The commonly prescribed dietary supplements magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate had the lowest bioavailability when compared to our control group. More research is needed to investigate the bioavailability of magnesium malate and acetyl taurate compounds and their effects in specific tissues and on behavior.

  4. Ganymede's internal structure including thermodynamics of magnesium sulfate oceans in contact with ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steve; Bouffard, Mathieu; Choukroun, Mathieu; Sotin, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The large icy moons of Jupiter contain vast quantities of liquid water, a key ingredient for life. Ganymede and Callisto are weaker candidates for habitability than Europa, in part because of the model-based assumption that high-pressure ice layers cover their seafloors and prevent significant water-rock interaction. Water-rock interactions may occur, however, if heating at the rock-ice interface melts the high pressure ice. Highly saline fluids would be gravitationally stable, and might accumulate under the ice due to upward migration, refreezing, and fractionation of salt from less concentrated liquids. To assess the influence of salinity on Ganymede's internal structure, we use available phase-equilibrium data to calculate activity coefficients and predict the freezing of water ice in the presence of aqueous magnesium sulfate. We couple this new equation of state with thermal profiles in Ganymede's interior-employing recently published thermodynamic data for the aqueous phase-to estimate the thicknesses of layers of ice I, III, V, and VI. We compute core and silicate mantle radii consistent with available constraints on Ganymede's mass and gravitational moment of inertia. Mantle radii range from 800 to 900 km for the values of salt and heat flux considered here (4-44 mW m-2 and 0 to 10 wt% MgSO4). Ocean concentrations with salinity higher than 10 wt% have little high pressure ice. Even in a Ganymede ocean that is mostly liquid, achieving such high ocean salinity is permissible for the range of likely S/Si ratios. However, elevated salinity requires a smaller silicate mantle radius to satisfy mass and moment-of-inertia constraints, so ice VI is always present in Ganymede's ocean. For lower values of heat flux, oceans with salinity as low as 3 wt% can co-exist with ice III. Available experimental data indicate that ice phases III and VI become buoyant for salinity higher than 5 wt% and 10 wt%, respectively. Similar behavior probably occurs for ice V at salinities

  5. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Syed Muhammad; Hussain, Tousif; Ahmad, Riaz; Siddiqui, Jamil; Ali, Dilawar

    2018-01-01

    In a quest to identify more economic routes for synthesis of magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) thin films, dense plasma focus device was used with multiple plasma focus shots. Structural, bonding between composite films, surface morphological, compositional and hardness properties of MAS thin films were investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) analysis and Vickers micro hardness test respectively. In XRD graph, the presence of MgAl2O4 diffraction peaks in crystallographic orientations (222), (400) and (622) pointed out the successful formation of polycrystalline thin films of MgAl2O4 with face centered cubic structure. The FTIR spectrums showed a major common transmittance band at 697.95 cm-1 which belongs to MgAl2O4. SEM micrographs illustrated a mesh type, granular and multi layers microstructures with significant melting effects. EDX spectrum confirmed the existence of magnesium, oxygen and aluminum in MAS films. A common increasing behavior in micro-hardness of composite MgAl2O4 films by increasing number of plasma focus shots was found.

  6. Quality of 4-hourly ejaculates--levels of calcium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Valsa, J; Skandhan, K P; Gusani, P H; Sahab Khan, P; Amith, S

    2013-02-01

    A four-hourly ejaculation study was conducted in which eleven normal healthy subjects participated. Five of them discontinued after submitting three samples. One alone was present for submission at the end of 16 h (fifth ejaculate), which was his last submission. Physical exhaustion was the sole reason for all participants for their discontinuation from the study. The result showed a decrease in semen volume and sperm count from first to last ejaculate. The increase in motility was probably due to reduction in exposure time to sperm motility inhibitory factors. In general, total motile spermatozoa as well as actively motile spermatozoa progressively increased from first to last ejaculate at the cost of sluggish spermatozoa. A significant increase in seminal plasma calcium and magnesium was seen as well as a significant increase in magnesium inside the cell from the first to the fourth ejaculate. Considering the quality of semen, which was good in sperm count and excellent in motility, calcium and magnesium may be helpful in cleaning motility inhibitory factors of spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breemen, N.; Burrough, P. A.; Velthorst, E. J.; van Dobben, H. F.; de Wit, Toke; Ridder, T. B.; Reijnders, H. F. R.

    1982-10-01

    Acid rain commonly has high concentrations of dissolved SO2-4, NH+4 and NO-3. Sulphuric and nitric acids are usually considered to be the acidic components, whereas ammonium has a tendency to increase the pH of rainwater1. Ammonium can be transformed to nitric acid in soil but this source of acidity is generally less important than wet and dry deposition of free acids2,3. Here we describe the occurrence of high concentrations of ammonium in canopy throughfall (rainwater falling through the tree canopy) and stemflow in woodland areas in the Netherlands, resulting in acid inputs to soils two to five times higher than those previously described for acid atmospheric deposition2-5. The ammonium is present as ammonium sulphate, which probably forms by interaction of ammonia (volatilized from manure) with sulphur dioxide (from fossil fuels), on the surfaces of vegetation. After leaching by rainwater the ammonium sulphate reaching the soil oxidizes rapidly to nitric and sulphuric acid, producing extremely low pH values (2.8-3.5) and high concentrations of dissolved aluminium in the non-calcareous soils studied. Deposition of ammonium sulphate on the surfaces of vegetation and its environmental consequences are probably most important in areas with intensive animal husbandry.

  8. Determination of chondroitin-6-sulphate by a competitive enzyme immunoassay using a biotinylated antigen.

    PubMed

    Kähnert, H; Brinkmann, T; Gässler, N; Kleesiek, K

    1994-04-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay was developed to determine chondroitin-6-sulphate in body fluids and cell cultures. The assay uses a monoclonal anti-chondroitin-6-sulphate antibody, immobilised to microtitre plates, and it involves a competitive binding reaction between chondroitin-6-sulphate in the samples and the biotinylated antigen. This assay enables the quantification of chondroitin-6-sulphate in the low concentration range of 16-120 micrograms/l. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation are below 6.5% and 9.0%, respectively. More than 90% of chondroitin-6-sulphate was recovered when added to 0.1 mol/l phosphate-buffered saline, an albumin solution (40 g/l in phosphate-buffered saline) and cell culture medium (containing 100 ml/l foetal calf serum). Chondroitin-6-sulphate was also determined in sera of healthy male (n = 90) and female (n = 90) blood donors. The normal range was 55-169 micrograms/l. In men the mean value was estimated at 102.2 +/- 37.1 micrograms/l and in women at 98.7 +/- 26.4 micrograms/l. No age or sex dependence was observed. The urine excretion of chondroitin-6-sulphate in men (n = 16) was 44.5 +/- 21.1 mg/kg creatinine (mean +/- standard deviation) and in females (n = 10) 53.5 +/- 21.3 mg/kg creatinine. The clearance rate in men was 0.41 +/- 0.22 ml x min-1 and in women 0.38 +/- 0.15 ml x min-1. No sex dependence was found. Furthermore, the enzyme immunoassay was modified to measure the specific incorporation of a radioactively labelled precursor ([14C]galactosamine) into chondroitin-6-sulphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Timescales for migration of atmospherically derived sulphate through an alpine/subalpine watershed, Loch Vale Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, Robert L.; Campbell, Donald H.; Clow, David W.; Turk, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Sulphur 35, a cosmogenically produced radioisotope with a short half‐life (87 days), was measured in snowpack during 1993–1997 and at four locations within the Loch Vale watershed during 1995–1997. The four sites include the two main drainages in the watershed, Andrews Creek and Icy Brook, a small south facing catchment flowing into Andrews Creek (Andrews Spring 1), and a similar north facing catchment flowing out of a scree field into Icy Brook (Spring 19). Concentrations ranged from a high of almost 50 mBq/L for a sample from Spring 19 in June 1996 to a concentration near the detection limit for a sample from Andrews Creek in April 1997. Sulphur 35 concentrations were normalized to sulphate (as mBq/mg SO4−2) and were decay‐corrected to a Julian day of 90 (April 1) for each year. Snowpack had the highest 35S concentration with an average concentration of 53 mBq/mg SO4−2. Concentrations in the streams were much lower, even when corrected for decay relative to JD 90. The large 35S concentrations found in Spring 19 were the result of increases in concentration due to sublimation and/or evapotranspiration and were lower than snowpack when normalized to sulphate. Using 35S concentrations found in snowpack as of JD 90 as a beginning concentration, the fraction of sulphate in streamflow that was derived from atmospheric deposition within the prior water year was estimated. For Icy Brook and Andrews Creek the fraction of the sulphate in streamflow derived from that year's snowpack and precipitation was low prior to the beginning of the main spring melt, reached a maximum during the period of maximum flow, and decreased as the summer progressed. A calculation of the seasonal flux indicated that about 40% of the sulphate that flowed out of the watershed was derived from atmospheric sulphate deposited during the previous year. This suggests that more than half of the sulphate deposited in the watershed by atmospheric processes during the previous year was

  10. OS033. Correlates of maternal health outcomes associated with a low-costintervention in secondary facilities across Kano state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Ahonsi, B; Salisu, I; Oginni, A B; Okereke, E

    2012-07-01

    Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Eclampsia is a major contributor to the deaths especially in Northern Nigeria where the culture of teenage marriage is common. Kano is the state with the highest population in Nigeria. Despite its effectiveness, magnesium sulphate was been used to treat eclampsia and severe preclampsia in only one of 35 general hospitals inthe state as at 2007. In 2008, magnesium sulphate was introduced in 10 General Hospitals in Kano state of Northern Nigeria in a Population Council project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The aim of the study was to determine if the maternal outcomes improved. Doctors and midwives from the 10 hospitals were trained on the use of magnesium sulphate. The trained health workers later conducted step down trainings at their health facilities. Magnesium sulphate, treatment protocol, patella hammer and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analysed using SPSS. Within a year of the project, 1045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9% (95% CI 18.7-23.2) recorded before the project to 2.3% (95%CI 1.5-3.5) after the project. The perinatal mortality rate in those that received magnesium sulphate was 12.3% (CI 10.4-14.5) while the 5min APGAR score for 72.9% of the babies was 7 or more. Training of health workers on updated evidence based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are key components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial System

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Agnew, Sean

    The TMS Magnesium Committee has been actively involved in presenting cutting-edge research and development and the latest trends related to magnesium and its alloys to industry and academia. Topics including magnesium alloy development, applications, mechanism of deformation and corrosion, thermomechanical processing, modelling, etc. have been captured year after year through the Magnesium Technology symposium and conference proceedings at TMS and through special topics in JOM. Every year, based on the unanimous endorsement from the industry and academia, a topic is selected to address the latest developments within this subject in JOM. In continuation with last year’s coverage of Advances andmore » Achievements in In-Situ Analysis of Corrosions and Structure–Property Relationship in Mg Alloys,[1] this year’s topic focuses on the Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial Systems. Magnesium, the lightest of all the structural materials, has garnered much interest in the transportation, electronics packaging, defense equipments and industries alike and are more commonly being incorporated in multimaterial design concepts.[2-4] However, the application of the same is limited due to its highly corrosive nature, and understanding and mitigating the corrosion of magnesium has been a major research challenge.« less

  12. Ionized magnesium in the planetary nebula NGC 7027

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N. J., II; Natta, A.; Russell, R. W.; Wyant, J.; Beckwith, S.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of NGC 7027 are presented for six ionic lines: Mg(+3) (4.48 microns), Mg(+4) (5.61 microns), H(0) (4.05 and 7.46 microns), Ne(+5) (7.64 microns), and Ar(+5) (4.53 microns). The magnesium lines are consistent with the measurements of Russell, Soifer, and Willner (1977), and the hydrogen lines are consistent with the line strengths predicted from the radio flux. Upper limits were obtained for the neon and argon lines. The abundance of magnesium in the central part of the nebula is highly uncertain because the fine-structure collision strengths are poorly known. The strong gradient of magnesium abundance from the inner to the outer portions of the nebula derived by Pequignot and Stasinska (1980) could be an artifact of this uncertainty. A brief analysis of the effective stellar temperature derived from the magnesium line ratios is given.

  13. Magnesium and extinction of dinosaurs. Was magnesium deficit a major cause?

    PubMed

    Durlach, J

    1991-01-01

    Chinese researchers have recently demonstrated that, before the extinction of dinosaurs, there was an impressive lowering in the magnesium concentration of fossil dinosaur eggshell. The structural and functional importance of eggshell magnesium--mainly in the cone layer--for embryonic viability and hatchability of oviparous species supports the hypothesis that magnesium deficit may have had a direct role in dinosaur extinction. Conversely this low magnesium concentration seems a questionable marker of magnesium deficit. The natural forces involved in the extinction of dinosaurs are more likely to induce magnesium depletion than magnesium deficiency. These very interesting preliminary data call for further research.

  14. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints. PMID:26383641

  16. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Placental sulphate transport: a review of functional and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B

    2012-08-01

    Sulphate is required by the feto-placental unit for a number of important conjugation and biosynthetic pathways. Functional studies performed several decades ago established that sulphate transport in human placental microvillus and basal membrane vesicles was mainly via a DIDS-sensitive anion-exchange mechanism. In contrast, no evidence was found for Na⁺-dependent transport. Studies performed using isolated human placental tissue confirmed anion-exchange as the main mechanism. More recently, molecular studies have established the presence of anion-exchange proteins which could play a role in transplacental sulphate movement. However, the presence of transcripts for NaS2 has been reported and has prompted the suggestion that Na⁺-sulphate cotransport may play an important role in maternal-fetal sulphate transport. This article reviews our present knowledge of placental sulphate transport, both functional and molecular, and attempts to form a model based on the available evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004). Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  19. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  20. Enhancement of indirect sulphation of limestone by steam addition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael C; Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J; Macchi, Arturo

    2010-11-15

    The effect of water (H₂O(g)) on in situ SO₂ capture using limestone injection under (FBC) conditions was studied using a thermobalance and tube furnace. The indirect sulphation reaction was found to be greatly enhanced in the presence of H₂O(g). Stoichiometric conversion of samples occurred when sulphated with a synthetic flue gas containing 15% H₂O(g) in under 10 h, which is equivalent to a 45% increase in conversion as compared to sulphation without H₂O(g). Using gas pycnometry and nitrogen adsorption methods, it was shown that limestone samples sulphated in the presence of H₂O(g) undergo increased particle densification without any significant changes to pore area or volume. The microstructural changes and observed increase in conversion were attributed to enhanced solid-state diffusion in CaO/CaSO₄ in the presence of H₂O(g). Given steam has been shown to have such a strong influence on sulphation, whereas it had been previously regarded as inert, may prompt a revisiting of the classically accepted sulphation models and phenomena. These findings also suggest that steam injection may be used to enhance sulfur capture performance in fluidized beds firing low-moisture fuels such as petroleum coke.

  1. A sulphur deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, involved in the utilization of stored sulphate pools under sulphur-limiting conditions has potential as a diagnostic indicator of sulphur nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Jonathan R; Parmar, Saroj; Barraclough, Peter B; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    A sulphate deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, has been identified by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis utilizing field-grown, nutrient-deficient wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Hereward). The expression of sdi1 was specifically induced in leaf and root tissues in response to sulphate deficiency, but was not induced by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium deficiency. Expression was also shown to increase in plant tissues as the external sulphate concentration in hydroponically grown plants was reduced from 1.0 to 0.0 mm. On this basis, sdi1 gene expression has potential as a sensitive indicator of sulphur nutritional status in wheat. Genome-walking techniques were used to clone the 2.7-kb region upstream of sdi1 from genomic DNA, revealing several cis-element motifs previously identified as being associated with sulphur responses in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene most highly homologous to sdi1 is At5g48850, which was also demonstrated to be induced by sulphur deficiency, an observation confirmed by the analysis of microarray data available in the public domain. The expression of Atsdi1 was induced more rapidly than previously characterized sulphur-responsive genes in the period immediately following the transfer of plants to sulphur-deficient medium. Atsdi1 T-DNA 'knockout' mutants were shown to maintain higher tissue sulphate concentrations than wild-type plants under sulphur-limiting conditions, indicating a role in the utilization of stored sulphate under sulphur-deficient conditions. The structural features of the sdi1 gene and its application in the genetic determination of the sulphur nutritional status of wheat crops are discussed.

  2. Regional and temporal variability of the isotope composition (O, S) of atmospheric sulphate in the region of Freiberg, Germany, and consequences for dissolved sulphate in groundwater and river water.

    PubMed

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Heidel, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The isotope composition of dissolved sulphate and strontium in atmospheric deposition, groundwater, mine water and river water in the region of Freiberg was investigated to better understand the fate of these components in the regional and global water cycle. Most of the isotope variations of dissolved sulphates in atmospheric deposition from three locations sampled bi- or tri-monthly can be explained by fractionation processes leading to lower [Formula: see text] (of about 2-3‰) and higher [Formula: see text] (of about 8-10‰) values in summer compared with the winter period. These samples showed a negative correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values and a weak positive correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values. They reflect the sulphate formed by aqueous oxidation from long-range transport in clouds. However, these isotope variations were superimposed by changes of the dominating atmospheric sulphate source. At two of the sampling points, large variations of mean annual [Formula: see text] values from atmospheric bulk deposition were recorded. From 2008 to 2009, the mean annual [Formula: see text] value increased by about 5‰; and decreased by about 4‰ from 2009 to 2010. A change in the dominating sulphate source or oxidation pathways of SO(2) in the atmosphere is proposed to cause these shifts. No changes were found in corresponding [Formula: see text] values. Groundwater, river water and some mine waters (where groundwater was the dominating sulphate source) also showed temporal shifts in their [Formula: see text] values corresponding to those of bulk atmospheric deposition, albeit to a lower degree. The mean transit time of atmospheric sulphur through the soil into the groundwater and river water was less than a year and therefore much shorter than previously suggested. Mining activities of about 800 years in the Freiberg region may have led to large subsurface areas with an enhanced groundwater

  3. Magnesium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of magnesium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for magnesium ( ...

  4. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Holler, Thomas; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wegener, Gunter; Pohlman, John W.; Brunner, Benjamin; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Elvert, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    Collectively, marine sediments comprise the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. The flux of methane from the sea bed to the overlying water column is mitigated by the sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbes within a discrete sedimentary horizon termed the sulphate-methane transition zone. According to conventional isotope systematics, the biological consumption of methane leaves a residue of methane enriched in 13C (refs , , ). However, in many instances the methane within sulphate-methane transition zones is depleted in 13C, consistent with the production of methane, and interpreted as evidence for the intertwined anaerobic oxidation and production of methane. Here, we report results from experiments in which we incubated cultures of microbial methane consumers with methane and low levels of sulphate, and monitored the stable isotope composition of the methane and dissolved inorganic carbon pools over time. Residual methane became progressively enriched in 13C at sulphate concentrations above 0.5 mM, and progressively depleted in 13C below this threshold. We attribute the shift to 13C depletion during the anaerobic oxidation of methane at low sulphate concentrations to the microbially mediated carbon isotope equilibration between methane and carbon dioxide. We suggest that this isotopic effect could help to explain the 13C-depletion of methane in subseafloor sulphate-methane transition zones.

  6. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  7. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Los, Ferdinand; Brodska, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background The requirements for magnesium (Mg) supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia. Methods Patients (n = 45) on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb) 100 ml/min) with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate) using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42) and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l) of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings. Results Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53) mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06–0.35) mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12–0.18) mmol/h) with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11–0.25) mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001). The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01). Conclusions Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581 PMID:27391902

  8. Growth of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde doped triglycine sulphate single crystals and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with 1 mol% of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde (DB) have been grown from aqueous solution at ambient temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effect of dopant on the crystal growth and dielectric, pyroelectric and mechanical properties of TGS crystal have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra were employed to confirm the presence of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde in TGS crystal, qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature by cooling the sample at a rate of 1 °C/min. An increase in the Curie temperature Tc=51 °C (for pure TGS, Tc=48.5 °C) and decrease in maximum permittivity has been observed for doped TGS when compared to pure TGS crystal. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine pyroelectric coefficient. The Vickers's hardness of the doped TGS crystals along (0 1 0) face is higher than that of pure TGS crystal for the same face. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The low dielectric constant, higher pyroelectric coefficient and higher value of hardness suggest that doped TGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  9. Magnesium status and the effect of magnesium supplementation in feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Smith, F W; Rush, J E

    1997-07-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in several species. Cats may be predisposed to alterations in magnesium status because of recent changes in the composition of commercial feline diets. The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the dietary history of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 2) to study magnesium status of cats with HCM compared to normal cats, and 3) to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation in cats with HCM. In part 1 of the study, diets of 65 cats with HCM were examined retrospectively. Forty of the 45 cats for which diets could be determined (89%) ate a diet designed to be magnesium-restricted and/or to produce an acidic urine. In part 2 of the study, 10 cats with HCM were compared to 10 healthy control cats for serum creatinine and magnesium; urine creatinine and magnesium, urine specific gravity and pH, and fractional excretion of magnesium. Urine creatinine and specific gravity were higher in control cats than in cats with HCM. No other differences were found between the 2 groups. In part 3, cats with HCM were supplemented with either 210 mg magnesium chloride (n = 15) or 210 mg lactose (n = 15) for 12 wk. No differences between the 2 groups were found for changes in either magnesium status or echocardiographic parameters. However, the 30 cats with HCM, as a group, did show significant improvements in measures of cardiac hypertrophy over the 12-week period. This was likely the result of treatment with other medications, rather than the magnesium supplementation. The results of this study suggest that cats with HCM are likely to be fed magnesium-restricted diets, but that they do not appear to have altered magnesium status compared to healthy controls.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Felix, Janine F.; Leak, Tennille S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Qiong; Dehghan, Abbas; Aspelund, Thor; Katz, Ronit; Homuth, Georg; Kocher, Thomas; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Prucha, Hanna; Pfeufer, Arne; Meitinger, Thomas; Coresh, Josef; Hofman, Albert; Sarnak, Mark J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Uitterlinden, André G.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) or suggestive associations (p<4×10−7) were evaluated for replication in an additional 8,463 subjects of European descent. The association of common variants at six genomic regions (in or near MUC1, ATP2B1, DCDC5, TRPM6, SHROOM3, and MDS1) with serum magnesium levels was genome-wide significant when meta-analyzed with the replication dataset. All initially significant SNPs from the CHARGE Consortium showed nominal association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, two showed association with kidney function, two with bone mineral density, and one of these also associated with fasting glucose levels. Common variants in CNNM2, a magnesium transporter studied only in model systems to date, as well as in CNNM3 and CNNM4, were also associated with magnesium concentrations in this study. We observed no associations with serum sodium or potassium levels exceeding p<4×10−7. Follow-up studies of newly implicated genomic loci may provide additional insights into the regulation and homeostasis of human serum magnesium levels. PMID:20700443

  11. Magnesium: Nutrition and Homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vormann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The essential mineral magnesium is involved in numerous physiological processes. Recommended dietary intake is often not met and a low magnesium status increases the risk for various diseases. Magnesium status is regulated by several magnesium transport systems either in cellular or paracellular pathways. Numerous drugs either interfere with magnesium absorption in the intestines or the reabsorption from primary urine in the kidney. Low magnesium status has been identified as a significant risk factor for several diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arrhythmias, as well as general muscular and neurological problems. Therefore, an adequate magnesium supply would be of special benefit to our overall health.

  12. Myth or Reality-Transdermal Magnesium?

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Werner, Tanja; Vormann, Jürgen; Kisters, Klaus

    2017-07-28

    In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium deficiency, e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of oral magnesium supplementation for the treatment of magnesium deficiency has been studied in detail. However, the proven and well-documented oral magnesium supplementation has become questioned in the recent years through intensive marketing for its transdermal application (e.g., magnesium-containing sprays, magnesium flakes, and magnesium salt baths). In both, specialist and lay press as well as on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of transdermal magnesium over an oral application. It is claimed that the transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral application is more effective due to better absorption and fewer side effects as it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Myth or Reality—Transdermal Magnesium?

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Werner, Tanja; Vormann, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium deficiency, e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of oral magnesium supplementation for the treatment of magnesium deficiency has been studied in detail. However, the proven and well-documented oral magnesium supplementation has become questioned in the recent years through intensive marketing for its transdermal application (e.g., magnesium-containing sprays, magnesium flakes, and magnesium salt baths). In both, specialist and lay press as well as on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of transdermal magnesium over an oral application. It is claimed that the transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral application is more effective due to better absorption and fewer side effects as it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:28788060

  14. New tools for carbohydrate sulphation analysis: Heparan Sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST) is a target for small molecule protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Li, Yong; Ramakrishnan, Krithika; Barsukov, Igor L; Yates, Edwin A; Eyers, Claire E; Papy-Garcia, Dulcé; Chantepie, Sandrine; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Lu, Jian; Wells, Carrow; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Berry, Neil G; Fernig, David G; Eyers, Patrick A

    2018-06-22

    Sulphation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulphotransferases, including heparan sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulphate from the co-factor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate) to the 2- O  position of a-L-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulphation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors.  In this paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalyzed oligosaccharide sulphation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell permeable compounds in vitro , including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with this article, we demonstrate that Tyrosyl Protein Sulpho Tranferases (TPSTs) are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulphation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST. ©2018 The Author(s).

  15. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    DOEpatents

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  16. Toxicology studies of primycin-sulphate using a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro human liver aggregate model.

    PubMed

    Pénzes, Ágota; Mahmud Abdelwahab, Elhusseiny Mohamed; Rapp, Judit; Péteri, Zsanett A; Bovári-Biri, Judit; Fekete, Csaba; Miskei, György; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E

    2017-11-05

    Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations. In vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments were used to test toxicity. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity. Additionally, parenteral administration of primycin-sulphate to mice, dogs, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs indicated high level of acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to reveal the cytotoxic and gene expression modifying effects of primycin-sulphate in a human system using an in vitro, three dimensional (3D) human hepatic model system. Within the 3D model, primycin-sulphate presented no acute cytotoxicity at concentrations 1μg/ml and below. However, even at low concentrations, primycin-sulphate affected gene expressions by up-regulating inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL6), chemokines (e.g., CXCL5) and by down-regulating molecules of the lipid metabolism (e.g., peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR) alpha, gamma, etc). Down-regulation of PPAR alpha cannot just disrupt lipid production but can also affect cytochrome P450 metabolic enzyme (CYP) 3A4 expression, highlighting the need for extensive drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies before human oral or parenteral preparations can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, symptoms of low magnesium may develop. Common causes of low magnesium include: Alcohol use Burns that affect a large area of ...

  18. Use of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to investigate the distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Purdy, K J.; Nedwell, D B.; Embley, T M.; Takii, S

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in three anaerobic sediments, one predominantly freshwater and low sulphate and two predominantly marine and high sulphate, on the River Tama, Tokyo, Japan, was investigated using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Hybridisation results and sulphate reduction measurements indicated that SRBs are a minor part of the bacterial population in the freshwater sediments. Only Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium were detected, representing 1.6% of the general bacterial probe signal. In contrast, the SRB community detected at the two marine-dominated sites was larger and more diverse, representing 10-11.4% of the bacterial signal and with Desulfobacter, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium detected. In contrast to previous reports our results suggest that Desulfovibrio may not always be the most abundant SRB in anaerobic sediments. Acetate-utilising Desulfobacter were the dominant SRB in the marine-dominated sediments, and Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium were active in low-sulphate sediments, where they may utilise electron acceptors other than sulphate.

  19. Sodium-dependent magnesium uptake by ferret red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, P W; Smith, L M

    1991-01-01

    1. Magnesium uptake can be measured in ferret red cells incubated in media containing more than 1 mM-magnesium. Uptake is substantially increased if the sodium concentration in the medium is reduced. 2. Magnesium uptake is half-maximally activated by 0.37 mM-external magnesium when the external sodium concentration is 5 mM. Increasing the external sodium concentration increases the magnesium concentration needed to activate the system. 3. Magnesium uptake is increased by reducing the external sodium concentration. Uptake is half-maximum at sodium concentrations of 17, 22 and 62 nM when the external magnesium concentrations are 2, 5 and 10 mM respectively. 4. Replacement of external sodium with choline does not affect the membrane potential of ferret red cells over a 45 min period. 5. Magnesium uptake from media containing 5 mM-sodium is inhibited by amiloride, quinidine and imipramine. It is not affected by ouabain or bumetanide. Vanadate stimulates magnesium uptake but has no effect on magnesium efflux. 6. When cell ATP content is reduced to 19 mumol (1 cell)-1 by incubating cells for 3 h with 2-deoxyglucose, magnesium uptake falls by 50% in the presence of 5 mM-sodium and is completely abolished in the presence of 145 mM-sodium. Some of the inhibition may be due to the increase in intracellular ionized magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) from 0.7 to 1.0 mM which occurs under these conditions. 7. Magnesium uptake can be driven against a substantial electrochemical gradient if the external sodium concentration is reduced sufficiently. 8. These findings are discussed in terms of several possible models for magnesium transport. It is concluded that the majority of magnesium uptake observed in low-sodium media is via sodium-magnesium antiport. A small portion of uptake is through a parallel leak pathway. It is believed that the antiport is responsible for maintaining [Mg2+]i below electrochemical equilibrium in these cells at physiological external sodium concentration

  20. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  1. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate.

    PubMed

    Vradelis, Stergios; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sharifi, Yalda; Buchel, Otto; Keshav, Satish; Chapman, Roger W; Braden, Barbara

    2009-04-14

    To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient's tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone (n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules (n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group (P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen (P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome.

  2. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick; Fowler, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1more » receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.« less

  3. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  4. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Muyzer, Gerard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-06-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life.

  5. Prevention of thaumasite formation in concrete exposed to sulphate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, F.; Stark, J.

    2007-08-15

    Thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate at which sulphate ion concentration hardened concrete can be damaged by the formation of thaumasite. It is indicated that thaumasite can be formed from C-S-H phases and portlandite at very low sulphate concentrations in an aggressive solution. Higher sulphate ion concentrations are required in the absence of portlandite. Still higher sulphate ion concentrations are needed if C-S-H phases with a low calcium/silicon ratio are consumed. Therefore, it is suggested that the formation of thaumasite at low and moderate sulphate concentrations in the attacking solution can be avoided by lowering the calcium/silicon ratio in themore » C-S-H phases. This can be achieved by the addition of pozzolanic and latently hydraulic admixtures. During the reaction of these materials, portlandite is consumed and the calcium/silicon ratio of the C-S-H phases is lowered. The aforementioned concept was confirmed by studies published in the literature and also by experimental investigations reported in this paper.« less

  6. Magnesium and the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body. It is a required mineral that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, heart rhythm (cardiac excitability), vasomotor tone, blood pressure, immune system, bone integrity, and blood glucose levels and promotes calcium absorption. Because of magnesium's role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This article will cover the general roles of magnesium, magnesium requirements, and assessment of magnesium status as well as the dietary intake of magnesium and its effects on exercise performance. The research articles cited were limited from those published in 2003 through 2014.

  7. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Mendes, Ana C; der Voort, Pascal Van; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Plis, Agnieszka; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G

    2017-12-01

    Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is considered desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) has been successfully applied as a bone regeneration material, but hydrogel-CaCO 3 composites have received less attention. Magnesium (Mg) has been used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials to stimulate bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration in vivo, but its effect as a component of carbonate-based biomaterials remains uninvestigated. In the present study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized enzymatically with CaCO 3 , Mg-enriched CaCO 3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing the magnesium concentration decreased mineral crystallinity. At low magnesium concentrations calcite was formed, while at higher concentrations magnesian calcite was formed. Hydromagnesite (Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) formed at high magnesium concentration in the absence of calcium. The amount of mineral formed and compressive strength decreased with increasing magnesium concentration in the mineralization medium. The calcium:magnesium elemental ratio in the mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralization media. Mineralization of hydrogels with calcite or magnesian calcite promoted adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells. Hydrogels mineralized with hydromagnesite displayed higher cytotoxicity. In conclusion, enzymatic mineralization of GG hydrogels with CaCO 3 in the form of calcite successfully reinforced hydrogels and promoted osteoblast-like cell adhesion and growth, but magnesium enrichment had no definitive positive effect. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. Here, we investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr -1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection whenmore » no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This then highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.« less

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of sulphate in automotive fuel ethanol by sequential injection analysis using dimethylsulphonazo(III) reaction.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabio Santos; Korn, Mauro

    2006-01-15

    A sensitive SIA method was developed for sulphate determination in automotive fuel ethanol. This method was based on the reaction of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo(III) leading to a decrease on the magnitude of analytical signal monitored at 665 nm. Alcohol fuel samples were previously burned up to avoid matrix effects for sulphate determinations. Binary sampling and stop-flow strategies were used to increase the sensitivity of the method. The optimization of analytical parameter was performed by response surface method using Box-Behnker and central composite designs. The proposed sequential flow procedure permits to determine up to 10.0mg SO(4)(2-)l(-1) with R.S.D. <2.5% and limit of detection of 0.27 mg l(-1). The method has been successfully applied for sulphate determination in automotive fuel alcohol and the results agreed with the reference volumetric method. In the optimized condition the SIA system carried out 27 samples per hour.

  10. Magnesium replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J R

    1990-07-01

    Magnesium is involved as a cofactor in many vital enzymatic reactions. It is also important in the maintenance of membrane electric potential. Diagnosis of magnesium disturbances must often be based on clinical judgment. Hypomagnesemia is frequently associated with hypokalemia and hypocalcemia; hypermagnesemia most often occurs in patients with acute or chronic renal failure. Hypomagnesemia presents as neuromuscular, central nervous system and cardiac abnormalities. Inadequate dietary intake of magnesium occurs in alcoholism, catabolic states and gastrointestinal diseases. Intravenous administration of magnesium can cause neuromuscular paralysis and cardiac arrhythmias.

  11. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  12. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  13. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  14. Magnetization Analysis of Magnesium Boride Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, J. R.; Zhu, W.

    2006-03-01

    Cycled applied field magnetization curves contain a wealth of information on critical current density and flux pinning that is not commonly exploited. Detailed magnetization data for magnesium boride wire cores have been analyzed for critical state model consistency. The iron-sheathed silicon nitride doped magnesium boride wires were prepared from pure magnesium and boron powders with nano-scale silicon nitride additions (MgB2-x(Si3N4)x/7 with x = 0 - 0.4). A subsequent short annealing heat treatment, 800 degrees C and of 1 hour duration in Argon, was applied to create the desired phase. Magnetization critical current densities were up to ˜340 kA/cm2 at 5K and 1T. Major and minor loop analysis will be described, for field sweeps up to 3 tesla at fixed temperatures and for temperature sweeps from 5K to 45K in fixed fields, with respect to parameters describing the critical state model.

  15. Folic acid improve developmental toxicity induced by aluminum sulphates.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Mohamed, Heba K

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum sulphate has a significant toxic effects for humans. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metal on the Earth crust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to aluminum sulphate on the bone development of the fetuses in rats, and if folic acid has a protective role upon that effects or not. Forty female rats were used, ten per group, GI served as negative control (receive nothing except normal feeding and water), GII served as positive control (receive water by gastric gavage), GIII treated with aluminum sulphate orally by gastric gavage and GIV treated with aluminum sulphate with folic acid. Mating occurred and known by presence of vaginal plug in the female rats. Rats were killed on day 18 of gestation. The female rats weight were significantly reduced in the treated group if compared with the control group (p>0.001), all parameters of the fetuses, fetal weight, malformation and the crown rump length reduced significantly p value were <0.000, <0.001, and <0.000 respectively. In histopathological results the aluminum treated group showed severe limited area of preossfication in fetuses vertebrae. Folic acid gave a protective role for all the hazardous effects of aluminum sulphate and prove the diameters measured and also the histopathological effects. Aluminum sulphate can produce hazardous effects on bone of the fetuses, which may affect the life style of these fetuses later on. Folic acid might give a protective role and so should be given to females who tried to conceive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Han, Shujuan; Wang, Ying; Jing, Qun; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-03-28

    A series of alkali metal magnesium tungstates, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs), were synthesized from a high temperature solution, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, Na4Mg(WO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, while K4Mg(WO4)3 having an identical stoichiometry with Na4Mg(WO4)3, exhibits a different framework structure belonging to triclinic symmetry with the space group P1[combining macron]. Isostructural Rb2Mg2(WO4)3 and Cs2Mg2(WO4)3 crystallize in the space group P213 of cubic symmetry and reveal a three dimensional framework composed of isolated WO4 tetrahedra, MgO6 octahedra and RO12 (R = Rb, Cs) polyhedra. The effect of the alkali metal cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate has been discussed in detail. In addition, the infrared spectra, as well as the UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy data, are reported. The first-principles theoretical studies are also carried out to aid the understanding of electronic structures and linear optical properties.

  17. Sonochemical synthesis of novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioate nanoparticles as antifungals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumber, Khushbu; Sidhu, Anjali; Kaur, Robinpreet

    2017-04-01

    Novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioates were sonochemically synthesized as water-dispersable nanoparticles owing to their water insolubility. The two-step reaction protocol was followed to synthesize the novel triazole ligand system for complexation with magnesium metal due to its low biological toxicity. Different concentrations of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidine were used to stabilize and standardise the size of nanoparticles, which were characterised by TEM analysis. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to analyse the metal ligand interaction, and CHNS analysis was used to propose the structure of the metal complex. The spore germination inhibition technique was used to evaluate the antifungal potential of synthesized nano-complexes against two phytopathogenic test fungi viz . A. alternata and F. moniliforme. The nanoparticles had inflicted moderate in vitro inhibition of fungal growth, which was comparable to standard fungicide Indofil M-45. The in silico toxicity of the compounds was made using the Toxtree analysis software that indicated the compounds belong to class III group of toxicity, which was same as that of commercial standards of DTC.

  18. Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, R

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood. Magnesium deficiency is a common problem in hospital patients, with a prevalence of about 10%. There are no readily available and easy methods to assess magnesium status. Serum magnesium and the magnesium tolerance test are the most widely used. Measurement of ionised magnesium may become more widely available with the availability of ion selective electrodes. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesaemia can result from a variety of causes including gastrointestinal and renal losses. Magnesium deficiency can cause a wide variety of features including hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and cardiac and neurological manifestations. Chronic low magnesium state has been associated with a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. The use of magnesium as a therapeutic agent in asthma, myocardial infarction, and pre-eclampsia is also discussed. Hypermagnesaemia is less frequent than hypomagnesaemia and results from failure of excretion or increased intake. Hypermagnesaemia can lead to hypotension and other cardiovascular effects as well as neuromuscular manifestations. Causes and management of hypermagnesaemia are discussed. PMID:18568054

  19. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    PubMed Central

    Vradelis, Stergios; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sharifi, Yalda; Buchel, Otto; Keshav, Satish; Chapman, Roger W; Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient’s tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone (n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules (n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group (P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen (P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome. PMID:19360920

  20. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time.

  1. Sulphation of CaO-Based Sorbent Modified in CO2 Looping Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.; Loncarevic, Davor

    CaO-based looping cycles for CO2 capture at high temperatures are based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO3. The main limitation of natural sorbents is the loss of carrying capacity with increasing numbers of reaction cycles, resulting in spent sorbent ballast. Use of spent sorbent from CO2 looping cycles for SO2 capture is a possible solution investigated in this study. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain) and Katowice (Poland). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Changes in the resulting pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. Final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulphation times were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents. Maximum sulphation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The shrinkage of sorbent particles during calcination/cycling resulted in a loss of sorbent porosity (≤48%), which corresponds to maximum sulphation levels ˜55% for spent Kelly Rock and Katowice. However, this is ˜10% higher than for the original samples. By contrast, La Blanca limestone had more pronounced particle shrinkage during pretreatment and cycling, leading to lower porosity, <35%, resulting in sulphation conversion of spent samples <30%, significantly lower than for the original sample (45%). These results showed that spent sorbent samples from CO2 looping cycles can be used as sorbents for SO2 retention if significant porosity loss does not occur during CO2 reaction cycles. For spent Kelly Rock and Katowice samples final conversions are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO4 product.

  2. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate for haemangiomas and lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Jha, Manvendu

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in treatment of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas. Between July 2007 and May 2009, 120 patients, sixty each of peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, were administered intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5-1 U/kg in children less than one year of age and 1 to 15 units in children more than one year of age and 1 to 3 ml of 2% sodium tetradecyl sulphate, depending on the size of the lesion at intervals of 14 days. Patients more than 20 years of age and those with diffuse or visceral lesions were excluded from the study. Complete resolution occurred in 16 patients (53%) of haemangiomas and 14 patients (47%) of lymphangiomas treated with bleomycin, while the results were 12 patients (40%) and 10 patients (33%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. The satisfactory resolution (resolution more than 50%) occurred in eight patients (27%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas groups treated with bleomycin, while the results were six patients (20%) and eight patients (27%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. Poor response rate was observed in six patients (20%) of haemangiomas and eight patients (27%) of lymphangiomas of bleomycin group and 12 patients (40%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. No pulmonary fibrosis or other serious side effects were found. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate are effective sclerosants in peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, but bleomycin was found to be more efficacious.

  3. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  4. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  5. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh·g−1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  7. Summary of "Magnesium Vision 2020: A North American Automotive Strategic Vision for Magnesium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Gerald S.

    This paper summarizes the monograph, "Magnesium Vision 2020. A North American Automotive Strategic Vision for Magnesium"1 prepared under the auspices of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership The objective was to understand the infrastructural and technical challenge that can increase the use of magnesium in the automotive industry. One hundred sixty three (163) Research and Technology Development Themes (RTDTs), or RTD projects were developed that addressed issues of corrosion, fastening, and processing-other-than-high pressure die casting to produce automotive magnesium parts. A major problem identified in the study is the limited ability of the current magnesium industrial infrastructure to supply RTD and implementation-ready automotive magnesium components. One solution is to create a magnesium cyber center wrhere globally networked experts would be able to innovate in process and product development, model metalworking and non-HPDC foundry processes, and integrate theoretical predictions/models of metallurgical structure with component function.

  8. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    PubMed

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on A3 steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Sainan; Wu, Chengyou; Yu, Hongfa; Jiang, Ningshan; Zhang, Wuyu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Tafel polarization technique is used to study the corrosion behavior of A3 steel basic magnesium sulfate, and then analyzing the ratio of raw materials cement, nitrites rust inhibitor and wet-dry cycle of basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced influence, and the steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate compared with magnesium oxychloride cement and Portland cement. The results show that: the higher MgO/MgSO4 mole ratio will reduce the corrosion rate of steel; Too high and too low H2O/MgSO4 mole ratio may speed up the reinforcement corrosion effect; Adding a small amount of nitrite rust and corrosion inhibitor, not only can obviously reduce the alkali type magnesium sulfate in the early hydration of cement steel bar corrosion rate, but also can significantly reduce dry-wet circulation under the action of alkali type magnesium sulfate cement corrosion of reinforcement effect. Basic magnesium sulfate cement has excellent ability to protect reinforced, its long-term corrosion of reinforcement effect and was equal to that of Portland cement. Basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced is far below the level in the MOC in the case.

  10. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  11. Building a Geochemical View of Microbial Salt Tolerance: Halophilic Adaptation of Marinococcus in a Natural Magnesium Sulfate Brine.

    PubMed

    Fox-Powell, Mark G; Cockell, Charles S

    2018-01-01

    Current knowledge of life in hypersaline habitats is mostly limited to sodium and chloride-dominated environments. This narrow compositional window does not reflect the diversity of brine environments that exist naturally on Earth and other planetary bodies. Understanding the limits of the microbial biosphere and predicting extraterrestrial habitability demands a systematic effort to characterize ionic specificities of organisms from a representative range of saline habitats. Here, we investigated a strain of Marinococcus isolated from the magnesium and sulfate-dominated Basque Lakes (British Columbia, Canada). This organism was the sole isolate obtained after exposure to exceptionally high levels of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- ions (2.369 and 2.840 M, respectively), and grew at extremes of ionic strength not normally encountered in Na + /Cl - brines (12.141 mol liter -1 ). Its association at the 16S rDNA level with bacterial halophiles suggests that ancestral halophily has allowed it to adapt to a different saline habitat. Growth was demonstrated in media dominated by NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgCl 2 , and MgSO 4 , yet despite this plasticity the strain was still restricted; requiring either Na + or Cl - to maintain short doubling times. Water activity could not explain growth rate differences between media, demonstrating the importance of ionic composition for dictating microbial growth windows. A new framework for understanding growth in brines is required, that accounts for the geochemical history of brines as well as the various stresses that ions impose on microbes. Studies such as this are required to gain a truly universal understanding of the limits of biological ion tolerance.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  15. Drowning-out crystallisation of sodium sulphate using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Taboada, M E; Graber, T A; Asenjo, J A; Andrews, B A

    2000-06-23

    A novel method to obtain crystals of pure, anhydrous salt, using aqueous two-phase systems was studied. A concentrated salt solution is mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG), upon which three phases are formed: salt crystals, a PEG-rich liquid and a salt-rich liquid. After removal of the solid salt, a two-phase system is obtained. Both liquid phases are recycled, allowing the design of a continuous process, which could be exploited industrially. The phase diagram of the system water-Na2SO4-PEG 3350 at 28 degrees C was used. Several process alternatives are proposed and their economic potential is discussed. The process steps needed to produce sodium sulphate crystals include mixing, crystallisation, settling and, optionally, evaporation of water. The yield of sodium sulphate increases dramatically if an evaporation step is used.

  16. Magnesium for Crashworthy Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, T.; Easton, M.; Schmidt, R.

    Most applications of magnesium in automobiles are for nonstructural components. However, the light weight properties of magnesium make it attractive in structural applications where energy absorption in a crash is critical. Because most deformation in a crash occurs as bending rather than simple tension or compression, the advantages of magnesium are greater than anticipated simply from tensile strength to weight ratios. The increased thickness possible with magnesium strongly influences bending behavior and theoretical calculations suggest almost an order of magnitude greater energy absorption with magnesium compared to the same weight of steel. The strain rate sensitivity of steel is of concern for energy absorption. Mild steels exhibit a distinct yield point which increases with strain rate. At strain rates typical of vehicle impact, this can result in strain localization and poor energy absorption. Magnesium alloys with relatively low aluminum contents exhibit strain rate sensitivity, however, this is manifest as an increase in work hardening and tensile / yield ratio. This behavior suggests that the performance of magnesium alloys in terms of energy absorption actually improves at high strain rates.

  17. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). Materials and Methods The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. Results and Conclusions The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time. PMID:26600388

  18. Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

    PubMed

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Dožić, Ivan S; Dožić, Branko S; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P; Karadžić, Branislav V; Prostran, Milica Š

    2018-02-01

    In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. Male Wistar rats were injected with 1.5% formalin into the perinasal area, and the total time spent in pain-related behavior (face rubbing) was quantified. We also spectrophotometrically determined the concentration of magnesium and creatine kinase activity in blood serum. Magnesium sulfate administered subcutaneously (0.005-45mg/kg) produced significant antinociception in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test in rats at physiological serum concentration of magnesium. The effect was not dose-dependent. The maximum antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate was about 50% and was achieved at doses of 15 and 45mg/kg. Magnesium did not affect increase the levels of serum creatine kinase activity. Preemptive systemic administration of magnesium sulfate as the only drug can be used to prevent inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. Its analgesic effect is not associated with magnesium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE approach for the purification of heparan sulphate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vivès, R R; Goodger, S; Pye, D A

    2001-02-15

    Heparan sulphates are highly sulphated linear polysaccharides involved in many cellular functions. Their biological properties stem from their ability to interact with a wide range of proteins. An increasing number of studies, using heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, suggest that specific structural features within the polysaccharide are responsible for ligand recognition and regulation. In the present study, we show that strong anion-exchange HPLC alone, a commonly used technique for purification of heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, may not permit the isolation of highly pure heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species. This was determined by PAGE analysis of hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide samples deemed to be pure by strong anion-exchange HPLC. In addition, subtle differences in the positioning of sulphate groups within heparan sulphate hexasaccharides were impossible to detect by strong anion-exchange HPLC. PAGE analysis on the other hand afforded excellent resolution of these structural isomers. The precise positioning of specific sulphate groups has been implicated in determining the specificity of heparan sulphate interactions and biological activities; hence, the purification of oligosaccharide species that differ in this way becomes an important issue. In this study, we have used strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE techniques to allow production of the homogeneous heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species that will be required for the detailed study of structure/activity relationships.

  20. Abnormal Excretion of Corticosteroid Sulphates in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P. C.; Lockwood, E.; Pennington, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    In a preliminary study, the 24-hour urinary excretion of corticosteroid sulphates and free cortisol have been measured in a group of patients with breast cancer and compared with the excretion of the same compounds in a group of normal women of similar age. Excretion of corticosteroid sulphates in the breast cancer group was found to be markedly raised. In a small number of patients with localized cancer of sites other than the breast the level of corticosteroid sulphate was not raised. If proved metastases were present a noticeable rise was observed. Imagesp330-a PMID:4685623

  1. EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE UPON HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RONALD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED DURING 1966 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (A COMBINATION OF 2-IMINO-5-PHENYL-4-OXAZOLIDINONE AND MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE) ON A VARIETY OF HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TASKS. MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (25 OR 37.5 MG) OR A PLACEBO WAS ADMINISTERED ORALLY ON A DOUBLE-BLIND BASIS TO INTELLIGENCE-MATCHED GROUPS…

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  3. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  4. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  5. [Magnesium disorder in metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  7. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  8. 21 CFR 201.312 - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration... Drug Products § 201.312 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate should be listed on the label of a drug product as epsom salt, which is its common or...

  9. 21 CFR 201.312 - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration... Drug Products § 201.312 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate should be listed on the label of a drug product as epsom salt, which is its common or...

  10. 21 CFR 201.312 - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration... Drug Products § 201.312 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate should be listed on the label of a drug product as epsom salt, which is its common or...

  11. 21 CFR 201.312 - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration... Drug Products § 201.312 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate should be listed on the label of a drug product as epsom salt, which is its common or...

  12. 21 CFR 201.312 - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration... Drug Products § 201.312 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate; label declaration on drug products. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate should be listed on the label of a drug product as epsom salt, which is its common or...

  13. Preparation and corrosion resistance of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Feiyang; Xu, Guohua; Wang, Fengwu; Yu, Nian; Wu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    bioactivity. The chemical conversion coatings, which are formed through the reaction between the substrate and the environment, have attracted increasing attention owing to the relative low treatment temperature, favorable bonding to substrate and simple implementation process. 2. With the increasing of hydroxyapatite (HA) content, the crack width in the composite coatings and the thickness of the coatings exhibit obviously decreased. The reason is probably that when adding HA into the phytic acid solution, the amount of active hydroxyl groups in the phytic acid are reduced via forming the coordination bond between P-OH groups from phytic acid and P-OH groups from the surface of HA, thus decreasing the coating thickness and hydrogen formation, as well as avoiding coating cracking. 3. By adjusting the HA content to 45 wt.%, a dense and relatively smooth composite coating with ~1.4 μm thickness is obtained on magnesium alloy, and exhibits high corrosion resistance and good bioactivity when compared with the single phytic acid conversion coating.

  14. Biotic conversion of sulphate to sulphide and abiotic conversion of sulphide to sulphur in a microbial fuel cell using cobalt oxide octahedrons as cathode catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli; Kumar, Senthil

    2017-05-01

    Varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate concentrations in substrate were used to determine reaction kinetics and mass balance of organic matter and sulphate transformation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC with anodic chamber volume of 1 L, fed with wastewater having COD of 500 mg/L and sulphate of 200 mg/L, could harvest power of 54.4 mW/m 2 , at a Coulombic efficiency of 14%, with respective COD and sulphate removals of 90 and 95%. Sulphide concentration, even up to 1500 mg/L, did not inhibit anodic biochemical reactions, due to instantaneous abiotic oxidation to sulphur, at high inlet sulphate. Experiments on abiotic oxidation of sulphide to sulphur revealed maximum oxidation taking place at an anodic potential of -200 mV. More than 99% sulphate removal could be achieved in a MFC with inlet COD/sulphate of 0.75, giving around 1.33 kg/m 3  day COD removal. Bioelectrochemical conversion of sulphate facilitating sulphur recovery in a MFC makes it an interesting pollution abatement technique.

  15. Fast kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations in interlayer-expanded titanium disulfide for magnesium rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Dong, Hui; ...

    2017-08-24

    Magnesium rechargeable batteries potentially offer high-energy density, safety, and low cost due to the ability to employ divalent, dendrite-free, and earth-abundant magnesium metal anode. Despite recent progress, further development remains stagnated mainly due to the sluggish scission of magnesium-chloride bond and slow diffusion of divalent magnesium cations in cathodes. Here in this paper we report a battery chemistry that utilizes magnesium monochloride cations in expanded titanium disulfide. Combined theoretical modeling, spectroscopic analysis, and electrochemical study reveal fast diffusion kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations without scission of magnesium-chloride bond. The battery demonstrates the reversible intercalation of 1 and 1.7 magnesium monochloridemore » cations per titanium at 25 and 60 °C, respectively, corresponding to up to 400 mAh g -1 capacity based on the mass of titanium disulfide. The large capacity accompanies with excellent rate and cycling performances even at room temperature, opening up possibilities for a variety of effective intercalation hosts for multivalent-ion batteries.« less

  16. Effects of sulphate addition and sulphide inhibition on microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ieropoulos, I; Gálvez, A; Greenman, J

    2013-01-10

    The effects of adding sulphate in: (i) standard activated sludge microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and (ii) larger-scale leachate-treating columns - both as individual units and as a system connected in cascade - are reported. S-replete power output was ∼2-fold higher than that of the S-deplete MFC. Furthermore, the effects of evolved sulphide (S(2-)) inhibition were investigated. The overall decrease in power output from the sulphide inhibitor (Na(2)MoO(4)) additions was 83% for the S-replete and 90% for the S-deplete. The second phase with the leachate treating units shows an improvement of 32-86% (depended on leachate strength) in current output as a result of adding sulphate. When leachate column MFCs were connected fluidically in series, the amount of Na(2)SO(4) made available downstream was decreasing (increase in power was 99%, 40% and 12% for columns in cascade). Results demonstrated the beneficial effects of added sulphur sources to both activated sludge and leachate-treating MFCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant vitamins and magnesium and the risk of hearing loss in the US general population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Miller, Josef M; Tucker, Katherine L; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of antioxidant vitamins on hearing loss are well established in animal studies but in few human studies. Recent animal studies suggest that magnesium intake along with antioxidants may act in synergy to prevent hearing loss. We examined associations between intake of antioxidant vitamins (daily β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and magnesium and hearing thresholds and explored their joint effects in US adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 2592 participants aged 20-69 y from NHANES 2001-2004. Hearing thresholds as pure tone averages (PTAs) at speech (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz) were computed. When examined individually, modeled as quartiles, and after adjustment for potential confounders, higher intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C, and magnesium were associated with lower (better) PTAs at both speech and high frequencies. High intakes of β-carotene or vitamin C combined with high magnesium compared with low intakes of both nutrients were significantly associated with lower (better) PTAs at high frequencies (-14.82%; 95% CI: -20.50% to -8.74% for β-carotene + magnesium and -10.72%; 95% CI: -16.57% to -4.45% for vitamin C + magnesium). The estimated joint effects were borderline significantly larger than the sums of the individual effects [high β-carotene/low magnesium (-4.98%) and low β-carotene/high magnesium (-0.80%), P-interaction = 0.08; high vitamin C/low magnesium (-1.33%) and low vitamin C/high magnesium (2.13%), P-interaction = 0.09]. Dietary intakes of antioxidants and magnesium are associated with lower risks of hearing loss.

  18. Monolithic porous magnesium silicide.

    PubMed

    Hayati-Roodbari, N; Berger, R J F; Bernardi, J; Kinge, S; Hüsing, N; Elsaesser, M S

    2017-07-11

    Macroporous magnesium silicide monoliths were successfully prepared by a two-step synthesis procedure. The reaction of gaseous magnesium vapor with macro-/mesoporous silicon, which was generated from hierarchically organized meso-/macroporous silica by a magnesiothermic reduction reaction, resulted in monolithic magnesium silicide with a cellular, open macroporous structure. By adjusting the reaction conditions, such as experimental set-up, temperature and time, challenges namely loss of porosity or phase purity of Mg 2 Si were addressed and monolithic magnesium silicide with a cellular network builtup was obtained.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on Mg substrates. Five cycles of CV with the potential ranging from -0.5V to 2.0V were used to produce consistent coatings for further evaluation. Scanning electron micrographs showed the micro-porous structure of PEDOT coatings. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the peaks of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon, indicating PEDOT coating. Adhesion strength of the coating was measured using ASTM-D 3359 standard tape test. The adhesion strength of PEDOT coating was within the classifications of 3B to 4B. Tafel tests of the PEDOT coated Mg showed a corrosion current (ICORR) of 6.14e-5A and critical voltage of -1.10V, as compared with ICORR of 9.08e-4A with a critical voltage of -1.35V for non-coated Mg. The calculated corrosion rate for the PEDOT coated Mg was 8.6 mm/year, much slower than 126.9mm/year for the non-coated Mg. H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture studies were conducted using magnesium (Mg) coated with a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to study viability for potential neural applications. Stem cells cultured indirectly with the Mg coated with PEDOT for 2 cycles were viable for a about half the amount of time when compared with the stem cells cultured with the 5 cycle PEDOT coated Mg.

  20. The impact of diets with different magnesium contents on magnesium and calcium in serum and tissues of the rat.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Weiss, U; Classen, H G; Wendt, B; Epple, A; Zollner, H; Temmel, W; Weger, M; Porta, S

    2000-07-14

    The impact of three different magnesium diets (70, 1,000 and 9,000 ppm) on total, ionized and bound magnesium as well as ionized calcium in serum and total calcium and magnesium in femoral bone, skeletal muscle, heart and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. The percentage of ionized serum magnesium was unproportionally high in rats fed a low magnesium (70 ppm) diet. Femoral magnesium was correlated with ionized and total serum magnesium. In contrast, there was generally no correlation between total serum magnesium and the magnesium fractions in skeletal muscle, heart and liver. In rats fed the magnesium deficient diet, total cardiac concentration of magnesium was even significantly increased along with total calcium content, while there were no effects on total muscle and liver magnesium. Within the single groups, ionized serum calcium was never proportional to dietary magnesium, but in all three magnesium diet groups together, it was inversely correlated with dietary magnesium. Moreover, ionized serum calcium was inversely correlated with both ionized and total serum magnesium. In all 3 groups together, the concentrations of total calcium and magnesium in heart and skeletal muscle were correlated, within the single groups correlation existed only in the 1000 ppm group. Magnesium influx via calcium channels during low magnesium intake has been seen in non cardiac tissues [35,36], but nothing similar is known about non selective channels for divalent cations in the heart [33]. Thus, magnesium uptake by cardiac cells along with calcium seems to be possible, especially at low intracellular magnesium concentrations, but is still poorly investigated. We suggest that the calcium-antagonistic effect of magnesium is related to the turnover rate of magnesium rather than to its tissue concentrations.

  1. Preparation and Physiological activities of sulphated derivative extracted from corn bran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qing; Dai, Linghao; Ma, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhu, Linghui

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the sulphated derivative (S-CBP) with the degree of substitution (0.46) was successfully prepared from the polysaccharide extracted from corn bran. Compared with native polysaccharide, the structures of the sulphated derivative were confirmed by FT-IR and SEC-LLS and the molecular weight were changed by chemical modification. Sulfation enhanced the antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent way, which seemed to be dependent on the character of the substituted group. The results suggest that the sulphated derivative, extracted from corn bran, are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent.

  2. Use of magnesium as a drug in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Martin

    2012-01-01

    From chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 4 onwards, phosphate binders are needed in many patients to prevent the development of hyperphosphataemia, which can result in disturbed bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, we re-examine the use of magnesium-containing phosphate binders for patients with CKD, particularly as their use circumvents problems such as calcium loading, aluminum toxicity and the high costs associated with other agents of this class. The use of magnesium hydroxide in the 1980s has been superseded by magnesium carbonate, as the hydroxide salt was associated with poor gastrointestinal tolerability, whereas studies with magnesium carbonate show much better gastrointestinal profiles. The use of combined magnesium- and calcium-based phosphate binder regimens allows a reduction in the calcium load, and magnesium and calcium regimen comparisons show that magnesium may be as effective a phosphate binder as calcium. A large well-designed trial has recently shown that a drug combining calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate was non-inferior in terms of lowering serum phosphate to sevelamer-HCl and had an equally good tolerability profile. Because of the high cost of sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate, the use of magnesium carbonate could be advantageous and drug acquisition cost savings would compensate for the cost of introducing routine magnesium monitoring, if this is thought to be necessary and not performed anyway. Moreover, given the potential cost savings, it may be time to re-investigate magnesium-containing phosphate binders for CKD patients with further well-designed clinical research using vascular end points. PMID:26069822

  3. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  4. Magnesium-based implants: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to bring to the attention of the readership of Magnesium Research another facet of the importance of magnesium, i.e. magnesium-based biomaterials. A concise history of biomaterials and magnesium are thus presented. In addition, historical and current, clinical magnesium-based applications are presented.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    PubMed

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index < 0.5 with antibiotics. Hemolysis assay on RBCs suggested that EAAS and flavanoids sulphates exhibited least cellular toxicity to erythrocytes as compared to chloramphenicol. In vivo studies in mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated that on day 10 post treatment of different fractions and isolated compounds of A. speciosa, about 60% of the animals treated with EAAS, 70% of animals treated with flavanoids sulphates and 40% of animals treated with EtAS were survived.

  6. Magnesium flux during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration with heparin and citrate anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Brain, Matthew; Anderson, Mike; Parkes, Scott; Fowler, Peter

    2012-12-01

    To describe magnesium flux and serum concentrations in ICU patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Samples were collected from 22 CVVHDF circuits using citrate anticoagulation solutions (Prismocitrate 10/2 and Prism0cal) and from 26 circuits using Hemosol B0 and heparin anticoagulation. CVVHDF prescription, magnesium supplementation and anticoagulation choice was by the treating intensivist. We analysed 334 sample sets consisting of arterial, prefilter and postfilter blood and effluent. Magnesium loss was calculated from an equation for conservation of mass, and arterial magnesium concentration was described by an equation for exponential decay. Using flow rates typical of adults receiving CVVHDF, we determined a median half-life for arterial magnesium concentration to decay to a new steady state of 4.73 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 3.73-7.32 hours). Median arterial magnesium concentration was 0.88mmol/L (IQR, 0.83-0.97mmol/L) in the heparin group and 0.79mmol/L (IQR, 0.69-0.91mmol/L) in the citrate group. Arterial magnesium concentrations fell below the reference range regularly in the citrate group and, when low, there was magnesium flux from dialysate to patient. Magnesium loss was greater in patients receiving citrate. Exponential decline in magnesium concentrations was sufficiently rapid that subtherapeutic serum magnesium concentrations may occur well before detection when once-daily sampling was used. Measurements should be interpreted with regard to timing of magnesium infusions. We suggest that continuous renal replacement therapy fluids with higher magnesium concentrations be introduced in the critical care setting.

  7. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis ... also used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal ...

  8. Ionized magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes for the assessment of low magnesium status in alcohol dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ordak, Michal; Maj-Zurawska, Magdalena; Matsumoto, Halina; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Kieres-Salomonski, Ilona; Nasierowski, Tadeusz; Muszynska, Elzbieta; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the homeostasis of magnesium in alcohol-dependent patients have often been characterized by low hypomagnesemia detection rates. This may be due to the fact that the content of magnesium in blood serum constitutes only 1% of the average magnesium level within the human body. However, the concentration of ionized magnesium is more physiologically important and makes up 67% of the total magnesium within a human organism. There are no data concerning the determination of the ionized fraction of magnesium in patients addicted to alcohol and its influence on mental health status. This study included 100 alcohol-dependent patients and 50 healthy subjects. The free magnesium fraction was determined using the potentiometric method by means of using ion-selective electrodes. The total magnesium level was determined by using a biochemical Indiko Plus analyzer. In this study, different psychometric scales were applied. Our results confirm the usefulness of ionized magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma as a diagnostic parameter of low magnesium status in alcohol-dependent patients. The lower the concentration of ionized magnesium, the worse the quality of life an alcohol-dependent person might experience. In the case of total magnesium, no such correlation was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dołhań, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h.

  10. Impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  11. X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia disease: a combined immune deficiency with magnesium defect.

    PubMed

    Ravell, Juan; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Lenardo, Michael

    2014-12-01

    To describe the role of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) in the pathogenesis of 'X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia' (XMEN) disease and its clinical implications. The magnesium transporter protein MAGT1 participates in the intracellular magnesium ion (Mg) homeostasis and facilitates a transient Mg influx induced by the activation of the T-cell receptor. Loss-of-function mutations in MAGT1 cause an immunodeficiency named 'XMEN syndrome', characterized by CD4 lymphopenia, chronic EBV infection, and EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Patients with XMEN disease have impaired T-cell activation and decreased cytolytic function of natural killer (NK) and CD8 T cells because of decreased expression of the NK stimulatory receptor 'natural-killer group 2, member D' (NKG2D). Patients may have defective specific antibody responses secondary to T cell dysfunction, but B cells have not been shown to be directly affected by mutations in MAGT1. XMEN disease has revealed a novel role for free intracellular magnesium in the immune system. Further understanding of the MAGT1 signaling pathway may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  12. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

  13. Improving the electrochemical performance of the li4 ti5 o12 electrode in a rechargeable magnesium battery by lithium-magnesium co-intercalation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Yao, Hu-Rong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-05-04

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted recent research attention because of abundant raw materials and their relatively low-price and high-safety characteristics. However, the sluggish kinetics of the intercalated Mg(2+) ions in the electrode materials originates from the high polarizing ability of the Mg(2+) ion and hinders its electrochemical properties. Here we report a facile approach to improve the electrochemical energy storage capability of the Li4 Ti5 O12 electrode in a Mg battery system by the synergy between Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions. By tuning the hybrid electrolyte of Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions, both the reversible capacity and the kinetic properties of large Li4 Ti5 O12 nanoparticles attain remarkable improvement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Physiochemical properties and reproducibility of air-based sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam using the Tessari method.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Mike R; Oliver, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The objectives were to examine the density, bubble size distribution and durability of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam and the consistency of production of foam by a number of different operators using the Tessari method. Methods 1% and 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant foam was produced by an experienced operator and a group of inexperienced operators using either a 1:3 or 1:4 liquid:air ratio and the Tessari method. The foam density, bubble size distribution and foam durability were measured on freshly prepared foam from each operator. Results The foam density measurements were similar for each of the 1:3 preparations and for each of the 1:4 preparations but not affected by the sclerosant concentration. The bubble size for all preparations were very small immediately after preparation but progressively coalesced to become a micro-foam (<250 µm) after the first 30 s up until 2 min. Both the 1% and 3% solution foams developed liquid more rapidly when made in a 1:3 ratio (37 s) than in a 1:4 ratio (45 s) but all combinations took similar times to reach 0.4 ml liquid formation. For all the experiments, there was no statistical significant difference between operators. Conclusions The Tessari method of foam production for sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant is consistent and reproducible even when made by inexperienced operators. The best quality foam with micro bubbles should be used within the first minute after production.

  15. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOEpatents

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  16. Maternal plasma oestrone sulphate concentration prior to parturition in relation to birth weight of the calf in primiparous, 2-year-old, Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R E; Kenyon, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T

    2009-08-01

    Dystocia and assisted calving in primiparous heifers are persistent problems in beef herds, and incidence increases with increasing birth weight of calves. Plasma samples taken from 33 primiparous, 2-year-old, Angus heifers 2 days prior to parturition were analysed for oestrone sulphate concentration. Additional samples taken at 4, 6, 8 and 10 days prior to parturition were analysed for 17 of these heifers. At parturition, birth weight of the calf, post-partum live weight of the heifer, assistance at calving (n=6) and status of the calf (stillborn (n=4) vs. alive) were recorded. Maternal plasma oestrone sulphate concentration was stable from 10 to 4 days prior to parturition and increased between 4 and 2 days prior to parturition for non-assisted heifers. Maternal plasma oestrone sulphate concentration did not affect the probability of assistance at calving or stillbirth.

  17. Successful magnesium sulfate tocolysis: is "weaning" the drug necessary?

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Bergstedt, S; Edwards, M S; Burlison, S; Gallaspy, J W; Brooks, G G; Adair, C D

    1997-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is the most commonly used tocolytic agent for preterm labor. A common clinical practice is to slowly discontinue the drug (wean) after successful tocolysis. Our objective was to determine the necessity of this practice. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed from June 1993 to July 1996. After successful magnesium sulfate tocolysis, patients with preterm labor were randomized to two groups: stopping the drug abruptly (no weaning) or gradually weaning the drug (approximately 1 gm every 4 hours). Preterm labor was defined as documented cervical change with regular uterine contractions or regular uterine contractions with a cervix of 2 cm and 75% effacement. The primary outcome variable was the necessity to reinstitute magnesium sulfate therapy within 24 hours of discontinuation of successful tocolysis. One hundred forty-one patients completed the study. No patient in the no-wean group required retocolysis within 24 hours of magnesium discontinuation. However, eight patients in the wean group required retocolysis within 24 hours of magnesium discontinuation (p = 0.01). Significantly more patients in the wean group had retocolysis during pregnancy (3 vs 12, p = 0.03). Patients in the wean group were also in the labor and delivery unit longer and, as would be anticipated, received magnesium sulfate significantly longer. No differences in the neonatal outcomes were noted between the two groups. Seventy-seven percent of the patients in the study were delivered prematurely. This study demonstrated an increased need for retocolysis in the group weaned from magnesium sulfate. We also found that patients in the wean group had an increased labor and delivery time and a longer administration time of magnesium sulfate. Thus weaning magnesium sulfate increases health care cost. The practice of weaning magnesium sulfate does not appear beneficial.

  18. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structural characterization of rondorfite, calcium silica chlorine mineral containing magnesium in tetrahedral position [MgO4]6-, with the aid of the vibrational spectroscopies and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dulski, M; Bulou, A; Marzec, K M; Galuskin, E V; Wrzalik, R

    2013-01-15

    Raman and infrared spectra of rondorfite Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2, a calcium chlorosilica mineral containing magnesium in tetrahedral position, has been studied in terms of spectra-structure relations. Raman spectra have been measured at different excited laser lines: 780 nm, 532 nm, 488 nm and 457 nm. This mineral is characterized by a single sharp intense Raman band at 863 cm(-1) assigned to the ν1 [SiO4]4- (Ag) symmetric stretching mode in the magnesiosilicate pentamer. Due to symmetry restriction the other Raman bands have a small intensity. Two Raman bands observed at 564 cm(-1) and 526 cm(-1) are associated simultaneously with ν4 [MgO4]6- and ν4 [SiO4]4- symmetric and antisymmetric modes where magnesium occurs in the tetrahedral configuration. The weak bands at 422 cm(-1) and 386 cm(-1) are associated with the ν2 bending mode of CaO6 in octahedral configuration, respectively. Moreover the infrared spectrum shows very weak bands associated with the hydroxyl group and/or water molecule. Additionally, the strong fluorescence phenomenon was observed and related to the presence of chlorine atoms, magnesium Mg2+ ions in atypical configuration or point defects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stable Isotope Composition of Dissolved Sulphate and Carbonate in Selected Natural Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniaszek, Piotr

    In this thesis, isotope and concentration data are used to discuss the origin of sulphate in different systems; lakes and groundwaters in the Crowsnest Pass and Kikomun Creek Park, hot and cold springs in the Rocky Mountains, and vegetation under the influence of anthropogenic SO _2 and/or biogenic H_2 S emissions. Since sulphur cycling is intertwined with carbon cycling, carbon isotope data were also obtained for dissolved carbonate in some systems. It was concluded that very little of the oxygen in sulphate in lakes and hot springs of western Canada was derived from the associated water. In lakes and groundwater in the Crowsnest Pass, two major sources of sulphur were identified: sulphate from evaporites (delta^{34} S = +26perthous, delta^{18}O positive) on the northern side of the pass, and sulphur from oxidation of sulphides on the southern side (delta ^{34}S and delta ^{18}O both negative). Although hundreds of kilometers apart, some springs were found to have isotopically similar SO_4 ^{2-}. This suggests a common source, e.g. anhydrite associated with Mississippian limestones and cherts. However, data for chemical parameters indicate that such a source is not homogeneous or other sources are involved for some ions. Each spring possesses individual composition traits. The delta^{13} C value of total dissolved carbon at spring orifices was found to vary linearly with temperature according to the relationship: delta^{13} C = 0.11 times t - 9.67perthous (r = 0.948). It is difficult to attribute such a relationship to biogenic processes which are expected to yield more variable delta^{13}C values. From a number of possible mechanisms, it would seem that a physical property such as the temperature dependent of CO _2 solubility might be the underlying cause. Sulphate in plant tissues is derived from the soil, atmospheric gaseous compounds, and perhaps mechanically trapped aerosols. Data for delta^ {18}O values of sulphate in plants have not been reported previously

  1. Differential expression and alternative splicing of rice sulphate transporter family members regulate sulphur status during plant growth, development and stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Sulphur, an essential nutrient required for plant growth and development, is mainly taken up by the plants as inorganic sulphate from the soil and assimilated into the sulphur reductive pathway. The uptake and transport of sulphate in plants is carried out by transporters encoded by the sulphate transporter gene family. Plant sulphate transporters have been classified with respect to their protein sequences, kinetic properties and tissue-specific localization in Arabidopsis. Though sulphate transporter genes from few other plants have also been characterized, no detailed study with respect to the structure and expression of this family from rice has been carried out. Here, we present genome-wide identification, structural and expression analyses of the rice sulphate transporter gene family. Our analysis using microarray data and MPSS database suggests that 14 rice sulphate transporters are differentially expressed during growth and development in various tissues and during biotic and abiotic stresses. Our analysis also suggests differential accumulation of splice variants of OsSultr1;1 and OsSultr4;1 transcripts during these processes. Apart from known spliced variants, we report an unusual alternative splicing of OsSultr1;1 transcript related to sulphur supply in growth medium and during stress response. Taken together, our study suggests that differential expression and alternative splicing of members of the sulphate transporter family plays an important role in regulating cellular sulphur status required for growth and development and during stress conditions. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms operating to regulate sulphur demand by the plant.

  2. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  3. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  4. Simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate from wastewaters with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q I; Li, W; You, S J

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial wastewaters may contain ammonium-nitrogen and/or sulphate, which need to be removed before their discharge into natural water bodies to eliminate their severe pollution. In this paper, simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor of 3.8 L incubated with sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) was investigated. Artificial wastewater containing sodium sulphate as electron acceptor, ammonium chlorine as electron donor and glucose as carbon source for bacteria growth was used as the feed for the bioreactor. The loading rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD were 2.08 gN/m3 x d, 2.38 gS/m3 x d, 104.17 gCOD/m3 x d, respectively, with a N/S ratio of 1:1.14. The results demonstrated that removal rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD could reach 43.35%, 58.74% and 91.34%, respectively. Meanwhile, sulphur production was observed in effluent as well as molecular nitrogen in biogas, whose amounts increased with time substantially, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate. This novel reaction provided the possibility to eliminate ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate simultaneously with accomplishment of COD removal from wastewater, making wastewater treatment more economical and sustainable.

  5. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  6. Anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharide from Indian medicinal plant Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A

    2011-10-01

    The sulphated polysaccharide from the widespread Tridax procumbens plant was studied for the anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens represented potent anticoagulant reaching the efficacy to heparin and chondroitin sulphate. Moreover, the sulphated polysaccharide extracted from T. procumbens was found non-toxic on Vero cell lines up to the concentration of 200 μg/ml. Sulphated polysaccharide exhibited detectable antiviral effect towards HSV-1 with IC(50) value 100-150 μg/ml. Furthermore, sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens was highly inhibitory against the bacterial strains Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi isolated from oil sardine.

  7. Treatment of a high-strength sulphate-rich alkaline leachate using an anaerobic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Banks, C.J.

    2007-07-01

    The research looks at the feasibility of treating an alkaline sulphate-rich leachate arising from the co-disposal of municipal solid waste with cement kiln dust by means of an anaerobic filter (AF). This type of leachate with a high sulphate concentration is commonly prohibited for discharge to sewer and requires an on-site treatment solution. The AF used had a working volume of 4 l and contained reticulated polyurethane foam as the biomass support material. The filters were operated over a 152 day experimental period during which the COD loading onto the filter was increased from 0.76 to 7.63 kg COD m{supmore » -3} d{sup -1}. In the early stages of operation at low loading, soluble sulphides accumulated that inhibited methanogenic activity. This was restored by dosing FeCl{sub 3} to the reactor. The continued dosing allowed efficient COD removal of between 75% and 90% until the nominal retention time in the reactor was 3 days, at which point reactor performance declined significantly. The main mechanism for COD removal was by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which also resulted in up to 88% sulphate removal from the leachate. The average methane generation rate was 0.10 l g{sup -1} COD removed. The results indicate the potential for using this approach as a pre-treatment that could significantly reduce the COD load to a second stage treatment process, but problems associated with the implementation of the technology at a larger scale have been identified.« less

  8. Transcriptional response of Medicago truncatula sulphate transporters to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with and without sulphur stress.

    PubMed

    Casieri, Leonardo; Gallardo, Karine; Wipf, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development and response to various abiotic and biotic stresses due to its key role in the biosynthesis of many S-containing compounds. Sulphate represents a very small portion of soil S pull and it is the only form that plant roots can uptake and mobilize through H(+)-dependent co-transport processes implying sulphate transporters. Unlike the other organically bound forms of S, sulphate is normally leached from soils due to its solubility in water, thus reducing its availability to plants. Although our knowledge of plant sulphate transporters has been growing significantly in the past decades, little is still known about the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction on sulphur uptake. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur measurements in plant parts and expression analysis of genes encoding putative Medicago sulphate transporters (MtSULTRs) were performed to better understand the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal interaction on Medicago truncatula plants colonized by Glomus intraradices at different sulphate concentrations. Mycorrhization significantly promoted plant growth and sulphur content, suggesting increased sulphate absorption. In silico analyses allowed identifying eight putative MtSULTRs phylogenetically distributed over the four sulphate transporter groups. Some putative MtSULTRs were transcribed differentially in roots and leaves and affected by sulphate concentration, while others were more constitutively transcribed. Mycorrhizal-inducible and -repressed MtSULTRs transcripts were identified allowing to shed light on the role of mycorrhizal interaction in sulphate uptake.

  9. Comparison of Selective Laser Melted Titanium and Magnesium Implants Coated with PCL

    PubMed Central

    Matena, Julia; Petersen, Svea; Gieseke, Matthias; Teske, Michael; Beyerbach, Martin; Kampmann, Andreas; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Haferkamp, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. In the present study we used the polymer coating polycaprolactone (PCL), intended to lower the corrosion rate of magnesium. Additionally, improvement of implant geometry can increase bone remodeling. Porous structures are known to support vessel ingrowth and thus increase osseointegration. With the selective laser melting (SLM) process, defined open porous structures can be created. Recently, highly reactive magnesium has also been processed by SLM. We performed studies with a flat magnesium layer and with porous magnesium implants coated with polymers. The SLM produced magnesium was compared with the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, as titanium is already established for the SLM-process. For testing the biocompatibility, we used primary murine osteoblasts. Results showed a reduced corrosion rate and good biocompatibility of the SLM produced magnesium with PCL coating. PMID:26068455

  10. Alterations of physiology and gene expression due to long-term magnesium-deficiency differ between leaves and roots of Citrus reticulata.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Cui-Lan; Yang, Lin-Tong; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-07-01

    Seedlings of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 1mM MgSO4 (control) every two day for 16 weeks. Thereafter, we examined magnesium (Mg)-deficiency-induced changes in leaf and root gas exchange, total soluble proteins and gene expression. Mg-deficiency lowered leaf CO2 assimilation, and increased leaf dark respiration. However, Mg-deficient roots had lower respiration. Total soluble protein level was not significantly altered by Mg-deficiency in roots, but was lower in Mg-deficient leaves than in controls. Using cDNA-AFLP, we obtained 70 and 71 differentially expressed genes from leaves and roots. These genes mainly functioned in signal transduction, stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell transport, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. Lipid metabolism (Ca(2+) signals)-related Mg-deficiency-responsive genes were isolated only from roots (leaves). Although little difference existed in the number of Mg-deficiency-responsive genes between them both, most of these genes only presented in Mg-deficient leaves or roots, and only four genes were shared by them both. Our data clearly demonstrated that Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of physiology and gene expression greatly differed between leaves and roots. In addition, we focused our discussion on the causes for photosynthetic decline in Mg-deficient leaves and the responses of roots to Mg-deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on Magnesium in Rainwater and Fertilizer Infiltration to Solidified Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajuddin, S. A. M.; Rahman, J. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium is a component of several primary and secondary minerals in the soil which are essentially insoluble for agricultural purpose. The presence of water infiltrate in the soil allows magnesium to dissolve together into the groundwater. In fertilizers, magnesium is categorized as secondary macronutrient which supplies food and encouraging for plants growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of magnesium in fibric peat when applied the solidification under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of magnesium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of magnesium for flush and control condition at outlet 4 was 12.50 ppm and 1.29 ppm respectively. Similarly, fibric with solidified peat under rainwater recorded the highest value of 3.16 at outlet 1 for wet condition while for dry condition at outlet 4 of 1.33 ppm. However, the difference in fibric with solidified peat under rainwater and fertilizer condition showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 1 with 5.43 ppm while highest value of 1.26 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 4. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of magnesium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  12. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  13. A Quick Reference on Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Shane W

    2017-03-01

    This article serves as a quick reference on the distribution, handling, and supplementation of magnesium. It also lists the manifestations and causes of magnesium deficit and provides criteria for the diagnosis of a magnesium deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Particulate sulphate and ozone in rural air: Preliminary results from three sites in central England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Barber, F. R.

    Daily particulate sulphate concentrations in air have been measured at a 'background' rural site and at two other sites near rural power stations. The samples were collected by drawing air through filter papers and were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. At the background site the concentration of particulate sulphates was strongly dependent on the O 3 and total S in air. Above a certain 'critical' level of daily O 3, 28% of the daily S in air was particulate on average, but the amounts were not related to the actual O 3 levels. At lower O 3 levels, there appeared to be a constant background of about 2 μg of particulate sulphate per cubic meter of air, together with about 5% of the total S in air as particulate. When black smoke in air was low, the particulate sulphate was also low, despite the O 3 levels. Near the power stations, there was no significantly different rate of production or loss of particulate sulphate. On average, at all three sites over the year, about 12% of the daily total S was particulate, probably corresponding to an average conversion rate of SO 2 of less than 1% per hour. Estimates of hourly particulate sulphates are available from previous measurements at the background site, using a different analysis technique. Particulate sulphate was not found every hour, but typically during 20 h a day in early summer and 8 h a day in early winter. An influence of humidity as well as O 3 was apparent in the peak hourly particulate sulphate values, which reached 60% of the total S. No correlation could be found of particulate sulphate with solar radiation, wind direction, concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in air or ammonium or sulphate in rainwater, but further measurements are planned.

  15. Some Structural Properties of the Mixed Lead-Magnesium Hydroxyapatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaroud, K.; Ben Moussa, S.; Brigui, N.; Badraoui, B.

    2018-02-01

    Lead-magnesium hydroxyapatite solid solutions Pb(10- x)Mg x (PO4)6(OH)2 have been prepared via a hydrothermal process. They were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), chemical and IR spectroscopic analyses. The results of the structural refinement indicated that the limits of lead-magnesium solid solutions ( x ≤ 1.5), a regular decrease of the lattice constant a and a preferential magnesium distribution in site S(I). Through the progressive replacement of Pb2+ ( r = 0.133 nm) by the smaller cation Mg2+ ( r = 0.072 nm), all interatomic distances decrease in accordance with the decrease of the cell parameters. According to what could be expected from the coordinance of the metallic sites S(I) (hexacoordination) and S(II) (heptacoordination), the small magnesium cation preferentially occupies the four sites S(I). The results of the TEM analysis confirm the presence of magnesium in the starting solution and reveals the decrease in the average size of crystals. The IR spectra show the presence of the absorption bands characteristic for the apatite structure.

  16. Sulphated Electric Arc Furnace Slag Asfenton-Like Catalyst for Degradation of Reactive Black 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubir, N. A.; Nasuha, N.; Alrozi, R.

    2018-06-01

    Sulphated electric arc furnace slag (S-EAFS) was obtained through a facile chemical and thermal treatment method. The S-EAFS was evaluated as a Fenton-like catalyst for the oxidative degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5). The S-EAFS was characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX and nitrogen adsorption analysis. The highest RB5 degradation efficiency obtained in this study was above 90% which was maintained across seven successive cycles with minimum iron leaching. This was achieved at a RB5 concentration of 0.15 gL-1 (50 ppm) with 8 mM of H2O2 and a pH of 4.5. Characterization revealed that the presence of sulphated groups (SO4 2-) within the EAFS improved the surface acidity of the material and corresponded to an increase in the catalytic activity for the degradation of RB5 at mild pH.

  17. A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  18. Kinetic studies of the murine foetal thymus using vincristine sulphate.

    PubMed

    Riches, A C; Carr, H M; McQueen, L; Thomas, D B

    1981-01-01

    The turnover time of the foetal thymus has been evaluated in CD1 mice using the metaphase arrest drug vincristine sulphate and also by direct cell counting and found to be 18 h (range 12--26) and 11.9 h (range 10.9--13.1) respectively. Vincristine sulphate can be used for cell kinetic studies on foetal thymus provided an appropriate dose (5 mgm per kgm body weight given intravenously) and time scale (less than 1 hour after injection) are used for these measurements. These conditions are different from those used for adult tissues. Using 125I-iododeoxyuridine uptake measurements, it was found that vincristine sulphate suppressed DNA synthesis in the foetal thymus but not in the maternal thymus at this dose. Only the G2 cohort of cells in the thymus entered mitosis.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS...

  3. [Changes in whole blood ionized magnesium concentration during cardiac surgery employing St. Thomas' cardioplegic solution].

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-ho; Bougaki, Masahiko; Kubota, Ryou; Tsubaki, Kumiko; Matsuo, Hideki; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2003-04-01

    Although there is growing evidence to suggest that magnesium supplementation to patients undergoing cardiac surgery is beneficial, the way to administer magnesium is not established. Moreover in Japan St Thomas' cardioplegic solution, containing a high level of magnesium is widely used and the effect of such magnesium-rich cardioplegic solutions on blood magnesium concentration has not been well defined. We measured ionized magnesium concentrations (iMg) during cardiac surgery employing St Thomas' solution. Patients were divided into four groups. Group 1 patients were adults and group 2 were children, both of whom received St. Thomas' solution. Group 3 patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass but did not receive any cardioplegic solution. Group 4 patients underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. In cardioplegia group (group 1 and 2) iMg was higher than the normal reference range at periods of rewarming, immediately postbypass, and at the end of the operation. iMg at immediately postbypass was related to the total amount of cardioplegic solution. In non-cardioplegia group (group 3 and 4) progressive decrease of iMg was observed throughout the operation. Because magnesium in cardioplegic solutions has substantial effect on perioperative iMg, it is crucial to measure iMg to avoid overdose of magnesium when magnesium-rich cardioplegic solutions are employed.

  4. Photoluminescence of magnesium-associated color centers in LiF crystals implanted with magnesium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebogin, S. A.; Ivanov, N. A.; Bryukvina, L. I.; V. Shipitsin, N.; E. Rzhechitskii, A.; Papernyi, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effect of magnesium nanoparticles implanted in a LiF crystal on the optical properties of color centers is studied. The transmittance spectra and AFM images demonstrate effective formation of the color centers and magnesium nanoparticles in an implanted layer of ∼ 60-100 nm in thickness. Under thermal annealing, a periodical structure is formed on the surface of the crystal and in the implanted layer due to self-organization of the magnesium nanoparticles. Upon excitation by argon laser with a wavelength of 488 nm at 5 K, in a LiF crystal, implanted with magnesium ions as well as in heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystals, luminescence of the color centers at λmax = 640 nm with a zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm is observed. The interaction of magnesium nanoparticles and luminescing color centers in a layer implanted with magnesium ions has been revealed. It is shown that the luminescence intensity of the implanted layer at a wavelength of 640 nm is by more than two thousand times higher than that of a heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystal. The broadening of the zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm in the spectrum of the implanted layer indicates the interaction of the emitting quantum system with local field of the surface plasmons of magnesium nanoparticles. The focus of this work is to further optimize the processing parameters in a way to result in luminescence great enhancement of color centers by magnesium nanoparticles in LiF.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... light magnesium oxide. Heating the salts under more rigorous conditions (1200 °C for 12 hours) produces...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs...

  9. The effects of magnesium on potassium transport in ferret red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, P W

    1988-01-01

    1. The magnesium dependence of net and isotopic (using 86Rb as tracer) potassium transport was measured in fed ferret red cells. Bumetanide (0.1 mM) was used to dissect total flux into two components: bumetanide sensitive and bumetanide resistant. 2. Increasing the external magnesium concentration from zero (added) to 2 mM stimulated bumetanide-sensitive uptake by 16% but inhibited the bumetanide-resistant component by about 20%. 3. Ionophore A23187 was used to control internal magnesium concentration. A23187 was usually present in the cells during measurement of isotopic fluxes but was washed away before measurement of net fluxes. The magnesium-buffering characteristics of fed ferret red cells were assessed during these experiments. The cytoplasm acts as a high-capacity, low-affinity magnesium buffer over most of the range. Some high-affinity binding was seen in the presence of A23187 and 2 mM-EDTA. 4. A23187 itself slightly inhibits bumetanide-sensitive potassium transport. 5. Bumetanide-sensitive potassium transport is strongly dependent on the concentration of internal ionized magnesium. Transport is 35% maximal at 10(-7) M and increases up to the maximal rate at 1.3 mM. Further increase in ionized magnesium concentration to 3.5 mM has no additional effect. The curve relating activity to magnesium concentration is steepest at the physiological magnesium concentration. The effects of changing magnesium concentration are fully reversible. 6. Reduction of internal ionized magnesium concentration to 10(-7) M with A23187 and EDTA approximately doubles bumetanide-resistant potassium transport. 7. Bumetanide-sensitive fluxes occur via the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transport system under the conditions used. Results described in this paper thus suggest that internal magnesium may be an important physiological controller of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transport activity. PMID:3137332

  10. Struvite crystallization versus amorphous magnesium and calcium phosphate precipitation during the treatment of a saline industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Crutchik, D; Garrido, J M

    2011-01-01

    Struvite crystallization (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O, MAP) could be an alternative for the sustainable and economical recovery of phosphorus from concentrated wastewater streams. Struvite precipitation is recommended for those wastewaters which have high orthophosphate concentration. However the presence of a cheap magnesium source is required in order to make the process feasible. For those wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) located near the seashore magnesium could be economically obtained using seawater. However seawater contains calcium ions that could interfere in the process, by promoting the precipitation of amorphous magnesium and calcium phosphates. Precipitates composition was affected by the NH(4)(+)/PO(4)(3-) molar ratio used. Struvite or magnesium and calcium phosphates were obtained when NH(4)(+)/PO(4)(3-) was fixed at 4.7 or 1.0, respectively. This study demonstrates that by manipulating the NH(4)(+)/PO(4)(3-) it is possible to obtain pure struvite crystals, instead of precipitates of amorphous magnesium and calcium phosphates. This was easily performed by using either raw or secondary treated wastewater with different ammonium concentrations.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  17. Magnesium Sulfate Only Slightly Reduces the Shivering Threshold in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Akça, Ozan; Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hypothermia may be an effective treatment for stroke or acute myocardial infarction; however, it provokes vigorous shivering, which causes potentially dangerous hemodynamic responses and prevents further hypothermia. Magnesium is an attractive antishivering agent because it is used for treatment of postoperative shivering and provides protection against ischemic injury in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that magnesium reduces the threshold (triggering core temperature) and gain of shivering without substantial sedation or muscle weakness. Methods: We studied nine healthy male volunteers (18-40 yr) on two randomly assigned treatment days: 1) Control and 2) Magnesium (80 mg·kg-1 followed by infusion at 2 g·h-1). Lactated Ringer's solution (4°C) was infused via a central venous catheter over a period of approximately 2 hours to decrease tympanic membrane temperature ≈1.5°C·h-1. A significant and persistent increase in oxygen consumption identified the threshold. The gain of shivering was determined by the slope of oxygen consumption vs. core temperature regression. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS, 0-10) and bispectral index of the EEG (BIS). Peripheral muscle strength was evaluated using dynamometry and spirometry. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA; P<0.05 was statistically significant. Results: Magnesium reduced the shivering threshold (36.3±0.4 [mean±SD] vs. 36.6±0.3°C, P=0.040). It did not affect the gain of shivering (Control: 437±289, Magnesium: 573±370 ml·min-1·°C-1, P=0.344). The magnesium bolus did not produce significant sedation or appreciably reduce muscle strength. Conclusions: Magnesium significantly reduced the shivering threshold; however, due to the modest absolute reduction, this finding is considered to be clinically unimportant for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:15749735

  18. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and formore » that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to

  19. Impedance spectroscopy of water soluble resin modified by zirconium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anandraj; Joshi, Girish M.

    2018-04-01

    We successfully modified water soluble resin polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by loading zirconium sulphate (ZrSO4). We demonstrated the measurement of electrical properties by using impedance analyser across frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and the temperature range of (30°C to 150°C). The impedance spectroscopy demonstrates decrease in bulk resistance as a function of temperature loading of zirconia 2.5 wt. %. Increase in AC (10-5 S/cm and DC conductivity (10- 2 S/m) observed due to ionic contribution of zirconia. However, the electrical properties of PVA/ZrSO4 composite useful to develop battery electrolyte applications.

  20. Methane production and simultaneous sulphate reduction in anoxic, salt marsh sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Marsh, L.M.; Polcin, S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been generally believed that sulphate reduction precludes methane generation during diagenesis of anoxic sediments1,2. Because most biogenic methane formed in nature is thought to derive either from acetate cleavage or by hydrogen reduction of carbon dioxide3-6, the removal of these compounds by the energetically more efficient sulphate-reducing bacteria can impose a substrate limitation on methanogenic bacteria 7-9. However, two known species of methanogens, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanococcus mazei, can grow on and produce methane from methanol and methylated amines10-13. In addition, these compounds stimulate methane production by bacterial enrichments from the rumen11,14 and aquatic muds13,14. Methanol can enter anaerobic food webs through bacterial degradation of lignins15 or pectin16, and methylated amines can be produced either from decomposition of substances like choline, creatine and betaine13,14 or by bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide17, a common metabolite and excretory product of marine animals. However, the relative importance of methanol and methylated amines as precursors of methane in sediments has not been previously examined. We now report that methanol and trimethylamine are important substrates for methanogenic bacteria in salt marsh sediments and that these compounds may account for the bulk of methane produced therein. Furthermore, because these compounds do not stimulate sulphate reduction, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction can operate concurrently in sulphate-containing anoxic sediments. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of an...

  4. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  5. High magnesium mobility in ternary spinel chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Bo, Shou-Hang; Sai Gautam, Gopalakrishnan

    Magnesium batteries appear a viable alternative to overcome the safety and energy density limitations faced by current lithium-ion technology. Furthermore, the development of a competitive magnesium battery is plagued by the existing notion of poor magnesium mobility in solids. We demonstrate by using ab initio calculations, nuclear magnetic resonance, and impedance spectroscopy measurements that substantial magnesium ion mobility can indeed be achieved in close-packed frameworks (~ 0.01-0.1 mS cm -1 at 298 K), specifically in the magnesium scandium selenide spinel. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that high magnesium ion mobility is possible in other chalcogenide spinels, opening the door formore » the realization of other magnesium solid ionic conductors and the eventual development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery.« less

  6. High magnesium mobility in ternary spinel chalcogenides

    DOE PAGES

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Bo, Shou-Hang; Sai Gautam, Gopalakrishnan; ...

    2017-11-24

    Magnesium batteries appear a viable alternative to overcome the safety and energy density limitations faced by current lithium-ion technology. Furthermore, the development of a competitive magnesium battery is plagued by the existing notion of poor magnesium mobility in solids. We demonstrate by using ab initio calculations, nuclear magnetic resonance, and impedance spectroscopy measurements that substantial magnesium ion mobility can indeed be achieved in close-packed frameworks (~ 0.01-0.1 mS cm -1 at 298 K), specifically in the magnesium scandium selenide spinel. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that high magnesium ion mobility is possible in other chalcogenide spinels, opening the door formore » the realization of other magnesium solid ionic conductors and the eventual development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery.« less

  7. Microwave-assisted magnesium phosphate coating on the AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufu; Babaie, Elham; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2017-08-18

    Due to the combination of many unique properties, magnesium alloys have been widely recognized as suitable metallic materials for fabricating degradable biomedical implants. However, the extremely high degradation kinetics of magnesium alloys in the physiological environment have hindered their clinical applications. This paper reports for the first time the use of a novel microwave-assisted coating process to deposit magnesium phosphate (MgP) coatings on the Mg alloy AZ31 and improve its in vitro corrosion resistance. Newberyite and trimagnesium phosphate hydrate (TMP) layers with distinct features were fabricated at various processing times and temperatures. Subsequently, the corrosion resistance, degradation behavior, bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the MgP coated AZ31 samples were investigated. The potentiodynamic polarization tests reveal that the corrosion current density of the AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) is significantly suppressed by the deposited MgP coatings. Additionally, it is seen that MgP coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of the AZ31 alloy after immersion in SBF for two weeks and promoted precipitation of apatite particles. The high viability of preosteoblast cells cultured with extracts of coated samples indicates that the MgP coatings can improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. These attractive results suggest that MgP coatings, serving as the protective and bioactive layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys.

  8. Does sulphate enrichment promote the expansion of Typha domingensis (cattail) in the Florida Everglades?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hao, Chen; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. The expansion of Typha domingensis into areas once dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been attributed to altered hydrology and phosphorus enrichment, although increased concentrations of sulphate and phosphorus often coincide. The potential importance of hydrogen sulphide produced from sulphate in the expansion of Typha has received little attention. The present study aimed to quantify the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of Cladium and Typha to sulphate/sulphide. 2. Laboratory experiments showed that Cladium is less tolerant of sulphide than Typha. Cladium was adversely affected at sulphide concentrations of approximately 0.22 mm, while Typha continued to grow well and appeared healthy up to 0.69 mm sulphide. 3. Experiments in field mesocosms provided strong support for species-specific differences in physiology and growth. Regardless of interstitial sulphide concentrations attained, Typha grew faster and had a higher photosynthetic capacity than Cladium. However, sulphide concentrations in the mesocosms reached only 0.18 mm which, based on the hydroponic study, was insufficient to affect the growth or photosynthetic responses of either species. Nevertheless, the upper range of sulphide (0.25-0.375 mm) in Everglades' soil is high enough, based on our results, to impact Cladium but not Typha. 4. This research supports the hypothesis that sulphide accumulation could affect plant species differentially and modify species composition. Consequently, the role of sulphate loading should be considered, in conjunction with hydroperiod, phosphorus availability and disturbances, in developing future management plans for the Everglades. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Alkoxide-based magnesium electrolyte compositions for magnesium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun

    2018-01-30

    Alkoxide magnesium halide compounds having the formula: RO--Mg--X (1) wherein R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon group that is unsubstituted, or alternatively, substituted with one or more heteroatom linkers and/or one or more heteroatom-containing groups comprising at least one heteroatom selected from fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and silicon; and X is a halide atom. Also described are electrolyte compositions containing a compound of Formula (1) in a suitable polar aprotic or ionic solvent, as well as magnesium batteries in which such electrolytes are incorporated.

  10. Cell wall biogenesis in Oocystis: experimental alteration of microfibril assembly and orientation.

    PubMed

    Montezinos, D; Brown, R M

    1978-01-01

    Cell wall biogenesis in the unicellular green alga Oocystis apiculata has been studied. Under normal growth conditions, a cell wall with ordered microfibrils is synthesized. In each layer there are rows of parallel microfibrils. Layers are nearly perpendicular to each other. Terminal linear synthesizing complexes are located in the plasma membrane, and they are capable of bidirectional synthesis of cellulose microfibrils. Granule bands associated with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane appear to control the orientation of newly synthesized microfibrils. Subcortical microtubules also are present during wall synthesis. Patterns of cell wall synthesis were studied after treatment with EDTA and EGTA as well as divalent cations (MgSO4, CaSO4, Cacl2). 0.1 M EDTA treatment for 15 min results in the disassociation of the terminal complexes from the ends of microfibrils. EDTA-treated cells followed by 15 min treatment with MgSO4 results in reaggregation of the linear complexes into a paired state, remote from the original ends to which they were associated. After 90 min treatment with MgSO4, normal synthesis resumes. EGTA and calcium salts do not affect the linear complexes or microfibril orientation. Treatments with colchicine and vinblastine sulphate do not depolymerize the microtubles, but the wall microfibril orientation is altered. With colchicine or vinblastine, the change in orientation from layer to layer is inhibited. The process is reversible upon removal of the drugs. Lumicolchicine has no effect upon microfibril orientation, but granule bands are disorganized. Treatment with coumarin, a known inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, causes the loss of visualization of subunits of the terminal complexes. The possibility of the existence of a membrane-associated colchicine-sensitive orientation protein for cellulose microfibrils is discussed. Transmembrane modulation of microfibril synthesis and orientation is presented.

  11. Isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24 is prepared from magnesium-24 oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellew, N. R.; Schilb, J. D.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus is used to prepare isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24, suitable for use in neutron scattering and polarization experiments. The apparatus permits thermal reduction of magnesium-24 oxide with aluminum and calcium oxide, and subsequent vaporization of the product metal in vacuum. It uses a resistance-heated furnace tube and cap assembly.

  12. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  13. Dietary and Plasma Magnesium and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Sun, Qi; Curhan, Gary C.; Taylor, Eric N.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Albert, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium is associated with lower risk of sudden cardiac death, possibly through antiarrhythmic mechanisms. Magnesium influences endothelial function, inflammation, blood pressure, and diabetes, but a direct relation with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk has not been established. Methods and Results We prospectively examined the association between dietary and plasma magnesium and risk of CHD among women in the Nurses' Health Study. The association for magnesium intake was examined among 86 323 women free of disease in 1980. Information on magnesium intake and lifestyle factors was ascertained every 2 to 4 years through questionnaires. Through 2008, 3614 cases of CHD (2511 nonfatal/1103 fatal) were documented. For plasma magnesium, we conducted a nested case–control analysis, with 458 cases of incident CHD (400 nonfatal/58 fatal) matched to controls (1:1) on age, smoking, fasting status, and date of blood sampling. Higher magnesium intake was not associated with lower risk of total CHD (P‐linear trend=0.12) or nonfatal CHD (P‐linear trend=0.88) in multivariable models. However, magnesium intake was inversely associated with risk of fatal CHD. The RR comparing quintile 5 to quintile 1 of magnesium intake was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.84; P‐linear trend=0.003). The association between magnesium intake and risk of fatal CHD appeared to be mediated partially by hypertension. Plasma magnesium levels above 2.0 mg/dL were associated with lower risk of CHD, although not independent of other cardiovascular biomarkers (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.04). Conclusions Dietary and plasma magnesium were not associated with total CHD incidence in this population of women. Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with fatal CHD, which may be mediated in part by hypertension. PMID:23537810

  14. The Dynamic Flow and Failure Behavior of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswar Prasad, K.; Li, B.; Dixit, N.; Shaffer, M.; Mathaudhu, S. N.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    We review the dynamic behavior of magnesium alloys through a survey of the literature and a comparison with our own high-strain-rate experiments. We describe high-strain-rate experiments (at typical strain rates of 103 s-1) on polycrystalline pure magnesium as well as two magnesium alloys, AZ31B and ZK60. Both deformation and failure are considered. The observed behaviors are discussed in terms of the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in magnesium, considering the effects of grain size, strain rate, and crystallographic texture. A comparison of current results with the literature studies on these and other Mg alloys reveals that the crystallographic texture, grain size, and alloying elements continue to have a profound influence on the high-strain-rate deformation behavior. The available data set suggests that those materials loaded so as to initiate extension twinning have relatively rate-insensitive strengths up to strain rates of several thousand per second. In contrast, some rate dependence of the flow stress is observed for loading orientations in which the plastic flow is dominated by dislocation mechanisms.

  15. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schlingmann, Karl P; Konrad, Martin; Seyberth, Hannsjörg W

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium plays an essential role in many biochemical and physiological processes. Homeostasis of magnesium is tightly regulated and depends on the balance between intestinal absorption and renal excretion. During the last decades, various hereditary disorders of magnesium handling have been clinically characterized and genetic studies in affected individuals have led to the identification of some molecular components of cellular magnesium transport. In addition to these hereditary forms of magnesium deficiency, recent studies have revealed a high prevalence of latent hypomagnesemia in the general population. This finding is of special interest in view of the association between hypomagnesemia and common chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and asthma. However, valuable methods for the diagnosis of body and tissue magnesium deficiency are still lacking. This review focuses on clinical and genetic aspects of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. We will review primary defects of epithelial magnesium transport, disorders associated with defects in Ca(2+)/ Mg(2+) sensing, as well as diseases characterized by renal salt wasting and hypokalemic alkalosis, with special emphasis on disturbed magnesium homeostasis.

  16. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E., E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium,more » or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.« less

  17. Theoretical understanding on the v(1)-SO4(2-) band perturbed by the formation of magnesium sulfate ion pairs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Wang, Feng

    2009-02-01

    The factors determining the spectroscopic characteristics of the v(1)-SO4(2-) band of the MgSO4 ion pairs are discussed via ab initio calculation, including coupling effect, hydrogen bonding effect, and direct contact effect of Mg2+ with SO4(2-). With the calculation of the heavy water hydrated contact ion pairs (CIP), the overlap between the librations of water and the v(1)-SO4(2-) band can be separated, and thus the coupling effect is abstracted, and this coupling effect leads to a blue shift for the v(1)-SO4(2-) band of 5.6 cm(-1) in the monodentate CIP and 3.6 cm(-1) in the bidentate CIP. The hydrogen bonding between each water molecule without relation to Mg2+ and the sulfate ion makes the v(1)-SO4(2-) band blue shift of 3.7 cm(-1). When the outer-sphere water around Mg2+ are hydrogen bonded between SO4(2-) and Mg2+, it will make the largest disturbance to the v(1)-SO4(2-) band. Moreover, the inner-sphere water can affect the v(1)-SO4(2-) band conjunct with the direct contact of Mg2+ with SO4(2-), showing a blue shift of 14.4 cm(-1) in the solvent-shared ion pair, 22.6 cm(-1) in the monodentate CIP, 4.3 cm(-1) in the bidentate CIP, and 21.4 cm(-1) in the tridentate CIP. At last, the Raman spectral evolution in the efflorescence production process is tried to be rationalized. The shoulder at 995 cm(-1) is attributed to the monodentate CIP with 2-3 outer-sphere water molecules, whereas the new peak at 1021 cm(-1) at high concentration is assigned to the formation of aqueous triple ion.

  18. Decoupling production from growth by magnesium sulfate limitation boosts de novo limonene production.

    PubMed

    Willrodt, Christian; Hoschek, Anna; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2016-06-01

    The microbial production of isoprenoids has recently developed into a prime example for successful bottom-up synthetic biology or top-down systems biology strategies. Respective fermentation processes typically rely on growing recombinant microorganisms. However, the fermentative production of isoprenoids has to compete with cellular maintenance and growth for carbon and energy. Non-growing but metabolically active E. coli cells were evaluated in this study as alternative biocatalyst configurations to reduce energy and carbon loss towards biomass formation. The use of non-growing cells in an optimized fermentation medium resulted in more than fivefold increased specific limonene yields on cell dry weight and glucose, as compared to the traditional growing-cell-approach. Initially, the stability of the resting-cell activity was limited. This instability was overcome via the optimization of the minimal fermentation medium enabling high and stable limonene production rates for up to 8 h and a high specific yield of ≥50 mg limonene per gram cell dry weight. Omitting MgSO4 from the fermentation medium was very promising to prohibit growth and allow high productivities. Applying a MgSO4 -limitation also improved limonene formation by growing cells during non-exponential growth involving a reduced biomass yield on glucose and a fourfold increase in specific limonene yields on biomass as compared to non-limited cultures. The control of microbial growth via the medium composition was identified as a key but yet underrated strategy for efficient isoprenoid production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1305-1314. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Magnesium and diabetes mellitus: their relation.

    PubMed

    Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this review was to elaborate a synthesis about the discussions on magnesium and diabetes mellitus, in the last 14 years. The magnesium deficiency has been associated with chronic diseases, amongst them, diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies had shown low levels of magnesium ingestion in the general population, as well as a relation between the ingestion of food rich in magnesium and the reduction of diabetes installation and its complications. Hypomagnesemia is frequently present in diabetic patients, however there is not an exact elucidation of the mechanism of magnesium deficiency in diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, in the presence of this illness, it is observed that inadequate metabolic control can affect the corporal concentrations of magnesium, developing hypomagnesemia, which may be still directly related with some micro and macrovascular complications observed in diabetes, as cardiovascular disease, retinopathy and neuropathy. This way, the chronic complications of diabetes can appear precociously. Based on this, the supplementation with magnesium has been suggested in patients with diabetes mellitus who have proven hypomagnesemia and the presence of its complications.

  20. Magnesium based degradable biomaterials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Li, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Magnesium has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for biomedical applications. The corrosion of magnesium, however, is too rapid to match the rates of tissue healing and, additionally, exhibits the localized corrosion mechanism. Thus it is necessary to control the corrosion behaviors of magnesium for their practical use. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress on the development of representative magnesium based alloys, including Mg-Ca, Mg-Sr, Mg-Zn and Mg-REE alloy systems as well as the bulk metallic glass. The influence of alloying element on their microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors is summarized. The mechanical and corrosion properties of wrought magnesium alloys are also discussed in comparison with those of cast alloys. Furthermore, this review also covers research carried out in the field of the degradable coatings on magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. Calcium phosphate and biodegradable polymer coatings are discussed based on different preparation techniques used. We also compare the effect of different coatings on the corrosion behaviors of magnesium alloys substrate.

  1. Production of Magnesium by Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction with Magnesium Aluminate Spinel as a By-Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaowu; You, Jing; Peng, Jianping; Di, Yuezhong

    2016-06-01

    The Pidgeon process currently accounts for 85% of the world's magnesium production. Although the Pidgeon process has been greatly improved over the past 10 years, such production still consumes much energy and material and creates much pollution. The present study investigates the process of producing magnesium by employing vacuum aluminothermic reduction and by using magnesite as material and obtaining magnesium aluminate spinel as a by-product. The results show that compared with the Pidgeon process, producing magnesium by vacuum aluminothermic reduction can save materials by as much as 50%, increase productivity up to 100%, and save energy by more than 50%. It can also reduce CO2 emission by up to 60% and realize zero discharge of waste residue. Vacuum aluminothermic reduction is a highly efficient, low-energy-consumption, and environmentally friendly method of producing magnesium.

  2. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles.

    PubMed

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and "Wenner" resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  3. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones. PMID:28774026

  4. Synthesis and effectiveness of overbased magnesium and calcium petroleum sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkovskii, R.V.; Romanyutina, L.V.; Korbut, L.F.

    Overbased sulfonate additives are widely used to improve the service properties of motor oils. This paper describes the preparation of an overbased magnesium sulfonate additive from MSG-8 oil and an investigation of its functional properties. In experiments, the solution of ammonium sulfate, fat diluted with I-20A oil to a 38% concentration, was heated and stirred continuously in the presence of water and excess magnesium oxide for a period of 4 h at 80-120/degree/C while stripping out the liberated ammonia with nitrogen. The resulting oil solution of magnesium sulfonate was dissolved in toluene. The toluene solution after cleanup was held undermore » vacuum to remove the solvent; the residue was an oil solution of overbased magnesium sulfonate. Their properties are tabulated. Comparative data are shown in Table 1 for a calcium sulfonate additive synthesized from the same intermediate (ammonium sulfate), using calcium hydroxide as the base. Test results on M-11 oil containing 5% of the magnesium or calcium additive are listed. It is shown that the magnesium additive gave better results from the calcium additive at the same concentration in terms of oxidation stability, corrosion properties, detergency, and dispersancy. 9 refs.« less

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis of amorphous magnesium phosphate nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium phosphate (MgP) materials have been investigated in recent years for tissue engineering applications, attributed to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. This paper describes a novel microwave assisted approach to produce amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) in a nanospherical form from an aqueous solution containing Mg(2+) and HPO(4) (2-)/PO(4) (3-). Some synthesis parameters such as pH, Mg/P ratio, solution composition were studied and the mechanism of AMP precursors was also demonstrated. The as-produced AMP nanospheres were characterized and tested in vitro. The results proved these AMP nanospheres can self-assemble into mature MgP materials and support cell proliferation. It is expected such AMP has potential in biomedical applications.

  6. The unexpected discovery of the Mg(HMDS) 2 /MgCl 2 complex as a magnesium electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Chen; Sa, Niya; Key, Baris; ...

    2015-02-02

    We developed a unique class of non-Grignard, aluminum-free magnesium electrolytes based on a simple mixture of magnesium compounds: magnesium hexamethyldisilazide (Mg(HMDS) 2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl 2).

  7. Crystal Analysis of Multi Phase Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Containing Different amount of Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozalian, Afsaneh; Behnamghader, Ali Asghar; Moshkforoush, Arash

    In this study, Mg doped hydroxyapatite [(Ca, Mg)10(PO4)6(OH)2] and β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized via sol gel method. Triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate were used as P, Ca and Mg precursors. The ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P and the amount of magnesium (x) were kept constant at 1.67 and ranging x = 0 up to 3 in molecular formula of Ca10-xMgx (PO4)6(OH)2, respectively. Phase composition and chemical structure were performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Phase percentages, crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters were investigated. The presence of magnesium led to form the Mg doped tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) and Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA). Based on the results of this study, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity and crystallite size decreased with magnesium content. In addition, with increasing magnesium content, the amount of CaO phase decreased whereas the amount of MgO phase increased significantly. Obtained results can be used for new biomaterials design.

  8. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; ...

    2013-11-04

    Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH 4) 2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimizedmore » LiBH4 additive. The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.« less

  9. Admission Low Magnesium Level Is Associated with In-Hospital Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    You, Shoujiang; Zhong, Chongke; Du, Huaping; Zhang, Yu; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Chenhong; Zhao, Hongru; Cao, Yongjun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Low magnesium levels are associated with an elevated risk of stroke. In this study, we investigated the association between magnesium levels on hospital admission and in-hospital mortality in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. A total of 2,485 AIS patients, enrolled from December 2013 to May 2014 across 22 hospitals in Suzhou city, were included in this study. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to their level of admission magnesium: Q1 (<0.82 mmol/L), Q2 (0.82-0.89 mmol/L), Q3 (0.89-0.98 mmol/L), and Q4 (≥0.98 mmol/L). Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of magnesium on all-cause in-hospital mortality in AIS patients. During hospitalization, 92 patients (3.7%) died from all causes. The lowest serum magnesium level (Q1) was associated with a 2.66-fold increase in the risk of in-hospital mortality in comparison to Q4 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.66; 95% CI 1.55-4.56; p-trend < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, time from onset to hospital admission, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and other potential covariates, HR for Q1 was 2.03 (95% CI 1.11-3.70; p-trend = 0.014). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses further confirmed a significant association between lower magnesium levels and a high risk of in-hospital mortality. Decreased serum magnesium levels at admission were independently associated with in-hospital mortality in AIS patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Demonstration of elastic fibres with reagents for detection of magnesium.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, W; Firsching, R

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of elastic fibres in various human and animal tissues with the reagents quinalizarin, magneson II, and titan yellow for the detection of magnesium revealed striking positive results. After pretreatment of skin and ligamentum flavum with elastase the tests were negative. The results support the supposition that the amount of magnesium in elastic fibres is sufficient for histochemical detection. It is speculated that the marked chelate-forming property of magnesium, or its antagonistic function to calcium, is associated with the elastic property of the fibres. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1711022

  11. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  12. [Assessment of maternal cerebral blood flow in patients with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Mandić, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Dukić, Milan; Vasiljević, Mladenko; Filimonović, Dejan; Bogavac, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Systemic vasoconstriction in preeclamptic patients increases vascular resistance, and is manifested by increased arterial blood flow velocity. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is a change of Doppler indices in maternal medial cerbral artery (MCA) in severe preeclampsia due to: 1) severity of clinical symptoms, 2) the begining of eclamptic attack and 3) the application of anticonvulsive therapy. A prospective clinical study included 92 pregnant women, gestational age 28-36 weeks. They were divided into three groups: normotensive (n=30), mild preeclampsia (n=33), and severe preeclampsia (n=29). We investigated maternal cerebral circulation by assessing the MCA. We registrated: pulsatility index (Pi), resistance index (Ri), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), and the maximum systolic, end diastolic and medium velocity. Patients with severe preeclampsia were divided into two subgroups. subgroup 1 included patients without symptoms of threatening eclampsia (n=18; 62.06%); while subgroup 2 included those with symptoms of preeclampsia (n=11; 37.94%). All patients with severe preeclampsia were treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and cerebral blood flow was measured before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done by oneway ANOVA, Student t-test and t-paired sample test. The difference was considered to be significant if p<0.05. Significantly increased Pi, Ri and all velocities were established in the group of patients with severe preeclampsia compared with the other two groups. In the group with severe preeclamsia we registrated significantly increased values of all velocities (patients with signs of threatening eclampsia). After MgSO4 treatment in patients with severe preeclampsia significantly decreased values of Pi, Ri, S/D ratio and all velocities were registered. In the studied group of patients with severe preclampsia we found increased velocity values, Pi and Ri, especially in patients with signs of threatened eclampsia, suggesting that

  13. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  14. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    2, FXYD2, SLC41A2 and TRPM6 this risk was completely mediated by serum magnesium levels. We found that 29.1% of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes was mediated through insulin resistance, whereas for prediabetes 13.4% was mediated through insulin resistance. Low serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and this increased risk is similar to that of diabetes. Furthermore, common variants in magnesium-regulating genes modify diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Both findings support a potential causal role of magnesium in the development of diabetes, where the hypothesised pathway is partly mediated through insulin resistance.

  15. Knockdown of SLC41A1 magnesium transporter promotes mineralization and attenuates magnesium inhibition during osteogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Shih, Ya-Yi; Liu, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Oscar K

    2017-02-21

    Magnesium is essential for numerous physiological functions. Magnesium exists mostly in bone and the amount is dynamically regulated by skeletal remodeling. Accelerating bone mass loss occurs when magnesium intake is insufficient; whereas high magnesium could lead to mineralization defects. However, the underlying magnesium regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high extracellular magnesium concentration on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and the role of magnesium transporter SLC41A1 in the mineralization process. Murine MSCs derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mouse or commercially purchased human MSCs were treated with osteogenic induction medium containing 5.8 mM magnesium chloride and the osteogenic differentiation efficiency was compared with that of MSCs in normal differentiation medium containing 0.8 mM magnesium chloride by cell morphology, gene expression profile of osteogenic markers, and Alizarin Red staining. Slc41a1 gene knockdown in MSCs was performed by siRNA transfection using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX, and the differentiation efficiency of siRNA-treated MSCs was also assessed. High concentration of extracellular magnesium ion inhibited mineralization during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Early osteogenic marker genes including osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and type I collagen were significantly downregulated in MSCs under high concentration of magnesium, whereas late marker genes such as osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were upregulated with statistical significance compared with those in normal differentiation medium containing 0.8 mM magnesium. siRNA treatment targeting SLC41A1 magnesium transporter, a member of the solute carrier family with a predominant Mg 2+ efflux system, accelerated the mineralization process and ameliorated the inhibition of mineralization caused by high concentration of magnesium. High concentration of

  16. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  17. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  18. [Magnesium and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Fridman, Elena; Linder, Nehama

    2013-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that occurs in premature infants who have needed mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. BPD is defined as the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms, the need for supplemental oxygen to treat hypoxemia, and an abnormal chest radiograph at 36 weeks gestational age. Proinflammatory cytokines and altered angiogenic gene signaling impair prenatal and postnatal lung growth, resulting in BPD. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure further increases the production of cytotoxic free radicals, which cause lung injury and increase the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant metal in the body. It is commonly used for the treatment of preeclamsia, as well as for premature labor alleviation. Magnesium's role in BPD development is not clear. A significant association between high magnesium levels at birth and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), pulmonary interstitial emphysema in the extremely low birth weight, respiratory failure, and later development BPD was found. Conversely, low magnesium intake is associated with lower lung functions, and hypomagnesemia was found in 16% of patients with acute pulmonary diseases. Magnesium is used for the treatment of asthmatic attacks. Magnesium deficiency in pregnant women is frequently seen due to low intake. Hypomagnesemia was also found among preterm neonates and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Experimental hypomagnesemia evokes an inflammatory response, and oxidative damage of tissues. These were accompanied by changes in gene expression mostly involved in regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and remodeling, processes associated with BPD. It is rational to believe that hypomagnesemia can contribute to BPD pathogenesis.

  19. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  20. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  1. Silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium-stent insertion in the esophagus: a comparison with plastic stents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Yang, Kai; Edmonds, Laura; Wei, Li-Ming; Zheng, Reila; Cheng, Ruo-Yu; Cui, Wen-Guo; Cheng, Ying-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of, and tissue response to silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium- and plastic-stent insertion into the esophagus in rabbits. The mechanical compression-recovery characteristics and degradation behaviors of the magnesium stent were investigated in vitro . A total of 45 rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium- ( n = 15) and a plastic- ( n = 15) stent group, and underwent stent insertion into the lower third of the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance; a control group ( n = 15) did not undergo the intervention. Esophagography was performed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Five rabbits in each group were euthanized at each time point for histological examination. Silicone-covered magnesium stents showed similar radial force to plastic stents ( p > 0.05). The magnesium stents degraded rapidly in an acidic solution, but 90.2% ± 3.1% of the residual mass was maintained after a 2-week degradation in a solution with a pH of 4.0. All stent insertions were well tolerated. Magnesium stents migrated in six rabbits (one at 1 week, one at 2 weeks and four at 4 weeks), and plastic stents migrated in three rabbits (one at 2 weeks and two at 4 weeks; p > 0.05). Esophageal wall remodeling (thinner epithelial and smooth muscle layers) was similar in both stented groups ( p > 0.05), and the esophagus wall was found to be significantly thinner in the stented groups than in the control group ( p < 0.05). Esophageal injury and collagen deposition following stent insertion were similar and did not differ from the control group ( p > 0.05). Esophageal silicone-covered magnesium stents provided reliable support for at least 2 weeks, with acceptable migration rates and without causing severe injury or tissue reaction compared with plastic stents.

  2. Silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium-stent insertion in the esophagus: a comparison with plastic stents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Yang, Kai; Edmonds, Laura; Wei, Li-Ming; Zheng, Reila; Cheng, Ruo-Yu; Cui, Wen-Guo; Cheng, Ying-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: We determined the feasibility of, and tissue response to silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium- and plastic-stent insertion into the esophagus in rabbits. Methods: The mechanical compression–recovery characteristics and degradation behaviors of the magnesium stent were investigated in vitro. A total of 45 rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium- (n = 15) and a plastic- (n = 15) stent group, and underwent stent insertion into the lower third of the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance; a control group (n = 15) did not undergo the intervention. Esophagography was performed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Five rabbits in each group were euthanized at each time point for histological examination. Results: Silicone-covered magnesium stents showed similar radial force to plastic stents (p > 0.05). The magnesium stents degraded rapidly in an acidic solution, but 90.2% ± 3.1% of the residual mass was maintained after a 2-week degradation in a solution with a pH of 4.0. All stent insertions were well tolerated. Magnesium stents migrated in six rabbits (one at 1 week, one at 2 weeks and four at 4 weeks), and plastic stents migrated in three rabbits (one at 2 weeks and two at 4 weeks; p > 0.05). Esophageal wall remodeling (thinner epithelial and smooth muscle layers) was similar in both stented groups (p > 0.05), and the esophagus wall was found to be significantly thinner in the stented groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Esophageal injury and collagen deposition following stent insertion were similar and did not differ from the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Esophageal silicone-covered magnesium stents provided reliable support for at least 2 weeks, with acceptable migration rates and without causing severe injury or tissue reaction compared with plastic stents. PMID:28286555

  3. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  7. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  8. Solubility of glucose isomerase in ammonium sulphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, N.; Akins, J.; Campbell-Smith, S.; Blow, D. M.

    1988-07-01

    In order to quantify protein crystallization techniques, a method for measuring protein solubility in high salt concentration has been developed. It is based on a sensitive protein concentration assay, using binding to Coomassie blue dye. The protein concentration in a supernatant from which glucose isomerase is crystallising has been studied as a function of time. Equilibrium is established in 3-5 weeks, and the protein concentration remaining in solution is defined as the solubility of the protein. The solubility of glucose isomerase has been determined as a function of ammonium sulphate concentration; its variation with pH in 1.50M ammonium sulphate has also been studied. A remarkable dependence on pH over the range of 5.5 to 6.5 has been observed.

  9. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  10. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  11. Optimization of Serratia nematodiphila using Response surface methodology to silver nanoparticles synthesis for aquatic pathogen control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeshkumar, S.; Malarkodi, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we used bacterial strain Serratia nematodiphila for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using optimized biomass growth. In this RSM study the variables such as sodium sulphate (g / L) (0.5, 1, 1.5), magnesium sulphate (g/L) (0.3, 0.5, 0.7), pH (6.4, 7.4, 8.4.), temperature (25, 30, 35°C) and Sodium lactate, Peptone have been used for the maximum production of biomass. We got very good a result for the silver nanoparticles was confirmed using UV-vis spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope. Finally, we concluded that the using of RSM for nanoparticles synthesis may use in industrial biotechnology and related technologies for large scale production.

  12. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. Magnesium in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Singh, V P; Cameron, E A

    1981-01-01

    Magnesium ions are important for maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium. Epidemiologic studies suggest that myocardial hypomagnecytia can predispose to sudden cardiac death and that hard water protective factor preventing heart attack could be magnesium. Recent studies show that infarcted portion of the myocardium has lowered magnesium content as compared to noninfarcted segment. Magnesium deficiency sensitises the myocardium to the toxic effect of various drugs, hypoxia etc. and magnesium administration is protective. The metabolic, biochemical and electrophysiologic effects of magnesium appear to be significant in treatment of myocardial ischaemia. Magnesium is a metal-coenzyme and activates adenosine-triphosphatase which may be inhibited by nonglucose fuels like lactate and free fatty acids. Magnesium deficiency may be responsible for the chronic electrical instability of the myocardium predisposing to sudden cardiac death. The acute precipitating stress dependent trigger which lie in the brain may also be related to magnesium. In addition to fast Na and Ca channels there could be a Mg-carrying transport system maintaining the electrical activity of the myocardium. There is sufficient evidence to suggest the use of magnesium salts against ischaemic heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Magnesium is cardioprotective and influences action potential duration, membrane potential and perhaps maintains the fast response. The therapeutic and prophylactic value of magnesium needs further assessment.

  8. Molecular structure of dextran sulphate sodium in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Every, Hayley A.; Jiskoot, Wim; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Buijs, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Here we propose a 3D-molecular structural model for dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in a neutral aqueous environment based on the results of a molecular modelling study. The DSS structure is dominated by the stereochemistry of the 1,6-linked α-glucose units and the presence of two sulphate groups on each α-glucose unit. The structure of DSS can be best described as a helix with various patterns of di-sulphate substitution on the glucose rings. The presence of a side chain does not alter the 3D-structure of the linear main chain much, but affects the overall spatial dimension of the polymer. The simulated polymers have a diameter similar to or in some cases even larger than model α-hemolysin nano-pores for macromolecule transport in many biological processes, indicating a size-limited translocation through such pores. All results of the molecular modelling study are in line with previously reported experimental data. This study establishes the three-dimensional structure of DSS and summarizes the spatial dimension of the polymer, serving as the basis for a better understanding on the molecular level of DSS-involved electrostatic interaction processes with biological components like proteins and cell pores.

  9. Crustal structure and igneous processes in a chondritic Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid sulfur can form when metal-free C1 or C2 chondrites are heated. It may be obtained either by direct melting of native sulfur in disequilibrated C1 or C2 chondrites or by incongruent melting of pyrite and other sulfides in thermodynamically equilibrated rocks of the same composition. Hence, Lewis considered C2 chondrites to be the best meteoritic analog for Io's bulk composition. Metal-bearing C3 and ordinary chondrites are too chemically reduced to yield liquid sulfur and are not thought to represent plausible analogs of Io's bulk composition. An important aspect of Lewis' work is that CaSO4 and MgSO4 are predicted to be important in Io. Real C1 and C2 chondrites contain averages of, respectively, 11 percent and 3 percent by mass of salts (plus water of hydration). The most abundant chondritic salts are magnesium and calcium sulfates, but other important components include sulfates of sodium, potassium, and nickel and carbonates of magnesium, calcium, and iron. It is widely accepted that chondritic salts are formed by low-temperature aqueous alteration. Even if Io originally did not contain salts, it is likely that aqueous alteration would have yielded several percent sulfates and carbonates. In any event, Io probably contains sulfates and carbonates. This report presents the results of a model of differentiation of a simplified C2 chondrite-like composition that includes 1.92 percent MgSO4, 0.56 percent CaSO4, 0.53 percent CaCO3, and 0.094 percent elemental sulfur. The temperature of the model is gradually increased; ensuing fractional melting results in these components extruding or intruding at gravitationally stable levels in Io's crust. Relevant phase equilibria were reviewed. A deficiency of high-pressure phase equilibria renders the present model qualitative.

  10. Corrosion of cordierite ceramics by sodium sulphate at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianco, Robert; Jacobson, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    The corrosion of a sintered cordierite (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) ceramic by sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was investigated at 1000 C. Laboratory tests with thin films of Na2SO4/O2 and Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 were performed. In the Na2SO4/O2 case, the cordierite reacted to form NaAlSiO4. After several hours of corrosion, the Na2SO4 appeared to induce surface cracks in the cordierite. In the Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 case, other dissolution reactions occurred. The material was also tested in a burner rig with No. 2 Diesel fuel and 2 ppm sodium. The corrosion process was similar to that observed in the Na2SO4/O2 furnace tests, with more severe attack occurring.

  11. A 4-deoxy analogue of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibits heparan sulphate expression and growth factor binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wijk, Xander M.R. van; Oosterhof, Arie; Broek, Sebastiaan A.M.W. van den

    2010-09-10

    Heparan sulphate (HS) is a long, linear polysaccharide, which has a basic backbone of -{beta}1-4GlcA-{alpha}1-4GlcNAc- units. The involvement of HS in many steps of tumourigenesis, including growth and angiogenesis, makes it an appealing target for cancer therapy. To target the biosynthesis of HS by interfering with its chain elongation, a 4-deoxy analogue of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (4-deoxy-GlcNAc) was synthesized. Using immunocytochemistry and agarose gel electrophoresis it was shown that incubation with the 4-deoxysugar resulted in a dose dependent reduction of HS expression of MV3 melanoma cells, 1 mM resulting in an almost nullified HS expression. The parent sugar GlcNAc had no effect.more » 4-deoxysugar treated cells were viable and proliferated at the same rate as control cells. Other glycan structures appeared to be only mildly affected, as staining by various lectins was generally not or only modestly inhibited. At 1 mM of the 4-deoxysugar, the capacity of cells to bind the HS-dependent pro-angiogenic growth factors FGF-2 and VEGF was greatly compromised. Using an in vitro angiogenesis assay, 4-deoxysugar treated endothelial cells showed a sharp reduction of FGF-2-induced sprout formation. Combined, these data indicate that an inexpensive, easily synthesized, water-soluble monosaccharide analogue can interfere with HS expression and pro-angiogenic growth factor binding.« less

  12. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of...

  3. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant