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Sample records for magnesium 26 reactions

  1. The Positive-Pion Double-Charge Reaction: Experiments on the Isotopic Pairs OXYGEN-16,18 and MAGNESIUM-24,26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Steven Joseph

    1981-06-01

    The ((pi)('+),(pi)('-)) double-charge-exchange (DCX) reaction has been performed on targets of T = 0,1 isospin (and isotopic) pairs ('16,18)O and ('24,26)Mg. Energy excitation functions of d(sigma)/d(OMEGA), across the (3,3) (pi)-N resonance, are presented for transitions to double -isobaric analog state (DIAS) and non-DIAS ground-state residual nuclei. Angular distributions in the region of 5(DEGREES)-33(DEGREES) are presented for the DIAS from the T = 1 nuclei. The simularities and differences of DIAS and non-DIAS distributions are discussed in relation to reaction-mechanism and nuclear-structure effects. Also, a simple, two-amplitude model for the ('18)O excitation function, consistent with the data, is presented. The utility of DCX in nuclear mass measurements is discussed, with some examples.

  2. Positive-pion double-charge-exchange reaction: experiments on the isotopic pairs oxygen-16,18 and magnesium-24,26

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.J.

    1981-06-01

    The (..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup -/) double-charge-exchange (DCX) reaction has been performed on targets of T = 0,1 isospin (and isotopic) pairs /sup 16/ /sup 18/O and /sup 24/ /sup 26/Mg. Energy excitation functions of d sigma/d ..cap omega.., across the (3,3) ..pi..-N resonance, are presented for transitions to double-isobaric analog state (DIAS) and non-DIAS ground-state residual nuclei. Angular distributions in the region of 5/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/ are presented for the DIAS from the T = 1 nuclei. The similarities and differences of DIAS and non-DIAS distributions are discussed in relation to reaction-mechanism and nuclear-structure effects. Also, a simple, two-amplitude model for the /sup 18/O excitation function, consistent with the data, is presented. The utility of DCX in nuclear mass measurements is discussed, with some examples.

  3. Stretched-state excitations with the (neutron,proton) reaction at 278 MeV on carbon-14, magnesium-26 and silicon-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Dong

    1997-11-01

    The reactions 12C(n,p)12B,/ 14C(n,p)14B,/ 16O(n,p)16N,/ 26Mg(n,p)26Na and 30Si(n,p)30Al were studied at a neutron energy of 278 MeV using the charge-exchange facility at the TRIUMF accelerator laboratory in Vancouver, Canada. Excitation-energy spectra and differential cross sections for the observed excitations in these reactions were extracted over the momentum-transfer range from 1.2 to 2.5 fm-1 (θlab in 19o,/ 23o,/ 27o,/ 31o and 35o). The primary goal of this work was the study of T = 2 'stretched' particle-hole states, more specifically (/nu d5/2,/ /pi p3/2-1)/ 4/sp- states excited in 14B,/ (/nu f7/2,/pi d5/2-1)/ 6/sp- states excited in 26Na, and (/nu f7/2,/ /pi d5/2-1)/ 6/sp- states excited in 30Al. The identification of these states was based on: (1) comparison of the experimental cross section angular distribution with theoretical differential cross sections calculated with the distorted-wave-impulse approximation (DWIA); (2) comparison of the measured excitation energies with excitation energies of analog stretched states; and (3) comparison of the spectroscopic strength for these (n,p) reactions to (p,n) and (e,e') spectroscopic strengths. The T = 1 (/nu d5/2,/ /pi p3/2-1)/ 4/sp- 'stretched' states excited in 12B and 16N were also studied. For the 12C(n,p)12B reaction (on targets of CH2 and graphite), 4/sp- T = 1 strength at Ex = 4.25 MeV was observed and found to be consistent with previous measurements; this state was used for calibrating excitation-energy scales for the other targets and as a consistency check among the different experimental runs for this project.

  4. The magnesium isotope (δ26Mg) signature of dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geske, A.; Goldstein, R. H.; Mavromatis, V.; Richter, D. K.; Buhl, D.; Kluge, T.; John, C. M.; Immenhauser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Dolomite precipitation models and kinetics are debated and complicated due to the complex and temporally fluctuating fluid chemistry and different diagenetic environments. Using well-established isotope systems (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), fluid inclusions and elemental data, as well as a detailed sedimentological and petrographic data set, we established the precipitation environment and subsequent diagenetic pathways of a series of Proterozoic to Pleistocene syn-depositional marine evaporative (sabkha) dolomites, syn-depositional non-marine evaporative (lacustrine and palustrine) dolomites, altered marine ("mixing zone") dolomites and late diagenetic hydrothermal dolomites. These data form the prerequisite for a systematic investigation of dolomite magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mgdol). Dolomite δ26Mg ratios documented here range, from -2.49‰ to -0.45‰ (δ26Mgmean = -1.75 ± 1.08‰, n = 42). The isotopically most depleted end member is represented by earliest diagenetic marine evaporative sabkha dolomites (-2.11 ± 0.54‰ 2σ, n = 14). In comparing ancient compositions to modern ones, some of the variation is probably due to alteration. Altered marine (-1.41 ± 0.64‰ 2σ, n = 4), and earliest diagenetic lacustrine and palustrine dolomites (-1.25 ± 0.86‰ 2σ, n = 14) are less negative than sabkha dolomites but not distinct in composition. Various hydrothermal dolomites are characterized by a comparatively wide range of δ26Mg ratios, with values of -1.44 ± 1.33‰ (2σ, n = 10). By using fluid inclusion data and clumped isotope thermometry (Δ47) to represent temperature of precipitation for hydrothermal dolomites, there is no correlation between fluid temperature (∼100 to 180 °C) and dolomite Mg isotope signature (R2 = 0.14); nor is there a correlation between δ26Mgdol and δ18Odol. Magnesium-isotope values of different dolomite types are affected by a complex array of different Mg sources and sinks, dissolution/precipitation and non

  5. Magnesium

    MedlinePlus

    ... after taking a dietary supplement that contains magnesium. Diuretics can either increase or decrease the loss of magnesium through urine, depending on the type of diuretic. Prescription drugs used to ease symptoms of acid ...

  6. Reaction Mechanisms of Magnesium Potassium Phosphate Cement and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Fei

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC) is a kind of cementitious binder in which the chemical bond is formed via a heterogeneous acid-base reaction between dead burned magnesia powder and potassium phosphate solution at room temperature. Small amount of boron compounds can be incorporated in the cement as a setting retarder. The final reaction product of MgO-KH2PO4-H 2O ternary system is identified as magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate, MgKPO4·6H2O. However, the mechanisms and procedures through which this crystalline product is formed and the conditions under which the crystallization process would be influenced are not yet clear. Understanding of the reaction mechanism of the system is helpful for developing new methodologies to control the rapid reaction process and furthermore, to adjust the phase assemblage of the binder, and to enhance the macroscopic properties. This study is mainly focused on the examination of the reaction mechanism of MKPC. In addition, the formulation optimization, microstructure characterization and field application in rapid repair are also systematically studied. The chemical reactions between magnesia and potassium dihydrogen phosphate are essentially an acid-base reaction with strong heat release, the pH and temperature variation throughout the reaction process could provide useful information to disclose the different stages in the reaction. However, it would be very difficult to conduct such tests on the cement paste due to the limited water content and fast setting. In the current research, the reaction mechanism of MKPC is investigated on the diluted MKPC system through monitoring the pH and temperature development, identification of the solid phase formed, and measurement of the ionic concentration of the solution. The reaction process can be explained as follows: when magnesia and potassium phosphate powder are mixed with water, phosphate is readily dissolved, which is instantly followed by the dissociation of

  7. Vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol or dimethyl carbonate on magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C.; Marinas, J.M.; Romero, F.J.

    1999-04-01

    The vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol on magnesium oxide, various magnesium phosphates, and combinations of the two types of catalysts was studied. The process was found to involve the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction, aldol condensations, dehydrations, and hydrogenations. The presence of basic sites is indispensable for the reaction to develop; however, acid sites also play an active role. The selectivity for each reaction product depends on the particular catalyst used. The total conversion is maximal with the catalysts containing the largest populations of acid and basic sites. Also, catalysts with large numbers of acid sites exhibit an increased selectivity towards the corresponding alkenes. The use of dimethyl carbonate instead of methanol alters the reaction selectivity to an extent dependent on the particular catalyst and operating conditions. However, this also results in markedly decreased total conversion in some instances.

  8. Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.

    PubMed

    Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated.

  9. The Conversion from Magnesium Hydroxychloride to Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride by Solid-State Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Xuchen; Chen, Shiwei; Wang, Tizhuang; Yan, Yan

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the content of MgOHCl in anhydrous MgCl2, MgOHCl was converted to anhydrous MgCl2 by solid-state reaction. Factors that affect the conversion effects were investigated, including the mol ratio of NH4Cl to MgOHCl, thickness of covering agent, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The conversion process was characterized by XRD analysis and chemical analysis. The solid-state reaction mechanism was studied and discussed. The MgO content in anhydrous MgCl2 achieved 0.05 pct under the optimal conditions: the mol ratio of NH4Cl to MgOHCl was 3:1, thickness of Al2O3 powder 2 cm, reaction temperature 623 K (350 °C), and reaction time 1 hour.

  10. Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Schrag, D. P.

    2010-09-01

    Magnesium concentrations in deep-sea sediment pore-fluids typically decrease down core due to net precipitation of dolomite or clay minerals in the sediments or underlying crust. To better characterize and differentiate these processes, we have measured magnesium isotopes in pore-fluids and sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program sites (1082, 1086, 1012, 984, 1219, and 925) that span a range of oceanographic settings. At all sites, magnesium concentrations decrease with depth. At sites where diagenetic reactions are dominated by the respiration of organic carbon, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values increase with depth by as much as 2‰. Because carbonates preferentially incorporate 24Mg (low δ 26Mg), the increase in pore-fluid δ 26Mg values at these sites is consistent with the removal of magnesium in Mg-carbonate (dolomite). In contrast, at sites where the respiration of organic carbon is not important and/or weatherable minerals are abundant, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values decrease with depth by up to 2‰. The decline in pore-fluid δ 26Mg at these sites is consistent with a magnesium sink that is isotopically enriched relative to the pore-fluid. The identity of this enriched magnesium sink is likely clay minerals. Using a simple 1D diffusion-advection-reaction model of pore-fluid magnesium, we estimate rates of net magnesium uptake/removal and associated net magnesium isotope fractionation factors for sources and sinks at all sites. Independent estimates of magnesium isotope fractionation during dolomite precipitation from measured δ 26Mg values of dolomite samples from sites 1082 and 1012 are very similar to modeled net fractionation factors at these sites, suggesting that local exchange of magnesium between sediment and pore-fluid at these sites can be neglected. Our results indicate that the magnesium incorporated in dolomite is 2.0-2.7‰ depleted in δ 26Mg relative to the precipitating fluid. Assuming local exchange of magnesium is minor at the rest of the

  11. Magnesium basics

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed. PMID:26069819

  12. Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Magnesium wird überwiegend durch Schmelzflußelektrolyse hergestellt. Das dabei anfallende Reinmagnesium hat einen Mg-Gehalt von etwa 99,9%. Hauptbeimengung ist das Eisen; Silizium und Aluminium sind nur in Spuren vorhanden. Der Anwendungsumfang des Reinmagnesiums ist gering; dagegen werden Magnesiumlegierungen zunehmend, insbesondere für den Druckguß verwendet. Neben den bis etwa zum Jahre 1950 allein gebräuchlichen Mg-Mn-, Mg-Al- und Mg-Al-Zn-Legierungen werden heute mehr und mehr die besonders warmfesten Legierungen mit Zusätzen von Zirkon, Thorium und Seltenen Erden hergestellt (siehe dazu auch Abschnitt Seltene Erden). Als Umhüllungsmaterial für Uranstäbe dient die Legierung Magnox A 12, die nach [H 3] neben 1 % Al noch geringe Mengen an Ca und Ba enthält. In den in Deutschland üblichen Kurzzeichen (DIN 1729) werden die chemischen Symbole und der ungefähre Gehalt der wichtigsten Legierungselemente angegeben. Gußlegierungen werden zusätzlich durch ein G (Sandguß oder Kokillenguß) oder ein D (Druckguß) gekennzeichnet (siehe Tab. 5).

  13. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  14. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  15. Regulation of the mammalian carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II by effectors and phosphorylation. Altered affinity for ATP and magnesium ions measured using the ammonia-dependent part reaction.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S M; Carrey, E A

    1992-08-01

    We have measured the 'core' mammalian carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) activity, using NH4Cl as the nitrogen-donating substrate and trapping carbamoyl phosphate as urea through its reaction with ammonium ions. When ATP and magnesium ion concentrations are close to those found in the cell, the substrate saturation curves for ammonia and bicarbonate are hyperbolic, giving Km (NH3) values of 166 microM at high ATP concentrations and 26 microM at low ATP concentrations, while the Km (bicarbonate) is 1.4 mM at both ATP concentrations used. These values for the Km (NH3) are lower than previously reported for CPS II, and closer to the values for the mitochondrial counterpart. The Km for ammonia and bicarbonate are not altered by phosphorylation of the multienzyme polypeptide CAD, which contains the first three enzyme activities of pyrimidine biosynthesis. The CPS II activity is lower with an excess of either ATP or magnesium ions, causing the apparently sigmoid dependence of activity upon ATP concentration to be enhanced at low concentrations of free magnesium ions. The feedback inhibitor, UTP, acts by stabilising a state with a low affinity for magnesium ions and for ATP. In the presence of the activator, 5-phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRibPP), the enzyme has a higher affinity for magnesium ions and thus the ATP dependence of the activity is hyperbolic. Phosphorylation of CAD similarly activates the CPS II enzyme by increasing the affinity for magnesium ions and by pushing the equilibrium away from the low-affinity UTP-stabilised state. Using our improved assay procedure, we observe a very large activation by PRibPP of carbamoylphosphate synthesis at low concentrations of magnesium ions, and we find that unlike UTP, the activator PRibPP is able to act on the phosphorylated enzyme. PMID:1499569

  16. Reactions of a prototype nuclear-waste ceramic with a hot magnesium-rich brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B. E.; Freeborn, W. P.; McCarthy, G. J.; White, W. B.

    1982-10-01

    Prototype ceramic nuclear waste forms were experimentally reacted with a high calcium and magnesium brine under hydrothermal conditions. The said reaction products and fluid were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Alteration of the waste forms was observed and the reaction products identified. Uptake of cesium, rubidium, strontium, barium, lanthanum and neodymium into the brine was measured with a strong temperature dependence, i.e., increased concentrations with increased temperature. The concentrations of the six elements also increased with time, and imply that dissolution of the ceramic is controlled by diffusion and/or crystalline dissolution mechanism.

  17. The adenosine triphosphate inhibition of the pyruvate kinase reaction and its dependence on the total magnesium ion concentration

    PubMed Central

    Holmsen, Holm; Storm, Eva

    1969-01-01

    1. The effects of ATP, PPi and EDTA on the skeletal-muscle pyruvate kinase reaction at various concentrations of magnesium (where `magnesium' refers to total Mg2+, both free and in the form of complexes) were investigated. The reaction rate was determined as the amount of pyruvate formed in a recorded time of incubation. 2. At 44mm-magnesium the Km values for ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate were unaltered by the presence of ATP up to 6·8mm in systems buffered with either tris–hydrochloric acid or glycylglycine–sodium hydroxide, but the Km values were different in these systems. The Km for one substrate was independent of the concentration of the second substrate. 3. At 10mm-magnesium in the tris–hydrochloric acid system ATP inhibited the reaction competitively with respect to ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate. In the glycylglycine–sodium hydroxide system the inhibition appeared to be non-competitive. At 10mm-magnesium the Km values were lower than at 44mm-magnesium and dependent on the system used. 4. In the tris–hydrochloric acid system the reaction rate rose with increasing magnesium concentration up to a maximum at a concentration 10–20 times that of ADP. Further increase inhibited the reaction and at 44mm-magnesium the rate was 25–50% of its maximum. This inhibition paralleled that produced by increasing trimethylammonium chloride concentrations and was not due to a specific effect of the Mg2+ ion. 5. In the presence of 6·8mm-ATP no reaction occurred below 4–6mm-magnesium, and further increase apparently abolished the inhibition as the reaction rate increased and became equal to those obtained in the absence of ATP at 10–25mm-magnesium. Further increase in magnesium concentration gave reaction rates that were slightly higher in the presence of ATP than in its absence. The maximal rate in the presence of ATP was distinctly lower than in its absence. When 6·8mm-PPi or 6·8mm-EDTA was present the variations in reaction rate with rising magnesium

  18. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  19. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Reactions and Degradation Mechanisms of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlborg, Nadia L.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    The thermochemical reactions between calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate- (CMAS-) based road sand and several advanced turbine engine environmental barrier coating (EBC) materials were studied. The phase stability, reaction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of rare earth (RE)-silicates Yb2SiO5, Y2Si2O7, and RE-oxide doped HfO2 and ZrO2 under the CMAS infiltration condition at 1500 C were investigated, and the microstructure and phase characteristics of CMAS-EBC specimens were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Experimental results showed that the CMAS dissolved RE-silicates to form crystalline, highly non-stoichiometric apatite phases, and in particular attacking the silicate grain boundaries. Cross-section images show that the CMAS reacted with specimens and deeply penetrated into the EBC grain boundaries and formed extensive low-melting eutectic phases, causing grain boundary recession with increasing testing time in the silicate materials. The preliminary results also showed that CMAS reactions also formed low melting grain boundary phases in the higher concentration RE-oxide doped HfO2 systems. The effect of the test temperature on CMAS reactions of the EBC materials will also be discussed. The faster diffusion exhibited by apatite and RE-doped oxide phases and the formation of extensive grain boundary low-melting phases may limit the CMAS resistance of some of the environmental barrier coatings at high temperatures.

  20. Temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Ma, Qingxin

    2008-04-01

    The experimental determination of rate constants for atmospheric reactions and how these rate constants vary with temperature remain a crucially important part of atmosphere science. In this study, the temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide (COS) on magnesium oxide (MgO) has been investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor and a temperature-programmed reaction apparatus. We found that the adsorption and the heterogeneous reaction are sensitive to temperature. The initial uptake coefficients (gammat(Ini)) of COS on MgO decrease from 1.07 +/- 0.71 x 10-6 to 4.84 +/- 0.60 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 228 to 300 K, and the steady state uptake coefficients (gammat(SS)) increase from 5.31 +/- 0.06 x 10-8 to 1.68 +/- 0.41 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 240 to 300 K. The desorption rate constants (kdes) were also found to increase slightly with the enhancement of temperature. The empirical formula between the uptake coefficients, desorption rate constants and temperature described in the form of Arrhenius expression were obtained. The activation energies for the heterogeneous reaction and desorption of COS on MgO were measured to be 11.02 +/- 0.34 kJ.mol-1 and 6.30 +/- 0.81 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results demonstrate that the initial uptake of COS on MgO is mainly contributed by an adsorption process and the steady state uptake is due to a catalytic reaction. The environmental implication was also discussed.

  1. Novel palladium complex-catalyzed reaction of magnesium amides with allylic electrophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Ibragimov, A.G.; Minsker, D.L.; Muslukhov, R.R.

    1987-08-20

    In order to develop an efficient method for the synthesis of higher order unsaturated tertiary amines, and also to explore a new method for the formation of C-N bonds, they have investigated the transition metal complex-catalyzed reaction of magnesium amides with electrophiles; the electrophiles selected for study included allyl ethers and esters, as well as sulfones, sulfides and quaternized allylamines. The effects of the nature and structure of the catalyst components, as well as of the reaction conditions, on product yield were examined in the case of the reaction of diethyl (bromomagnesium)amine with diallyl ether, and revealed that the highest yield of diethylallyl-amine (I) was achieved using Pd(acac)/sub 2/ (3-5 mole %) and Ph/sub 3/P (1:2) as catalyst in THF solution at 50/sup 0/C for 5 h. Other transition metal (Ni, Fe, Zr, Ti, Cu) compounds were also examined as catalysts, but the yield of (I) did not exceed 15% with these compounds. Bimetallic catalysts based on Zr (Cp/sub 2/ZrCl, Py/sub 2/ZrCl/sub 6/, (RO)/sub 4/Zr) and Ni (Ni(acac)/sub 2/ and NiCl/sub 2/) were successful in forming (I) from diethyl (bromomagnesium)amine and diallyl ether in 60% yield.

  2. Measurement of pion double charge exchange on carbon-13, carbon-14, magnesium-26, and iron-56

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    Cross sections for the /sup 13,14/C,/sup 26/Mg,/sup 56/Fe(..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup -/)/sup 13,14/O,/sup 26/Si,/sup 56/Ni reactions were measured with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility for 120 less than or equal to T/sub ..pi../ less than or equal to 292 MeV and 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 50. The double isobaric analog states (DIAS) are of primary interest. In addition, cross sections for transitions to /sup 14/O(0/sup +/, 5.92 MeV), /sup 14/O(2/sup +/, 7.77 MeV), /sup 56/Ni(gs), /sup 13/O(gs), and /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) are presented. The /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) state is postulated to have J/sup ..pi../ = 1/2/sup -/. The data are compared to previously measured double-charge-exchange cross sections on other nuclei, and the systematics of double charge exchange on T greater than or equal to 1 target nuclei leading to the DIAS are studied. Near the ..delta../sub 33/ resonance, cross sections for the DIAS transitions are in disagreement with calculations in which the reaction is treated as sequential charge exchange through the free pion-nucleon amplitude, while for T/sub ..pi../ > 200 MeV the anomalous features of the 164 MeV data are not apparent. This is evidence for significant higher order contributions to the double-charge-exchange amplitude near the reasonable energy. Two theoretical approaches that include two nucleon processes are applied to the DIAS data. 64 references.

  3. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  4. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  5. Reactions of graphene supported Co3O4 nanocubes with lithium and magnesium studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Li, Qianqian; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Rao, Qunli; Xu, Junming

    2016-02-01

    Reaction beyond intercalation and the utilization of metal ions beyond lithium-ions are two promising approaches for developing the next generation of high capacity and low cost energy storage materials. Here, we use graphene supported Co3O4 nanocubes and study their reaction with lithium, magnesium and aluminum using in situ transmission electron microscopy. On lithiation, the Co3O4 nanocubes decompose to Co metal nanoparticles (2 to 3 nm) and embed in as-formed Li2O matrix; conversely, the CoO nanoparticles form on the Co site accompanying the decomposition of Li2O in the delithiation process. The lithiation process is dominated by surface diffusion of Li+, and graphene sheets enhance the Li+ diffusion. However, upon charge with magnesium, the Mg2+ diffusion is sluggish, and there is no sign of conversion reaction between Mg and Co3O4 at room temperature. Instead, a thin film consisting of metal Mg nanoparticles is formed on the surface of graphene due to a process similar to metal plating. The Al3+ diffusion is even more sluggish and no reaction between Al and Co3O4 is observed. These findings provide insights to tackle the reaction mechanism of multivalent ions with electrode materials.

  6. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable /sup 26/Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-04-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% /sup 26/Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi /sup 28/MgCl2 and 50 mg stable /sup 26/Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as /sup 26/MgCl/sub 2/ in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%.

  7. Study of astrophysically important resonant states in 26Si by the 28Si(4He,6He)26Si reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Kwan; Lee, C. S.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Inafiki, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; He, J. J.; Saito, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Fukijawa, H.; Amadio, G.; Khiem, L. H.; Tanaka, M.; Chen, A.; Kato, S.

    PoS(NIC-IX)024 , b, H. Yamaguchia, J. J. Hea , A. Saitoa , Y. Wakabayashia, H. Fujikawaa, G. The emission of 1.809 MeV gamma-ray from the first excited state of 26 Mg followed by beta- decay of 26 Al in its ground state (denoted as 26 Alg.s. ) has been identified by gamma-ray telescopes such the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) [1]. To resolve controversy over the pos- sible sources of the observational 1.809 MeV gamma-rays, one needs accurate knowledge of the production rate of 26 Al. The 25 Al(p,γ)26Si reaction which is the competition reaction for produc- tion of 26 Alg.s. is one of the important subjects to be investigated. In this work, the astrophysically important 26 Si states above the proton threshold were studied via the 28 Si(4 He,6 He)26 Si reaction. We have preformed an angular distribution measurement using the high resolution QDD spectro- graph (PA) at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo. The experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

  8. Magnesium Gluconate

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  9. Magnesium and the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body. It is a required mineral that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, heart rhythm (cardiac excitability), vasomotor tone, blood pressure, immune system, bone integrity, and blood glucose levels and promotes calcium absorption. Because of magnesium's role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This article will cover the general roles of magnesium, magnesium requirements, and assessment of magnesium status as well as the dietary intake of magnesium and its effects on exercise performance. The research articles cited were limited from those published in 2003 through 2014. PMID:26166051

  10. Magnesium and the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body. It is a required mineral that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, heart rhythm (cardiac excitability), vasomotor tone, blood pressure, immune system, bone integrity, and blood glucose levels and promotes calcium absorption. Because of magnesium's role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This article will cover the general roles of magnesium, magnesium requirements, and assessment of magnesium status as well as the dietary intake of magnesium and its effects on exercise performance. The research articles cited were limited from those published in 2003 through 2014.

  11. REACTION MECHANISMS OF MAGNESIUM SILICATES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE IN MICROWAVE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    William B. White; Michael R. Silsbee; B. Joe Kearns

    2004-02-18

    The objective of the investigation was to determine whether microwave fields would enhance the reactions of CO{sub 2} with silicates that are relevant to the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Three sets of experiments were conducted. (1) Serpentine and CO{sub 2} were reacted directly at one atmosphere pressure in a microwave furnace. Little reaction was observed. (2) Serpentine was dehydroxylated in a microwave furnace. The reaction was rapid, reaching completion in less than 30 minutes. A detailed investigation of this reaction produced an S-shaped kinetics curve, similar to the kinetics from dehydroxylating serpentine in a resistance furnace, but offset to 100 C lower temperature. This set of experiments clearly demonstrates the effect of microwaves for enhancing reaction kinetics. (3) Reactions of serpentine with alkaline carbonates and in acid solution were carried out in a microwave hydrothermal apparatus. There was a greatly enhanced decomposition of the serpentine in acid solution but, at the temperature and pressure of the reaction chamber (15 bars; 200 C) the carbonates did not react. Overall, microwave fields, as expected, enhance silicate reaction kinetics, but higher CO{sub 2} pressures are needed to accomplish the desired sequestration reactions.

  12. The Measurement of Pion Double Charge Exchange on CARBON-13, CARBON-14, MAGNESIUM-26 and IRON-56.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter Anthony

    Cross sections for the ('13,14)C,('26)Mg,('56)Fe((pi)('+),(pi)(' -))('13,14)O,('26)Si,('56)Ni reactions were measured with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility for 120 (LESSTHEQ) T(,(pi)) (LESSTHEQ) 292 MeV and 0 (LESSTHEQ) (theta) (LESSTHEQ) 50. The double isobaric analog states (DIAS) were of primary interest, and in addition, cross sections for transitions to ('14)O(0('+), 5.92 MeV), ('14)O(2('+), 7.77 MeV), ('56)Ni(gs), ('13)O(gs), and ('13)O(4.21 MeV) are presented. The ('13)O(4.21 MeV) state is postulated to have J('(pi)) = 1/2('-). The data are compared to previously measured double-charge -exchange cross sections on other nuclei, and the systematics of double charge exchange on T (GREATERTHEQ) 1 target nuclei leading to DIAS are studied. Near the (DELTA)(,33) resonance, cross section for the DIAS transitions are in disagreement with calculations in which the reaction is treated as sequential charge exchange through the free pion-nucleon amplitude, while for T(,(pi)) > 200 MeV the anomalous features of the 164 MeV data are not apparent. This is evidence for significant higher order contributions to the double-charge -exchange amplitude near the resonance energy. Two theoretical approaches that include two nucleon processes are applied to the DIAS data.

  13. Practical Iron- and Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions between N-Heterocyclic Halides and Aryl or Heteroaryl Magnesium Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Olesya M; Steib, Andreas K; Fernandez, Sarah; Boudot, Willy; Markiewicz, John T; Knochel, Paul

    2015-05-26

    The reaction scope of iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in the presence of isoquinoline (quinoline) in the solvent mixture tBuOMe/THF has been further investigated. Various 2-halogenated pyridine, pyrimidine, and triazine derivatives were arylated under these mild conditions in excellent yields. The presence of isoquinoline allows us to perform Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between 6-chloroquinoline and aryl magnesium reagents. Furthermore, it was found that the use of 10% N,N-dimethylquinoline-8-amine increases the yields of some Co-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with chloropyridines bearing electron-withdrawing substituents. PMID:25899175

  14. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn2+ linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn2+ linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real

  15. The 28Si(p,t)26Si*(p) reaction and implications for the astrophysical 25Al(p,gamma)26Si reaction rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chipps, K.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Chae, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Pittman, S. T.; Schmitt, Kyle; Smith, Michael Scott

    2010-10-01

    Several resonances in 25Al(p, )26Si have been studied via the 28Si(p,t)26Si reaction. Triton energies and angular distributions were measured using a segmented annular detector array. An additional silicon detector array was used to simultaneously detect the coincident protons emitted from the decay of states in 26Si above the proton threshold, in order to determine branching ratios. A resonance at 5927 4 keV has been experimentally confirmed as the first = 0 state above the proton threshold, with a proton branching ratio consistent with one.

  16. Study of Heavy Ion Fusion Reaction of NICKEL-58 and Magnesium at 11 Mev/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Jing Ye.

    This thesis presents a study of the heavy ion fusion reaction in which a ^{58} Ni projectile bombards a ^{24 }Mg target at 11 MeV/nucleon. The incident projectile energy was purposefully chosen so as the system studied to be at the onset of the more complex and interesting phenomenon of incomplete fusion. The physics motivation is to probe the central collision of a heavy, energetic, and asymmetric system by means of both inclusive and exclusive experimental measurements. The experiment was performed at HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) by using the coupled accelerators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The reaction products were measured by the new "HILI-Ring" large solid angle detector system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The thesis discusses the physics motivation and the systematics of heavy ion fusion reactions. Details of the design and construction of a new CsI(Tl) Ring detector is given. Since this is the first such study performed on the Heavy Ion Light Ion (HILI) detector, an extensive discussion of the calibration procedures and the data reduction methods are given. The fusion reaction data were analyzed in both inclusive and exclusive modes with the result that a valuable new perspective on the deconvolution of the reaction mechanism has been achieved.

  17. In vivo assessment of the host reactions to the biodegradation of the two novel magnesium alloys ZEK100 and AX30 in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on biodegradable magnesium implants published recently use magnesium-calcium-alloys or magnesium-aluminum-rare earth-alloys. However, since rare earths are a mixture of elements and their toxicity is unclear, a reduced content of rare earths is favorable. The present study assesses the in vivo biocompatibility of two new magnesium alloys which have a reduced content (ZEK100) or contain no rare earths at all (AX30). Methods 24 rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (AX30 or ZEK100, 3 or 6 months, respectively) and cylindrical pins were inserted in their tibiae. To assess the biodegradation μCT scans and histological examinations were performed. Results The μCT scans showed that until month three ZEK100 degrades faster than AX30, but this difference is leveled out after 6 months. Histology revealed that both materials induce adverse host reactions and high numbers of osteoclasts in the recipient bone. The mineral apposition rates of both materials groups were high. Conclusions Both alloys display favorable degradation characteristics, but they induce adverse host reactions, namely an osteoclast-driven resorption of bone and a subsequent periosteal formation of new bone. Therefore, the biocompatibility of ZEK100 and AX30 is questionable and further studies, which should focus on the interactions on cellular level, are needed. PMID:22429539

  18. High-precision (p,t) reaction to determine {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Since the identification of ongoing {sup 26}Al production in the universe, the reaction sequence {sup 24}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 25}Al({beta}{sup +{nu}}){sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al has been studied intensively. At temperatures where the radiative capture on {sup 25}Al (t{sub 1/2}=7.2 s) becomes faster than the {beta}{sup +} decay, the production of {sup 26}Al can be reduced due to the depletion of {sup 25}Al. To determine the resonances relevant for the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si bypass reaction, we measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with high-energy precision using the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Several new energy levels were found above the p threshold and for known states excitation energies were determined with smaller uncertainties. The calculated stellar rates of the bypass reaction agree well with previous results, suggesting that these rates are well established.

  19. [Magnesium in skin allergy].

    PubMed

    Błach, Joanna; Nowacki, Wojciech; Mazur, Andrzej

    2007-10-08

    Magnesium is involved in many biological processes within the body. Magnesium deficiency causes many disorders, including impairment of immunity. This review summarizes present knowledge on the relationship between magnesium and skin allergy reactions. Special focus is on allergy types I and IV. At present the best knowledge is on allergy I. Magnesium deficiency in experimental animals, mainly rats, leads to characteristic hyperemia, an increase in IgE, neutrophilia and eosinophilia, an increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines, mastocyte degranulation, histaminemia, and splenomegaly. These symptoms observed in hypomagnesemic rats are similar to those in atopic patients. Data on the relationship between magnesium and other types of allergy are scarce. Clinical observations show the beneficial effect of topical and oral administration of magnesium salts in patients with skin allergy. All the presented data point to an important role of magnesium in allergy reactions. Other studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of magnesium's action. Well-controlled clinical protocols should also be conducted to assess the efficiency of magnesium supplementation in patients with skin allergy.

  20. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-28

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn(2+) linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.

  1. Quantitative study of solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid and magnesium oxide using X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Stowell, Joseph G; Morris, Kenneth R; Byrn, Stephen R

    2010-03-11

    The purpose of this study is to investigate solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid (FFA) and magnesium oxide (MgO) using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Polymorphs of FFA were blended with MgO and stored under conditions of 96.5% RH and 89% RH at 40 degrees C. The disappearance of FFA and production of magnesium flufenamate were monitored by XRPD. It was observed that the reactions between FFA and MgO proceeded following the Jander equation. Form I of FFA is more reactive with MgO than Form III. Differential accessibility of reactive groups is hypothesized as one of the reasons that Form I is more reactive than Form III. It was noted that the reaction between FFA and MgO could be mitigated by adding another acidic excipient such as polyacrylic acid to prevent the acid-base reaction with FFA. The effectiveness of polyacrylic acid was impacted by the mixing order of the tertiary mixture. Mixing polyacrylic acid and MgO first provided the most significant protection. In conclusion, solid-state acid-base reactions could be investigated using XRPD. Different forms may have distinct reactivity. Acid-base reactions in the solid state could be mitigated through the addition of another "shielding" excipient.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted activation of zero-valent magnesium for nitrate denitrification: identification of reaction by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Ileri, Burcu; Ayyildiz, Onder; Apaydin, Omer

    2015-07-15

    Zero-valent magnesium (Mg(0)) was activated by ultrasound (US) in an aim to promote its potential use in water treatment without pH control. In this context, nitrate reduction was studied at batch conditions using various doses of magnesium powder and ultrasound power. While neither ultrasound nor zero-valent magnesium alone was effective for reducing nitrate in water, their combination removed up to 90% of 50 mg/L NO3-N within 60 min. The rate of nitrate reduction by US/Mg(0) enhanced with increasing ultrasonic power and magnesium dose. Nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrite (NO2(-)) were detected as the major reduction by-products, while magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and hydroxide ions (OH(-)) were identified as the main oxidation products. The results from SEM-EDS measurements revealed that the surface oxide level decreased significantly when the samples of Mg(0) particles were exposed to ultrasonic treatment. The surface passivation of magnesium particles was successfully minimized by mechanical forces of ultrasound, which in turn paved the way to sustain the catalyst activity toward nitrate reduction.

  3. Expanding Mg-Zn hybrid chemistry: inorganic salt effects in addition reactions of organozinc reagents to trifluoroacetophenone and the implications for a synergistic lithium-magnesium-zinc activation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-07-18

    Numerous organic transformations rely on organozinc compounds made through salt-metathesis (exchange) reactions from organolithium or Grignard reagents with a suitable zinc precursor. By combining X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this study sheds new light on the constitution of the organometallic species involved in this important synthetic tool. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of equimolar amounts of Grignard reagents (RMgX) and ZnCl(2) in THF led to the isolation of novel magnesium-zinc hybrids, [{(thf)(2)Mg(μ-Cl)(3)ZnR}(2)] (R=Et, tBu, nBu or o-OMe-C(6)H(4)), which exhibit an unprecedented structural motif in mixed magnesium-zinc chemistry. Furthermore, theoretical modelling of the reaction of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) reveals that formation of the mixed-metal compound is thermodynamically preferred to that of the expected homometallic products, RZnCl and MgCl(2). This study also assesses the alkylating ability of hybrid 3 towards the sensitive ketone trifluoroacetophenone, revealing a dramatic increase in the chemoselectivity of the reaction when LiCl is introduced as an additive. This observation, combined with recent related breakthroughs in synthesis, points towards the existence of a trilateral Li/Mg/Zn synergistic effect. PMID:21656589

  4. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  5. Structure of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: the cofactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.P.; Feher, G.; Yeates, T.O.; Komiya, H.; Rees, D.C.

    1987-08-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the cofactors of the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26 has been determined by x-ray diffraction and refined at a resolution of 2.8 A with an R value of 26%. The main features of the structure are similar to the ones determined for Rhodopseudomonas viridis. The cofactors are arranged along two branches, which are approximately related to each other by a 2-fold symmetry axis. The structure is well suited to produce light-induced charge separation across the membrane. Most of the structural features predicted from physical and biochemical measurements are confirmed by the x-ray structure.

  6. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-09-23

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  7. Spin Excitations in CARBON-14 and MAGNESIUM-26: a Complementary Analysis of Electron, Pion, and Proton Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plum, Michael Andrew

    Inelastic magnetic electron scattering measurements on ('14)C have been performed at the Bates Linear Accelerator. Candidate J('(pi)) =4('-) states are identified at E(,x) = 11.7, 17.3, and 24.4 MeV, and the corresponding M4 strengths are extracted. These M4 strengths are combined with existing ((pi),(pi)') data to determine the isoscalar and isovector spin transition amplitudes, or Z-coefficients Z(,0) and Z(,1). Shell model calculations are found to correctly predict the observed excitation energies to within 1.7 MeV. These calculations are also found to correctly predict the isospin dependent amplitudes of the spin transition density. However, these calculations overpredict the "isoscalar strength" and "isovector strength" by factors of 3.6 and 2.3, respectively. The deduced Z-coefficients are also used to predict the results of ('14)C(p,p') and ('14)C(p,n) experiments. Forthcoming results of these experiments will provide a sensitive test of the proton-nucleus force. Electron scattering measurements have also been performed for the low lying transverse electric states in ('14)C at E(,x) = 6.091, 6.728, 7.012, and 8.318 MeV, and also for states at E(,x) = 9.84, 10.50, 11.29, 12.20, 12.86, 13.62, 14.03, 14.92, 15.96, 16.53, and 22.1 MeV. The previously unobserved 16.53 MeV state has a form factor shape which is consistent with E2 and M2 transitions. The 22.1 MeV state is the isobaric analog of the ('14)B gound state, and based upon its excitation energy, the ('14)B -('14)C Coulomb energy is calculated to be 2.25 (+OR-) 0.10 MeV. Electron scattering measurements were also performed on ('26)Mg. Candidate 6('-) states are identified at E(,x) = 7.54, 9.17, 12.50, 12.88, 13.00, 13.97, 14.50, 15.36, 15.46, 16.5, and 18.05 MeV, and the M6 strengths for these states are extracted. Shell model calculations are found to be in disagreement with the observed excitation energies and M6 strengths. Candidate 4('-) states are also identified at E(,x) = 8.04, 8.44, 8.70, 10

  8. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  9. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  10. The 26gAl(p,g)27Si reaction in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Chris; Parikh, A.; José, J.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Chen, A. A.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, H.; Davids, B.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C.; Deibel, C.; Erikson, L.; Fogarty, L.; Frekers, D.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Huyse, M.; Jewett, C.; Laird, A. M.; Lewis, R.; Mumby-Croft, P.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D. F.; Ouellet, C. V.; Parker, P.; Pearson, J.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wrede, C.

    The 26gAl(p,γ)27Si Reaction in Novae PoS(NIC-IX)004 1 TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3, Canada 2 Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8124, USA 3 Dept. de Física í Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain 4 Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Barcelona, Spain 5 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 481, Canada 6 Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada 7 Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA 8 National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland 9 Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Willhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany 10 University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada 11 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium 12 Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom The 184 keV resonance strength in the 26gAl(p,γ)27Si reaction was measured in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. We obtain a value of ωγ=35±7 μeV for the strength and ER=184±1 keV for the resonance energy. These values are consistent with p-wave capture into the 7652(3) keV state in 27Si. We discuss the implications of these results for 26gAl nucleosynthesis in a typical O-Ne white dwarf nova.

  11. Role of magnesium ions in the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 protein and its DNA ligand.

    PubMed

    Ogrizek, Mitja; Konc, Janez; Bren, Urban; Hodošček, Milan; Janežič, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    A protein, Tm1631 from the hyperthermophilic organism Thermotoga maritima belongs to a domain of unknown function protein family. It was predicted that Tm1631 binds with the DNA and that the Tm1631-DNA complex is an endonuclease repair system with a DNA repair function (Konc et al. PLoS Comput Biol 9(11): e1003341, 2013). We observed that the severely bent, strained DNA binds to the protein for the entire 90 ns of classical molecular dynamics (MD) performed; we could observe no significant changes in the most distorted region of the DNA, where the cleavage of phosphodiester bond occurs. In this article, we modeled the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 and its proposed ligand, the DNA molecule, focusing on cleavage of the phosphodiester bond. After addition of two Mg(2+) ions to the reaction center and extension of classical MD by 50 ns (totaling 140 ns), the DNA ligand stayed bolted to the protein. Results from density functional theory quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations suggest that the reaction is analogous to known endonuclease mechanisms: an enzyme reaction mechanism with two Mg(2+) ions in the reaction center and a pentacovalent intermediate. The minimum energy pathway profile shows that the phosphodiester bond cleavage step of the reaction is kinetically controlled and not thermodynamically because of a lack of any energy barrier above the accuracy of the energy profile calculation. The role of ions is shown by comparing the results with the reaction mechanisms in the absence of the Mg(2+) ions where there is a significantly higher reaction barrier than in the presence of the Mg(2+) ions.Graphical abstractA protein, Tm1631 from the hyperthermophilic organism Thermotoga maritima belongs to a domain of unknown function protein family. We modeled the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 and its proposed ligand, the DNA molecule, focusing on cleavage of the phosphodiester bond.

  12. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  13. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... different reasons. Some people use it as an antacid to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. ... stomach.Do not take magnesium oxide as an antacid for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor ...

  14. Structure of resonances in the Gamow burning window for the 25Al(p ,γ )26Si reaction in novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, D. T.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; David, H. M.; Harker, J. L.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kankainen, A.; Lederer, C.; Zhu, S.

    2015-09-01

    A γ -ray spectroscopy study of excited states in 26Si has been performed by using the 24Mg(3He ,n ) reaction at a beam energy of 10 MeV. In particular, states have been studied above the proton threshold relevant for burning in the 25Al(p ,γ )26Si reaction in novae. This reaction influences the amount of 26Al injected into the interstellar medium by novae, which contributes to the overall flux of cosmic γ -ray emission from 26Al observed in satellite missions. The present results point strongly to the existence of a 0+ state at an excitation energy of 5890 keV lying within the Gamow burning window, which raises questions about the existence and properties of another, higher-lying state reported in previous experimental work. The existence of two such states within this excitation energy region cannot be understood within the framework of s d -shell-model calculations.

  15. Investigation on the thermo-chemical reaction mechanism between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong-Bo; Wang, Bin-Yi; Cao, Jian; Song, Guan-Yu; Liu, Juan-Bo

    2015-03-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) top coat play a very important role in advanced turbine blades by considerably increasing the engine efficiency and improving the performance of highly loaded blades. However, at high temperatures, environment factors result in the failure of TBCs. The influence of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) is one of environment factors. Although thermo-physical effect is being paid attention to, the thermo-chemical reaction becomes the hot-spot in the research area of TBCs affected by CMAS. In this paper, traditional twolayered structured TBCs were prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) as the object of study. TBCs coated with CMAS were heated at 1240°C for 3 h. Additionally, 15 wt.% simulated molten CMAS powder and YSZ powder were mixed and heated at 1240°C or 1350°C for 48 h. SEM and EDS were adopted to detect morphology and elements distribution. According to XRD and TEM results, it was revealed that CMAS react with YSZ at high temperature and form ZrSiO4, Ca0.2Zr0.8O1.8 and Ca0.15Zr0.85O1.85 after reaction, as a result, leading to the failure of TBCs and decreasing the TBC lifetime.

  16. Surprisingly Different Reaction Behavior of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Bis(trimethylsilyl)amides toward Bulky N-(2-Pyridylethyl)-N'-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine.

    PubMed

    Kalden, Diana; Oberheide, Ansgar; Loh, Claas; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-07-25

    N-(2,6-Diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridylethyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py) (1), reacts with metalation reagents of lithium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium to give the corresponding pivalamidinates [(tmeda)Li{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}] (6), [Mg{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}2 ] (3), and heteroleptic [{(Me3 Si)2 N}Ae{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}], with Ae being Ca (2 a) and Sr (2 b). In contrast to this straightforward deprotonation of the amidine units, the reaction of 1 with the bis(trimethylsilyl)amides of sodium or potassium unexpectedly leads to a β-metalation and an immediate deamidation reaction yielding [(thf)2 Na{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 a) or [(thf)2 K{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 b), respectively, as well as 2-vinylpyridine in both cases. The lithium derivative shows a similar reaction behavior to the alkaline earth metal congeners, underlining the diagonal relationship in the periodic table. Protonation of 4 a or the metathesis reaction of 4 b with CaI2 in tetrahydrofuran yields N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-NH2 ) (5), or [(thf)4 Ca{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}2 ] (7), respectively. The reaction of AN(SiMe3 )2 (A=Na, K) with less bulky formamidine Dipp-N=C(H)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py (8) leads to deprotonation of the amidine functionality, and [(thf)Na{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 a) or [(thf)K{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 b), respectively, are isolated as dinuclear complexes. From these experiments it is obvious, that β-metalation/deamidation of N-(2-pyridylethyl)amidines requires bases with soft metal ions and also steric pressure. The isomeric forms of all compounds are verified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis and are maintained in solution. PMID:27355970

  17. Role of magnesium ions in the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 protein and its DNA ligand.

    PubMed

    Ogrizek, Mitja; Konc, Janez; Bren, Urban; Hodošček, Milan; Janežič, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    A protein, Tm1631 from the hyperthermophilic organism Thermotoga maritima belongs to a domain of unknown function protein family. It was predicted that Tm1631 binds with the DNA and that the Tm1631-DNA complex is an endonuclease repair system with a DNA repair function (Konc et al. PLoS Comput Biol 9(11): e1003341, 2013). We observed that the severely bent, strained DNA binds to the protein for the entire 90 ns of classical molecular dynamics (MD) performed; we could observe no significant changes in the most distorted region of the DNA, where the cleavage of phosphodiester bond occurs. In this article, we modeled the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 and its proposed ligand, the DNA molecule, focusing on cleavage of the phosphodiester bond. After addition of two Mg(2+) ions to the reaction center and extension of classical MD by 50 ns (totaling 140 ns), the DNA ligand stayed bolted to the protein. Results from density functional theory quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations suggest that the reaction is analogous to known endonuclease mechanisms: an enzyme reaction mechanism with two Mg(2+) ions in the reaction center and a pentacovalent intermediate. The minimum energy pathway profile shows that the phosphodiester bond cleavage step of the reaction is kinetically controlled and not thermodynamically because of a lack of any energy barrier above the accuracy of the energy profile calculation. The role of ions is shown by comparing the results with the reaction mechanisms in the absence of the Mg(2+) ions where there is a significantly higher reaction barrier than in the presence of the Mg(2+) ions.Graphical abstractA protein, Tm1631 from the hyperthermophilic organism Thermotoga maritima belongs to a domain of unknown function protein family. We modeled the reaction mechanism at the interface between Tm1631 and its proposed ligand, the DNA molecule, focusing on cleavage of the phosphodiester bond. PMID:27398092

  18. Apparent inhibition of photoredox reactions of magnesium octaethylporphyrin at the lipid bilayer-water interface by neutral quinones.

    PubMed Central

    Krakover, T; Ilani, A; Mauzerall, D

    1981-01-01

    Neutral quinones rapidly equilibrate across the lipid bilayer, hereby rendering the photoeffects seen in pigmented bilayers sensitive to the redox properties at both interfaces. The lack of photoeffect by quinones themselves and their apparent quenching reactions with aqueous acceptors is thus explained. An aqueous donor is needed on one side to break the symmetry and to allow vectorial electron transfer to be recorded. It is concluded that the neutral quinone accumulates on the polar side of the interface with respect to the hydrophobic pigment. The system may allow the study of kinetics of proton transfer accompanying the redox reactions of the quinones. PMID:7260323

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles prepared via EDTA-based sol-gel reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Shaban I.; Elkady, Ashraf S.; Rashad, M. M.; Mostafa, A. G.; Megahid, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared, for the first time, by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol-gel combustion method. The prepared ferrite system is calcined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were applied for elucidating the structural and magnetic properties of the prepared system. XRD patterns revealed that the prepared system have two spinel MgFe2O4 structures, namely cubic and tetragonal phases that are dependent on calcination temperature (Tc). The crystallite sizes varied from 8.933 to 41.583 nm, and from 1.379 to 292.565 nm for the cubic and tetragonal phases respectively depending on Tc. The deduced lattice parameters for the cubic and (tetragonal) systems are a=8.368, 8.365 and 8.377 and (a=7.011, 5.922, 5.908 and c=6.622, 8.456, 8.364) Å at Tc=400, 500 and 600 °C respectively. While the cation distribution of the cubic phase is found to be mixed spinel and Tc-dependent, it is an inverse spinel in the tetragonal phase where the Fe3+ ions occupy both the tetrahedral A- and octahedral B-sites in almost equal amount; the Mg2+ ions are found to occupy only the B-sites. The HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed the detailed morphology of the nanoparticles, and confirmed their crystalline spinel structure. VSM indicated the existence of an appreciable fraction of superparamagnetic particles at room temperature, with pure superparamagnetic behavior observed for samples calcined at 400 °C. Besides, the magnetic properties are found to change by thermal treatment as a result of the varied phase concentration, cation distribution and lattice parameters. Thus, the new synthesis route used in this study by applying EDTA as an organic precursor for preparing MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at

  20. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  1. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  3. The effect of magnesium ions on action spectra for reactions mediated by photosystems I and II in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Loos, E

    1976-08-13

    Action spectra were measured for positive changes in variable fluorescence (emission greater than 665 nm) excited by a beam of 485 nm chopped at 75 HZ. The action of two further beams were compared, one being variable, the other (reference) constant with respect to wavelength and intensity. Comparison was achieved by alternating the reference and the variable wavelength beams at 0.3 HZ and adjusting the intensity of the latter such as to cancel out any 0.3 HZ component in the 75 HZ fluorescence signal. The relative action then was obtained as the reciprocal of the intensity of the variable wavelength beam. Similarly, action spectra were measured for O2 evolution with ferricyanide/p-phenylenediamine as electron acceptor, and for O2 uptake mediated by methyl viologen with ascorbate 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea as electron donor in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. Addition of 5 mM MgCl2 increases the relative action around 480 nm for the change in variable fluorescence and p-phenylenediamine-dependent O2 evolution, and decreases it for methyl viologen-mediated O2 uptake with 2,6-dichlorophenolindo-phenol/ascorbate as electron donor in the presence of 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The change in variable fluorescence and O2 evolution are stimulated by MgCl2, whereas O2 uptake is inhibited by it. The results are discussed in terms of a model assuming a tripartite organization of the photosynthetic pigments (Thornber, J. P. and Highkin, H. R. (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 41, 109-116; Butler, W. L. and Kitajima, M. (1975) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 396, 72-85). MgCl2 is thought to promote energy transfer to Photosystem II from a light-harvesting pigment complex serving both photosystems.

  4. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  7. High-precision {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction to determine {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Beard, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.

    2011-08-15

    The rise time of stellar x-ray bursts is a signature of thermonuclear runaway processes in the atmosphere of neutron stars and is highly sensitive to a series of ({alpha},p) reactions via high-lying resonances in sd-shell nuclei. Lacking data for the relevant resonance levels, the stellar reaction rates have been calculated using statistical, Hauser-Feshbach models, assuming a high-level density. This assumption may not be correct in view of the selectivity of the ({alpha},p) reaction to natural parity states. We measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with a high-resolution spectrometer to identify resonance levels in {sup 26}Si above the {alpha}-emission threshold at 9.164 MeV excitation energy. These resonance levels are used to calculate the stellar reaction rate of the {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction and to test the validity of the statistical assumption.

  8. Reactions Involving Calcium and Magnesium Sulfates as Potential Sources of Sulfur Dioxide During MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdam, A. C.; Knudson, C. A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) have analyzed several subsamples of <150 micron fines from ten sites at Gale Crater. Three were in Yellowknife Bay: the Rocknest aeolian bedform (RN) and drilled Sheepbed mudstone from sites John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). One was drilled from the Windjana (WJ) site on a sandstone of the Kimberly formation. Four were drilled from sites Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave (MJ), Telegraph Peak (TP) and Buckskin (BK) of the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp. Two were drilled from sandstones of the Stimson formation targeting relatively unaltered (Big Sky, BY) and then altered (Greenhorn, GH) material associated with a light colored fracture zone. CheMin analyses provided quantitative sample mineralogy. SAM's evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) detected H2O, CO2, O2, H2, SO2, H2S, HCl, NO, and other trace gases. This contribution will focus on evolved SO2. All samples evolved SO2 above 500 C. The shapes of the SO2 evolution traces with temperature vary between samples but most have at least two "peaks' within the wide high temperature evolution, from approx. 500-700 and approx. 700-860 C (Fig. 1). In many cases, the only sulfur minerals detected with CheMin were Ca sulfates (e.g., RN and GH), which should thermally decompose at temperatures above those obtainable by SAM (>860 C). Sulfides or Fe sulfates were detected by CheMin (e.g., CB, MJ, BK) and could contribute to the high temperature SO2 evolution, but in most cases they are not present in enough abundance to account for all of the SO2. This additional SO2 could be largely associated with x-ray amorphous material, which comprises a significant portion of all samples. It can also be attributed to trace S phases present below the CheMin detection limit, or to reactions which lower the temperatures of SO2 evolution from sulfates that are typically expected to thermally decompose

  9. Nutritional Aspects of Magnesium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Flink, Edmund B.

    1980-01-01

    The absolute necessity for magnesium in plant and animal nutrition is easily appreciated when one realizes that magnesium is found in high concentration in cells. It is necessary for photosynthesis in plants and for all reactions involving adenosine triphosphate in plant and animal cells. Although it is abundant in nature in general, deficiencies occur in both plants and animals. Human beings need about 5 mg of magnesium per kg of body weight per day. Infants and young children need twice as much. Children and women during pregnancy or lactation require significantly greater amounts than normal adults. Various diseases result in a deficiency of magnesium because of interruption of food intake or intestinal or renal wasting of the mineral. PMID:7347045

  10. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  13. Gas-surface study of contaminant reactions in combustion. Covering the period: September 26, 1983-September 26, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of SO/sub 2/ and NO with single-crystal surfaces of SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at temperatures of 298, 473, and 673K, which were covered by various amounts of sodium and iron was studied using x-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy. The sodium was deposited on SiO/sub 2/ in the Na/sup +/ state, as indicated by an Auger parametric study. Scanning electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in surface morphology on SiO/sub 2/ after deposition of sodium. The amount of adsorbed SO/sub 2/ increased with increasing sodium deposition for both 298 and 473K. This adsorbed sulfur was identified as sulfite. Sticking probability calculations indicated that the reaction was a first-order or direct one-site adsorption. The initial sticking probability increased with increasing sodium coverage. When the SO/sub 2/ reaction was carried out at 473K, both the amount of adsorbed SO/sub 2/ and the initial sticking probability were higher than that at 298K. No reaction was observed at 673K. The iron was deposited on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in Fe/sup 0/ state. At low coverages iron was partially oxidated due to its interaction with Al/sub 2/O. The amount of adsorbed NO increased with increasing iron coverage. However, at very high iron coverages, there was a decrease in adsorption. This indicated that the aluminium ions may be activating the iron atoms for NO adsorption. There was also an increase in adsorption with increasing temperature for high-iron coverages, but NO adsorption decreased for low-iron coverages. Sticking probability calculations indicated that the adsorption was mobile and dissociative. Binding energy of the nitrogen peaks indicated that NO was adsorbed onto the Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ surface as a nitride. SO/sub 2/ interacted with both iron deposited on alumina and sodium deposited on alumina at 298, 473, and 673K. The adsorbed sulfur on Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was identified as sulfide and sulfate while on Na/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ it was identified as sulfite. 53

  14. [Magnetic Magnesium Isotope Accelerates ATP Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Myosin].

    PubMed

    Koltover, V K; Labyntseva, R D; Karandashev, V K; Kosterin, S O

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of experimental studies on the influence of different magnesium isotopes, the magnetic 25Mg and nonmagnetic 24Mg and 26Mg on ATP activity of the isolated myosin subfragment-1. The reaction rate in the presence of magetic 25Mg isotope turned out to be 2.0-2.5 times higher than that using nonmagnetic 24Mg and 2 Mg isotopes. No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the absence of the enzyme as in spontaneous ATP hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Hence, a significant catalytic effect of the magnetic 25Mg isotope (nuclear spin catalysis) was observed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP.

  15. Magnesium influence on nicotine pharmacodependence and smoking.

    PubMed

    Nechifor, Mihai; Chelarescu, Dan; Mândreci, Ioan; Cartas, Nicoleta

    2004-09-01

    We followed the magnesium effect (Magne B(6)R, Sanofi-Synthelabo) with internal administration in 53 adult neurotic smoking patients (more than 10 cigarettes/day) of both genders admitted into psychiatric hospital. The nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom test, initially and after 28 days of magnesium intake. Plasmatic magnesium level was determined before any therapy and at 28 days. All patients received benzodiazepines during the trial. Our data show that patients that received magnesium therapy showed a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked and Fagerstrom test after 4 weeks [Fagerstrom score 7.93 +/- 0.17 before magnesium therapy versus 6.78 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.05) after 28 days of magnesium therapy]. In the group of smokers who did not receive magnesium, the Fagerstrom score did not change significantly [Fagerstrom score 7.48 +/- 0.22 initial versus 7.24 +/- 0.19 after 28 days]. Magnesium supplementation raised plasmatic levels (17.2 +/- 1.2 mg/L before versus 26.1 +/- 1.6 mg/L after 28 days of magnesium intake, P < 0.01). The results suggest that this cation might be a useful adjuvant in treatment of nicotine pharmacodependence.

  16. Graphitic encapsulation of MgO and Fe{sub 3}C nanoparticles in the reaction of iron pentacarbonyl with magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Dyjak, Sławomir; Cudziło, Stanisław; Polański, Marek; Budner, Bogusław; Bystrzycki, Jerzy

    2013-07-15

    A simple method to produce highly ordered carbon nanostructures by combustion synthesis is presented. Graphite-encapsulated magnesium oxide, iron carbide nanoparticles and carbon nanobelts were synthesized by the one-step reduction of iron pentacarbonyl with magnesium. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the products revealed nanocrystalline MgO and Fe{sub 3}C particles surrounded by a well-crystallized, tight graphite film. The possible formation mechanism is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • We present a simple method to produce highly ordered carbon nanostructures by combustion synthesis. • The cubic MgO particles are completely coated by tight graphitic shells. • The mechanism of formation a distant carbon film on MgO surface has been discussed. • The presented method can be applied to synthesis of other core-shell structures.

  17. Early irradiation of matter in the solar system: magnesium (proton, neutron) scheme.

    PubMed

    Heymann, D; Dziczkaniec, M

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of positive and negative (26)Mg anomalies in inclusions of the Allende meteorite is explained in terms of proton bombardment of a gas of solar composition. A significant fraction of (26)Mg in the irradiated gas is stored temporarily in the form of radioactive (26)Al by the reaction (26)Mg(p,n) (26)Al. Proton fluxes of 10(17) to 10(19) protons per square centimeter per year at l million electron volts are inferred. Aluminum-rich materials condensing from the gas phase have positive (26)Mg anomalies, whereas magnesium-rich materials have negative (26)Mg anomalies. The proton flux required to account for the observed magnesium anomalies is used to investigate possible isotopic anomalies in the elements from oxygen to argon. Detectable isotopic anomalies are predicted only for neon. The anomalous neon is virtually pure (22)Ne from (22)Na decay. The predicted amount of anomalous (22)Ne is about 10(-8) cubic centimeter (at standard temperature and pressure) per milligram of sodium.

  18. Early irradiation of matter in the solar system - Magnesium /proton, neutron/ scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of positive and negative Mg-26 anomalies in inclusions of the Allende meteorite is explained in terms of proton bombardment of a gas of solar composition. A significant fraction of Mg-26 in the irradiated gas is stored temporarily in the form of radioactive Al-26 by the reaction Mg-26(p, n)Al-26. Proton fluxes of 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 19th power protons per square centimeter per year at 1 million electron volts are inferred. Aluminum-rich materials condensing from the gas phase have positive Mg-26 anomalies, whereas magnesium-rich materials have negative Mg-26 anomalies. The proton flux required to account for the observed magnesium anomalies is used to investigate possible isotopic anomalies in the elements from oxygen to argon. Detectable isotopic anomalies are predicted only for neon. The anomalous neon is virtually pure Ne-22 from Na-22 decay. The predicted amount of anomalous Ne-22 is about 10 to the -8th power cubic centimeter (at standard temperature and pressure) per milligram of sodium.

  19. One-pot multiple reactions: asymmetric synthesis of 2,6-cis-disubstituted piperidine alkaloids from chiral aziridine.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Nagendra Nath; Choi, Jihye; Ha, Hyun-Joon

    2016-07-01

    A divergent, new, and highly stereoselective synthesis of cis-2,6-disubstituted piperidine natural products including isosolenopsins, deoxocassine, and spectaline was achieved from chiral aziridine decorated with appropriate alkyl chains for isosolenopsins or alkynyl groups for deoxocassine and spectaline at C2. The characteristic feature of this synthesis is one-pot sequential reactions under atmospheric hydrogen including the reduction of alkyne (for deoxocassine and spectaline), reductive ring-opening of aziridine, debenzylation, and intramolecular reductive amination in high yields. The prerequisite aziridines were elaborated from commercially available (2S)-hydroxymethylaziridine through oxidation, Wittig olefination, and the Grignard reaction for isosolenopsins or substrate-controlled lithium alkynylate addition for deoxocassine and spectaline. PMID:27189444

  20. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  1. IWTS metal-water reaction rate evaluation (Fauske and Associates report 99-26)

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-29

    The report presents a thermal stability analysis of partially metallic particulate in two IWTS components, the knock out pot and settlers. Particulate in the knock out pot is thermally stable for combinations of average particle size and metal mass fraction which appear realistic. Particulate in the settlers is thermally stable when a realistic account of particle reactions over time, metal fraction, and size distribution is considered.

  2. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  5. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  6. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  7. A link between magnesium-chelatase H subunit and sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 in Arabidopsis guard cell signalling in response to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Bi, Chao; Xin, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium-chelatase H subunit [CHLH/putative abscisic acid (ABA) receptor ABAR] positively regulates guard cell signalling in response to ABA, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. A member of the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2 family, SnRK2.6/open stomata 1 (OST1)/SRK2E, which plays a critical role in ABA signalling in Arabidopsis guard cells, interacts with ABAR/CHLH. Neither mutation nor over-expression of the ABAR gene affects significantly ABA-insensitive phenotypes of stomatal movement in the OST1 knockout mutant allele srk2e. However, OST1 over-expression suppresses ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the ABAR mutant allele cch in stomatal movement. These genetic data support that OST1 functions downstream of ABAR in ABA signalling in guard cells. Consistent with this, ABAR protein is phosphorylated, but independently of the OST1 protein kinase. Two ABAR mutant alleles, cch and rtl1, show ABA insensitivity in ABA-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, as well as in ABA-activated phosphorylation of a K(+) inward channel KAT1 in guard cells, which is consistent with that observed in the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant of the well-characterized ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR family acting upstream of OST1. These findings suggest that ABAR shares, at least in part, downstream signalling components with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors for ABA in guard cells; though cch and rtl1 show strong ABA-insensitive phenotypes in both ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, while the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant shows strong ABA insensitivity only in ABA-induced stomatal closure. These data establish a link between ABAR/CHLH and SnRK2.6/OST1 in guard cell signalling in response to ABA.

  8. Monitoring Biodegradation of Magnesium Implants with Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Daoli; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Xuefei; Kuhlmann, Julia; Doepke, Amos; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Heineman, William R.

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium and its alloys exhibit properties such as high strength, light weight, and in vivo corrosion that make them promising candidates for the development of biodegradable metallic implant materials for bone repair, stents and other medical applications. Sensors have been used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium and its alloys by measuring the concentrations of the following corrosion products: magnesium ions, hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. The corrosion characterization system with home-made capillary pH and Mg2+ microsensors has been developed for real-time detection of magnesium corrosion in vitro. A hydrogen gas sensor was used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium by measuring the concentration of the hydrogen gas reaction product in vivo. The high permeability of hydrogen through skin allows transdermal monitoring of the biodegradation of a magnesium alloy implanted beneath the skin by detecting hydrogen gas at the skin surface. The sensor was used to map hydrogen concentration in the vicinity of an implanted magnesium alloy.

  9. Magnesium industry overview

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, B.B.

    1996-10-01

    Magnesium products provide an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, good fatigue strength, high impact strength, good corrosion resistance, high-speed machinability, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. As a result, applications are expanding in almost every industry. Dozens of automotive components are now made of magnesium, including steering wheels, valve covers, and seat frames. Magnesium alloys are also used in computer housings, in-line roller skates, golf clubs, tennis racquets, and baseball bats. Good strength and stiffness at both room and elevated temperatures make magnesium alloys especially valuable for aerospace applications. This article presents an overview of magnesium technology, world production, increasing demand, and recycling.

  10. Magnesium silicates adsorbents of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Krysztafkiewicz, Andrzej; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2007-08-01

    Studies were presented on production of highly dispersed magnesium silicate at a pilote scale. The process of silicate adsorbent production involved precipitation reaction using water glass (sodium metasilicate) solution and appropriate magnesium salt, preceded by an appropriate optimization stage. Samples of best physicochemical parameters were in addition modified (in order to introduce to silica surface of several functional groups) using the dry technique and various amounts of 3-isocyanatepropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-thiocyanatepropyltrimethoxysilane, N-phenyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The so prepared samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical analysis. At the terminal stage of studies attempts were made to adsorb phenol from its aqueous solutions on the surface of unmodified and modified magnesium silicates. Particle size distributions were determined using the ZetaSizer Nano ZS apparatus. In order to define adsorptive properties of studied magnesium silicates isotherms of nitrogen adsorption/desorption on their surfaces were established. Efficiency of phenol adsorption was tested employing analysis of post-adsorption solution.

  11. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  12. Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wombacher, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Böhm, F.; Gussone, N.; Regenberg, M.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Rüggeberg, A.

    2011-10-01

    This survey of magnesium stable isotope compositions in marine biogenic aragonite and calcite includes samples from corals, sclerosponges, benthic porcelaneous and planktonic perforate foraminifera, coccolith oozes, red algae, and an echinoid and brachiopod test. The analyses were carried out using MC-ICP-MS with an external repeatability of ±0.22‰ (2SD for δ 26Mg; n = 37), obtained from a coral reference sample (JCp-1). Magnesium isotope fractionation in calcitic corals and sclerosponges agrees with published data for calcitic speleothems with an average Δ 26Mg calcite-seawater = -2.6 ± 0.3‰ that appears to be weakly related to temperature. With one exception ( Vaceletia spp.), aragonitic corals and sclerosponges also display uniform Mg isotope fractionations relative to seawater with Δ 26Mg biogenic aragonite-seawater = -0.9 ± 0.2. Magnesium isotopes in high-Mg calcites from red algae, echinoids and perhaps some porcelaneous foraminifera as well as in all low-Mg calcites (perforate foraminifera, coccoliths and brachiopods) display significant biological influences. For planktonic foraminifera, the Mg isotope data is consistent with the fixation of Mg by organic material under equilibrium conditions, but appears to be inconsistent with Mg removal from vacuoles. Our preferred model, however, suggests that planktonic foraminifera synthesize biomolecules that increase the energetic barrier for Mg incorporation. In this model, the need to remove large quantities of Mg from vacuole solutions is avoided. For the high-Mg calcites from echinoids, the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate may be responsible for their weaker Mg isotope fractionation. Disregarding superimposed biological effects, it appears that cation light isotope enrichments in CaCO 3 principally result from a chemical kinetic isotope effect, related to the incorporation of cations at kink sites. In this model, the systematics of cation isotope fractionations in CaCO 3 relate to the

  13. Regioselective synthesis of isotopically labeled Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A-D3) by reaction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-D3 with magnesium methyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Roth, Nadine; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Müller, Michael; Auwärter, Volker

    2012-10-10

    For the reliable quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in biological matrices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS(/MS), an isotopically labeled internal standard was synthesized starting from Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-D(3) (THC-D(3)). Synthesis strategy was based on a method reported by Mechoulam et al. in 1969 using magnesium methyl carbonate (MMC) as carboxylation reagent for the synthesis of cannabinoid acids. Preliminary experiments with THC to optimize yield of the product (THCA-A) resulted in the synthesis of the positional isomer tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B) as a byproduct. Using the optimized conditions for the desired isomer, THCA-A-D(3) was prepared and isolated with a yield of approx. 10% after two synthesis cycles. Isotope purity was estimated to be >99% by relative abundance of the molecular ions. The synthesized compound proved to be suitable as an internal standard for quantification of THCA-A in serum and hair samples of cannabis consumers.

  14. [Magnesium and exercise].

    PubMed

    Bielinski, R W

    2006-07-26

    The determination of the magnesium status is difficult, since a cheep, sensitive and usable test remains to be found. Serum magnesium only signals severe deficiencies, which are in athletes. Blood cell magnesium may detect a subclinical deficiency, the significance of which is however very controversial. The "magnesium loading test" is the standard method, but it is too complex for the practice. A mixed diet with sufficient energy covers the needs of athletes of all levels. When the plasma magnesium levels are in normal range, supplements offer no significant benefits in terms of performance. The usefulness of magnesium in the treatment of exercise related muscle cramps is most probably widely exaggerated. Various other electrolyte dysbalances as well as venous insufficiency are certainly more important factors.

  15. Magnesium degradation products: effects on tissue and human metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J-M; Eifler, R; Bach, Fr-W; Maier, H J

    2014-10-01

    Owing to their mechanical properties, metallic materials present a promising solution in the field of resorbable implants. The magnesium metabolism in humans differs depending on its introduction. The natural, oral administration of magnesium via, for example, food, essentially leads to an intracellular enrichment of Mg(2+) . In contrast, introducing magnesium-rich substances or implants into the tissue results in a different decomposition behavior. Here, exposing magnesium to artificial body electrolytes resulted in the formation of the following products: magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, and magnesium chloride, as well as calcium and magnesium apatites. Moreover, it can be assumed that Mg(2+) , OH(-) ions, and gaseous hydrogen are also present and result from the reaction for magnesium in an aqueous environment. With the aid of physiological metabolic processes, the organism succeeds in either excreting the above mentioned products or integrating them into the natural metabolic process. Only a burst release of these products is to be considered a problem. A multitude of general tissue effects and responses from the Mg's degradation products is considered within this review, which is not targeting specific implant classes. Furthermore, common alloying elements of magnesium and their hazardous potential in vivo are taken into account.

  16. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. PMID:27445320

  17. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level.

  18. Kinetic studies of the reverse reaction catalysed by adenosine triphosphate–creatine phosphotransferase. The inhibition by magnesium ions and adenosine diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. F.; O'Sullivan, W. J.

    1965-01-01

    1. Kinetic investigations of the reaction catalysed by ATP–creatine phosphotransferase have been carried out. 2. No firm conclusions could be reached about the reaction of Mg2+ at the nucleotide-binding site of the enzyme. The value of the kinetic constant for this reaction depends on the value used for the apparent stability constant of the metal ion–nucleotide complex and, to a smaller extent, on the method of plotting the results. 3. At higher concentrations Mg2+ is a non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to both MgADP− and phosphocreatine. 4. ADP3− is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to MgADP− and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to phosphocreatine. 5. The concentration of phosphocreatine has little, if any, effect on the kinetic constants for the nucleotide reactants. PMID:14342234

  19. Intramolecular hydroamination of aminoalkenes by calcium and magnesium complexes: a synthetic and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Crimmin, Mark R; Arrowsmith, Merle; Barrett, Anthony G M; Casely, Ian J; Hill, Michael S; Procopiou, Panayiotis A

    2009-07-22

    The beta-diketiminate-stabilized calcium amide complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Ca{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(THF)] (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) and magnesium methyl complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Mg(Me)(THF)] are reported as efficient precatalysts for hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes. The reactions proceeded under mild conditions, allowing the synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered heterocyclic compounds. Qualitative assessment of these reactions revealed that the ease of catalytic turnover increases (i) for smaller ring sizes (5 > 6 > 7), (ii) substrates that benefit from favorable Thorpe-Ingold effects, and (iii) substrates that do not possess additional substitution on the alkene entity. Prochiral substrates may undergo diastereoselective hydroamination/cyclization depending upon the position of the existing stereocenter. Furthermore, a number of minor byproducts of these reactions, arising from competitive alkene isomerization reactions, were identified. A series of stoichiometric reactions between the precatalysts and primary amines provided an important model for catalyst initiation and suggested that these reactions are facile at room temperature, with the reaction of the calcium precatalyst with benzylamine proceeding with DeltaG(o)(298 K) = -2.7 kcal mol(-1). Both external amine/amide exchange and coordinated amine/amide exchange were observed in model complexes, and the data suggest that these processes occur via low-activation-energy pathways. As a result of the formation of potentially reactive byproducts such as hexamethyldisilazane, calcium-catalyst initiation is reversible, whereas for the magnesium precatalyst, this process is nonreversible. Further stoichiometric reactions of the two precatalysts with 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-4-pentene demonstrated that the alkene insertion step proceeds via a highly reactive transient alkylmetal intermediate that readily reacts with N-H sigma bonds under catalytically relevant conditions. The results of deuterium

  20. IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B.; Strieder, F.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; and others

    2013-02-15

    Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup 26}Al{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup 26}Al {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup 26}Al{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup 26}Al budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.

  1. Magnesium deficiency: what's our status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  2. Magnesium(I) Dimers Bearing Tripodal Diimine-Enolate Ligands: Proficient Reagents for the Controlled Reductive Activation of CO2 and SO2.

    PubMed

    Boutland, Aaron J; Pernik, Indrek; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron

    2015-10-26

    The first examples of magnesium(I) dimers bearing tripodal ligands, [(Mg{κ(3) -N,N',O-(ArNCMe)2 (OCCPh2 )CH})2 ] [Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 (Dip) 7, 2,6-Et2 C6 H3 (Dep) 8, or mesityl (Mes) 9] have been prepared by post-synthetic modification of the β-diketiminato ligands of previously reported magnesium(I) systems, using diphenylketene, OCCPh2 . In contrast, related reactions between β-diketiminato magnesium(I) dimers and the isoelectronic ketenimine, MesNCCPh2 , resulted in reductive insertion of the substrate into the MgMg bond of the magnesium(I) reactant, and formation of [{(Nacnac)Mg}2 {μ-κ(2) -N,C-(Mes)NCCPh2 }] (Nacnac=[(ArNCMe)2 CH](-) ; Ar=Dep 10 or Mes 11). Reactions of the four-coordinate magnesium(I) dimer 8 with excess CO2 are readily controlled, and cleanly give carbonate [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -CO3 )] 12 (L=[κ(3) -N,N',O-(DepNCMe)2 (OCCPh2 )CH](-) ; thermodynamic product), or oxalate [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -C2 O4 )] 13 (kinetic product), depending on the reaction temperature. Compound 12 and CO are formed by reductive disproportionation of CO2 , whereas 13 results from reductive coupling of two molecules of the gas. Treatment of 8 with an excess of N2 O cleanly gives the μ-oxo complex [(LMg)2 (μ-O)] 14, which reacts facilely with CO2 to give 12. This result presents the possibility that 14 is an intermediate in the formation of 12 from the reaction of 8 and CO2 . In contrast to its reactions with CO2 , 8 reacts with SO2 over a wide temperature range to give only one product; the first example of a magnesium dithionite complex, [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -S2 O4 )] 16, which is formed by reductive coupling of two molecules of SO2 , and is closely related to f-block metal dithionite complexes derived from similar SO2 reductive coupling processes. On the whole, this study strengthens previously proposed analogies between the reactivities of magnesium(I) systems and low-valent f-block metal complexes, especially with respect to small

  3. Measurement of the Ec.m. = 184 keV resonance strength in the 26gAl (p, gamma)27 Si reaction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C; Parikh, A; José, J; Buchmann, L; Caggiano, J A; Chen, A A; Clark, J A; Crawford, H; Davids, B; D'Auria, J M; Davis, C; Deibel, C; Erikson, L; Fogarty, L; Frekers, D; Greife, U; Hussein, A; Hutcheon, D A; Huyse, M; Jewett, C; Laird, A M; Lewis, R; Mumby-Croft, P; Olin, A; Ottewell, D F; Ouellet, C V; Parker, P; Pearson, J; Ruprecht, G; Trinczek, M; Vockenhuber, C; Wrede, C

    2006-06-30

    The strength of the Ec.m. = 184 keV resonance in the 26gAl(p, gamma)27 reaction has been measured in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF's ISAC facility. We measure a value of omega gamma = 35 +/- 7 microeV and a resonance energy of Ec.m. = 184 +/- 1 keV, consistent with p-wave proton capture into the 7652(3) keV state in 27Si, and discuss the implications of these values for 26GAl nucleosynthesis in typical oxygen-neon white-dwarf novae.

  4. Measurement of the Ec.m.=184keV Resonance Strength in the Al26g(p,γ)Si27 Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, C.; Parikh, A.; José, J.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Chen, A. A.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, H.; Davids, B.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C.; Deibel, C.; Erikson, L.; Fogarty, L.; Frekers, D.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Huyse, M.; Jewett, C.; Laird, A. M.; Lewis, R.; Mumby-Croft, P.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D. F.; Ouellet, C. V.; Parker, P.; Pearson, J.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wrede, C.

    2006-06-01

    The strength of the Ec.m.=184keV resonance in the Al26g(p,γ)Si27 reaction has been measured in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF’s ISAC facility. We measure a value of ωγ=35±7μeV and a resonance energy of Ec.m.=184±1keV, consistent with p-wave proton capture into the 7652(3) keV state in Si27, and discuss the implications of these values for Al26g nucleosynthesis in typical oxygen-neon white-dwarf novae.

  5. Measurement of the Ec.m. = 184 keV resonance strength in the 26gAl (p, gamma)27 Si reaction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C; Parikh, A; José, J; Buchmann, L; Caggiano, J A; Chen, A A; Clark, J A; Crawford, H; Davids, B; D'Auria, J M; Davis, C; Deibel, C; Erikson, L; Fogarty, L; Frekers, D; Greife, U; Hussein, A; Hutcheon, D A; Huyse, M; Jewett, C; Laird, A M; Lewis, R; Mumby-Croft, P; Olin, A; Ottewell, D F; Ouellet, C V; Parker, P; Pearson, J; Ruprecht, G; Trinczek, M; Vockenhuber, C; Wrede, C

    2006-06-30

    The strength of the Ec.m. = 184 keV resonance in the 26gAl(p, gamma)27 reaction has been measured in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF's ISAC facility. We measure a value of omega gamma = 35 +/- 7 microeV and a resonance energy of Ec.m. = 184 +/- 1 keV, consistent with p-wave proton capture into the 7652(3) keV state in 27Si, and discuss the implications of these values for 26GAl nucleosynthesis in typical oxygen-neon white-dwarf novae. PMID:16907298

  6. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  7. Lithium and magnesium isotopes fractionation by zone melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. V.; Egorov, N. B.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Pustovalova, M. P.; Podoinikov, I. R.

    2016-06-01

    The process of changing isotopic composition of the lithium and magnesium salts was studied by using the process of zone melting. It was founded in the paper that the process of separation of the lithium isotopes is more effective than for magnesium isotopes when the conditions of process were the same. The coefficients of isotopes separation were calculated and have the next value: α = 1.006 for 26Mg isotope and α = 1.0022 for 6Li isotope.

  8. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  9. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  10. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  11. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  12. Interstellar magnesium abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, M. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An improved evaluation of the Mg II 1240 A doublet oscillator strength is used in conjunction with recently published Copernicus observations to derive accurate Mg II column densities toward 74 stars. These imply an average of 40 percent of interstellar magnesium is in the gaseous phase. Magnesium depletion is examined as a function of various interstellar extinction and density parameters, and the results are briefly discussed in terms of current depletion theories.

  13. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  14. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  15. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  16. Luminescence properties of cerium-doped di-strontium magnesium di-silicate phosphor by the solid-state reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Sahu, Ishwar

    2016-05-01

    A series of Sr2MgSi2O7:xCe3+ (x = 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0% and 5.0%) phosphors were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The phosphor with optimum thermoluminescence, photoluminescence and mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques. The trapping parameters (i.e. activation energy, frequency factor and order of the kinetics) of each synthesized phosphor have been calculated using the peak shape method and the results have been discussed. Under ultraviolet excitation (325 nm), Sr2MgSi2O7:xCe3+ phosphors were composed of a broad band peaking at 385 nm, belonging to the broad emission band which emits violet-blue color. Commission International de I'Eclairage coordinates have been calculated for each sample and their overall emission is near violet-blue light. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples for industrial uses, color purity and color rendering index were calculated. An ML intensity of optimum [Sr2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ (3.0%)] phosphor increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston which suggests that these phosphors can be used as fracto-ML-based devices. The time of the peak ML intensity and the decay rate did not change significantly with respect to increasing impact velocity of the moving piston.

  17. Short time effect of Chemiron (a combination iron preparation), single iron, and different magnesium salts on plasma. Magnesium concentration during early pregnancy in Nigerian women. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, G O; Fadiran, E O

    1998-01-01

    Maternal magnesium requirements increase during pregnancy because of the synthesis of new tissue--both fetal and maternal. Magnesium takes part in almost 300 enzymatic reactions in the human body and regulates membrane permeability and protein bio-synthesis by promoting initiation and dissociation factors. The absorption velocity of magnesium differs from one tissue to another in animal experiments. It is highest in the liver, kidney, heart and is low in skeletal muscle, the brain and erythrocytes. It obeys and follows the Michaelis-Menten Kinetic law. 15 mmol of magnesium is consumed daily depending on the types of food takenin. The main sources of magnesium are vegetables and meats. Many Nigerian women are not able to afford enough of these. The amount of magnesium reabsorbed depends on the magnesium intake and not on magnesium needed which is about 10-40% of the intake. In this study, we examined the short-term effect of magnesium asphat HCL (614.18 mgMG), magnesium diasporal (magnesium citrate 610 mg + magnesium laevalitat 30 mg = 100 mg magnesium = 8.2 mval), ferrous gluconate (300 mg) plus folic acid and chemiron, a new combination hematinic agent (ferrous fumarate 300 mg, folic acid 5 mg, vitamin B12 10 mg, vitamin C 25 mg, magnesium sulfate 0.3 mg and zinc sulfate 0.3 mg) on plasma magnesium concentration during early pregnancy in Nigerian women. Significant increases of plasma magnesium concentrations were found in these groups (magnesium asphat HCL, 0.83 +/- 0.12 to 0.96 +/- 0.14 mmol/l, magnesium diasporal 0.843 +/- 0.14 to 0.891 +/- 0.14 mmol/l and chemiron 0.848 +/- to 0.866 +/- 0.16 mmol/l after five days. The ferrous gluconate and folic acid treated group showed no significant changes. This study shows that a chemiron supplement leads to increased magnesium plasma levels whereas ferrous gluconate and folic acid do not. These results suggest that the low level of magnesium is a normal physiological adjustment of pregnancy and that iron supplementation

  18. Magnesium and metabolic syndrome: The role of magnesium in health and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of conditions associated with elevated risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and required in over 300 enzymatic reactions, has been shown in experimental, observational, and clinical studies to ...

  19. On an Irradiation Origin for Magnesium Isotope Anomalies in Meteoritic Hibonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate spallogenic effects on magnesium isotopic compositions in solids with hibonite-like (CaAl12O19) chemistry under an irradiation setting in the early solar system. We consider a series of nuclear reactions triggered by gradual flare irradiation, with an energy spectrum dN/dE vprop E -2.7 and a proton flux Fp (E>= 10 MeV) = 1.9 × 1010 cm-2 s-1, on isotopically normal hibonite-like solids. The proton fluence is constrained by matching the 10Be/9Be measured in meteoritic hibonite platy crystals. The net result, accounting for both production and destruction reactions of Mg isotopes, shows small deviations from the terrestrial isotopic composition with the sign and magnitude of Δ26Mg effects dependent on both low energy cutoff and total fluence. The total span of predicted spallogenic deviations can explain small apparent 26Mg excesses observed in some hibonite grains, but does not account for the magnitude of apparent 26Mg deficits found in other grains. As previously indicated, irradiation by gradual flares decouples Δ26Mg variations and 26Al/27Al from 10Be/9Be.

  20. Borosilicate glass alteration driven by magnesium carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, M.; Frugier, P.; De Windt, L.; Gin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The alteration of simplified synthetic glass, representative of the French reference nuclear glass R7T7, in presence of hydromagnesite has been experimentally investigated and modeled. Magnesium in solution is known to potentially enhance glass alteration; nuclear glass clayed host rocks contain magnesium and can dissolve to maintain the concentration of magnesium in solution. For modeling purposes, it was suitable to study a simple system. Hydromagnesite was therefore chosen as a simple model mineral in order to check the influence of an Mg-rich mineral on glass alteration. Since the models use thermodynamic and kinetic parameters measured in pure water and pH-buffered solutions, changing the solution composition or adding minerals is a key step towards the validation of the modeling assumptions before using the model for predictive purposes. Experiments revealed that glass alteration is enhanced in presence of hydromagnesite. Modeling was performed using the GRAAL model implemented within the CHESS/HYTEC reactive transport code. Modeling proved useful both for explaining the mechanisms involved and quantifying the impact on glass alteration: Mg coming from hydromagnesite dissolution reacts with Si provided by the glass in order to form magnesium silicates. This reaction decreases the pH down to neutral conditions where magnesium silicates are more soluble than at the natural alkali pH imposed by glass or hydromagnesite dissolution. The driving force of the magnesium silicate precipitation is eventually the interdiffusion of alkali within the altered amorphous glass layer as this mechanism consumes protons. The model's ability to describe the concentrations of elements in solution and formed solids whatever the glass/hydromagnesite ratio strongly supports the basic modeling hypothesis.

  1. Absorption of magnesium from orally administered magnesium sulfate in man.

    PubMed

    Morris, M E; LeRoy, S; Sutton, S C

    1987-01-01

    The use of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) as a cathartic in patients with impaired renal function can lead to severe toxicity due to hypermagnesemia. Although toxicity is uncommon in healthy subjects, little is known concerning the extent of absorption of magnesium after a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. The bioavailability of magnesium following a large oral dose of magnesium sulfate in normal volunteers was examined in the present investigation. Baseline 24-hour urinary excretion rates of magnesium and creatinine were determined over 3 consecutive days in 6 healthy men. The oral administration of 13.9 g (56.5 mmoles) magnesium sulfate U.S.P., in 4 equal hourly increments, resulted in the urinary excretion (corrected for baseline excretion rate) of 4.0 +/- 2.9% (mean +/- SD) of the dose of magnesium during the first 24 hours and 6.9 +/- 7.0% of the dose during a 72-hour interval. Magnesium sulfate administration had no effect on the 24-hour urinary excretion rate of creatinine. The baseline excretion rate of magnesium was significantly correlated with that of creatinine (r = 0.875) and inorganic sulfate (r = 0.921). All of the subjects experienced mild or moderate diarrhea. Therefore, magnesium is absorbed to a limited and variable extent in healthy adults following a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. PMID:3430654

  2. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  7. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO{sub 2} sequestration in a gas-solid system

    SciTech Connect

    Pao-Chung Lin; Cheng-Wei Huang; Ching-Ta Hsiao; Hsisheng Teng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO{sub 2} as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH){sub 2} powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m{sup 2}/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH){sub 2} to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325{sup o}C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH){sub 2}, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m{sup 2}/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO{sub 2} fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH){sub 2} specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  9. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  10. Effects of thyroid status on renal calcium and magnesium handling.

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, C; Quamme, G A

    1984-01-01

    Renal calcium and magnesium handling was studied in rats with chronic thyroid hormone deficiency or excess, hyperthyroidism. Mean kidney weight of the thyroid deficient rats was 42% of age matched, euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals and glomerular filtration rate was 71% of normal. Fractional sodium excretion was consistently elevated in thyroid deficient rats (0.26%) as compared to euthyroid (0.07%) and hyperthyroid animals (0.07%). Urinary calcium excretion (0.39%) was also elevated and parallel to sodium excretion in thyroid deficiency. Despite this renal leak of sodium and calcium, thyroid deficient animals conserved magnesium much more efficiently than either euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats (5.7% vs 17.4% respectively). Plasma magnesium concentration was elevated by acute MgCl2 infusions to determine the reabsorptive capacity of magnesium. Thyroid deficient rats reabsorbed 15-30% more of the filtered magnesium at any given plasma concentration. Although these effects on electrolyte reabsorption are modest compared to the hemodynamic alterations, the data suggest that thyroid hormone has a direct effect on the tubule which if chronically absent results in subtle sodium and calcium wasting and renal retention of magnesium. Administration of thyroid hormone to euthyroid or thyroid deficient rats twenty-four hours prior to experimentation had no effect on calcium and magnesium handling. PMID:6713257

  11. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  12. Beta-diketiminato calcium and magnesium amides; model complexes for hydroamination catalysis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anthony G M; Casely, Ian J; Crimmin, Mark R; Hill, Michael S; Lachs, Jennifer R; Mahon, Mary F; Procopiou, Panayiotis A

    2009-05-18

    In a study relevant to group 2-mediated hydroamination catalysis, the reaction of the beta-diketiminato magnesium alkyl complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Mg((n/s)Bu)] (Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)) with benzylamine, 2-methoxyethylamine, pyrrolidine, and 2-methyl-4,4-diphenylpyrrolidine has been shown to yield the corresponding magnesium amide complexes [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Mg(NR(1)R(2))] (R(1) = H, R(2) = CH(2)Ph, CH(2)CH(2)OMe; R(1) = R(2) = -(CH(2))(4)-, -CH(Me)CH(2)CPh(2)CH(2)-) within the first point of analysis (30 min) at room temperature in near quantitative yield as monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Reactions proceeded non-reversibly, and the products have been characterized in both solution and the solid state. While single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the magnesium amides are dimeric in the solid state, with aggregation occurring via mu(2)-coordinated amide ligands, NMR studies suggest that for more sterically crowded amide ligands discreet monomeric species exist in solution. In contrast, the calcium complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Ca{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(THF)] reacted reversibly with benzylamine at room temperature to form an equilibrium mixture of a calcium benzylamide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide. A series of Pulsed-Gradient Spin-Echo NMR studies upon beta-diketiminato calcium amides were consistent with the formation of a dimer in solution. A van't Hoff analysis performed on this mixture allowed DeltaH degrees = -51.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS degrees = -134 J mol(-1) of the protonolysis/dimerization reaction to be derived and the Gibbs' free energy to be calculated as DeltaG degrees (298 K) = -11.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:19326917

  13. Measurement of the E{sub c.m.}=184 keV Resonance Strength in the {sup 26g}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, C.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Davids, B.; Davis, C.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D.F.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Vockenhuber, C.; Parikh, A.; Clark, J.A.; Deibel, C.; Lewis, R.; Parker, P.; Wrede, C.; Jose, J.; Chen, A.A.; Ouellet, C.V.

    2006-06-30

    The strength of the E{sub c.m.}=184 keV resonance in the {sup 26g}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reaction has been measured in inverse kinematics using the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF's ISAC facility. We measure a value of {omega}{gamma}=35{+-}7 {mu}eV and a resonance energy of E{sub c.m.}=184{+-}1 keV, consistent with p-wave proton capture into the 7652(3) keV state in {sup 27}Si, and discuss the implications of these values for {sup 26g}Al nucleosynthesis in typical oxygen-neon white-dwarf novae.

  14. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  15. Direct Total Cross Section Measurement of the 16O(α,γ)20Ne Reaction at Ec.m. = 2.26 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Ulrike; Brown, James R.; Buchmann, Lothar R.; Carmona-Gallardo, Mariano; Erikson, Luke E.; Fallis, Jennifer S.; Greife, Uwe; Hutcheon, Dave; Ottewell, Dave; Ruiz, Chris; Sjue, Sky; Vockenhuber, Cristof

    2011-08-23

    In stellar helium burning, (16)O represents the endpoint of the helium-burning sequence due to the low rate of (16)O(alpha,gamma)(20)Ne. We present a new direct measurement of the total capture reaction rate of (16)O(alpha,gamma)(20)Ne at E(c.m.) = 2.26MeV employing the DRAGON recoil separator. For the first time, the total S factor and its contributing direct capture transitions could be determined in one experiment.

  16. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  17. Observation of the 3n evaporation channel in the complete hot-fusion reaction 26Mg + 248Cm leading to the new superheavy nuclide 271Hs.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Brüchle, W; Chelnokov, M; Düllmann, Ch E; Dvorakova, Z; Eberhardt, K; Jäger, E; Krücken, R; Kuznetsov, A; Nagame, Y; Nebel, F; Nishio, K; Perego, R; Qin, Z; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Schimpf, E; Schuber, R; Semchenkov, A; Thörle, P; Türler, A; Wegrzecki, M; Wierczinski, B; Yakushev, A; Yeremin, A

    2008-04-01

    The analysis of a large body of heavy ion fusion reaction data with medium-heavy projectiles (6 < or = Z < or = 18) and actinide targets suggests a disappearance of the 3n exit channel with increasing atomic number of the projectile. Here, we report a measurement of the excitation function of the reaction (248)Cm ((26)Mg,xn)(274-x)Hs and the observation of the new nuclide (271)Hs produced in the 3n evaporation channel at a beam energy well below the Bass fusion barrier with a cross section comparable to the maxima of the 4n and 5n channels. This indicates the possible discovery of new neutron-rich transactinide nuclei using relatively light heavy ion beams of the most neutron-rich stable isotopes and actinide targets. PMID:18517941

  18. Synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by periclase and alumina chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Orosco, Pablo; Barbosa, Lucía; Ruiz, María del Carmen

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel. • The reagents used were alumina, periclase and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in air and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} flows. • The chlorination produced magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C. • Selectivity of the chlorination reaction to obtain spinel is very high. - Abstract: A pyrometallurgical route for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by thermal treatment of a mechanical mixture containing 29 wt% MgO (periclase) and 71 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (alumina) in chlorine atmosphere was developed and the results were compared with those obtained by calcining the same mixture of oxides in air atmosphere. Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in an experimental piece of equipment adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. Both reagents and products were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Thermal treatment in Cl{sub 2} atmosphere of the MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture produces magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C, while in air, magnesium spinel is generated at 930 °C. The synthesis reaction of magnesium aluminate spinel was complete at 800 °C.

  19. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Mehrdad; Ouspid, Elham; Hosseini, Saeedeh; Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Dehghani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. It plays an important role in insulin homeostasis and glucose metabolism through multiple enzymatic reactions. With increasing data on magnesium deficiency in diabetic patients and epidemiological studies demonstrating magnesium deficiency as a risk factor for diabetes, it is logical to search for its possible beneficial effects on diabetes control and prevention. We aimed to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic control, lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Fifty four patients with type II diabetes were included in a randomized double blind placebocontrolled clinical trial.Patients received either placebo or 300 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium sulfate -MgSo4-) daily, for 3 months. Metabolic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, magnesium status, hepatic enzymes, hemoglobin concentration, and anthropometric indices were determined in the beginning and at the end of the study. Results: Daily administration of 300 mg elemental magnesium for 3 months, significantly improved fasting blood glucose (183.9±15.43 to 125.8±6.52 vs. 196.5±28.12 to 136.5±7.94, p< 0.0001), 2-hour post prandial glucose (239.1±74.75 to 189.1±60mg/dl vs. 246.4±97.37 to 247.8±86.74mg/dl, p< 0.01), lipid profile, blood pressure and hepatic enzymes. Conclusion: Oral magnesium supplementation with proper dosage has beneficial effects on blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:25405132

  20. Chemistry and photochemistry of 2,6-bis(2-hydroxybenzilidene)cyclohexanone. An example of a compound following the anthocyanins network of chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Moro, Artur J; Pana, Ana-Maria; Cseh, Liliana; Costisor, Otilia; Parola, Jorge; Cunha-Silva, L; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Pina, Fernando

    2014-08-14

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the 2,6-bis(2-hydroxybenzilidene)cyclohexanone chemical reactions network was studied at different pH values using NMR, UV-vis, continuous irradiation, and flash photolysis. The chemical behavior of the system partially resembles anthocyanins and their analogue compounds. 2,6-Bis(2-hydroxybenzilidene)cyclohexanone exhibits a slow color change from yellow to red styrylflavylium under extreme acidic conditions. The rate constant for this process (5 × 10(-5) s(-1)) is pH independent and controlled by the cis-trans isomerization barrier. However, the interesting feature is the appearance of the colorless compound, 7,8-dihydro-6H-chromeno[3,2-d]xanthene, isolated from solutions of acid to neutral range, characterized by (1)H NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Light absorption by 2,6-bis(2-hydroxybenzilidene)cyclohexanone solutions immediately after preparation exclusively results in cis-isomer as photoproduct, which via hemiketal formation yields (i) red styrylflavylium by dehydration under extremely acidic solutions (pH < 1) and (ii) colorless 7,8-dihydro-6H-chromeno[3,2-d]xanthene by cyclization in solutions of acid to neutral range.

  1. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  2. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  3. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  4. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  6. [Magnesium and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Mineo

    2012-08-01

    Blood levels of total Mg, ionized Mg and intracellular ionized Mg of platelet were lowered in the 2nd trimester of gestation and thereafter. Urinary excretion of Mg does not change during the whole period of pregnancy. According to our results of animal experiments, intestinal absorption of Mg does not increase during pregnancy compared with non-pregnant state. These data suggest pregnant women tend to become magnesium deficiency. This is reflected in the fact that Mg metabolic parameters of pregnant women with preeclampsia are relatively reduced compared with those of healthy gravidae. In the obstetrical practice Mg has other significance, because magnesium sulfate is frequently used as a drug of choice in the therapy of threatened premature delivery and eclampsia. Mg plays important roles in physiology and pharmacology during gestation. PMID:22846356

  7. Time-resolved electrochromism associated with the formation of quinone anions in the rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 reaction center

    SciTech Connect

    Tiede, D.M.; Vazquez, J.; Cordova, J.; Marone, P.A.

    1996-08-20

    The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center contains bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriopheophytin (Bph) cofactors that provide natural probes of electrostatic fields within this protein. We have examined the electrochromic responses of these cofactors, resolved during the lifetimes of the quinone anion states, P{sup +}Q{sub A}{sup -Q}{sub B} and P{sup +}Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -}, and measured as a function of temperature. These measurements provide information on the time-dependent variation in electrostatic field strength on the Bchl and Bph cofactors. Measurements in the near-infrared absorbance bands are described. 60 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Molecular basis of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase reaction of PFKFB3: transition state and the C-terminal function.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Michael C; Kim, Song-Gun; Neau, David; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2012-04-01

    The molecular basis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F-2,6-P(2)ase) of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) was investigated using the crystal structures of the human inducible form (PFKFB3) in a phospho-enzyme intermediate state (PFKFB3-P•F-6-P), in a transition state-analogous complex (PFKFB3•AlF(4)), and in a complex with pyrophosphate (PFKFB3•PP(i)) at resolutions of 2.45, 2.2, and 2.3 Å, respectively. Trapping the PFKFB3-P•F-6-P intermediate was achieved by flash cooling the crystal during the reaction, and the PFKFB3•AlF(4) and PFKFB3•PP(i) complexes were obtained by soaking. The PFKFB3•AlF(4) and PFKFB3•PP(i) complexes resulted in removing F-6-P from the catalytic pocket. With these structures, the structures of the Michaelis complex and the transition state were extrapolated. For both the PFKFB3-P formation and break down, the phosphoryl donor and the acceptor are located within ~5.1 Å, and the pivotal point 2-P is on the same line, suggesting an "in-line" transfer with a direct inversion of phosphate configuration. The geometry suggests that NE2 of His253 undergoes a nucleophilic attack to form a covalent N-P bond, breaking the 2O-P bond in the substrate. The resulting high reactivity of the leaving group, 2O of F-6-P, is neutralized by a proton donated by Glu322. Negative charges on the equatorial oxygen of the transient bipyramidal phosphorane formed during the transfer are stabilized by Arg252, His387, and Asn259. The C-terminal domain (residues 440-446) was rearranged in PFKFB3•PP(i), implying that this domain plays a critical role in binding of substrate to and release of product from the F-2,6-P(2) ase catalytic pocket. These findings provide a new insight into the understanding of the phosphoryl transfer reaction. PMID:22275052

  9. Molecular basis of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase reaction of PFKFB3: Transition state and the C-terminal function

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalier, Michael C.; Kim, Song-Gun; Neau, David; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2012-03-22

    The molecular basis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F-2,6-P{sub 2}ase) of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) was investigated using the crystal structures of the human inducible form (PFKFB3) in a phospho-enzyme intermediate state (PFKFB3-P {center_dot} F-6-P), in a transition state-analogous complex (PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}), and in a complex with pyrophosphate (PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i}) at resolutions of 2.45, 2.2, and 2.3 {angstrom}, respectively. Trapping the PFKFB3-P {center_dot} F-6-P intermediate was achieved by flash cooling the crystal during the reaction, and the PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4} and PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i} complexes were obtained by soaking. The PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4} and PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i} complexes resulted in removing F-6-P from the catalytic pocket. With these structures, the structures of the Michaelis complex and the transition state were extrapolated. For both the PFKFB3-P formation and break down, the phosphoryl donor and the acceptor are located within {approx}5.1 {angstrom}, and the pivotal point 2-P is on the same line, suggesting an 'in-line' transfer with a direct inversion of phosphate configuration. The geometry suggests that NE2 of His253 undergoes a nucleophilic attack to form a covalent N-P bond, breaking the 2O-P bond in the substrate. The resulting high reactivity of the leaving group, 2O of F-6-P, is neutralized by a proton donated by Glu322. Negative charges on the equatorial oxygen of the transient bipyramidal phosphorane formed during the transfer are stabilized by Arg252, His387, and Asn259. The C-terminal domain (residues 440-446) was rearranged in PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i}, implying that this domain plays a critical role in binding of substrate to and release of product from the F-2,6-P{sub 2}ase catalytic pocket. These findings provide a new insight into the understanding of the phosphoryl transfer reaction.

  10. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.; Levine, S.R.; Helpern, J.A.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  11. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  12. Redox Reactions of Reduced Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN), Riboflavin (RBF), and Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) with Ferrihydrite and Lepidocrocite

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-09-17

    Flavins are secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella and can function as endogenous electron transfer mediators (ETM). In order to assess the potential importance of flavins in Fe(III) bioreduction, we investigated the redox reaction kinetics of reduced flavins (FMNH2 and RBFH2) with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. The organic reductants rapidly reduced and dissolved ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite in the pH range 4-8. The rate constant k for 2-line ferrihydrite reductive dissolution by FMNH2 was 87.5 ± 3.5 M-1∙s-1 at pH 7.0 in batch reactors, and the k was similar for RBFH2. For lepidocrocite, the k was 500 ± 61 M-1∙s-1 for FMNH2, and 236 ± 22 M-1∙s-1 for RBFH2. The surface area normalized initial reaction rates (ra) were between 0.08 and 77 μmoles∙m-2∙s-1 for various conditions in stopped-flow experiments. Initial rates (ro) were first-order with respect to Fe(III) oxide concentration, and ra increased with decreasing pH. Poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite yielded the highest ra, followed by more crystalline 6-line ferrihydrite, and crystalline lepidocrocite. Compared to a previous whole-cell study with Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, our findings suggest that ETM reduction by the Mtr pathway coupled to lactate oxidation are rate limiting, rather than heterogeneous electron transfer to the Fe(III) oxide.

  13. Magnesium metabolism: a brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Paymaster, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The important role played by the magnesium ion in the body is not generally recognized. The action of numerous enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism is regulated by it and it contributes importantly to macromolecular structure. Magnesium defiency occurs more often than is generally suspected; magnesium excess, though uncommon, is of special interest to the anaesthetist because it produces a curare-like effect on neuromuscular transmission. It is hoped that this brief review of magnesium metabolism will draw attention to its importance and relevance in everyday practice. PMID:942168

  14. Rate constant and secondary organic aerosol yields for the gas-phase reaction of hydroxyl radicals with syringol (2,6-dimethoxyphenol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauraguais, Amélie; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Cassez, Andy; Seydi, Abdoulaie

    2012-08-01

    Syringol (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) is a potential marker compound for wood smoke emissions in the atmosphere. To investigate the atmospheric reactivity of this compound, the rate constant for its reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been determined in a simulation chamber (8 m3) at 294 ± 2 K, atmospheric pressure and low relative humidity (2-4%) using the relative rate method. The syringol and reference compound concentrations were followed by GC/FID (Gas chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection). The determined rate constant (in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1) is ksyringol = (9.66 ± 1.11) × 10-11. The calculated atmospheric lifetime for syringol is 1.8 h, indicating that it is too reactive to be used as a tracer for wood smoke emissions. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from the OH reaction with syringol was also investigated. The initial mixing ratios for syringol were in the range 495-3557 μg m-3. The aerosol production was monitored using a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer). The SOA yields (Y) were determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses (M0) to the total reacted syringol concentration assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. The aerosol formation yield increases as the initial syringol concentration increases, and leads to aerosol yields ranging from 0.10 to 0.36. Y is a strong function of M0 and the organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. To our knowledge, this work represents the first investigation of the rate constant and SOA formation for the reaction of syringol with OH radicals. The atmospheric implications of this reaction are also discussed.

  15. Does dietary magnesium modulate blood lipids?

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Rastogi, S S; Mani, U V; Seth, J; Devi, L

    1991-07-01

    In a randomized, single-blind, controlled study (400 patients aged 25-63 yr; 374 males, 26 females), 206 subjects were administered a magnesium-rich diet, and 194 subjects their usual diet, for 6 wk. Age, sex, body weight, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, diuretic therapy, and diabetes were comparable between the two groups, as were laboratory data at entry to the study. Intervention-group A received a significantly higher amount of dietary magnesium and potassium compared to group B, which received its usual diet. After 6 wk, there was a significant fall in total serum cholesterol (228.5 +/- 46.2 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol 146.5 +/- 75.5 mg/dL), and triglyceride (143.8 +/- 40.5 mg/dL) in group A compared to serum cholesterol (242.5 +/- 58.2 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (157.0 +/- 78.4 mg/dL), and triglyceride (156.5 +/- 60.0 mg/dL) at entry to study, but no such changes in group-B subjects. HDL cholesterol showed a marginal mean decrease of 0.8 mg/dL in group B and a 2.5 mg/dL increase in group A. The changes in blood lipids were consistent with an increased intake of magnesium and with a rise in serum levels. Although a general blood-lipid-reducing effect of such a diet cannot be excluded, it is possible that dietary magnesium may have contributed to the reduction of total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the marginal rise in HDL cholesterol. More studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm this observation. PMID:1718369

  16. Sol - Gel synthesis and characterization of magnesium peroxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaison, J.; Ashok raja, C.; Balakumar, S.; Chan, Y. S.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium peroxide is an excellent source of oxygen in agriculture applications, for instance it is used in waste management as a material for soil bioremediation to remove contaminants from polluted underground water, biological wastes treatment to break down hydrocarbon, etc. In the present study, sol-gel synthesis of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) nanoparticles is reported. Magnesium peroxide is odourless; fine peroxide which releases oxygen when reacts with water. During the sol-gel synthesis, the magnesium malonate intermediate is formed which was then calcinated to obtain MgO2 nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Thermo gravimetric -Differential Thermal Analysis (TG- DTA), X-Ray Diffraction studies (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Our study provides a clear insight that the formation of magnesium malonate during the synthesis was due to the reaction between magnesium acetate, oxalic acid and ethanol. In our study, we can conclude that the calcination temperature has a strong influence on particle size, morphology, monodispersity and the chemistry of the particles.

  17. Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health12

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium’s many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium’s role in disease prevention and overall health. PMID:23674807

  18. Production and Refining of Magnesium Metal from Turkey Originating Dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Yeliz; Yücel, Onuralp

    2012-06-01

    In this study crown magnesium produced from Turkish calcined dolomite by the Pigeon Process was refined and corrosion tests were applied. By using factsage thermodynamic program metalothermic reduction behavior of magnesium oxide and silicate formation structure during this reaction were investigated. After thermodynamic studies were completed, calcination of dolomite and it's metalothermic reduction at temperatures of 1473 K, 1523 K and within a vacuum (varied from 20 to 200 Pa) and refining of crown magnesium was studied. Different flux compositions consisting of MgCl2, KCl, CaCl2, MgO, CaF2, NaCl, and SiO2 with and without B2O3 additions were selected for the refining process. These tests were carried out at 963 K for 15, 30 and 45 minutes setting time. Considerable amount of iron was transferred into the sludge phase and its amount decreased from 0.08% to 0.027%. This refined magnesium was suitable for the production of various magnesium alloys. As a result of decreasing iron content, minimum corrosion rate of refined magnesium was obtained 2.35 g/m2/day. The results are compared with previous studies.

  19. Combustion Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, M. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2011-10-20

    In the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, three compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}(also expressed as-Mg{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2.4}O{sub 4}) and MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} are well known. Importance of the first two is well established. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel is a technologically important material due to its interesting thermal properties. The MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics also find application as humidity sensors. Apart from the luminescence studies, the interest in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is due to various applications such as humidity-sensing and PEM fuel cells, TL/OSL dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, white light source. Interest in the MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} has aroused due to possible use as a substrate for GaN growth. Attempt was made to synthesize these compounds by the combustion synthesis using metal nitrates as oxidizer and urea as a fuel. Compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were formed in a single step, while MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} was not formed by this procedure. Activation of MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} by rare earth ions like Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and ns{sup 2} ion Pb{sup 2+} could be achieved. Excitation bands for MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} are at slightly shorter wavelengths compared to those reported for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  20. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  1. Clumped-isotope thermometry of magnesium carbonates in ultramafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García del Real, Pablo; Maher, Kate; Kluge, Tobias; Bird, Dennis K.; Brown, Gordon E.; John, Cédric M.

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium carbonate minerals produced by reaction of H2O-CO2 with ultramafic rocks occur in a wide range of paragenetic and tectonic settings and can thus provide insights into a variety of geologic processes, including (1) deposition of ore-grade, massive-vein cryptocrystalline magnesite; (2) formation of hydrous magnesium carbonates in weathering environments; and (3) metamorphic carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks. However, the application of traditional geochemical and isotopic methods to infer temperatures of mineralization, the nature of mineralizing fluids, and the mechanisms controlling the transformation of dissolved CO2 into magnesium carbonates in these settings is difficult because the fluids are usually not preserved. Clumped-isotope compositions of magnesium carbonates provide a means to determine primary mineralization or (re)equilibration temperature, which permits the reconstruction of geologic processes that govern magnesium carbonate formation. We first provide an evaluation of the acid fractionation correction for magnesium carbonates using synthetic magnesite and hydromagnesite, along with natural metamorphic magnesite and low-temperature hydromagnesite precipitated within a mine adit. We show that the acid fractionation correction for magnesium carbonates is virtually indistinguishable from other carbonate acid fractionation corrections given current mass spectrometer resolution and error. In addition, we employ carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry on natural magnesium carbonates from various geologic environments and tectonic settings. Cryptocrystalline magnesite vein deposits from California (Red Mountain magnesite mine), Austria (Kraubath locality), Turkey (Tutluca mine, Eskişehir district) and Iran (Derakht-Senjed deposit) exhibit broadly uniform Δ47 compositions that yield apparent clumped-isotope temperatures that average 23.7 ± 5.0 °C. Based on oxygen isotope thermometry, these clumped-isotope temperatures suggest

  2. ? - ? Double twinning in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Aleš; Ostapovets, Andriy; Molnár, Peter; Lejček, Pavel

    2011-08-01

    It is demonstrated that metalworking processes performed at different temperatures can lead to the ? - ? double twinning. This twinning mode has been observed during direct extrusion of the coarse-grained Mg-0.3at.%Al alloy at 433 K and analysed in detail on room-temperature rolled magnesium single crystal with the c-axis parallel to transverse direction and the a-axis parallel to rolling direction. The ? - ? double twins originated during initial stage of the formation on coarse-grained and single-crystalline structure.

  3. A study on the magnesium-iodine thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuta, T.; Haraya, K.; Sako, T.; Ito, N.; Yoshitome, H.; Todo, N.; Kato, J.

    The rates of redox reaction of magnesium oxide and iodine in water and of the thermal decomposition of magnesium iodate are investigated in order to design a hydrogen production process using the magnesium-iodine cycle for the thermochemical decomposition of water. The optimal conditions of the redox reaction are determined; they are an initial molar ratio of MgO:I2:H2O =1:5:8, a temperature of 150 C, and a reaction time of 15 to 20 min. The thermal decomposition of magnesium iodate is found to be a two-step reaction which starts at 588 and 615 C, respectively. It is noted that the enthalpy change of magnesium iodate to intermediate paraperiodate - Mg5(IO6)2 - is 65.4 kcal/mol and that of paraperiodate to magnesium oxide is 99.0 kcal/mol. The vapor pressures of liquid iodine, magnesium iodide, and MgI2-I2 aqueous solutions are measured, and the data are fitted to the Antoine equation by the least squares method.

  4. Evidence for magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

    PubMed

    Caddell, J L

    1996-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been defined as a requirement for oxygen for more than 28 days because of chronic pulmonary changes, usually in a premature infant. About 50 per cent of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who weigh 1 kg at birth and who survive 28 days will develop BPD. Since 80 per cent of fetal accretion of magnesium occurs during the third trimester, this population is also at risk for magnesium deficiency. This paper reviews evidence for a role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of BPD. Pathology in BPD that may be caused or aggravated by magnesium deficiency is noted. Agents or mediators that are increased in BPD and in BPD include: oxygen free radicals; the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha; vaso- and bronchoconstrictors thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and serotonin: vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1); and bronchoconstrictor, histamine. Magnesium deficiency increases the susceptibility of cells and tissues to peroxidation, worsens the inflammatory reaction, reduces the immune response, exaggerates catecholamine release in stress, and diminishes energy metabolism. Possibly because of the danger of magnesium toxicity and the difficulty in studying the preterm VLBW neonate, little is known about magnesium supplementation in this group. Such information must be gained through controlled studies on the effect of antepartum exposure to maternally administered magnesium sulphate on the VLBW infant, through carefully monitored postnatal administration of magnesium in an intensive care setting, or through evaluations of combined pre- and postnatal supplementation. PMID:9140865

  5. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOEpatents

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  6. Ignition Temperature of Magnesium Powder and Pyrotechnic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen-Guang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Min, Li

    2014-07-01

    Using potassium nitrate, strontium nitrate, and potassium perchlorate as the oxidizing agents, the ignition and combustion behaviors of magnesium powders with different specific surface area were studied. The ignition temperature (Te) was extrapolated using a differential thermal analyzer, and the pyrotechnic spontaneous reaction temperature (Ts) was inferred from the temperature curve by inflection point analysis. The results showed that Ts has much better reproducibility than the extrapolated Te in characterizing the ignition of the pyrotechnic formulations. Increasing the specific surface area of the magnesium powder resulted in decreased Ts of the pyrotechnics.

  7. Functionalization of heterocyclic compounds using polyfunctional magnesium and zinc reagents

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Matthias A; Bernhardt, Sebastian; Manolikakes, Georg; Metzger, Albrecht; Piller, Fabian M; Rohbogner, Christoph J; Mosrin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Summary In this review we summarize the most important procedures for the preparation of functionalized organzinc and organomagnesium reagents. In addition, new methods for the preparation of polyfunctional aryl- and heteroaryl zinc- and magnesium compounds, as well as new Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, are reported herein. Experimental details are given for the most important reactions in the Supporting Information File 1 of this article. PMID:21977211

  8. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  15. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  16. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  18. Synthesis of micromesoporous magnesium oxide cubes with nanograin structures in a supercritical carbon dioxide/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Deok; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Sang Woo

    2011-07-01

    Micromesoporous magnesium oxide architectures with cubic morphologies were prepared via the chemical reaction of magnesium hydroxide in a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2)-ethanol system, and via the sequential thermal combustion of the reaction products. The morphological change to the cube shape from an irregular form was induced by the dehydoxylation-carbonation reaction of magnesium hydroxide with supercritical CO2 at a reaction temperature of 150 degrees C, which leads to the greatly improved carbonation efficiency of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium carbonate. The precursor cubes with 3-5 microm sizes were decarbonized and transformed into the nanocrystalline MgO phase with pore sizes of 1.3-6 nm after calcining at 600 degrees C. The micromesoporous cube with high surface area of 117.5 m2/g was obtained by the thermal decarbonation with phase transition from rhombohedral to cubic phase. As a result, nanograined magnesium oxide cubes with micromesoporous structures and high specific surface areas were formed by the carbonation reaction of the magnesium hydroxide with the supercritical CO2, and the subsequent thermal decomposition of the magnesium carbonate cubes.

  19. Magnesium and calcium sulfate stabilities and the water budget of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate probably plays a dominant role in the water cycle of Mars away from the polar ice caps through hydration and dehydration reactions. This prominence is due to its abundance, its occurrence in numerous hydration states, and its ability to hydrate and dehydrate rapidly. New experimental studies on the metastable reaction between hexahydrite (MgSO4??6H2O) and starkeyite (MgSO4-4H2O) as a function of temperature and relative humidity, supplemented by recent investigations of the stable reaction between epsomite (MgSO4??7H2O) and hexahydrite and by phase equilibrium calculations, suggest that the most important magnesium sulfate phases involved in the Martian water cycle are MgSO4??11 H2O, epsomite, starkeyite, and possibly kieserite (MgSO4??H2O). Hexahydrite is not predicted to be stable on the surface of Mars. During diurnal variations in temperature and relative humidity, 1 kg of MgSO4 can release or remove from the atmosphere 1.5 kg of H2O by cycling between kieserite and MgSO4??11 H2O. Despite subequal abundances of calcium sulfate, calcium sulfates are not likely to be important in the water cycle of the planet because of sluggish rates of hydration and dehydration and a more limited range of H2O concentrations per kilogram of CaSO4 (0.00 to 0.26 kg kg-1). Modern or recent erosion on Mars attributed to liquid water may be due to the dehydration Of MgSO4??11 H2O because of the inferred abundance and likelihood of occurrence of this phase and its limited stability relative to known variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  20. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  1. Kinetic phases in the electron transfer from P+QA-QB to P+QAQB- and the associated processes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26 reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gilroy, D; Tiede, D M; Gunner, M R

    1998-03-01

    Electron transfer from P+QA-QB to form P+QAQB- was measured in Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26 reaction centers (RCs) where the native primary quinone, ubiquinone-10 (UQA), was replaced by 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MQA). The native secondary quinone, UQ-10, was retained as UQB. The difference spectrum of the semiquinone MQA- minus UQB- absorption is very similar to that of MQ- minus UQ- in solution (398-480 nm). Thus, the absorption change provides a direct monitor of the electron transfer from MQA- to UQB. In contrast, when both QA and QB are UQ-10 the spectral difference between UQA- and UQB- arises from electrochromic responses of RC chromophores. Three kinetic processes are seen in the near UV (390-480 nm) and near-IR (740-820 nm). Analysis of the time-correlated spectra support the conclusion that the changes at tau1 approximately 3 micros are mostly due to electron transfer, electron transfer and charge compensation are mixed in tau2 approximately 80 micros, while little or no electron transfer occurs at 200-600 micros (tau3) in MQAUQB RCs. The 80-micros rate has been previously observed, while the fast component has not. The fast phase represents 60% of the electron-transfer reaction (398 nm). The activation energy for electron transfer is DeltaG approximately 3.5 kcal/mol for both tau1 and tau2 between 0 and 30 degrees C. In isolated RCs with UQA, if there is any fast component, it appears to be faster and less important than in the MQA reconstituted RCs.

  2. Magnesium supplementation combined with N-acetylcysteine protects against postischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Magali; Andrade, Lucia; Coimbra, Terezila M; Rodrigues, Adilson C; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2005-11-01

    Magnesium is a potent vasodilator whose effects have not been evaluated in renal ischemia. The antioxidant properties of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially protect animals from ischemic/reperfusion injury. This study was designed to evaluate magnesium supplementation, alone or combined with NAC, on ischemic acute renal failure. Rats were maintained on normal diets, supplemented or not with MgCl(2).6H(2)O (1% in drinking water) for 23 d, and some rats received NAC (440 mg/kg body wt) on days 20 to 23. On day 21, ischemia was induced by clamping both renal arteries for 30 min. Five groups were studied: Normal, ischemia, ischemia+magnesium, ischemia+NAC, and ischemia+magnesium+NAC. GFR (inulin clearance), renal blood flow (RBF), FEH(2)O, and FENa were determined. Serum magnesium was decreased in ischemia-only rats. Magnesium prevented postischemia GFR and RBF decreases but did not protect against tubular damage. However, NAC completely restored the tubular damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Semiquantitative immunoblotting showed that NAC prevented the decreased expression of Na-K-2Cl co-transporter and aquaporin 2 after renal ischemia/reperfusion. Untreated rats with acute renal failure demonstrated markedly decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Significantly, treatment with NAC, magnesium, or both completely inhibited downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The tubular necrosis scores were lower in rats that were treated with NAC alone or with the magnesium-NAC combination. Magnesium prevented postischemia GFR and RBF decreases but did not protect against tubular damage. The NAC protected tubules from ischemia, decreased infiltrating macrophages/lymphocytes, and had a mild protective effect on GFR. In ischemic/reperfusion injury, renal function benefits more from the magnesium-NAC combination than from magnesium alone.

  3. Magnesium homeostasis and aging.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Mario; Belvedere, Mario; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2009-12-01

    Aging is very often associated with magnesium (Mg) deficit. Total plasma magnesium concentrations are remarkably constant in healthy subjects throughout life, while total body Mg and Mg in the intracellular compartment tend to decrease with age. Dietary Mg deficiencies are common in the elderly population. Other frequent causes of Mg deficits in the elderly include reduced Mg intestinal absorption, reduced Mg bone stores, and excess urinary loss. Secondary Mg deficit in aging may result from different conditions and diseases often observed in the elderly (i.e. insulin resistance and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus) and drugs (i.e. use of hypermagnesuric diuretics). Chronic Mg deficits have been linked to an increased risk of numerous preclinical and clinical outcomes, mostly observed in the elderly population, including hypertension, stroke, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, alterations in lipid metabolism, platelet aggregation/thrombosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, cardiovascular mortality, asthma, chronic fatigue, as well as depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Both aging and Mg deficiency have been associated to excessive production of oxygen-derived free radicals and low-grade inflammation. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are also present in several age-related diseases, such as many vascular and metabolic conditions, as well as frailty, muscle loss and sarcopenia, and altered immune responses, among others. Mg deficit associated to aging may be at least one of the pathophysiological links that may help to explain the interactions between inflammation and oxidative stress with the aging process and many age-related diseases.

  4. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  6. Blood Phosphorus and Magnesium Levels in 130 Elite Track and Field Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Tsitas, Kostas; Porfiriadou, Anthoula; Papalada, Agapi; R.Ames, Paul; Del Buono, Angelo; Lippi, Giuseppe; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the clinical utility and relevance of serum phosphorus and magnesium as markers possibly useful to monitor training in athletes. Methods Phosphorus and magnesium serum concentrations of 130 elite track and field athletes (65 males and 65 females, age range 20-30 years) from the National Athletics Sports Medicine Center database in Thessaloniki, Greece were measured. Results Abnormal results were found in 61 (47%) athletes (32 men and 29 women). In male athletes, serum phosphate was higher than normal in 18% and decreased in 1.5%, whereas serum magnesium concentration was higher in 26%, and lower in 3%. Regarding female athletes, higher serum phosphate and magnesium levels were detected in 26% and 17% respectively, whereas decreased serum magnesium was found in 3%. The most common alterations were higher serum phosphate (29/61, 47%) and magnesium concentrations (28/61, 46%). Abnormalities of serum phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were detected in almost half of the athletes. Hyperphosphataemia and hypermagnesaemia were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion The reference intervals used for general population cannot be used for athletes. Given the lack of pathological manifestations, the physiopathological significance of these findings is uncertain. Further studies on the interpretation of reported ion concentrations in athletes should take in account the type of sport practiced and also the possible variations during the training and competition season. PMID:23785576

  7. Retrosynthetic approach to the design of molybdenum-magnesium oxoalkoxides.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Denis A; Fedyanin, Ivan V; Lyssenko, Konstantin A; Bazhenova, Tamara A

    2014-09-14

    The reaction of MoCl5 methanolysis in the presence of magnesium ions was shown to produce an extensive row of heterobimetallic Mg-Mo(V, VI) oxomethoxides of different nuclearity ranging from 4 for [Mg2(CH3OH)4Mo2O2(OCH3)10] (1) to 26 for [Mg(DMF)3(CH3OH)3]2[Mo22Mg4O48(OCH3)28(DMF)6] (2) with the latter possessing a ring morphology. Examination of [Mo6O12(OCH3)16Mg4(CH3OH)6] (3), [Mo6O12(OCH3)12Mg2(DMF)4] (4a), and [Mo6O16(OCH3)4Mg2(DMF)8] (5a) X-ray structures revealed the presence of the well known tetranuclear core {Mo4O8(OCH3)2}(2+) thus similar reactivity patterns leading to their formation were assumed. For convenient synthesis of such heterobimetallic oxoalkoxides, the retrosynthetic approach based on speculative deconstruction of a target molecule onto simpler fragments was suggested and successfully employed. Namely, the reaction of the stoichiometric amounts of appropriately chosen Mo(V), Mo(VI) and Mg(2+) synthons led to their assembling resulting in the formation of heterometallic clusters 3, 5a and [Mo6O12(OCH3)12Mg2(CH3OH)4]·2CH3OH (4b) characterized by means of elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. PMID:25019529

  8. Study of the e+e-→K+K- reaction in the energy range from 2.6 to 8.0 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lee, M. J.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kim, J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Röhrken, M.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Ford, W. T.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Grünberg, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wulsin, H. W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; de Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Babar Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The e+e-→K+K- cross section and charged-kaon electromagnetic form factor are measured in the e+e- center-of-mass energy range (E ) from 2.6 to 8.0 GeV using the initial-state radiation technique with an undetected photon. The study is performed using 469 fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 e+e- collider at center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The form factor is found to decrease with energy faster than 1 /E2 and approaches the asymptotic QCD prediction. Production of the K+K- final state through the J /ψ and ψ (2 S ) intermediate states is observed. The results for the kaon form factor are used together with data from other experiments to perform a model-independent determination of the relative phases between electromagnetic (single-photon) and strong amplitudes in J /ψ and ψ (2 S )→K+K- decays. The values of the branching fractions measured in the reaction e+e-→K+K- are shifted relative to their true values due to interference between resonant and nonresonant amplitudes. The values of these shifts are determined to be about ±5 % for the J /ψ meson and ±15 % for the ψ (2 S ) meson.

  9. Magnesium Alloys and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainer, Karl U.

    1999-04-01

    In the recent years there has been a dramatic increase in research activity and also applications of magnesium alloys. The driving force is the growing demand by the automobile industry resulting from the pressure to reduce weight and hence to reduce the fuel consumption. The U.S. car industry incorporates the largest amount of magnesium at the present time. In Europe, Volkswagen had a history of using magnesium in the VW Beetle. Volkswagen, in common with other major car producers has initiated a major research and development programme for advanced magnesium materials. The main emphasis of this book is in the field of general physical metallurgy and alloy development refelcting the need to provide a wider range of alloys both casting and wrought alloys to meet the increasing demands of industry. Other topics are nevertheless well represented such as casting, recycling, joining, corrosion, and surface treatment.

  10. Producing titanium by reducing TiCl2-MgCl2 mixed salt with magnesium in the molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwa, Akio; Takaya, Satoru

    2005-10-01

    In the Kroll process for titanium sponge metal production, TiCl4 gas is introduced and reacted with molten magnesium metal via a gas-liquid reduction reaction. The magnesium reduction reaction of the mixed salt of TiCl2-MgCl2 via a liquid-liquid reaction has been investigated and the results are reported in this article. First, the molten mixed salt was synthesized through chlorination reaction of solid titanium sponge placed in molten MgCl2 salt, while TiCl4 gas was bubbled at around 1,173K. Then, the TiCl2-MgCl2 was reacted with molten magnesium at similar temperatures. This proposed magnesium reduction reaction of the TiCl2-MgCl2 in the molten state may be more efficient, easier to control, and suitable for realizing continuous titanium production.

  11. Magnesium and Dialysis: The Neglected Cation.

    PubMed

    Alhosaini, Mohamad; Leehey, David J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription. Further interventional studies to determine the effect of normalization of plasma magnesium concentration on clinical outcomes are needed. At the present time, we recommend that predialysis plasma magnesium be measured on a regular basis, with the dialysate magnesium concentration adjusted to maintain plasma magnesium concentration within the normal range.

  12. Magnesium and fetal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  13. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited. PMID:26446714

  14. [Exploitation of the chemistry of magnesium carbenoids and their use in organic synthesis].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Synthetic organic chemistry is a base of medicinal chemistry and the exploitation of new methods for carbon-carbon bond formation is of most importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Carbenes and carbenoids have long been known to be highly reactive carbon species that show a variety of unique reactivity. However, those reactive species are not fully used in organic synthesis. The reasons are as follows: one is the precursors for the generation of carbenes and carbenoids are quite limited and the other is that the reactivity of the species is too high to control. In order to solve the problem mentioned above, we used alpha-haloalkyl (or alkenyl) aryl sulfoxides as the precursors and used sulfoxide-magnesium exchange reaction for generation of much mild magnesium carbenoids. alpha-Haloalkyl (or alkenyl) aryl sulfoxides are quite easily synthesized in high overall yields. Magnesium carbenoids, cyclopropylmagnesium carbenoids, cyclobutylmagnesium carbenoids, magnesium beta-oxido carbenoids, and magnesium alkylidene carbenoids are generated at low temperature from the corresponding sulfoxides with a Grignard reagent in quantitative yields. They were found to be stable usually at below -60 degrees C for at least 30 min. The each magnesium carbenoids have their own unique reactivities and we could find many unprecedented reactions from these reactive species. Recent results for the developments of new synthetic methods based on the chemistry of magnesium carbenoids are described.

  15. [Magnesium deficiency and stress: Issues of their relationship, diagnostic tests, and approaches to therapy].

    PubMed

    Tarasov, E A; Blinov, D V; Zimovina, U V; Sandakova, E A

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium plays an important role in the functions of the central nervous system. It takes part in the regulation of the cell membrane, the transmembrane transport of calcium and sodium ions, and metabolic reactions that produce, accumulate, transfer, and utilize energy, free radicals, and their oxidation products. The magnesium-containing substances include many sequestered antigens, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, and neuron-specific enolase; magnesium may act as a neuroprotector that is able to modulate the regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability. Investigations have demonstrated a relationship between the manifestations of stress reactions (anxiety, autonomic dysfunction, and maladjustment) and magnesium deficiency (MD). Thus, mental and physical stresses cause an increase in magnesium elimination from the body. MD in turn enhances a response to stress, by paradoxically aggravating its sequels. Compensation for MD increases the ability of the nervous system to resist stress. The valid diagnosis of MD present difficulties; namely, a blood magnesium concentration decrease below 0.8 mmol/l is evidence of MD; but the constant blood level of magnesium may be long maintained due to its release from the bone tissue depot. So it is necessary to keep in mind the clinical manifestations of MD. The authors have developed and tested a simple rapid MD assessment test and a stress resistance self-rating test. The proposed tests will help to screen stress resistance and MD in outpatient settings.

  16. Differences in the binding of the primary quinone receptor in Photosystem I and reaction centres of Rhodobacter sphaeroides-R26 studied with transient EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Est, A.; Sieckmann, I.; Lubitz, W.; Stehlik, D.

    1995-05-01

    The binding of the primary quinone acceptor, Q, in Photosystem I (PS I) and reaction centres (RC's) of Rhodobacter Sphaeroide-R26 in which, the non-heme iron has been replaced by zinc (Zn-bRC's) is studied using transient EPR spectroscopy. In PS I, Q is phylloquinone (vitamin K 1, VK 1) and is referred to as A 1. In Zn-bRC's, it is ubiquinone-10 (UQ 10) and called Q A. Native samples of the two RC's as well as those in which A 1 and Q A have been replaced by perdeuterated napthoquinone (NQ- d6) and duroquinone (DQ- d12) are compared. The spin polarized K-band (24 GHz) spectra of the charge separated state P +.Q -. (P = primary chlorophyll donor) in Zn-bRC's show that substitution of Q A, with NQ- d6 and DQ- d12 does not have a measurable effect on the quinone orientation in the Q A site. In contrast, large differences in the orientation of VK 1, NQ- d6 and DQ- d12 in the A 1 site in PS I are found. In addition, all three quinones in PS I are oriented differently than Q A in Zn-bRC's. Further, the x and y principal values of the g-tensors of VK 1-., NQ -. and DQ -. in PS I are shown to be significantly larger than in frozen alcohol and Zn-bRC's. It is suggested that the differences in the orientation and a g-values of the quinones in the two RC's arise from a weaker binding to the protein in PS I.

  17. Reactions for improving efficiencies in thermochemical cycles related to the sulfur dioxide-iodine process

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    A modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle which uses magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfite and magnesium iodide is examined with particular emphasis on decreasing the amount of water employed and thereby increasing the efficiency. The key reaction is that of iodine with magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate with no additional water. This produces 77% of the total possible sulfate as well as magnesium iodide, hydrogen iodide and hydrogen at 523/sup 0/K. The efficiency of this cycle varies between 58% and 39% depending on the amount of heat that can be recovered. This is the first example of a cycle where there is no large energy burden due to evaporation.

  18. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  19. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nm to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.

  20. Deuterium storage in nanocrystalline magnesium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetto, R.; Bazzanella, N.; Miotello, A.; Brusa, R. S.; Zecca, A.; Mengucci, A.

    2004-02-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium deuteride thin films with the β-MgD2 structure were prepared by vacuum evaporation of hexagonal magnesium (h-Mg) samples and thermal annealing in 0.15 MPa D2 atmosphere at 373 K. Thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the rate-limiting step in the deuterium desorption was given by the thermal decomposition of the deuteride phase. The activation energy Δg of the β-MgD2→h-Mg+D2 reaction scaled from 1.13±0.03 eV in 650-nm-thick films to 1.01±0.02 eV in 75-nm-thick films most likely as consequence of different stress and defect level. Positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis of the thin-film samples submitted to deuterium absorption and desorption cycles reveal the presence of a high concentration of void-like defects in the h-Mg layers after the very first decomposition of the β-MgD2 phase, the presence of these open volume defects reduces the D2 absorption capacity of the h-Mg thin film.

  1. Fabrication of multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong; Yan Jing; Yao, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The properties of nanomaterials was strongly affected by their microstructures. Here Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 x 4H2O multilayer pancakelike structures were fabricated successfully by reaction of MgCl2 and Na2CO3 in aqueous solution at 363 K. The growth process of nanostructures was observed by XRD and SEM. Several transition states of multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonates were observed, which help to understand better the formation process of this hierarchical nanostructures. The formation mechanism of Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 x 4H2O multilayer pancakelike structures was discussed and helical growth was proposed. The amorphous nanoparticles were formed firstly. Then nanopartilces aggregated and oriented assembly under the direction of chemical bonds with the help of water molecules. The multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonates was formed by helical growth of wafers along (100) and (001) direction. The diameter and volume decreased with the increasing concentration of reactants. PMID:25942931

  2. Fluorometric measurement of serum magnesium with a centrifugal analyzer.

    PubMed

    Pesce, M A; Bodourian, S H; Hills, L P

    1984-01-31

    We developed a rapid fluorometric assay for measurement of serum magnesium using the ligand, 8-hydroxy-quinoline-5-sulfonate and adapted the procedure to the Multistat Fluorescence Light Scattering Centrifugal Analyzer. The standard curve extends from 0.26 to 4.11 mmol/l. There was no interference from calcium or inorganic phosphorus at concentrations of 4.95 and 5.0 mmol/l, lead, iron, zinc or copper at twice the normal levels found in serum, bilirubin at concentrations of 10 mg/dl, or lipemic samples with triglyceride concentrations of 2400 mg/dl. Citrate and EDTA lowered magnesium concentrations in serum. Analytical recovery of magnesium added to four serum specimens averaged 97%. Between-run and within-run precision of the assay gave CVs which ranged from 2.9 to 7.6%. Magnesium concentrations, measured by our fluorometric procedure, were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption and colorimetric procedures. Correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.88 were obtained.

  3. The Grignard Reagent: Preparation, Structure, and Some Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchin, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The Grignard reagent used in the laboratory synthesis of organic compounds is the product resulting from the reaction of an alkyl or aryl halide with elemental magnesium. Describes the structure, formation, and some reactions of the reagent. (YP)

  4. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  5. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  1. An anticorrosive magnesium/carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, M.; Hayashi, T.; Itoh, I.; Kim, Y. A.; Shimamoto, D.; Muramatsu, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Morimoto, S.; Terrones, M.; Iinou, S.; Koide, S.

    2008-02-01

    Here, we report a drastically improved anticorrosive characteristic of magnesium alloy composites with the introduction of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Highly depressed corrosion of nanotube-filled magnesium composite in salt water is due to the formation of stable oxide films along the grain boundaries of magnesium. Our results indicate that carbon nanotube acted as effective multifunctional filler to improve both mechanical and anticorrosive performances of magnesium alloy.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  9. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  10. Dislocation Creep in Magnesium Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, X.; Evans, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dissolved Mg on plastic deformation of calcite, we performed triaxial deformation experiments on synthetic calcite with varying amount of Mg content. Mixtures of powders of calcite and dolomite were isostatically hot pressed (HIP) at 850° C and 300 MPa confining pressure for different intervals (2 to 20hrs) resulting in homogeneous aggregates of high-magnesium calcite; Mg content varied from 0.07 to 0.17 mol%. Creep tests were performed at differential stresses from 20 to 160 MPa at 700 to 800° C. Grain sizes before and after deformation were determined from the images obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. Grain sizes are in the range of 5 to 20 microns depending on the HIP time, and decrease with increasing magnesium content. Both BSE images and chemical analysis suggest that all dolomite are dissolved and the Mg distribution is homogeneous through the sample, after 2 hrs HIP. At stresses below 40 MPa, the samples deformed in diffusion region (Coble creep), as described previously by Herwegh. The strength decreases with increasing magnesium content, owing to the difference of grain size. At stresses above 80 MPa, the stress exponent is greater than 3, indicating an increased contribution of dislocation creep. The transition between diffusion to dislocation creep occurs at higher stresses for the samples with higher magnesium content and smaller grain size. Preliminary data suggests a slight increase in strength with increasing magnesium content, but more tests are needed to verify this effect. In a few samples, some strain weakening may have been evident. The activation energy in the transition region (at 80 MPa) is ˜200 KJ/mol with no dependence on magnesium content, agreeing with previous measurements of diffusion creep in natural and synthetic marbles.

  11. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    PubMed

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  12. Primary magnesium production costs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit

    2008-11-01

    Focusing on primary magnesium production cost estimates, this paper provides a forecast of the long-term competitiveness of magnesium in automotive applications. Competing magnesium production technologies are considered, with particular emphasis on the long-term viability of cheap supplies using Chinese production technology. Also considered are two yet-to-be commercialized production processes.

  13. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  14. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  15. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  16. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  19. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  1. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p...: (1) The ingredient is used as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a...

  4. Laser glazing of lanthanum magnesium hexaaluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Wang, Yaomin; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Zhong, Xinghua; Li, Qin; Cao, Xueqiang

    2008-08-01

    Lanthanum magnesium hexaalumminate (LMA) is an important candidate for thermal barrier coatings due to its thermal stability and low thermal conductivity. On the other hand, laser glazing method can potentially make thermal barrier coatings impermeable, resistant to corrosion on the surface and porous at bulk. LMA powder was synthesized at 1600 °C by solid-state reaction, pressed into tablet and laser glazed with a 5-kW continuous wave CO2 laser. Dendritic structures were observed on the surface of the laser-glazed specimen. The thicker the tablet, the easier the sample cracks. Cracking during laser glazing is attributed to the low thermal expansion coefficient and large thickness of the sample.

  5. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  6. Measurements of the {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al proton transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; Lima, G. F.; Moro, A. M.

    2006-08-15

    Angular distributions for the {sup 11}B+{sup 25}Mg elastic scattering, {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na proton pickup, and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al stripping reactions have been measured at E{sub {sup 11}B}=35 MeV. The angular distributions have been analyzed by the distorted-waves Born approximation calculations using the code fresco. The spectroscopic factors for the overlaps <{sup 25}Mg|{sup 26}Al>,<{sup 25}Mg|{sup 24}Na> for the ground state and excited states of {sup 26}Al and {sup 24}Na have been obtained and compared to previous measurements and shell-model calculations.

  7. Investigation of a novel passivation technique for gas atomized magnesium powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Andrew Douglas

    Gas atomized magnesium powders are critical for the production of a wide variety of flares, tracer projectiles, and other munitions for the United States military, along with a growing number of applications in both alloying and powder metallurgy. Gas atomization of magnesium is performed by numerous companies worldwide, but represents a single point failure within the United States as there is only one domestic producer. These powders are pyrophoric and must be handled carefully and kept dry at all times. Recent studies have explored the ability of certain fluorine containing cover gases to protect molten magnesium in casting operations from excessive vaporization and burning by modifying the native oxide (MgO) through interaction with these gas atmospheres. The present study sought to adapt this melt protection strategy for use as an in-situ passivation technique that could be employed to form a protective reaction film during gas atomization of magnesium powders. This fluorinated oxide shell was intended to provide superior coverage and adherence to the underlying metal, which may improve the ability of powders to resist ignition at elevated temperatures and during powder handling. Two candidate gases were tested in this research, SF6 and NF3, and reaction films of both were produced on miniature melt samples in a controlled environment and characterized using auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultimately, SF6 was chosen to conduct a small scale magnesium atomization experiment for verification of the fluorination reaction and to experimentally test the ignition temperature of these coated particles compared to other magnesium powders available today. This novel passivation technique was found to be far superior to magnesium's native oxide at resisting ignition and, thus, to reduce the hazard associated with handling and transport of magnesium powders for defense applications. If fully commercialized, this passivation method also

  8. Superoxide radicals scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of magnesium lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Ruohua; Shang, Yanjun; Jiao, Binghua; Huang, Caiguo

    2009-06-01

    In this study we investigated the superoxide radicals scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity by magnesium lithospermate B, which was originally isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (also named Danshen or Dansham), an important herb in Oriental medicine. Superoxide radicals were generated both in beta-NADH/PMS system and xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system. Magnesium lithospermate B significantly inhibited the reduction of NBT induced by superoxide radicals with an IC(50) of 29.8 microg/mL and 4.06 microg/mL respectively in the two systems. Further study suggested that magnesium lithospermate B can directly inhibit xanthine oxidase and exhibits competitive inhibition. Magnesium lithospermate B was also found to have the hypouricemic activity in vivo against potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricaemia in mice. After oral administration of magnesium lithospermate B at doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, there was a significant decrease in the serum urate level when compared to the hyperuricemia control. In addition, magnesium lithospermate B significantly protected HL-60 cells from superoxide radicals-induced apoptosis in the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase reactions. This study provided evidence that magnesium lithospermate B exhibits direct superoxide radicals scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  9. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  10. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  11. Magnesium molybdate catalyst for oxidation of butane

    SciTech Connect

    Khazai, B.; Vrieland, G.E.; Murchison, C.B.

    1993-12-31

    Magnesia supported molybdenum oxide has been shown to exhibit catalytic activity in the partial oxidation of butane to 1,3-butadiene. This reaction is carried out in the absence of gaseous oxygen and the catalyst is regenerated by contacting with air in a separate step. The authors have been investigating the use of transport bed technology for this reaction as the relatively short time intervals involved between regenerations (order of seconds) require rapid cycling of the reaction/reoxidation steps for a continuous process. To meet the attrition criteria the authors have developed a multiphase catalyst system based on a dispersion of molybdenum oxide on a magnesia/magnesium aluminate substrate. Hardness is provided by a gamma alumina matrix which displays Davison attrition numbers of 1-5. The catalyst which shows conversions of 35-40% and selectivities to C4 olefins of approximately 80% in a pulsed reactor has been characterized by a variety of techniques. This paper will present data on the catalyst properties and will discuss phase development during synthesis.

  12. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-02-20

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  13. Condensation of glycylglycine to oligoglycines with trimetaphosphate in aqueous solution. II: catalytic effect of magnesium ion.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Y; Inomata, K

    1997-08-01

    The previously reported condensation reaction of glycylglycine with trimetaphosphate (Yamanaka et al., 1988) was reinvestigated and shown to be catalyzed by magnesium ion. Aqueous solutions containing glycylglycine (0.5 M), trimetaphosphate (0.5 M) and magnesium chloride (0.5 M) were incubated at 38 degrees C at pH 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. After incubation for ten days at pH 5, the maximum yields of tetraglycine and hexaglycine as condensation products were found to be about 12 and 1.4%, respectively. This result indicated the presence of a considerable catalytic effect of magnesium ion compared with the maximum yield of about 2% for tetraglycine and approximately 0% for hexaglycine in the absence of magnesium ion. PMID:11536827

  14. Effects of proton irradiation on a gas phase in which condensation takes place. I Negative Mg-26 anomalies and Al-26. [applied to solar and meteoritic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.; Walker, A.; Huss, G.; Morgan, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    In the present paper, isotopic effects in magnesium generated in a proton-irradiated gas phase are examined, taking only (p,n), (p,d), and (p, alpha) reactions in magnesium, aluminum, and silicon into consideration. In the presence of proton radiation, the three elements are 'removed' from the gas phase by condensation. It is required that a value of Al-26/Al-27 greater than 6 times 10 to the -5th must be reached, consistent with the value deduced by Lee Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg (1976) from their studies of the Allende meteorite. The calculations show that fast aluminum condensation reduces the required proton fluence substantially, that a significant fraction of aluminum remains uncondensed when the above value of the Al-26/Al-27 ratio is reached, that a detectable MG-24 excess is very likely to occur, that detectable negative MG-28 anomalies can be generated, and that proton fluxes and irradiation times can be varied simultaneously, and over a wide range of values, without significant changes in the required proton fluence.

  15. Synthesis of 5-bromopyridyl-2-magnesium chloride and its application in the synthesis of functionalized pyridines.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhua J; Yee, Nathan K; Tan, Zhulin; Xu, Jinghua; Kapadia, Suresh R; Senanayake, Chris H

    2004-12-23

    [reaction: see text] The 5-bromopyridyl-2-magnesium chloride (2), which was not accessible previously, was efficiently synthesized for the first time via an iodo-magnesium exchange reaction with 5-bromo-2-iodopyridine (1). This reactive intermediate was allowed to react with a variety of electrophiles to afford a range of useful functionalized pyridine derivatives. Application of this methodology to 5-bromo-2-iodo-3-picoline provided a simple and economical synthesis of a key intermediate for the preparation of Lonafarnib, a potent anticancer agent.

  16. Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Urszula; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation ofADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary

  17. Intravenous magnesium sulfate does not increase ventricular CSF ionized magnesium concentration of patients with intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brewer, R P; Parra, A; Borel, C O; Hopkins, M B; Reynolds, J D

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate has attracted interest as a potential neuroprotectant but passage of magnesium ion into the central nervous system has not been well documented. For this study, we quantified plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ionized magnesium concentration after systemic magnesium sulfate infusion in patients with intracranial hypertension. Patients ( N = 9) received an intravenous infusion of 5 g/20 mmol magnesium sulfate (125 mL of a 4% wt/vol solution) over 30 minutes. Before and after dosing, CSF (from an indwelling ventricular catheter) and blood samples were collected at hourly intervals. Ionized magnesium concentration in all samples was determined using an electrolyte analyzer. Baseline plasma and CSF ionized magnesium concentrations were 0.58 +/- 0.05 and 0.82 +/- 0.06 mmol/L, respectively. Intravenous magnesium sulfate infusion significantly increased plasma ionized magnesium concentration (peak, 0.89 +/- 0.11 mmol/L), but CSF magnesium levels did not change during the 4-hour study. Systemic administration of magnesium sulfate failed to increase CSF ionized magnesium concentration in patients with intracranial hypertension despite increasing plasma magnesium levels by >50%.

  18. Magnesium isotopic heterogeneity across the cratonic lithosphere in eastern China and its origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Ke, Shan; Liu, Yi-Can; Li, Shu-Guang

    2016-10-01

    Available data in the literature have demonstrated a broad magnesium (Mg) isotope range for mantle and lower continental crustal rocks, implying an isotopically heterogeneous continental lithosphere, but its origin has not been thoroughly understood. Here, to investigate the primary cause of lithospheric Mg isotopic heterogeneity, we report major-trace elements, Sr and Mg isotope data for thirty deep-seated mafic xenoliths, which sampled different lithospheric depths in the southeastern North China Craton (NCC). The xenoliths are classified into three types based upon petrology and mineralogy, sampling from middle continental crust (Group I), lower continental crust (Group II) and lithospheric mantle (Group III), respectively. The Group I xenoliths have mantle-like to slightly high δ26Mg values (- 0.32 ‰ to + 0.01 ‰), whereas some of the Group II xenoliths have very low δ26Mg values (- 0.93 ‰ to - 0.07 ‰), reflecting substantial reaction with intracrustal carbonate-derived fluids. Combined with data in the literature, the results suggest that the Mg isotopic composition of the lower continental crust is much more heterogeneous and lighter on average relative to the middle continental crust. Except for one sample, the Group III xenoliths have extremely low δ26Mg values (- 1.23 ‰ to - 0.73 ‰), the lightest among values already reported for mantle-derived rocks including peridotites and basalts. They also have highly variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, of 0.70387 to 0.71675. The covariation of Mg and Sr isotopes in Group III xenoliths can be explained by Mg and Sr isotopic exchange reactions during mantle metasomatism, implying that the sub-continental mantle has been significantly modified by fluids derived from recycled carbonate-pelite bearing oceanic crust. Together with the metasomatism age of ∼400 Ma obtained for one Group III xenolith, the results provide new evidence for the presence of extremely low-δ26Mg rocks in the lithosphere and indicate ancient

  19. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  20. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  1. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  2. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  3. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  4. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  5. Direct total cross section measurement of the {sup 16}O({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 20}Ne reaction at E{sub c.m.}=2.26 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, U.; Greife, U.; Brown, J. R.; Buchmann, L.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Ottewell, D.; Ruiz, C.; Sjue, S.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Erikson, L.; Vockenhuber, C.

    2011-08-15

    In stellar helium burning, {sup 16}O represents the endpoint of the helium-burning sequence due to the low rate of {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne. We present a new direct measurement of the total capture reaction rate of {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne at E{sub c.m.}=2.26 MeV employing the DRAGON recoil separator. For the first time, the total S factor and its contributing direct capture transitions could be determined in one experiment.

  6. Analysis of Different Inhibitors for Magnesium Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Dorca, N.; Sarriegi Etxeberria, H.; Hurtado, I.; Andres, U.; Rodriguez, P.; Arruebarrena, G.

    2012-01-01

    Investment casting of magnesium is a well suited process for the production of aeronautic and automotive components. But still, this process has not been properly developed. One reason for that are the reactions between the Mg melt and the ceramics of the mould that produce a non-desired oxide layer on the part surface. These reactions can be inhibited by the use of silica-free slurries with a higher stability than conventional ones. Another way is using inhibitors, chemical compounds based in fluorides that react with the melt, creating a protective surface layer in the casting. With the aim of developing a reaction-free process, alumina moulds with a stepped geometry have been constructed. These provide different interface conditions. Conventional SF6, non-conventional KBF4 and NaBF4 and environmentally friendly FK inhibitors have been tested on. As a result, KBF4 has been identified as the most suitable inhibitor for magnesium investment casting. Furthermore, the analysis of the cooling curve of different interfaces has provided essential information about the reaction mechanism of the inhibitors.

  7. Synthesis of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and their (24R)-epimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sicinski, R.R.; Tanaka, Y.; Phelps, M.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-02-15

    Synthesis of a C-24-epimeric mixture of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and a C-24-epimeric mixture of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by the Grignard reaction of the corresponding 25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D2 and 1 alpha-acetoxy-25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D3 with tritiated methyl magnesium bromide is described. Separation of epimers by high-performance liquid chromatography afforded pure radiolabeled vitamins of high specific activity (80 Ci/mmol). The identities and radiochemical purities of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H(vitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 D2 were established by cochromatography with synthetic 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Biological activity of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the rat plasma binding protein for vitamin D compounds, and by its in vitro conversion to 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-deficient chickens. The biological activity of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the chick intestinal receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

  8. Magnesium: a versatile drug for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Do, Sang-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate has been used in preeclampsia patients in order to prevent seizure. It is also used for the treatment of arrhythmia and asthma and as an anesthetic adjunct in patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma. However, its potentiating effects on perioperative analgesia and muscle relaxation have drawn attention recently. These characteristics of magnesium (anesthetic- and analgesic-sparing effect) enable anesthesiologists to reduce the use of anesthetics during surgery and the use of analgesics after surgery. Magnesium sulfate has a high therapeutic index and cost-effectiveness. Considering these diverse characteristics useful for anesthesia, appropriate use of magnesium sulfate would improve surgical outcome and patients' satisfaction. PMID:23904932

  9. Use of magnesium in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananda P; Gulati, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Depletion of magnesium is observed in animal brain and in human blood after brain injury. Treatment with magnesium attenuates the pathological and behavioral changes in rats with brain injury; however, the therapeutic effect of magnesium has not been consistently observed in humans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary brain insults are observed in patients with brain injury, which adversely affect clinical outcome. Systemic administration studies in rats have shown that magnesium enters the brain; however, inducing hypermagnesemia in humans did not concomitantly increase magnesium levels in the CSF. We hypothesize that the neuroprotective effects of magnesium in TBI patients could be observed by increasing its brain bioavailability with mannitol. Here, we review the role of magnesium in brain injury, preclinical studies in brain injury, clinical safety and efficacy studies in TBI patients, brain bioavailability studies in rat, and pharmacokinetic studies in humans with brain injury. Neurodegeneration after brain injury involves multiple biochemical pathways. Treatment with a single agent has often resulted in poor efficacy at a safe dose or toxicity at a therapeutic dose. A successful neuroprotective therapy needs to be aimed at homeostatic control of these pathways with multiple agents. Other pharmacological agents, such as dexanabinol and progesterone, and physiological interventions, with hypothermia and hyperoxia, have been studied for the treatment of brain injury. Treatment with magnesium and hypothermia has shown favorable outcome in rats with cerebral ischemia. We conclude that coadministration of magnesium and mannitol with pharmacological and physiological agents could be an effective neuroprotective regimen for the treatment of TBI. PMID:20129501

  10. Thermodynamics and high-pressure kinetics of a fast carbon dioxide fixation reaction by a (2,6-pyridinedicarboxamidato-hydroxo)nickel(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Troeppner, O; Huang, D; Holm, R H; Ivanović-Burmazović, I

    2014-04-14

    The previously reported carbon dioxide fixation reaction by the planar terminal hydroxide complex [Ni(pyN2(Me2))(OH)](1-) in DMF has been further characterized by determination of the equilibrium constants K(eq)²⁹⁸ = 2.4 ± 0.2 × 10(5) M(-1) and K(eq)²²³ = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10(7) M(-1), as well as the volume of activation for the CO2 binding (ΔV(on)(≠223) = -21 ± 3 cm(3) mol(-1)) and back decarboxylation (ΔV(off)(≠223) = -13 ± 1 cm(3) mol(-1)) by high-pressure kinetics. The data are consistent with an earlier DFT computation, including the probable nature of the transition state, and support designating the reaction as one of the most completely investigated carbon dioxide fixation reactions of any type.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  16. Magnesium isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion in natural settings and in laboratory analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Rahul; Richter, Frank M.; Bruce Watson, E.; Scullard, Christian R.

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory experiments are used to document isotopic fractionation of magnesium by chemical diffusion in a silicate melt and the results compared to the magnesium isotopic composition across contacts between igneous rocks of different composition in natural settings. The natural samples are from transects from felsic to mafic rocks at Vinal Cove in the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine and from the Aztec Wash pluton in Nevada. Two laboratory diffusion couples made by juxtaposing melts made from powders of the felsic and mafic compositions sampled at Vinal Cove were annealed at about 1500 °C for 22.5 and 10 h, respectively. The transport of magnesium in the diffusion couples resulted in easily measured magnesium isotopic fractionations at the interface (δ26Mg∼1.5‰). These isotopic fractionations provide a distinctive isotopic “fingerprint” that we use to determine whether chemical gradients in natural settings where melts of different composition were juxtaposed were due to chemical diffusion. The magnesium isotopic fractionation along one profile at Vinal Cove is exactly what one would expect based on the fractionations found in the laboratory experiments. This is an important result in that it shows that the isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion found in highly controlled laboratory experiments can be found in a natural setting. This correspondence implies that chemical diffusion was the dominant process responsible for the transport of magnesium across this particular contact at Vinal Cove. A second Vinal Cove profile has a very similar gradient in magnesium concentration but with significantly less magnesium isotopic fractionation than expected. This suggests that mass transport at this location was only partly by diffusion and that some other mass transport mechanism such as mechanical mixing must have also played a role. The magnesium isotopic composition of samples from Aztec Wash shows no resolvable isotopic fractionation across the contact

  17. Observation of the 3n Evaporation Channel in the Complete Hot-Fusion Reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm Leading to the New Superheavy Nuclide {sup 271}Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, J.; Dvorakova, Z.; Kruecken, R.; Nebel, F.; Perego, R.; Schuber, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wierczinski, B.; Yakushev, A.; Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Chelnokov, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yeremin, A.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagame, Y.

    2008-04-04

    The analysis of a large body of heavy ion fusion reaction data with medium-heavy projectiles (6{<=}Z{<=}18) and actinide targets suggests a disappearance of the 3n exit channel with increasing atomic number of the projectile. Here, we report a measurement of the excitation function of the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 26}Mg,xn){sup 274-x}Hs and the observation of the new nuclide {sup 271}Hs produced in the 3n evaporation channel at a beam energy well below the Bass fusion barrier with a cross section comparable to the maxima of the 4n and 5n channels. This indicates the possible discovery of new neutron-rich transactinide nuclei using relatively light heavy ion beams of the most neutron-rich stable isotopes and actinide targets.

  18. A facile magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterial as potential bone graft.

    PubMed

    He, Fupo; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiumei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    The calcium carbonate is the main composition of coral which has been widely used as bone graft in clinic. Herein, we readily prepared novel magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterials (MCCs) under the low-temperature conditions based on the dissolution-recrystallization reaction between unstable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and metastable vaterite-type calcium carbonate with water involved. The content of magnesium in MCCs was tailored by adjusting the proportion of ACC starting material that was prepared using magnesium as stabilizer. The phase composition of MCCs with various amounts of magnesium was composed of one, two or three kinds of calcium carbonates (calcite, aragonite, and/or magnesian calcite). The different MCCs differed in topography. The in vitro degradation of MCCs accelerated with increasing amount of introduced magnesium. The MCCs with a certain amount of magnesium not only acquired higher compressive strength, but also promoted in vitro cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the facile MCCs shed light on their potential as bone graft.

  19. A facile magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterial as potential bone graft.

    PubMed

    He, Fupo; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiumei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    The calcium carbonate is the main composition of coral which has been widely used as bone graft in clinic. Herein, we readily prepared novel magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterials (MCCs) under the low-temperature conditions based on the dissolution-recrystallization reaction between unstable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and metastable vaterite-type calcium carbonate with water involved. The content of magnesium in MCCs was tailored by adjusting the proportion of ACC starting material that was prepared using magnesium as stabilizer. The phase composition of MCCs with various amounts of magnesium was composed of one, two or three kinds of calcium carbonates (calcite, aragonite, and/or magnesian calcite). The different MCCs differed in topography. The in vitro degradation of MCCs accelerated with increasing amount of introduced magnesium. The MCCs with a certain amount of magnesium not only acquired higher compressive strength, but also promoted in vitro cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the facile MCCs shed light on their potential as bone graft. PMID:26539810

  20. The TMS Magnesium Committee: Committed to the Advancement of Global Magnesium Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sillekens, Wim H.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2011-04-21

    The TMS Magnesium Committee was established in the year 2000 as a spin-off of the Reactive Metals Committee, triggered by the strong global growth of magnesium being used in a variety of structural lightweight applications since the mid-1990’s. Since then the committee has seen a distinct development in terms of size, participation and focus. The article at hand outlines this development by recapitulating the output of its two main activities: the annual Magnesium Technology Symposia and the JOM Special Issues dedicated to magnesium research and development. Further records on the Magnesium Committee are available from the committee homepage (accessible through http://members.tms.org).

  1. Iatrogenic magnesium toxicity following intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate: risks and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Gillian F; Bryant, Catherine; Jheeta, Seetal

    2015-07-31

    A 65-year-old man being treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for recurrent colonic adenocarcinoma was admitted for management of hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia secondary to diarrhoea. He was treated with intravenous infusions of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. Following an infusion of magnesium sulfate, he experienced a sudden neurological deterioration. A CT of the head revealed no haemorrhage or evidence of acute ischaemic injury. Results of serum biochemistry later that day revealed an elevated magnesium level. Iatrogenic magnesium toxicity was suspected. Further discussions between the pharmacist and ward staff confirmed that a medication error had been made in the preparation of the infusion resulting in an overdose of intravenous magnesium.

  2. Nanostructured magnesium oxide as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sritama; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles and to use them as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber (CR). The effects of counterions of magnesium salts on the homogeneous phase precipitation reaction to control size, monodispersity, crystallinity, and morphology of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were also investigated. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by optimizing the calcination temperature of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles. Finally, the MgO nanoparticles were dispersed in polychloroprene rubber (CR) solution along with zinc oxide (ZnO) powder. The influence of MgO nanoparticles on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites was quantified. The modulus and strength of ZnO-cured polychloroprene rubber with 4% MgO nanoparticles appeared to be superior to those with ZnO particles or ZnO with rubber grade MgO particles. These composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system and the load transfer mechanism. PMID:19452982

  3. Magnesium stress signaling in plant: Just a beginning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wanli; Chen, Shaoning; Hussain, Nazim; Cong, Yuexi; Liang, Zongsuo; Chen, Kunming

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important nutrients, involves mainly in plant growth and development. However, the signaling pathways response to magnesium stresses (MgSs) is known little, but several studies lately may improve the research development. Several phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, auxins, and their factors were found responding to MgSs, and there may be some signal pathways linking these hormones and downstream reactions together, e.g., carbon fixation and transfer, starch and sugar metabolism, ion uptaking and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increasing. Consequently, Arabidopsis morphogenesis is remodeled. In this review, we mainly discussed recent literatures involving in plant response to MgSs (Mg deficiency (MgD) and Mg toxicity (MgT)), including plant morphogenesis remodeling, magnesium transporters and signaling transductions. Moreover, the future study challenges related to the responding signalings to MgSs in plants are also presented. Regardless, the iceberg of signal transduction of MgSs in plants is appeared. PMID:25806908

  4. Magnesium stress signaling in plant: just a beginning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanli; Chen, Shaoning; Hussain, Nazim; Cong, Yuexi; Liang, Zongsuo; Chen, Kunming

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important nutrients, involves mainly in plant growth and development. However, the signaling pathways response to magnesium stresses (MgSs) is known little, but several studies lately may improve the research development. Several phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, auxins, and their factors were found responding to MgSs, and there may be some signal pathways linking these hormones and downstream reactions together, e.g., carbon fixation and transfer, starch and sugar metabolism, ion uptaking and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increasing. Consequently, Arabidopsis morphogenesis is remodeled. In this review, we mainly discussed recent literatures involving in plant response to MgSs (Mg deficiency (MgD) and Mg toxicity (MgT)), including plant morphogenesis remodeling, magnesium transporters and signaling transductions. Moreover, the future study challenges related to the responding signalings to MgSs in plants are also presented. Regardless, the iceberg of signal transduction of MgSs in plants is appeared.

  5. Experimental determination of magnesium isotope fractionation during higher plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolou-Bi, Emile B.; Poszwa, Anne; Leyval, Corinne; Vigier, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Two higher plant species (rye grass and clover) were cultivated under laboratory conditions on two substrates (solution, phlogopite) in order to constrain the corresponding Mg isotope fractionations during plant growth and Mg uptake. We show that bulk plants are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to their nutrient source. The Δ 26Mg plant-source range from 0.72‰ to 0.26‰ for rye grass and from 1.05‰ to 0.41‰ for clover. Plants grown on phlogopite display Mg isotope signatures (relative to the Mg source) ˜0.3‰ lower than hydroponic plants. For a given substrate, rye grass display lower δ 26Mg (by ˜0.3‰) relative to clover. Magnesium desorbed from rye grass roots display a δ 26Mg greater than the nutrient solution. Adsorption experiments on dead and living rye grass roots also indicate a significant enrichment in heavy isotopes of the Mg adsorbed on the root surface. Our results indicate that the key processes responsible for heavy isotope enrichment in plants are located at the root level. Both species also exhibit an enrichment in light isotopes from roots to shoots (Δ 26Mg leaf-root = -0.65‰ and -0.34‰ for rye grass and clover grown on phlogopite respectively, and Δ 26Mg leaf-root of -0.06‰ and -0.22‰ for the same species grown hydroponically). This heavy isotope depletion in leaves can be explained by biological processes that affect leaves and roots differently: (1) organo-Mg complex (including chlorophyll) formation, and (2) Mg transport within plant. For both species, a positive correlation between δ 26Mg and K/Mg was observed among the various organs. This correlation is consistent with the link between K and Mg internal cycles, as well as with formation of organo-magnesium compounds associated with enrichment in heavy isotopes. Considering our results together with the published range for δ 26Mg of natural plants and rivers, we estimate that a significant change in continental vegetation would induce a change of

  6. Effects of dietary sodium and magnesium on cyclosporin A-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mervaala, E M; Pere, A K; Lindgren, L; Laakso, J; Teräväinen, T L; Karjala, K; Vapaatalo, H; Ahonen, J; Karppanen, H

    1997-03-01

    Arterial hypertension, nephrotoxicity, and magnesium loss are common side effects of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA). In the present study, the effects of dietary sodium and magnesium on CsA toxicity were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats. A 6-week treatment with CsA during a moderately low-sodium diet (Na 0.3%, Mg 0.2% of the dry weight of the chow) raised blood pressure only slightly, without evidence of nephrotoxicity. By contrast, CsA during a high-sodium diet (Na 2.6%) produced a pronounced rise in blood pressure as well as marked nephrotoxicity, comprising decreased creatinine clearance, increased levels of serum creatinine and urea, and increased urinary protein excretion. During the high-sodium diet, CsA decreased myocardial and bone magnesium concentration and increased myocardial and renal calcium concentration. Magnesium supplementation (Mg 0.6%) protected against the CsA-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity during the high-sodium diet. Magnesium supplementation also completely prevented the CsA-induced myocardial magnesium depletion and calcium accumulation in the heart and kidney during the high-sodium diet. Our findings indicate a detrimental interaction between increased sodium intake and CsA treatment and a marked protection by concomitant oral magnesium supplementation.

  7. Synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes in the 238U(26Mg, xn)264-xRf reaction and study of their decay properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M; Gates, J.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dvorak, J.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Loveland, W.; Nelson, S.L.; Pang, G.K.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Turler, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2008-01-15

    Isotopes of rutherfordium (258-261Rf) were produced in irradiations of 238U targets with 26Mg beams. Excitation functions were measured for the 4n, 5n and 6n exit channels. Production of 261Rf in the 3n exit channel with a cross section of 28+92-26 pb was observed. Alpha decay of 258Rf was observed for the first time with an alpha-particle energy of 9.05+-0.03 MeV and an alpha/total decay branching ratio of 0.31+-0.11. In 259Rf, the electron capture/total decay branching ratio was measured to be 0.15+-0.04. The measured half-lives for 258Rf, 259Rf and 260Rf were 14.7+1.2-1.0 ms, 2.5+0.4-0.3 s and 22.2+3.0-2.4 ms, respectively, in agreement with literature data. The systematics of the alpha decay Q values and of the partial spontaneous fission half-lives were evaluated for even-even nuclides in the region of the N = 152, Z = 100 deformed shell. The influence of the N = 152 shell on the alpha decay Q values for rutherfordium was observed to be similar to that of the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_ 102). However, the N = 152 shell does not stabilize the rutherfordium isotopes against spontaneous fission, as it does in the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_102).

  8. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product....

  9. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH- which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  10. Discharge of a copper-magnesium galvanic cell in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, A. A.; Zarembo, Ya. V.; Zarembo, V. I.

    2007-07-01

    The effect of weak periodic electromagnetic pulses with a repetition rate of 250 kHz on the discharge of a copper-magnesium galvanic cell is studied experimentally. Comparative characteristics of the electrochemical process and scanning electron microscopy images of electrode reaction products are presented.

  11. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  12. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  13. Preparation of highly reactive metal powders. A new procedure for the preparation of highly reactive zinc and magnesium metal powders

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, R.D.; Li, P.T.J.; Burns, T.P.; Uhm, S.T.

    1981-10-09

    Highly reactive zinc and magnesium metal powders can be prepared by the lithium reduction of the corresponding metal salt with a catalytic amount of naphthalene as an electron carrier. Applications to the Reformatsky reaction, the Grignard reaction, and cyclopropanation (with dibromomethane) are described.

  14. Analysis Methods of Magnesium Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmann, Sven; Ditze, André; Scharf, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The quality of recycled magnesium from chips depends strongly on their exposure to inorganic and organic impurities that are added during the production processes. Different kinds of magnesium chips from these processes were analyzed by several methods. In addition, the accuracy and effectiveness of the methods are discussed. The results show that the chips belong either to the AZ91, AZ31, AM50/60, or AJ62 alloy. Some kinds of chips show deviations from the above-mentioned normations. Different impurities result mainly from transition metals and lime. The water and oil content does not exceed 25%, and the chip size is not more than 4 mm in the diameter. The sieve analysis shows good results for oily and wet chips. The determination of oil and water shows better results for the application of a Soxhlet compared with the addition of lime and vacuum distillation. The most accurate values for the determination of water and oil are obtained by drying at 110°C (for water) and washing with acetone (for oil) by hand.

  15. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  16. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins and lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX. Insertion of iron leads to heme, while insertion of magnesium leads to chlorophyll. The Mg-chelatase from intact cucumber chloroplasts has been characterized with regard to substrate specificity, regulation, ATP requirement, and a requirement for intact chloroplasts. Mg-chelatase was isolated from maize, barley and peas and characterized in order to circumvent the intact chloroplast requirement of cucumber Mg-chelatase. Pea Mg-chelatase activity is higher than cucumber Mg-chelatase activity, and lacks the requirement for intact chloroplasts. Studies on isolated pea Mg-chelatase have shown more cofactors are required for the reaction than are seen with ferrochelatase, indicating a greater opportunity for regulatory control of this pathway. Two of the cofactors are proteins, and there appears to be a requirement for a protease-sensitive component which is outside the outer envelope. We are developing a continuous spectrophotometric assay for Mg-chelatase activity, and an assay for free heme which has shown heme efflux from intact chloroplasts. 18 refs. (MHB)

  17. Status of Research on Magnesium Oxide Backfill

    SciTech Connect

    PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BYNUM,R. VANN; WANG,YIFENG; KELLY,JOHN W.; ANDERSON,HOWARD; NOWAK,E. JAMES

    2000-07-31

    For the WIPP, chemical and physical characteristics of MgO suggest it to be the most beneficial backfill choice, particularly because it has the ability to buffer the aqueous chemical conditions to control actinide volubility. In the current experimental program, the authors are developing a technical basis for taking credit for the complete set of attributes of MgO in geochemical, hydrogeological, and geomechanical technical areas, resulting in an improved conceptual model for the WIPP such as the following. Water uptake by MgO will delay the development of mobile actinides and gas generation by microbes and corrosion. Reduced gas generation will reduce or even eliminate spallings releases. As MgO hydrates, it swells, reducing porosity and permeability, which will inhibit gas flow in the repository, in turn reducing spallings releases. Hydration will also result in a self-sealing mechanism by which water uptake and swelling of MgO adjacent to a groundwater seep cuts off further seepage. Reaction with some groundwaters will produce cementitious materials, which will help to cement waste particles or produce a cohesive solid mass. Larger particles are less likely to be entrained in a spallings release. If sufficient water eventually accumulates in a repository to support microbial gas generation, magnesium carbonate cements will form; also producing good cohesion and strength.

  18. The Phase Stabilities of Magnesium Hydroxychlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Jan; LaMarre, Joshua; Peacey, John; Davis, Boyd

    2012-08-01

    This work presents experimental determinations of oxide phase stabilities in the MgCl2-MgO-H2O system. Magnesium hydroxychlorides are compounds with the overall stoichiometry xMgO· yMgCl2· zH2O, which form from the reaction of MgO with MgCl2 brines. They have historically been of importance as the components of Sorel cements; they also have a central role in proposed flowsheets for chloride leaching of laterite nickel ores (among others) and treatment of waste liquors from carnallite processing. A phase diagram of the MgCl2-MgO-H2O system is presented, incorporating both this investigation's results and the values from the literature. Thermochemical values of the 2-form and 3-form hydroxychlorides are estimated from the phase diagram. In addition, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hydroxychloride precipitate is presented. The highlights of this article are as follows: Precipitates of stoichiometry xMgO· yMgCl2· zH2O were obtained by adding MgO to MgCl2 solutions.

  19. Magnesium Isotope Fractionation By Chemical Diffusion In Natural Silicate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, R.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    5 in diffusion couples and the natural samples and produced a fractionation of 26Mg from 24Mg of between 2-3 ‰ in both, the two diffusion couples and in the two natural samples. The measured isotopic fractionations provide an estimate of the mass dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the magnesium isotopes corresponding to D26Mg/ D24Mg = (24/26)β with β = 0.05. These results correspond with the experimental results and predictions of Richter et al. (2008) and shows that the degree of isotopic fractionation during chemical diffusion depends on the relative mobility of the isotopes (i.e. β) and the concentration contrast between the interdiffusing melts and that its effect is the greatest in the region of low concentration. References Richter F. M., Watson E. B., Mendybaev R. A., Teng F-Z. and Janney P. E. (2008) Magnesium isotope fractionation in silicate melts by chemical and thermal diffusion. Geochem. Cosmochem. Acta 72, 206-220. Wiebe R. A., Manon M. R., Hawkins, D. P. and McDonough W. F. (2004) Late-stage mafic injection and thermal rejuvenation of the Vinalhaven granite, coastal Maine. J. Petrol. Vol. 45, 2133-2153.

  20. Plasma phosphorus and magnesium values during treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, C; Bruckner, I; Mihalache, N; Ionescu, C

    1981-01-01

    Plasma phosphorus and magnesium were determined in 76 diabetics, admitted with severe ketoacidosis (pH less than or equal to 7.20, total CO2 less than or equal to 10 mEq/l) before and 24 hours after beginning the treatment, which did not include supplementary phosphorus or magnesium. Phosphorus presented initially high values (1.76 + 0.69 mEq/l) which fell substantially 24 hours after beginning the treatment (0.87 +/- 0.26 mEq/l); magnesium values, initially low (0.76 +/- 0.19 mEq/l), fell still further within 24 hours of treatment (0.64 - 0.16 mEq/l). For phosphorus (and to a lesser extent for magnesium) calculation of the regression line indicated a direct positive relationship with both hydrogen ion concentrations (r = 0.67) and blood glucose (r = 0.73), the differences being statistically significant. The more rapid the decrease in glycemia and correction of acidemia and the greater the amount of glucose administered in the course of treatment, the more marked was the fall of plasma phosphorus and magnesium values.

  1. Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Urszula; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation ofADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary

  2. Magnesium absorption in mature ewes infused intrarumenally with magnesium chloride.

    PubMed

    McLean, A F; Buchan, W; Scott, D

    1984-11-01

    The effects of magnesium supplementation on Mg absorption proximal and distal to the pylorus in ewes maintained on a grass diet were investigated using a combination of balance, digesta flow and electropotential measurements. Three mature ewes each received by intrarumenal infusion a supplement of 0, 1, 2 and 3 g Mg/d in sequence over four 10-d periods. Net Mg absorption distal to the pylorus took place down its electrochemical gradient, although the quantity absorbed remained small during the control and first infusion periods. The bulk of Mg absorption occurred before the pylorus and, during the control and first infusion periods, took place against its electrochemical gradient. The net Mg absorption proximal to the pylorus rose with declining efficiency as Mg intake was increased. It is suggested that saturation of the absorption process at this site was occurring.

  3. Magnesium Borohydride as a Hydrogen Storage Material: Synthesis of Unsolvated Mg(BH4)2

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, G.; Andrus, M; Gao, Y; Zhao, J; Kniajanski, S

    2009-01-01

    Different methods for preparation of unsolvated magnesium borohydride, a promising material for hydrogen storage, based on exchange reaction of MgCl2 with lithium and sodium borohydride in different solvents have been evaluated. A convenient scalable method for synthesis of pure Mg(BH4)2 by ball milling a mixture of MgCl2 and NaBH4 in diethyl ether has been developed. Crystalline stable low and high temperature phases, as well as a new metastable phase of unsolvated magnesium borohydride have been prepared.

  4. Optimized carbonation of magnesium silicate mineral for CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Eikeland, Espen; Blichfeld, Anders Bank; Tyrsted, Christoffer; Jensen, Anca; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-03-11

    The global ambition of reducing the carbon dioxide emission makes sequestration reactions attractive as an option of storing CO2. One promising environmentally benign technology is based on forming thermodynamically stable carbonated minerals, with the drawback that these reactions usually have low conversion rates. In this work, the carbonation reaction of Mg rich olivine, Mg2SiO4, under supercritical conditions has been studied. The reaction produces MgCO3 at elevated temperature and pressure, with the addition of NaHCO3 and NaCl to improve the reaction rates. A sequestration rate of 70% was achieved within 2 h, using olivine particles of sub-10 μm, whereas 100% conversion was achieved in 4 h. This is one of the fastest complete conversions for this reaction reported to date. The CO2 sequestration rate is found to be highly dependent on the applied temperature and pressure, as well as the addition of NaHCO3. In contrast, adding NaCl was found to have limited effect on the reaction rate. The roles of NaHCO3 and NaCl as catalysts are discussed and especially how their effect changes with increased olivine particle size. The products have been characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy revealing the formation of amorphous silica and micrometer-sized magnesium carbonate crystals.

  5. Optimized carbonation of magnesium silicate mineral for CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Eikeland, Espen; Blichfeld, Anders Bank; Tyrsted, Christoffer; Jensen, Anca; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-03-11

    The global ambition of reducing the carbon dioxide emission makes sequestration reactions attractive as an option of storing CO2. One promising environmentally benign technology is based on forming thermodynamically stable carbonated minerals, with the drawback that these reactions usually have low conversion rates. In this work, the carbonation reaction of Mg rich olivine, Mg2SiO4, under supercritical conditions has been studied. The reaction produces MgCO3 at elevated temperature and pressure, with the addition of NaHCO3 and NaCl to improve the reaction rates. A sequestration rate of 70% was achieved within 2 h, using olivine particles of sub-10 μm, whereas 100% conversion was achieved in 4 h. This is one of the fastest complete conversions for this reaction reported to date. The CO2 sequestration rate is found to be highly dependent on the applied temperature and pressure, as well as the addition of NaHCO3. In contrast, adding NaCl was found to have limited effect on the reaction rate. The roles of NaHCO3 and NaCl as catalysts are discussed and especially how their effect changes with increased olivine particle size. The products have been characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy revealing the formation of amorphous silica and micrometer-sized magnesium carbonate crystals. PMID:25688577

  6. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, K D; Santa Ana, C A; Porter, J L; Fordtran, J S

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure magnesium absorption over the wide range of intakes to which the intestine may be exposed from food and/or magnesium-containing medications. Net magnesium absorption was measured in normal subjects after they ingested a standard meal supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mEq of magnesium acetate. Although absorption increased with each increment in intake, fractional magnesium absorption fell progressively (from 65% at the lowest to 11% at the highest intake) so that absorption as a function of intake was curvilinear. This absorption-intake relationship was almost perfectly represented by an equation containing a hyperbolic function plus a linear function. Our results are statistically compatible with a magnesium absorption process that simultaneously uses a mechanism that reaches an absorptive maximum, plus a mechanism that endlessly absorbs a defined fraction (7%) of ingested magnesium. Compared to previous studies of calcium absorption, much less magnesium that calcium was absorbed at intakes above 8 mEq/meal, apparently due to greater restriction of intestinal permeability to magnesium. We also found that magnesium from a high magnesium-containing food source, almonds, was just as bioavailable as from soluble magnesium acetate. In contrast, magnesium absorption from commercially available enteric-coated magnesium chloride was much less than from magnesium acetate, suggesting that enteric coating can impair magnesium bioavailability. PMID:1864954

  7. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  8. Computational micromechanics of bioabsorbable magnesium stents.

    PubMed

    Grogan, J A; Leen, S B; McHugh, P E

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are a promising candidate material for an emerging generation of absorbable metal stents. Due to its hexagonal-close-packed lattice structure and tendency to undergo twinning, the deformation behaviour of magnesium is quite different to that of conventional stent materials, such as stainless steel 316L and cobalt chromium L605. In particular, magnesium exhibits asymmetric plastic behaviour (i.e. different yield behaviours in tension and compression) and has lower ductility than these conventional alloys. In the on-going development of absorbable metal stents it is important to assess how the unique behaviour of magnesium affects device performance. The mechanical behaviour of magnesium stent struts is investigated in this study using computational micromechanics, based on finite element analysis and crystal plasticity theory. The plastic deformation in tension and bending of textured and non-textured magnesium stent struts with different numbers of grains through the strut dimension is investigated. It is predicted that, unlike 316L and L605, the failure risk and load bearing capacity of magnesium stent struts during expansion is not strongly affected by the number of grains across the strut dimensions; however texturing, which may be introduced and controlled in the manufacturing process, is predicted to have a significant influence on these measures of strut performance.

  9. Fluorimetric sequential injection determination of magnesium using 8-hydroxiquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in a micellar medium.

    PubMed

    de Armas, G; Cladera, A; Becerra, E; Estela, J M; Cerdà, V

    2000-05-31

    A fluorimetric sequential injection method for the determination of magnesium is proposed. The system is based on the complex formation between Mg(II) and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS). The reaction was carried out in the presence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) as a masking agent. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (HTAC) was employed as a fluorescence enhancer. The influence of several variables, such as reagent concentration, volumes and pH has been investigated. The reagent was prepared in a 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 9). A detection limit of 12 mug l(-1) magnesium was obtained. The proposed method was applied to the determination of magnesium in natural waters.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse magnesium ferrite via an environmentally friendly molten salt route.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zhengsong; He, Minglong; Wang, Ruikun; Qin, Weiwei; Zhao, Dejian; Chen, Changle

    2014-02-17

    Sub-micrometer-sized magnesium ferrite spheres consisting of uniform small particles have been prepared using a facile, large-scale solid-state reaction employing a molten salt technique. Extensive structural characterization of the as-prepared samples has been performed using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The yield of the magnesium ferrite sub-micrometer spheres is up to 90%, and these sub-micrometer spheres are made up of square and rectangular nanosheets. The magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite sub-micrometer spheres are investigated, and the magnetization saturation value is about 24.96 emu/g. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results.

  11. Effect of liquid-to-solid ratios on the properties of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-juan; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Jun-ming; Ma, An-bo; Liu, Lin-tao

    2013-07-01

    The temperature variation, setting time, phase compositions and compressive strength of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics were important for its application in biomedical field. Different amounts of liquid were added into the premixed acid phosphate and oxide powders in order to study the effect of liquid-to-solid ratios on the properties of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics. The results indicated that the setting time increased and the maximum temperature decreased as the liquid-to-solid ratio increases. The hydrated product was mainly composed of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate, which was not affected by the liquid-to-solid ratios. Besides, magnesia was also found because it was an obvious excess of the hydrated reaction. The compressive strength decreased as the liquid-to-solid ratios increase possibly because of the higher porosity caused by the superfluous liquid. According to the performed study, results indicated that the properties of MPCBC could be adjusted by changing the liquid-to-solid ratios.

  12. Study of second phase in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys: Phase stability evaluation via Dmol{sup 3} calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huazhe; Liu, Chen; Wan, Peng; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke

    2013-11-01

    Thermodynamical stabilities of four conventional second phases as well as magnesium matrix in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys were investigated theoretically via computer calculation method. Model of individual phase and systems including phase and four water molecular (phase-4H{sub 2}O) were established to simulate the in vitro and in vivo environment. Local orbital density functional theory approach was applied to calculate the total energy for the individual phase and phase-4H{sub 2}O system. The results demonstrated that all the second phases possessed higher phase stability compared with magnesium matrix, but the phase stability was quite different for different types of second phases or second phase-4H{sub 2}O systems. Furthermore, a schematic process of inflammation reaction caused by magnesium alloy implants was proposed for the further evaluation on biocompatibility of different second phases.

  13. Inhaled magnesium fluoride reverse bronchospasma.

    PubMed

    Gandia, Fedoua; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Guénard, Hervé; Tabka, Zouhair

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a global health problem. Asthma attacks are becoming more severe and more resistant to usual treatment by beta(2) agonists nebulisation. The search for a new product that could reduce the morbidity of asthmatic disease seems necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of inhaled magnesium fluoride (MgF(2)) with that of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) 15% alone and sodium fluoride (NaF) 0.5 M alone in rats pre-contracted by methacholine (MeCh). Fifty six adult male Wistar rats of medium weight 259 +/- 15 g were divided randomly into five groups. They inhaled respectively: MeCh, MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, MgF(2) + acetic acid, MgSO(4) 15% single and NaF (0.5 M) single. Airway resistances were measured after each dose of MeCh by pneumomultitest equipment. Results indicated that (1) MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, MgF(2) + acetic acid and MgSO(4) reversed significantly the methacholine-induced bronchial constriction in rats and had a bronchodilating effect at the moment of its administration (2) MgF(2) + acetic acid led to a greater decrease (P<0.05) of bronchial resistances when compared to that obtained from MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, NaF exclusively and MgSO(4) alone (3) inhaled NaF alone led to a significant bronchorelaxing effect (P<0.05) that starts at the sixth dose of MeCh (17 mg/L). As a matter of fact, MgF(2) dissolved in acetic acid and delivered in aerosol form reduces significantly bronchial spasm. In conclusion, MgF(2) can be used as a bronchodilator for diseases with bronchospasma such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  14. SU-E-T-26: A Study On the Influence of Photonuclear Reactions On the Biological Effectiveness of Therapeutic High Energy X-Ray Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wakita, A; Matsufuji, N; Kohno, T; Kodaira, S; Yokoyama, K; Suzuki, Y; Itami, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Photons from a modern high-energy therapeutic linear accelerator used in X-ray radiotherapy causes photonuclear reactions in an accelerator or patient's body. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological effectiveness including these particles by Microdosimetric Kinetic Model (MKM) based on microdosimetry. Methods: A linear accelerator operating at 15 MV was used. CR-39 was used to obtain LET spectra of secondary ions selectively, as CR-39 is regarded insensitive to photons. CR-39 was put on the central axis of the X-ray beam at depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm in plastic phantom at a source to detector distance of 100 cm. Pits formed by the traversal of ions were etched then analyzed to obtain restricted LET distribution. Frequency-mean and dose-mean lineal energy was evaluated from the relationship between the restricted LET and the lineal energy required to evaluate the biological effectiveness by MKM. The relationship was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT4. Results: Restricted LET distributions of secondary particles showed broad distributions that decreases exponentially with increasing LET. Frequency-mean and dose-mean lineal energy were determined uniquely within the scope of the energies of secondary particles generated from photons of 15 MeV. The frequency-mean lineal energies at the depth of 0, 5 and 10 cm were 15.1, 16.0 and 19.7 keV/μm respectively, and the dose-mean lineal energies were 18.6, 20.5 and 19.6 keV/μm, respectively. RBE of secondary particles for HSG cell evaluated by MKM was about 2.0 at all depths, and RBE of all particles including photons was evaluated 1.0. Conclusion: We investigated the biological effectiveness of secondary particles by photonuclear reactions. The method to evaluate RBE by MKM was established with measurements and simulations. However, the influence of these secondary ions on RBE was found negligible in the entire biological effectiveness of the high-energy X-ray. This study has been supported

  15. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-13

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ(44)Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ(26)Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ(26)Mg, δ(13)C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ(26)Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this (26)Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a (26)Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ(26)Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ(26)Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  16. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-13

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ(44)Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ(26)Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ(26)Mg, δ(13)C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ(26)Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this (26)Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a (26)Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ(26)Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ(26)Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages. PMID:25535375

  17. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  18. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages. PMID:25535375

  19. Unusual behavior in magnesium-copper cluster matter produced by helium droplet mediated deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, S. B. Little, B. K.; Xin, Y.; Ridge, C. J.; Lindsay, C. M.; Buszek, R. J.; Boatz, J. A.; Boyle, J. M.

    2015-02-28

    We demonstrate the ability to produce core-shell nanoclusters of materials that typically undergo intermetallic reactions using helium droplet mediated deposition. Composite structures of magnesium and copper were produced by sequential condensation of metal vapors inside the 0.4 K helium droplet baths and then gently deposited onto a substrate for analysis. Upon deposition, the individual clusters, with diameters ∼5 nm, form a cluster material which was subsequently characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Results of this analysis reveal the following about the deposited cluster material: it is in the un-alloyed chemical state, it maintains a stable core-shell 5 nm structure at sub-monolayer quantities, and it aggregates into unreacted structures of ∼75 nm during further deposition. Surprisingly, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the copper appears to displace the magnesium at the core of the composite cluster despite magnesium being the initially condensed species within the droplet. This phenomenon was studied further using preliminary density functional theory which revealed that copper atoms, when added sequentially to magnesium clusters, penetrate into the magnesium cores.

  20. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  1. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  2. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Sklad, Philip S; Currie, Kenneth; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Vondra, Fred; Walford, Graham; Nolan, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  3. Dietary intake of magnesium may modulate depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz; Soleimannejad, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status.

  4. Magnesium-isotope fractionation during low-Mg calcite precipitation in a limestone cave - Field study and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immenhauser, A.; Buhl, D.; Richter, D.; Niedermayr, A.; Riechelmann, D.; Dietzel, M.; Schulte, U.

    2010-08-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of speleothem calcite and particularly that of stalagmites and flowstones is increasingly exploited as an archive of past environmental change in continental settings. Despite intensive research, including modelling and novel approaches, speleothem data remain difficult to interpret. A possible way foreword is to apply a multi-proxy approach including non-conventional isotope systems. For the first time, we here present a complete analytical dataset of magnesium isotopes (δ 26Mg) from a monitored cave in NW Germany (Bunker Cave). The data set includes δ 26Mg values of loess-derived soil above the cave (-1.0 ± 0.5‰), soil water (-1.2 ± 0.5‰), the carbonate hostrock (-3.8 ± 0.5‰), dripwater in the cave (-1.8 ± 0.2‰), speleothem low-Mg calcite (stalactites, stalagmites; -4.3 ± 0.6‰), cave loam (-0.6 ± 0.1‰) and runoff water (-1.8 ± 0.1‰) in the cave, respectively. Magnesium-isotope fractionation processes during weathering and interaction between soil cover, hostrock and solute-bearing soil water are non-trivial and depend on a number of variables including solution residence times, dissolution rates, adsorption effects and potential neo-formation of solids in the regolith and the carbonate aquifer. Apparent Mg-isotope fractionation between dripwater and speleothem low-Mg calcite is about 1000ln αMg-cc-Mg(aq) = -2.4‰. A similar Mg-isotope fractionation (1000ln αMg-cc-Mg(aq) ≈ -2.1‰) is obtained by abiogenic precipitation experiments carried out at aqueous Mg/Ca ratios and temperatures close to cave conditions. Accordingly, 26Mg discrimination during low-Mg calcite formation in caves is highly related to inorganic fractionation effects, which may comprise dehydration of Mg 2+ prior to incorporation into calcite, surface entrapment of light isotopes and reaction kinetics. Relevance of kinetics is supported by a significant negative correlation of Mg-isotope fractionation with the precipitation rate for

  5. Magnesium is a cerebrovasodilator in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Kim, C R; Oh, W; Stonestreet, B S

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, in newborn piglets, magnesium results in a dose-dependent prostanoid-mediated cerebrovasodilation. Pial arterioles (50-200 microns in diameter) were serially measured, and cortical subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected for radioimmunoassay of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha, hydrolysis product of prostacyclin) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2, metabolite of thromboxane A2) before and after CSF containing 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM MgCl2 was suffused over the parietal cortex under a closed cranial window in twelve 2- to 4-day-old piglets. Magnesium suffusion resulted (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent pial arteriolar vasodilation. The increase in vessel diameter was greater (P < 0.001) with 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM than with 1.2 mM concentration of magnesium. The increase in vessel diameter with 9.6 mM was also greater (P < 0.001) than with the 2.4 mM concentration of magnesium. Magnesium suffusion did not result in changes in cortical CSF prostanoid concentrations. The effect of intravenous indomethacin (5 mg/kg) on cyclooxygenase inhibition in the pial arterioles was confirmed by a 24 +/- 3% decrease in vessel diameter at the baseline (1.2 mM) magnesium concentration. In contrast, cyclooxygenase inhibition with intravenous indomethacin did not attenuate the magnesium-induced cerebrovasodilation. We conclude that in new born piglets magnesium suffusion over the parietal cortex results in a dose-dependent cerebrovasodilation that is most likely not mediated by prostanoids.

  6. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 178, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of this chapter; and...

  8. Hydrogen in magnesium palladium thin layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijtzer, G. L.

    2008-02-01

    In this thesis, the study of hydrogen storage, absorption and desorption in magnesium layers is described. The magnesium layers have a thickness of 50-500 nm and are covered by a palladium layer which acts as a hydrogen dissociation/association catalyst. The study was preformed under ultra high vacuum conditions to avoid oxygen contamination. The main analysis techniques were RBS, ERD and TDS.

  9. Spectrophotometric study on the proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol in methanol, acetonitrile and the binary mixture 50% methanol+50% acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M; Habeeb, Moustafa M; Al-Obidan, Areej H

    2016-02-01

    Proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine (2AMP) as the proton acceptor with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) as the proton donor has been investigated spectrophotometrically in methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and a binary mixture composed of 50% MeOH and 50% AN (AN-Me). The composition of the complex has been investigated utilizing Job(')s and photometric titration methods to be 1:1. Minimum-maximum absorbance equation has been applied to estimate the formation constant of the proton transfer reaction (K(PT)) where it reached high values in the investigated solvent confirming its high stability. The formation constant recorded higher value in AN compared with MeOH and mixture of AN-Me. Based on the formation of stable proton transfer complex, a sensitive spectrophotometric method was suggested for quantitative determination of 2AMP. The Lambert-Beer(')s law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-8 μg mL(-1) with small values of limits of detection and quantification. The solid complex between 2AMP with DCNP has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis to be 1:1 in concordant with the molecular stoichiometry in solution. Further analysis of the solid complex was carried out using infrared and (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Spectrophotometric study on the proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol in methanol, acetonitrile and the binary mixture 50% methanol+50% acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M; Habeeb, Moustafa M; Al-Obidan, Areej H

    2016-02-01

    Proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine (2AMP) as the proton acceptor with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) as the proton donor has been investigated spectrophotometrically in methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and a binary mixture composed of 50% MeOH and 50% AN (AN-Me). The composition of the complex has been investigated utilizing Job(')s and photometric titration methods to be 1:1. Minimum-maximum absorbance equation has been applied to estimate the formation constant of the proton transfer reaction (K(PT)) where it reached high values in the investigated solvent confirming its high stability. The formation constant recorded higher value in AN compared with MeOH and mixture of AN-Me. Based on the formation of stable proton transfer complex, a sensitive spectrophotometric method was suggested for quantitative determination of 2AMP. The Lambert-Beer(')s law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-8 μg mL(-1) with small values of limits of detection and quantification. The solid complex between 2AMP with DCNP has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis to be 1:1 in concordant with the molecular stoichiometry in solution. Further analysis of the solid complex was carried out using infrared and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26520474

  11. Spectrophotometric study on the proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol in methanol, acetonitrile and the binary mixture 50% methanol + 50% acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.; Al-Obidan, Areej H.

    2016-02-01

    Proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine (2AMP) as the proton acceptor with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) as the proton donor has been investigated spectrophotometrically in methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and a binary mixture composed of 50% MeOH and 50% AN (AN-Me). The composition of the complex has been investigated utilizing Job's and photometric titration methods to be 1:1. Minimum-maximum absorbance equation has been applied to estimate the formation constant of the proton transfer reaction (KPT) where it reached high values in the investigated solvent confirming its high stability. The formation constant recorded higher value in AN compared with MeOH and mixture of AN-Me. Based on the formation of stable proton transfer complex, a sensitive spectrophotometric method was suggested for quantitative determination of 2AMP. The Lambert-Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-8 μg mL- 1 with small values of limits of detection and quantification. The solid complex between 2AMP with DCNP has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis to be 1:1 in concordant with the molecular stoichiometry in solution. Further analysis of the solid complex was carried out using infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  13. Low-temperature electron irradiation and annealing in pure magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Simester, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this study of magnesium after 1.0 MeV electron irradiations at 1.55/sup 0/K, it has been observed that the damage production rate in Mg is (3.57 +- 0.03) x 10/sup -26/ ..cap omega..cm/(e/sup -/ cm/sup 2/). There is no evidence for thermal annealing up to 4/sup 0/K. The low temperature recovery in magnesium is found to consist of two broad substages between 4 to 14/sup 0/K, both of which exhibit evidence for correlated and uncorrelated recovery processes. The two substages are found to have very different frequency factors for annealing, and there is evidence that the recovery processes in the second substage are influenced by those in the first. A model for recovery is proposed using the split configuration in the plane which explains the first substage as being due to interstitial migration in the basal plane and the second to migration perpendicular to the plane.

  14. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  15. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  16. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono-and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  17. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  18. A sequential injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2004-08-01

    A sequential injection methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples is proposed. A single manifold is used for the determination of the three analytes, and the same protocol sequence allows the sequential determination of calcium and magnesium (the sum corresponds to the water hardness). The determination of both metals is based on their reaction with cresolphtalein complexone; mutual interference is minimized by using 8-hydroxyquinoline for the determination of calcium and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for the determination of magnesium. Alkalinity determination is based on a reaction with acetic acid, and corresponding color change of Bromcresol Green. Working ranges of 0.5 - 5 mg dm(-3) for Ca, 0.5 - 10 mg dm(-3) for Mg, and 10 - 100 mg HCO3- dm(-3), for alkalinity have been achieved. The results for water samples were comparable to those of the reference methods and to a certified reference water sample. RSDs lower than 5% were obtained, a low reagent consumption and a reduced volume of effluent have been accomplished. The determination rate for calcium and magnesium is 80 h(-1), corresponding to 40 h(-1) per element, while 65 determinations of alkalinity per hour could be carried out.

  19. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  20. Elucidating the role of the TRPM7 alpha-kinase: TRPM7 kinase inactivation leads to magnesium deprivation resistance phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, Lillia V; Hu, Zhixian; Suzuki, Sayuri; Chubanov, Vladimir; Fleig, Andrea; Ryazanov, Alexey G

    2014-12-23

    TRPM7 is an unusual bi-functional protein containing an ion channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is implicated in regulating cellular and systemic magnesium homeostasis. While the biophysical properties of TRPM7 ion channel and its function are relatively well characterized, the function of the TRPM7 enzymatically active kinase domain is not understood yet. To investigate the physiological role of TRPM7 kinase activity, we constructed mice carrying an inactive TRPM7 kinase. We found that these mice were resistant to dietary magnesium deprivation, surviving three times longer than wild type mice; also they displayed decreased chemically induced allergic reaction. Interestingly, mutant mice have lower magnesium bone content compared to wild type mice when fed regular diet; unlike wild type mice, mutant mice placed on magnesium-depleted diet did not alter their bone magnesium content. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from TRPM7 kinase-dead animals exhibited increased resistance to magnesium deprivation and oxidative stress. Finally, electrophysiological data revealed that the activity of the kinase-dead TRPM7 channel was not significantly altered. Together, our results suggest that TRPM7 kinase is a sensor of magnesium status and provides coordination of cellular and systemic responses to magnesium deprivation.

  1. Magnesium intake is not related to depression risk in Spanish university graduates.

    PubMed

    Derom, Marie-Laure; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sayón-Orea, Maria del Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Beunza, Juan J; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium is the second most predominant intracellular cation and it is an important cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions. It is a calcium antagonist and a voltage-dependent blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate channel, which plays a role in the entrance of calcium into the neuron. Other mechanisms also add biological plausibility to neuro-protective properties for magnesium, including an inverse association with major depression. A higher magnesium intake has been related to lower depressive symptoms. However, epidemiological evidence on this issue is scarce. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and depression incidence in a cohort of 12,939 Spanish university graduates initially free of depression (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Cohort Study). Total magnesium intake was assessed with a validated, semiquantitative FFQ and incident depression was ascertained through self-reports of a new clinical diagnosis of depression done by a medical doctor and/or the habitual use of antidepressive drugs. The self-report was validated against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria in a subsample of the cohort. Cox regression models were used to obtain HR of incident depression during follow-up according to baseline quintiles of magnesium intake using the lowest quintile as the reference category. After a median follow-up of 6.3 y, 737 new cases of depression were identified. No association between magnesium intake and depression was found, with multivariate-adjusted HR = 1 (reference), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.78-1.27), 1.00 (0.76-1.31), 0.95 (0.70-1.30), and 1.11 (0.77-1.59) for increasing categories (quintiles 1-5) of total magnesium intake. No dose-response relationship was found (P-trend = 0.59). Results were robust through different sensitivity analyses, including nutrient density or residual models. In conclusion, our findings do not suggest an inverse association between magnesium

  2. An in vitro study on the biocompatibility of WE magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shuping; Wang, Yi; Tian, Jie; Lei, Daoxi; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Guixue

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium alloys are being actively studied for intravascular stent applications because of their good mechanical strength and biocompatibility. To rule out the high allergenicity of nickel and neurotoxicity of aluminum element, four kinds of WE magnesium alloys (where "W" represents the metallic element Y and "E" represents mixed rare earth (RE) elements; Y: 2.5, 5.0, 6.5, and 7.5 wt %; Nd: 1.0, 2.6, 2.5, and 4.2 wt %; Zr: 0.8 wt %) were chosen for in vitro investigation of their biocompatibility using cell culture. The results showed that, with the increase of rare earth elements in WE magnesium alloys, fibrinogen adsorption decreased and coagulation function was improved. It was also found that WE magnesium alloys promoted the adhesion of endothelial cells. With the increase of adhesion time, adhered cell numbers increased gradually. With 25% extracts, all the WE alloys promoted cell migration, while 100% extracts were not conducive to cell migration. Based on the above results, WE magnesium alloys 5.0WE (5.0Y-2.6Nd-0.8Zr) and 6.5WE (6.5Y-2.5Nd-0.8Zr) have better biocompatibility as compared with that with 2.5WE (2.5Y-1.0Nd-0.8Zr) and 7.5WE (7.5Y-4.2Nd-0.8Zr), and could be as the promising candidate materials for medical stent applications. PMID:25939488

  3. Grosnaja ABCs: Magnesium isotope compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three CAI's from the Grosnaja CV3 chondrite were analyzed for their magnesium isotopic compositions by the ion microprobe. The selected CAI's represent three distinct types: GR4(compact Type A), GR7(Type B) and GR2(Type C). Petrographic studies indicate that all three Grosnaja inclusions were subjected to secondary alterations. The Type A CAI GR4 is primarily composed of melilite with spinel and pyroxene occurring as minor phases. The rim of the inclusion does not exhibit distinct layered structure and secondary alteration products (garnet, Fe-rich olivine and Na-rich plagioclase) are present in some localized areas near the rim region. The average major element compositions of different mineral phases in GR4 are given. Preliminary REE data suggest a depletion of HREE relative to LREE by about a factor of 3 without any clear indication of interelement fractionation. The CAI GR7 has textural and minerological characteristics similar to Type B inclusions. The REE data show a pattern that is similar to Group 6 with enrichment in Eu and Yb. In addition, a depletion of HREE compared to LREE is also evident in this object. Melilite composition shows a broad range of akermanite content (Ak(sub 15-55)). Detailed petrographic study is in progress. GR2 is a anorthite-rich Type C inclusion with large plagioclase laths intergrown with Ti-rich pyroxene. The average plagioclase composition is close to pure anorthite (An99).

  4. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  5. Magnesium deposition in brain of pregnant patients administered intramuscular magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Pungavkar, Sona

    2014-04-01

    We present three cases of T1 hyperintense signal in the MRI scans of the brains of pregnant patients who were administered magnesium sulphate intramuscularly for control of hypertension during eclampsia. The increase in signal is symmetric and is seen in the globus pallidi of these patients. We postulate it to be secondary to deposition of magnesium in the brain parenchyma. The signal intensity was found to be directly varying according to the level of magnesium in the blood. It decreased over a period of time coming to normalcy after approximately 6months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which has documented this finding. It has to be determined whether deposition of magnesium in the brain parenchyma could have implications in the use of magnesium sulphate in pregnant patients.

  6. Production of Magnesium by Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction with Magnesium Aluminate Spinel as a By-Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaowu; You, Jing; Peng, Jianping; Di, Yuezhong

    2016-06-01

    The Pidgeon process currently accounts for 85% of the world's magnesium production. Although the Pidgeon process has been greatly improved over the past 10 years, such production still consumes much energy and material and creates much pollution. The present study investigates the process of producing magnesium by employing vacuum aluminothermic reduction and by using magnesite as material and obtaining magnesium aluminate spinel as a by-product. The results show that compared with the Pidgeon process, producing magnesium by vacuum aluminothermic reduction can save materials by as much as 50%, increase productivity up to 100%, and save energy by more than 50%. It can also reduce CO2 emission by up to 60% and realize zero discharge of waste residue. Vacuum aluminothermic reduction is a highly efficient, low-energy-consumption, and environmentally friendly method of producing magnesium.

  7. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Jeet, Suninder Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-05-15

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f{sup 6} 5d → 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  8. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  9. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  10. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  11. Simultaneous determination of calcium and magnesium in water using artificial neural network spectro-photometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Li, Shuang; Xin, Huizhen; Cao, Hengxia

    2010-09-01

    A new analytical method using Back-Propagation (BP) artificial neural networks and spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of calcium and magnesium in tap water, the Yellow River water and seawater is established. By condition experiment, the optimum analytical conditions for calcium, magnesium and Arsenazo (III) color reactions are obtained. Levenberg-Marquart (L-M) algorithm is used for calculation in BP neural network. The topological structure of three-layer BP ANN network architecture is chosen as 11-10-2 (nodes). The initial value of gradient coefficient μ is fixed at 0.001 and the increase factor and reduction factor of μ take the default values of the system. The data are processed by computers with our own programs written in MATLAB 7.0. The relative standard deviations of the calculated results for calcium and magnesium are 2.31% and 2.14%, respectively. The results of standard addition method show that the recoveries of calcium and magnesium are 103.6% and 100.8% in the tap water, 103.2% and 96.6% in the Yellow River water (Lijin district of Shandong Province), and 98.8%-103.3% and 98.43%-103.4% in seawater from Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao. It is found that 14 common cations and anions do not interfere with the determination of calcium and magnesium under the optimum experimental conditions. The comparative experiments do not show any obvious difference between the results obtained by this new method and those obtained by the classical complexometric titration method in seawater medium. This method exhibits good reproducibility and high accuracy in the determination of calcium and magnesium and can be used for the simultaneous determination of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in tap water and natural water.

  12. Low intracellular magnesium in patients with acute pancreatitis and hypocalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ryzen, E.; Rude, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis, we measured magnesium levels in serum and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 29 patients with acute pancreatitis, 14 of whom had hypocalcemia and 15 of whom had normal calcium levels. Only six patients had overt hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium less than 0.70 mmol per liter [1.7 mg per dl]). The mean serum magnesium concentration in hypocalcemic patients was not significantly lower than in normocalcemic patients, but the mononuclear cell magnesium content in hypocalcemic patients with pancreatitis was significantly lower than in normocalcemic patients with pancreatitis (P less than .01). The serum magnesium level did not correlate with that of serum calcium or the mononuclear cell magnesium content, but the latter did significantly correlate with the serum calcium concentration (r = .81, P less than .001). Most patients with hypocalcemia had a low intracellular magnesium content. Three normomagnesemic, hypocalcemic patients with alcoholic pancreatitis also underwent low-dose parenteral magnesium tolerance testing and showed increased retention of the magnesium load. We conclude that patients with acute pancreatitis and hypocalcemia commonly have magnesium deficiency despite normal serum magnesium concentrations. Magnesium deficiency may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:2407029

  13. MAGNESIUM PRECIPITATION AND DIFUSSION IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-03-02

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. Calculations by Sawan et al. predict that at a dose of ~100 dpa (displacements per atom), there is ~0.5 at.% Mg generated in SiC. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state indicates a lower dechanneling yield observed along the <100> axis. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C–SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C–SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8 ± 0.4E-19 m2/s.

  14. Implementation of an antenatal magnesium sulfate protocol for fetal neuroprotection in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Baisson, Anne-Laure; Courtay, Véronique; Gascoin-Lachambre, Géraldine; Lasocki, Sigismond; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of implementing a protocol for the use of magnesium sulfate to prevent cerebral palsy. This retrospective single-center study included all women with fetuses of gestational age <33 weeks of gestation whose birth was planned or expected within 24 hours from September 2011 to December 2012. They were to receive magnesium sulfate, administered intravenously as a 4-g bolus followed by a constant infusion of 1 g per hour. If delivery had not occurred after 12 hours and was no longer considered imminent, the infusion was to be discontinued. The study included 119 women, 81 (68.1%) of whom received magnesium sulfate. Among the latter, 71 (87.5%) gave birth within 24 hours. The reasons treatment was not given were: omission by medical team (19/38, 50%), urgent delivery (18/38, 47.4%), and contraindication to treatment (1/38, 2.6%). The mean gestational age at protocol implementation was 29.6 +/− 2.1 weeks. Maternal monitoring, especially at the onset of infusion, appeared suboptimal. No major maternal side effects were observed. Our study shows that implementing a protocol for prevention of cerebral palsy by magnesium sulfate is feasible in a tertiary obstetric center. PMID:26415713

  15. Magnesium and Manganese Content of Halophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Médicis, Eveline De; Paquette, Jean; Gauthier, Jean-Jacques; Shapcott, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Magnesium and manganese contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bacteria of several halophilic levels, in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic eubacterium growing in 1 M NaCl, Halobacterium volcanii, a halophilic archaebacterium growing in 2.5 M NaCl, Halobacterium cutirubrum, an extremely halophilic archaebacterium growing in 4 M NaCl, and Escherichia coli, a nonhalophilic eubacterium growing in 0.17 M NaCl. Magnesium and manganese contents varied with the growth phase, being maximal at the early log phase. Magnesium and manganese molalities in cell water were shown to increase with the halophilic character of the logarithmically growing bacteria, from 30 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 0.37 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for E. coli to 102 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 1.6 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for H. cutirubrum. The intracellular concentrations of manganese were determined independently by a radioactive tracer technique in V. costicola and H. volcanii. The values obtained by 54Mn loading represented about 70% of the values obtained by atomic absorption. The increase of magnesium and manganese contents associated with the halophilic character of the bacteria suggests that manganese and magnesium play a role in haloadaptation. Images PMID:16347151

  16. Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, R. U.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

  17. Alkalization is responsible for antibacterial effects of corroding magnesium.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Eifler, Rainer; Rais, Bushra; Mueller, Peter P

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are presently investigated as potential medical implant materials for temporary applications. Magnesium has been reported to have antibacterial activities and could therefore be used to prevent antibiotic treatment-resistant bacterial implant infections. For characterizing the effects of magnesium on infectious bacteria, bioluminescent S. aureus or P. aeruginosa were employed. The proliferation of both types of bacteria was suppressed in the presence of metallic magnesium and also in aqueous magnesium corrosion extracts. Of the two soluble corrosion products, magnesium ions were well tolerated while antibacterial activities correlated with increased pH levels of the supernatants. The alkaline pH alone was sufficient for the antibacterial effects which were completely abolished when the pH of the corrosion supernatants was neutralized. These results demonstrate that pH increases are necessary and sufficient for the antibacterial activity of metallic magnesium. In an animal model magnesium implants showed an enhanced but variable resistance to bacterial colonization.

  18. Effect of Magnesium as Substitute Material in Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Soil-Improvement Technique.

    PubMed

    Putra, Heriansyah; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Neupane, Debendra; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation was evaluated as a soil-improvement technique. In our previous works, purified urease was utilized to bio-catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, which causes the supplied Ca(2+) to precipitate with [Formula: see text] as calcium carbonate. In the present work, magnesium chloride was newly added to the injecting solutions to delay the reaction rate and to enhance the amount of carbonate precipitation. Soil specimens were prepared in PVC cylinders and treated with concentration-controlled solutions composed of urea, urease, calcium, and magnesium chloride. The mechanical properties of the treated soil specimens were examined through unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. A precipitation ratio of the carbonate up to 90% of the maximum theoretical precipitation was achieved by adding a small amount of magnesium chloride. Adding magnesium chloride as a delaying agent was indeed found to reduce the reaction rate of the precipitation, which may increase the volume of the treated soil if used in real fields because of the slower precipitation rate and the resulting higher injectivity. A mineralogical analysis revealed that magnesium chloride decreases the crystal size of the precipitated materials and that another carbonate of aragonite is newly formed. Mechanical test results indicated that carbonate precipitates within the soils and brings about a significant improvement in strength. A maximum UCS of 0.6 MPa was obtained from the treated samples.

  19. Effect of Magnesium as Substitute Material in Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Soil-Improvement Technique

    PubMed Central

    Putra, Heriansyah; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Neupane, Debendra; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation was evaluated as a soil-improvement technique. In our previous works, purified urease was utilized to bio-catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, which causes the supplied Ca2+ to precipitate with CO32− as calcium carbonate. In the present work, magnesium chloride was newly added to the injecting solutions to delay the reaction rate and to enhance the amount of carbonate precipitation. Soil specimens were prepared in PVC cylinders and treated with concentration-controlled solutions composed of urea, urease, calcium, and magnesium chloride. The mechanical properties of the treated soil specimens were examined through unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. A precipitation ratio of the carbonate up to 90% of the maximum theoretical precipitation was achieved by adding a small amount of magnesium chloride. Adding magnesium chloride as a delaying agent was indeed found to reduce the reaction rate of the precipitation, which may increase the volume of the treated soil if used in real fields because of the slower precipitation rate and the resulting higher injectivity. A mineralogical analysis revealed that magnesium chloride decreases the crystal size of the precipitated materials and that another carbonate of aragonite is newly formed. Mechanical test results indicated that carbonate precipitates within the soils and brings about a significant improvement in strength. A maximum UCS of 0.6 MPa was obtained from the treated samples. PMID:27200343

  20. Organochlorine formation in magnesium electrowinning cells.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, R L; Cathro, K J

    2001-04-01

    The formation of organochlorines during the electrolytic production of magnesium was investigated using a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell having a graphite anode, a liquid aluminium alloy cathode, and a molten chloride electrolyte. The cell was operated at current densities ranging from 3000 to 10,000 A m(-2) and at temperatures ranging from 660 degrees C to 750 degrees C. Organochlorines were adsorbed from the cell off-gases onto silica gel, extracted with hexane, and determined by gas chromatography. All compounds identified were fully chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, the major components being hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachloroethylene, and octachlorostyrene. The total amount of organochlorines per tonne of magnesium produced decreased with electrolysis time and with current density and increased with operating temperature; it was also dependent on the type of graphite employed. The output of organochlorines varied from 5 to 20 g t(-1) of magnesium. PMID:11297394

  1. A miniaturised isotachophoresis method for magnesium determination.

    PubMed

    Prest, Jeff E; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2009-07-01

    The use of malonic acid as a complexing agent has enabled a new method to be devised to allow the determination of magnesium to be made using miniaturised isotachophoresis. Using a leading electrolyte of 10 mmol L(-1) caesium hydroxide and 2 mmol L(-1) malonic acid at pH 5.1 gave the method a high specificity towards magnesium. Investigations using a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip device with an integrated conductivity detector showed that no interference from calcium, strontium, barium and sodium should occur. The method was found to be linear over the range of magnesium concentrations from 0.625 to 75 mg L(-1) and the limit of detection was calculated to be 0.45 mg L(-1). Separations were demonstrated with water samples but the procedure should also be applicable to more complex sample matrices such as inorganic explosive residues, blood or urine. PMID:19205676

  2. Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Jose I

    2011-09-01

    Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study quality was low for most of the included studies, with the phase III trial considered to be of moderate quality. Due to inconsistently reported benefits and the occurrence of side effects, phase II data suggested that intravenous magnesium for SAH provided either no overall net benefit or uncertain trade-offs. Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial. PMID:21748496

  3. Solubility of magnesium carbonate in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.

    1915-01-01

    (1) Under atmospheric conditions it appears possible to attain practically the same state in a solution saturated with MgCO33H2O, whether one starts with a solution containing an excess of magnesium bicarbonate or with the pure trihydrate and water, but the adjustment occurs very slowly. The solution finally contains 0.36 g. magnesium and 1.01 g. carbon dioxide per liter at 20??. (2) The solubility found for magnesite, however, is much smaller, viz., 0.02 g. magnesium and 0.07 g. carbon dioxide per liter. (3) Certain natural waters, freely exposed to the atmosphere, appear to be supersaturated with respect to magnesite but none approaches very closely to the point of saturation of the trihydrate MgCO3.3H2O.

  4. Bone-implant interface strength and osseointegration: Biodegradable magnesium alloy versus standard titanium control.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Christoph; Lindtner, Richard A; Hausbrandt, Peter; Tschegg, Elmar; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Zanoni, Gerald; Beck, Stefan; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on the feasibility of using biodegradable magnesium alloys for bone implant applications mainly focused on biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. However, successful clinical employment of endosseous implants is largely dependent on biological fixation and anchorage in host bone to withstand functional loading. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate whether bone-implant interface strength and osseointegration of a novel biodegradable magnesium alloy (Mg-Y-Nd-HRE, based on WE43) is comparable to that of a titanium control (Ti-6Al-7Nb) currently in clinical use. Biomechanical push-out testing, microfocus computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy were performed in 72 Sprague-Dawley rats 4, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation to address this question. Additionally, blood smears were obtained from each rat at sacrifice to detect potential systemic inflammatory reactions. Push-out testing revealed highly significantly greater maximum push-out force, ultimate shear strength and energy absorption to failure in magnesium alloy rods than in titanium controls after each implantation period. Microfocus computed tomography showed significantly higher bone-implant contact and bone volume per tissue volume in magnesium alloy implants as well. Direct bone-implant contact was verified by histological examination. In addition, no systemic inflammatory reactions were observed in any of the animals. We conclude that the tested biodegradable implant is superior to the titanium control with respect to both bone-implant interface strength and osseointegration. These results suggest that the investigated biodegradable magnesium alloy not only achieves enhanced bone response but also excellent interfacial strength and thus fulfils two critical requirements for bone implant applications. PMID:20804867

  5. Directed precipitation of hydrated and anhydrous magnesium carbonates for carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Edward J; Fricker, Kyle J; Sun, Michael; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2014-11-14

    Magnesite is the most desirable phase within the magnesium carbonate family for carbon storage for a number of reasons: magnesium efficiency, omission of additional crystal waters and thermodynamic stability. For large-scale carbonation to be a viable industrial process, magnesite precipitation must be made to occur rapidly and reliably. Unfortunately, the formation of metastable hydrated magnesium carbonate phases (e.g. MgCO3·3H2O and Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) interferes with the production of anhydrous magnesite under a variety of reaction conditions because magnesite crystals are slower to both nucleate and grow compared to the hydrated carbonate phases. Furthermore, the reaction conditions required for the formation of each magnesium carbonate phases have not been well understood with conflicting literature data. In this study, the effects of both magnesite (MgCO3) and inert (Al2O3) seed particles on the precipitation of magnesium carbonates from a Mg(OH)2 slurry were explored. It was interesting that MgCO3 seeding was shown to accelerate anhydrous magnesite growth at temperatures (80-150 °C), where it would normally not form in short time scale. Since the specific surface areas of MgCO3 and Al2O3 seeding particles were similar, this phenomenon was due to the difference in the surface chemistry of two seeding particles. By providing a template with similar chemistry for the growth of magnesite, the precipitation of anhydrous magnesite was demonstrated. The effect of temperature on seeded carbonation was also investigated. A comparison with published MgCO3 precipitation rate laws indicated that the precipitation of magnesite was limited by either CO2 adsorption from the gas phase or the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)2. PMID:25264731

  6. Protein-Cofactor Interactions in Bacterial Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: I. Identification of the ENDOR Lines Associated with the Hydrogen Bonds to the Primary Quinone QA⋅−

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M.; Isaacson, R.; Abresch, E.; Calvo, R.; Lubitz, W.; Feher, G.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen bonds are important in determining the structure and function of biomolecules. Of particular interest are hydrogen bonds to quinones, which play an important role in the bioenergetics of respiration and photosynthesis. In this work we investigated the hydrogen bonds to the two carbonyl oxygens of the semiquinone \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Q}}_{{\\mathrm{A}}}^{{\\cdot}-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} in the well-characterized reaction center from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26. We used electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance techniques at 35 GHz at a temperature of 80 K. The goal of this study was to identify and assign sets of 1H-ENDOR lines to protons hydrogen bonded to each of the two oxygens. This was accomplished by preferentially exchanging the hydrogen bond on one of the oxygens with deuterium while concomitantly monitoring the changes in the amplitudes of the 1H-ENDOR lines. The preferential deuteration of one of the oxygens was made possible by the different 1H → 2H exchange times of the protons bonded to the two oxygens. The assignment of the 1H-ENDOR lines sets the stage for the determination of the geometries of the H-bonds by a detailed field selection ENDOR study to be presented in a future article. PMID:16473904

  7. Effects of temperature and purity of magnesium sulfate during extraction of pesticides residues using the QuEChERS method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its many documented advantages, the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation approach has problems with a few unstable pesticides, partly due to the exothermic reaction generated by the use of anhydrous magnesium sulfate during extraction. These pesticide...

  8. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  9. Direct measurement of metal-ion chelation in the active site of the AAA+ ATPase magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Viney, Joanne; Davison, Paul A; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2007-11-01

    Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. This complex enzyme has at least three substrates and couples ATP hydrolysis to the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. We directly observed metal-ion chelation fluorometrically, providing the first data describing the on-enzyme reaction. We describe the transient-state kinetics of magnesium chelatase with direct observation of the evolution of an enzyme-product complex EMgDIX. We demonstrate that MgATP2- binding occurs after the rate-determining step. As nucleotide hydrolysis is essential for the overall reaction this must also occur after the rate-determining step. This provides the first evidence for the synchronization of the ATPase and chelatase pathways and suggests a mechanism where nucleotide binding acts to clamp the chelatase in a product complex. Comparison of rate constants for the slow step in the reaction with further transient kinetics under conditions where multiple turnovers can occur reveals that an additional activation step is required to explain the behavior of magnesium chelatase. These data provide a new view of the sequence of events occurring in the reaction catalyzed by magnesium chelatase.

  10. Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Dhaval; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Khera, Sahil; Sica, Domenic A; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, is involved in several essential physiological, biochemical, and cellular processes regulating cardiovascular function. It plays a critical role in modulating vascular smooth muscle tone, endothelial cell function, and myocardial excitability and is thus central to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic, and antiarrhythmic properties of magnesium and its current role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

  11. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. An electrolytic process for magnesium and its alloys production

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.

    1996-10-01

    The largest amount of magnesium is used for aluminum-magnesium alloy production. The second largest use is in desulfurization of steel. A magnesium {minus}10 weight percent (w/o) aluminum alloy can also be used in both the above processes. Pure magnesium metal is not of much use for structural purposes. However, a magnesium {minus}10 w/o aluminum alloy melt which is also suitable for structural applications, can be produced as a bottom layer in an electrolytic magnesium production cell using a potassium chloride-magnesium chloride electrolyte at {approximately} 750 C. In this situation, the magnesium production process and the cell can be similar to the aluminum production process and its cell. The magnesium-aluminum alloys can be produced by electrolysis at far less cost than these alloys produced from the respective metals. The process can also be used to produce other magnesium alloys for use in the auto industry at comparatively far less cost. The largest increase in the magnesium usage in the future is going to be only in the magnesium alloys sector.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Kulik, Kamila; Ordak, Michał; Sasinowska-Motyl, Małgorzata; Gąsińska, Emilia; de Corde, Anna; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception. Methods In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride) in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm) and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions) in the porcine gut sac model were also compared. Results Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1) enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate). Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts. Conclusions The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice. PMID:27792736

  19. Preparation of petaloid microspheres of basic magnesium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Takahiro; Suzuki, Sei; Mitsuhashi, Kohei; Ogura, Taku; Iwanaga, Shinichi; Sakai, Hideki; Koishi, Masumi; Abe, Masahiko

    2007-05-22

    The synthesis of basic magnesium carbonate was examined under ultrasonic irradiation and was performed by the soda ash method using magnesium sulfate and sodium carbonate as starting materials. The particulate product was evaluated using SEM observations. Ultrasonic irradiation in the preparation of basic magnesium carbonate was found to give fine petaloid microspheres of about 3 mum in primary particle size. PMID:17458985

  20. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  3. Magnesium retention in 12 to 48 month-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In adults, adaptation to changes in magnesium intake is largely due to changes in fractional magnesium absorption and urinary magnesium excretion. We sought to examine whether these homeostatic mechanisms also occur in young children. Children, 12–48 m old, were studied (n=30). They were adapted to ...

  4. Structure of isochorismate synthase in complex with magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, James F.; Shi, Katherine M.; Ladner, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The electron carrier menaquinone is one of many important bacterial metabolites that are derived from the key intermediate chorismic acid. MenF, the first enzyme in the menaquinone pathway, catalyzes the isomerization of chorismate to isochorismate. Here, an improved structure of MenF in a new crystal form is presented. The structure, solved at 2.0 Å resolution in complex with magnesium, reveals a well defined closed active site. Existing evidence suggests that the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by MenF involves nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the chorismate ring. The structure reveals a well defined water molecule located in an appropriate position for activation by Lys190 and attack on the substrate. PMID:18453696

  5. The art of magnesium transport.

    PubMed

    de Baaij, Jeroen H F

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hypomagnesemia suffer from a wide range of symptoms including muscle cramps, cardiac arrhythmias and epilepsy. Disturbances in body Mg(2+) homeostasis can often be attributed to increased Mg(2+) excretion by the kidney. Within the kidney, the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) segment determines the final Mg(2+) excretion, since no reabsorption takes place beyond this segment of the nephron. On 21(st) of January 2015, Jeroen de Baaij defended his thesis "The Distal Convoluted Tubule: the Art of Magnesium Transport", in which he aimed to identify new genes involved in Mg(2+) reabsorption in the DCT. This review summarizes the main findings of his graduate research. TRPM6 mediates apical Mg(2+) entry into the DCT cell and is highly regulated by EGF, insulin and pH. ATP and flavagline compounds have been characterized as new regulators of TRPM6 activity, providing novel pathways to target Mg(2+) disturbances. Using isolated primary DCT cells from mice, PCBD1 was identified as a new transcriptional regulator of Mg(2+) transport in the DCT. Indeed, patients with PCBD1 mutations were shown to suffer hypomagnesemia and MODY5-like diabetes. Subsequently, the work presented in the thesis focused on the elucidation of the basolateral Mg(2+) extrusion of the DCT cell. In vivo studies using SLC41A3-knockout mice suggest that SLC41A3 may act as Mg(2+) extrusion mechanism. CNNM2 has long been hypothesized to transport Mg(2+) at the basolateral membrane of the DCT. However, by determining the protein topology and homology modeling of the CBS domains, it was argued that CNNM2 is rather an Mg(2+)-sensing mechanism. Follow-up studies using (25)Mg(2+) isotopes showed that CNNM2 increases Mg(2+) uptake when overexpressed in HEK293 cells. Additionally, by knocking down cnnm2 in zebrafish, CNNM2 was demonstrated to be essential for brain development and Mg(2+) homeostasis. Mutations in CNNM2 were shown to cause hypomagnesemia, seizures and intellectual disability. Altogether

  6. Magnesium isotopes in giants in the Milky Way inner disk and bulge: First results with 3D stellar atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, Anders; Sbordone, Luca; Christlieb, Norbert; Asplund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge is one of the most poorly understood components of our galaxy and its formation history is still a matter of debate (early collapse vs. disk instability). All knowledge of its chemical evolution history has been so far derived by measuring elemental abundances: no isotopic mixtures have been measured so far in the Bulge. While quite challenging, isotopic measurements can be accomplished with present instruments in bulge stars for a few elements, Magnesium being one of them.Of the three stable Mg isotopes, the most common one, 24Mg, is mainly produced by α capture in SN II, while the other two, 25Mg and 26Mg, can be produced efficiently in massive AGB stars, through the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg(n, γ)26Mg reactions as well as the Mg-Al chain. Moreover, SN II production of 25Mg and 26Mg increases with increasing progenitor metallicity, so in older stellar populations, where only the signature of metal-poor SNe is to be expected, one should not see a significant 25Mg or 26Mg fraction. However, if larger 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg ratios are observed, relative to what is produced in SNe, this is a clear sign of an AGB contribution. As such, Mg isotopic ratios are a very useful probe of AGB pollution onset and chemical enrichment timescale in a stellar population.Here, we present the first ever measurements of Mg isotopes in 7 red giant stars in the Milky Way bulge and inner disk, including two stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC6522. The isotopic abundances have been derived from high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT-UVES spectra using both standard 1D atmospheric models as well as state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical models and spectrosynthesis. The use of 3D atmospheric models impacts the derived ratios and this work represents the first derivation of Mg isotopes using full 3D spectrosynthesis. These results yield new constraints on the proposed formation scenarios of the Milky Way bulge.

  7. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  8. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  9. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiming; Liu, Jiahui; Jiang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules. The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal (G:M) and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. When all three conditions were at 10 g L-1, 1:1 and 1 L min-1, respectively, the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.5%. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite-magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater. Under conditions of intermittently supplementing small amounts of Mg metal pellets, approximately 95% of the phosphate could be stably recovered as struvite of 95.8% (±0.5) purity. An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible.

  10. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Liu, Jiahui; Jiang, Yang

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules. The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal (G:M) and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. When all three conditions were at 10 g L(-1), 1:1 and 1 L min(-1), respectively, the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.5%. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite-magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater. Under conditions of intermittently supplementing small amounts of Mg metal pellets, approximately 95% of the phosphate could be stably recovered as struvite of 95.8% (±0.5) purity. An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible.

  11. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiming; Liu, Jiahui; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules. The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal (G:M) and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. When all three conditions were at 10 g L–1, 1:1 and 1 L min–1, respectively, the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.5%. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite-magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater. Under conditions of intermittently supplementing small amounts of Mg metal pellets, approximately 95% of the phosphate could be stably recovered as struvite of 95.8% (±0.5) purity. An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible. PMID:26558521

  12. Carbon sequestration via reaction with basaltic rocks: geochemical modeling and experimental results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt; Bischoff, James L.; Palandri, James

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic rocks are potential repositories for sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) because of their capacity for trapping CO2 in carbonate minerals. We carried out a series of thermodynamic equilibrium models and high pressure experiments, reacting basalt with CO2-charged fluids over a range of conditions from 50 to 200 °C at 300 bar. Results indicate basalt has a high reactivity to CO2 acidified brine. Carbon dioxide is taken up from solution at all temperatures from 50 to 200 °C, 300 bar, but the maximum extent and rate of reaction occurs at 100 °C, 300 bar. Reaction path simulations utilizing the geochemical modeling program CHILLER predicted an equilibrium carbonate alteration assemblage of calcite, magnesite, and siderite, but the only secondary carbonate identified in the experiments was a ferroan magnesite. The amount of uptake at 100 °C, 300 bar ranged from 8% by weight for a typical tholeite to 26% for a picrite. The actual amount of CO2 uptake and extent of rock alteration coincides directly with the magnesium content of the rock suggesting that overall reaction extent is controlled by bulk basalt Mg content. In terms of sequestering CO2, an average basaltic MgO content of 8% is equivalent to 2.6 × 108 metric ton CO2/km3 basalt.

  13. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. PMID:25953534

  14. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts.

  15. Direct Hydrogenation Magnesium Boride to Magnesium Borohydride: Demonstration of >11 Weight Percent Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Severa, Godwin; Ronnebro, Ewa; Jensen, Craig M.

    2010-11-16

    We here for the first time demonstrate direct hydrogenation of magnesium boride, MgB2, to magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2 at 900 bar H2-pressures and 400°C. Upon 14.8wt% hydrogen release, the end-decomposition product of Mg(BH4)2 is MgB2, thus, this is a unique reversible path here obtaining >11wt% H2 which implies promise for a fully reversible hydrogen storage material.

  16. Herbal infusions as a source of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Karolina

    2012-03-01

    The study material consisted of five herbs: chamomile (flowers), mint (leaves), St John's wort (flowers and leaves), sage (leaves) and nettle (leaves), sourced from three producers. The calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper contents were determined for both dried herb samples and prepared infusions, and the extraction rates were calculated. Mineral components were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Analysis showed that the contents of individual elements in herbs and infusions depended on the type of raw material, as well as on its origin. Moreover, it was found that iron penetrated the herbal infusions to the lowest degree (4.4-12.4%), while copper did so to the highest (26.7-50.7%). It is felt that in average consumption the herbal infusions are not important as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper sources in human nutrition. PMID:21916535

  17. Ring-Shaped Phosphinoamido-Magnesium-Hydride Complexes: Syntheses, Structures, Reactivity, and Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fohlmeister, Lea; Stasch, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    A series of magnesium(II) complexes bearing the sterically demanding phosphinoamide ligand, L(-) =Ph2 PNDip(-) , Dip=2,6-diisopropylphenyl, including heteroleptic magnesium alkyl and hydride complexes are described. The ligand geometry enforces various novel ring and cluster geometries for the heteroleptic compounds. We have studied the stoichiometric reactivity of [(LMgH)4 ] towards unsaturated substrates, and investigated catalytic hydroborations and hydrosilylations of ketones and pyridines. We found that hydroborations of two ketones with pinacolborane using various Mg precatalysts is very rapid at room temperature with very low catalyst loadings, and ketone hydrosilylation using phenylsilane is rapid at 70 °C. Our studies point to an insertion/σ-bond metathesis catalytic cycle of an in situ formed "MgH2 " active species. PMID:27271460

  18. Importance of magnesium chloride repletion after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, J

    1989-04-18

    Data pertinent to the role of magnesium deficits in coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction are reviewed. Results of clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicate an association between magnesium deficiency and a poor prognostic outcome in patients who have had myocardial infarction. It therefore appears to be a reasonable prophylactic measure to monitor closely magnesium status in patients with coronary heart disease and other patients at risk of acute myocardial infarction, and to supplement with magnesium chloride when clinically necessary. In addition, recent studies provide supportive evidence that supplementation of magnesium chloride may reduce the incidence of fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias after an infarct.

  19. Ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible magnesium electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Ma, Zheng; Azofra, Luis Miguel; Chen, Kun; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2016-03-14

    Mg has great potential as the basis for a safe, low cost energy storage technology, however, cycling of magnesium is difficult to achieve in most electrolytes. We demonstrate cycling of Mg from a novel alkoxyammonium ionic liquid. DFT calculations highlight the role that Mg coordination with [BH4](-) ions plays in the mechanism.

  20. Preparation of thorium magnesium-zinc reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, A. V.; Knighton, J. B.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium-zinc reduction of thorium dioxide is used for the preparation of thorium metal. Potential economic advantages of this technique include use of relatively inexpensive reagents for the metal and flux phases, and production of metal of acceptable quality in good yield.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  5. Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.; Chung, K.; Kim, H. Y.

    2007-05-17

    Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.

  6. Effect of magnesium ion on human osteoblast activity

    PubMed Central

    He, L.Y.; Zhang, X.M.; Liu, B.; Tian, Y.; Ma, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium, a promising biodegradable metal, has been reported in several studies to increase bone formation. Although there is some information regarding the concentrations of magnesium ions that affect bone remodeling at a cellular level, little is known about the effect of magnesium ions on cell gap junctions. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically investigate the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on bone cells, and further evaluate its effect on gap junctions of osteoblasts. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with magnesium ions at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 mM, for 24, 48 and 72 h. The effects of magnesium ions on viability and function of normal human osteoblasts and on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in osteoblasts were investigated. Magnesium ions induced significant (P<0.05) increases in cell viability, alkaline phosphate activity and osteocalcin levels of human osteoblasts. These stimulatory actions were positively associated with the concentration of magnesium and the time of exposure. Furthermore, the GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by magnesium ions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that magnesium ions induced the activity of osteoblasts by enhancing GJIC between cells, and influenced bone formation. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the influence of magnesium on bone remodeling and to the advance of its application in clinical practice. PMID:27383121

  7. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. PMID:23674891

  8. Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P.; Szekely, J.

    1981-02-01

    At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.

  9. Magnesium in CKD: more than a calcification inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium fulfils important roles in multiple physiological processes. Accordingly, a tight regulation of magnesium homeostasis is essential. Dysregulated magnesium serum levels, in particular hypomagnesaemia, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In cell culture studies as well as in clinical situations magnesium levels were associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease and altered bone-mineral metabolism. Magnesium has also been linked to diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, fatigue and depression, all of which are common in CKD. The present review summarizes and discusses the latest clinical data on the impact of magnesium and possible effects of higher levels on the health status of patients with CKD, including an outlook on the use of magnesium-based phosphate-binding agents in this context.

  10. THE HYDROLYSIS AND OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE DETERMINED BY CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K; Donald Anton, D; Joshua Gray, J; Bruce Hardy, B

    2008-03-13

    Lithium borohydride, magnesium hydride and the 2:1 'destabilized' ball milled mixtures (2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2}) underwent liquid phase hydrolysis, gas phase hydrolysis and air oxidation reactions monitored by isothermal calorimetry. The experimentally determined heats of reaction and resulting products were compared with those theoretically predicted using thermodynamic databases. Results showed a discrepancy between the predicted and observed hydrolysis and oxidation products due to both kinetic limitations and to the significant amorphous character of observed reaction products. Gas phase and liquid phase hydrolysis were the dominant reactions in 2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2} with approximately the same total energy release and reaction products; liquid phase hydrolysis displayed the maximum heat flow for likely environmental exposure with a peak energy release of 6 (mW/mg).

  11. Simple magnesium catalyst mediated γ-butyrolactams in desymmetrization of meso-aziridines.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Yijie; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Pengxin; Wang, Kezhou; Lin, Li; Liu, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xianxing; Yang, Dongxu

    2016-07-26

    The first α-sp(2)-carbon of carbonyl compounds attacked catalytic desymmetrization reaction of aziridines is disclosed. A simple in situ generated magnesium catalyst from 3,3'-bromine-8H-BINOL and dibutylmagnesium was employed. It is interesting that the bromine atom on the chiral ligand plays a key role in introducing a high level of enantioselectivities and high reaction efficiency. Both enantiomers of the ring-opening product could be smoothly obtained by using (R)- and (S)-L7. PMID:27315360

  12. Calcium magnesium acetate at lower production cost: Production of CMA deicer from biomass. Final report, April 1993--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Breshears, J.S.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.; Gaines, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) from solid waste by gasification/fermentation. Bench-scale fermentation experiments were conducted with synthesis gases typical of those from gasification of various residues. Fast reaction rates and high yields were obtained, and phase contaminants, such as chlorides, metals, and sulfur gases in concentrations expected in syngas, were not found to affect the fermentation. The production of CMA by reacting lime and magnesium oxide with acetic acid extracted from the fermentation broth was optimized in bench-scale experiments. Procedures for using cheap grades of lime and magnesium oxide were developed. Ice melting and penetration tests, as well as analytical results, showed the laboratory CMA to be comparable (or better) quality to the industry product. Process design and economic projections for a commercial-scale facility were developed.

  13. Thermal Stability Study from Room Temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) in Magnesium Silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanaki, Eleni-Chrysanthi; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides; Vourlias, George; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Kitis, George; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.; Polymeris, George S.

    2016-10-01

    Doped magnesium silicide has been identified as a promising and environmentally friendly advanced thermoelectric material in the temperature range between 500 K and 800 K (227 °C and 527 °C). Besides the plethora of magnesium silicide thermoelectric advantages, it is well known for its high sensitivity to oxidation. Oxidation is one of the primary instability mechanisms of degradation of high-temperature Mg2Si thermoelectric devices, as in the presence of O2, Mg2Si decomposes to form MgO and Si. In this work, commercial magnesium silicide in bulk form was used for thermal stability study from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Various techniques such as DTA-TG, PXRD, and FTIR have been applied. Moreover, the application of thermoluminescence (TL) as an effective and alternative probe for the study of oxidation and decomposition has been exploited. The latter provides qualitative but very helpful hints toward oxidation studies. The low-detection threshold of thermoluminescence, in conjunction with the chemical composition of the oxidation byproducts, consisting of MgO, Mg2SiO4, and SiO2, constitute two powerful motivations for further investigating its viable use as proxy for instability/decomposition studies of magnesium silicide. The partial oxidation reaction has been adopted due to the experimental fact that magnesium silicide is monitored throughout the heating temperature range of the present study. Finally, the role of silicon dioxide to the decomposition procedure, being in amorphous state and gradually crystallizing, has been highlighted for the first time in the literature. Mg2Si oxidation takes place in two steps, including a mild oxidation process with temperature threshold of 573 K (300 °C) and an abrupt one after 773 K (500 °C). Implications on the optimum operational temperature range for practical thermoelectric (TE) applications have also been briefly discussed.

  14. Eco-Materials Processing of Magnesium Hydroxide Recovered from Seawater for Protein Complex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Yoon, C.; Chung, K.

    2009-12-01

    The recovery of valuable elements from seawater and their application had garnered considerable attention as a sustainable resources and a maintainable green technology not only for scientific interest but for economic purposes. Now days along with U, Li, B, Sr, and Mg earth elements also has gains great attention for their safe supplies through mining or recycling process. We have been developed recovery process of Mg from seawater and seawater bitterns for many years. The separation processes applied for recovery of magnesium were precipitation and separation with using CaOH, NaOH as those for the precipitation inducing chemicals. For each step the resulting precipitates were carefully examined by x-ray diffraction method along with chemical analysis for Ca, K, Na, and Mg contents along with other minor impurities including toxic elements like Hg, As and U. We achieved high purity in magnesium hydroxide precipitate even higher than 99.9%. Impurity controlled precipitation, and removing elements of harming was accomplished by the application of ion exchange columns along with cartridge for removing cations. Testing the reliability and the analytical techniques achieved had become a major interest and achieving low-level detection limits is requested before launching the commercial pilot plant. The resulting high purity magnesium hydroxide was tested for forming magnesium protein complexes for the eco-materials processing. In order to overcome low reaction yield, temperature controlled vessel was used throughout. Final product of magnesium and protein was examined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for the trace and major ions analysis. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Sea Water Program funded by Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korean Government (2009).

  15. Poly(L-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Lin; Yan, Yu-Hua; Wan, Tao; Yang, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Surface modification of biomedical magnesium alloy using composite coating shows an attemptable approach for the development of Mg-based biomaterials with excellent cytocompatibility. Hydroxyapatite/collagen composite was preliminarily fabricated by biomineralization, the bioactive poly(l-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings were spin coated on AZ31 magnesium alloy using poly(l-lactic acid) solution mixed with hydroxyapatite/collagen particles, and the resultant materials and coatings were characterized in structure and related properties; furthermore, the in vitro degradation behavior of modified magnesium alloy in 1.5-fold Hank's solution was investigated. The results show that hydroxyapatite/collagen composite achieved chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite and collagen similar to natural bone; composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy retained the bioactive functional groups of the componential materials and improved the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy; the mass fraction of hydroxyapatite/collagen particles incorporated into the composite affected the porous structure, interfacial adhesion and thus the corrosion resistance of the composite coating due to phase separation as well as volume concentration effects of polymer solution. Composite coatings suppressed the sharp rising of pH value and the released Mg(2+) from substrate to extensive degree, and the degradation behavior of the modified magnesium alloy was supposed to be correlated to microstructure of the coating as well as the synergistic reactions among alkaline- and acidic-degraded products.

  16. Experimental Study of Magnesium Production with Laser for Clean Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Yabe, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Mohamed, M. S.; Uchida, S.; Baasandash, C.; Ohkubo, T.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.

    2008-04-01

    A new scheme of generating power called magnesium injection cycle [MAGIC] engine was developed. Magnesium [Mg] and water are put into the chamber and ignited at 500 degree Celsius. Mg reaction with water produces hydrogen [H2] gas. The hydrogen blows out and reacts with oxygen [O2] gas to generate H2O and energy at the exit nozzle. These reactions occur simultaneously and generate thrust. In order to reproduce Mg, the residual MgO is irradiated by focused cw CO2 laser (1000 W) at 20 Pa. Then, high temperature (over 4000 degree Celsius) is exerted in tiny spot thus MgO reduction in equilibrium is achievable. Spectroscopic analysis was conducted on the Mg/MgO vapor under atmospheric condition. The Mg line at 518 nm, MgO line at 500 nm and O+ line were confirmed. This proves that the MgO is dissociated by laser irradiation These experiments confirm that the scheme can be used for magnesium energy cycle system with practical efficiency and large throughput.

  17. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  18. Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

  19. Magnesium Lewis Acid Assisted Oxidative Bromoetherification Involving Bromine Transfer from Alkyl Bromides with Aldehydes by Umpolung of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Nishinohara, Chihiro; Togo, Hideo

    2016-08-16

    An oxidative bromoetherification involving a bromine transfer from alkyl bromides upon reacting them with aldehydes in a Grignard reaction with a concurrent oxidation of bromide was developed to provide substituted tetrahydrofurans in high yields. This reaction, which proceeds through two types of bromine transfer, was promoted by the addition of a Brønsted acid. Mechanistic studies suggested that a magnesium Lewis acid activates hypobromate, which is generated in situ from the reaction of bromide and Oxone to improve the electrophilicity of the bromonium ion (Br(+) ) for the oxidative bromoetherification of alkenyl alcohols. Furthermore, the magnesium Lewis acid catalyzed oxidative bromoetherification of an alkenyl alcohol proceeded to provide a cyclization product in 92 % yield. PMID:27304660

  20. Magnesium Lewis Acid Assisted Oxidative Bromoetherification Involving Bromine Transfer from Alkyl Bromides with Aldehydes by Umpolung of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Nishinohara, Chihiro; Togo, Hideo

    2016-08-16

    An oxidative bromoetherification involving a bromine transfer from alkyl bromides upon reacting them with aldehydes in a Grignard reaction with a concurrent oxidation of bromide was developed to provide substituted tetrahydrofurans in high yields. This reaction, which proceeds through two types of bromine transfer, was promoted by the addition of a Brønsted acid. Mechanistic studies suggested that a magnesium Lewis acid activates hypobromate, which is generated in situ from the reaction of bromide and Oxone to improve the electrophilicity of the bromonium ion (Br(+) ) for the oxidative bromoetherification of alkenyl alcohols. Furthermore, the magnesium Lewis acid catalyzed oxidative bromoetherification of an alkenyl alcohol proceeded to provide a cyclization product in 92 % yield.

  1. Influence factors on the formation of magnesium nanowires prepared by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Song, Xiping; You, Li; Zhang, Bei

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium nanowires were successfully prepared by a physical vapor deposition method, and influence factors on the formation of magnesium nanowires were discussed based on the evaporation/deposition temperature, vacuum level, magnesium vapor concentration and deposition time. The results show that the formation of magnesium nanowires occurs within a specific evaporation/deposition temperature range. Magnesium nanowires become thicker and longer and finally convert into magnesium micronparticles with the increase of evaporation temperature or decrease of deposition temperature. The vacuum level also plays a decisive role in the formation of magnesium nanowires that magnesium nanowires can only be prepared in a high vacuum level. The magnesium vapor concentration and deposition time also have significant influences on the formation of magnesium nanowires. A distribution map of magnesium nanowire is set up based on our experimental results and a criterion of supersaturation of magnesium vapors is proposed in the explanation of the formation of magnesium nanowires.

  2. Synthesis and thermal decomposition behaviors of magnesium borohydride ammoniates with controllable composition as hydrogen storage materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Liu, Yongfeng; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2013-02-01

    An ammonia-redistribution strategy for synthesizing metal borohydride ammoniates with controllable coordination number of NH(3) was proposed, and a series of magnesium borohydride ammoniates were easily synthesized by a mechanochemical reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and its hexaammoniate. A strong dependence of the dehydrogenation temperature and purity of the released hydrogen upon heating on the coordination number of NH(3) was elaborated for Mg(BH(4))(2)·xNH(3) owing to the change in the molar ratio of H(δ+) and H(δ-), the charge distribution on H(δ+) and H(δ-), and the strength of the coordinate bond N:→Mg(2+). The monoammoniate of magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH(4))(2)·NH(3)) was obtained for the first time. It can release 6.5% pure hydrogen within 50 minutes at 180 °C. PMID:23192895

  3. Corrosion resistance and calcium-phosphorus precipitation of micro-arc oxidized magnesium for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lichen; Cui, Chunxiang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shuangjin; Bu, Shaojing; Wang, Qingzhou; Qi, Yumin

    2015-03-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were prepared on magnesium substrates in an aqueous solution with and without hydroxyapatite (HA) powders addition. The micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectra, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that the HA powders added into the electrolyte have participated in the formation reactions of MAO coating and the growth efficiency of MAO coating is greatly enhanced. Potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) confirm that the specimen anodized in the HA-containing electrolyte has a better corrosion resistance than the specimen anodized in the HA-free electrolyte. Immersion tests also indicate that the specimen anodized in the HA-containing electrolyte can more efficiently induce Ca-P precipitation compared with the specimen anodized in the HA-free electrolyte.

  4. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings. PMID:25942897

  5. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  6. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  7. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5

  8. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  9. Magnesium, a drug of diverse use.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Ullah, Hameed; Hamid, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium has evolved as a drug with diverse clinical applications. Mg++ is an important caution and its homeostasis is very important for normal body functioning. The physiological role of Mg is due to its calcium channel blocking properties at smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and conduction system levels. The analgesic properties are due to NMDA receptor blocking action. Mg++ is beneficial in acute Myocardial Infarction, protection during open heart surgery and treatment and prevention of heart rhythm disturbances. Mg has an established role in the management of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Magnesium prevents or controls convulsions by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the release of acetylcholine at the motor nerve terminals. The use of MgSO4 in treating tetanus and acute asthma is established. In conclusion, Mg is a cost effective, widely used drug with multidisciplinary applications. Its majority of physiological effects are attributed to calcium channel blocking properties. PMID:22355971

  10. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Charles D.; Bergum, John W.

    1994-01-01

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  11. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate hydroxide. It is a white...), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy Press... as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium... Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available... chapter; a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium... Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available... chapter; a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium... Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available... chapter; a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as...

  17. Biocompatibility of rapidly solidified magnesium alloy RS66 as a temporary biodegradable metal.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Elmar; Kalla, Katharina; Bartsch, Ivonne; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Remennik, Sergei; Shechtman, Dan; Nellesen, Jens; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogt, Carla; Witte, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys are very promising materials for temporary implants. However, the clinical use of magnesium-based alloys is often limited by rapid corrosion and by insufficient mechanical stability. Here we investigated RS66, a magnesium-based alloy with extraordinary physicochemical properties of high tensile strength combined with a high ductility and a homogeneous grain size of ~1 μm which was obtained by rapid solidification processing and reciprocal extrusion. Using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we analyzed the biodegradation behavior and the biocompatibility of this alloy. In vitro, RS66 had no cytotoxic effects in physiological concentrations on the viability and the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In vivo, RS66 cylinders were implanted into femur condyles, under the skin and in the muscle of adult rabbits and were monitored for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks. After explantation, the RS66 cylinders were first analyzed by microtomography to determine the remaining RS66 alloy and calculate the corrosion rates. Then, the implantation sites were examined histologically for healing processes and foreign body reactions. We found that RS66 was corroded fastest subcutaneously followed by intramuscular and bony implantation of the samples. No clinical harm with transient gas cavities during the first 6 weeks in subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation sites was observed. No gas cavities were formed around the implantation site in bone. The corrosion rates in the different anatomical locations correlated well with the local blood flow prior to implantation. A normal foreign body reaction occurred in all tissues. Interestingly, no enhanced bone formation could be observed around the corroding samples in the condyles. These data show that RS66 is biocompatible, and due to its interesting physicochemical properties, this magnesium alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  18. Sodium-dependent magnesium uptake by ferret red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, P W; Smith, L M

    1991-01-01

    1. Magnesium uptake can be measured in ferret red cells incubated in media containing more than 1 mM-magnesium. Uptake is substantially increased if the sodium concentration in the medium is reduced. 2. Magnesium uptake is half-maximally activated by 0.37 mM-external magnesium when the external sodium concentration is 5 mM. Increasing the external sodium concentration increases the magnesium concentration needed to activate the system. 3. Magnesium uptake is increased by reducing the external sodium concentration. Uptake is half-maximum at sodium concentrations of 17, 22 and 62 nM when the external magnesium concentrations are 2, 5 and 10 mM respectively. 4. Replacement of external sodium with choline does not affect the membrane potential of ferret red cells over a 45 min period. 5. Magnesium uptake from media containing 5 mM-sodium is inhibited by amiloride, quinidine and imipramine. It is not affected by ouabain or bumetanide. Vanadate stimulates magnesium uptake but has no effect on magnesium efflux. 6. When cell ATP content is reduced to 19 mumol (1 cell)-1 by incubating cells for 3 h with 2-deoxyglucose, magnesium uptake falls by 50% in the presence of 5 mM-sodium and is completely abolished in the presence of 145 mM-sodium. Some of the inhibition may be due to the increase in intracellular ionized magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) from 0.7 to 1.0 mM which occurs under these conditions. 7. Magnesium uptake can be driven against a substantial electrochemical gradient if the external sodium concentration is reduced sufficiently. 8. These findings are discussed in terms of several possible models for magnesium transport. It is concluded that the majority of magnesium uptake observed in low-sodium media is via sodium-magnesium antiport. A small portion of uptake is through a parallel leak pathway. It is believed that the antiport is responsible for maintaining [Mg2+]i below electrochemical equilibrium in these cells at physiological external sodium concentration

  19. A study on factors affecting the degradation of magnesium and a magnesium-yttrium alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  20. Thermal analysis, phase equilibria, and superconducting properties in magnesium boride and carbon doped magnesium boride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, Scot David

    In this work, the low temperature synthesis of MgB2 from Mg/B and MgH2/B powder mixtures was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). For the Mg/B powder mixture, two exothermic reaction events were observed and the first reaction event was initiated by the decomposition of Mg(OH)2 on the surface of the magnesium powder. For the MgH 2/B powder mixture, there was an endothermic event at ˜375 °C (the decomposition of MgH2 into H2 and Mg) and an exothermic event ˜600 °C (the reaction of Mg and B). The Kissinger analysis method was used to estimate the apparent activation energy of the Mg and B reaction using DSC data with different furnace ramp rates. The limitations of MgB2 low temperature synthesis led to the development of a high pressure induction furnace that was constructed using a pressure vessel and an induction heating power supply. The purpose was to not only synthesize more homogeneous MgB2 samples, but also to determine whether MgB2 melts congruently or incongruently. A custom implementation of the Smith Thermal Analysis method was developed and tested on aluminum and AlB2, the closest analogue to MgB2. Measurements on MgB2 powder and a high purity Mg/B elemental mixture confirmed that MgB2 melts incongruently and decomposes into a liquid and MgB4 at ˜1445 °C at 10 MPa via peritectic decomposition. Another measurement using a Mg/B elemental mixture with impure boron suggested that ˜0.7 wt% carbon impurity in the boron raised the incongruent melting temperature to ˜1490-1500 °C. Lastly, the solubility limit for carbon in MgB2 was studied by making samples from B4C and Mg at 1530 °C, 1600 °C and 1700 °C in the high pressure furnace. All three samples had three phases: Mg, MgB2C2, and carbon doped MgB2. The MgB 2C2 and carbon doped MgB2 grain size increased with temperature and the 1700 °C sample had needle-like grains for both phases. The presence of the ternary phase, MgB2C2, suggested that the maximum doping limit for carbon in

  1. Biodegradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Witte, Frank; Feyerabend, Frank; Maier, Petra; Fischer, Jens; Störmer, Michael; Blawert, Carsten; Dietzel, Wolfgang; Hort, Norbert

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with adjustable corrosion rates and suitable mechanical properties. An approach to this challenge might be the application of metal matrix composite (MMC) based on magnesium alloys. In this study, a MMC made of magnesium alloy AZ91D as a matrix and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles as reinforcements have been investigated in vitro for mechanical, corrosive and cytocompatible properties. The mechanical properties of the MMC-HA were adjustable by the choice of HA particle size and distribution. Corrosion tests revealed that HA particles stabilised the corrosion rate and exhibited more uniform corrosion attack in artificial sea water and cell solutions. The phase identification showed that all samples contained hcp-Mg, Mg(17)Al(12), and HA before and after immersion. After immersion in artificial sea water CaCO3 was found on MMC-HA surfaces, while no formation of CaCO3 was found after immersion in cell solutions with and without proteins. Co-cultivation of MMC-HA with human bone derived cells (HBDC), cells of an osteoblasts lineage (MG-63) and cells of a macrophage lineage (RAW264.7) revealed that RAW264.7, MG-63 and HBDC adhere, proliferate and survive on the corroding surfaces of MMC-HA. In summary, biodegradable MMC-HA are cytocompatible biomaterials with adjustable mechanical and corrosive properties.

  2. Sea water magnesium fuel cell power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert; Mainert, Jan; Glaw, Fabian; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-08-01

    An environmentally friendly magnesium fuel cell system using seawater electrolyte and atmospheric oxygen was tested under practical considerations for use as maritime power supply. The hydrogen rate and therefore the power density of the system were increased by a factor of two by using hydrogen evolution cathodes with a gas separation membrane instead of submerged cathodes without gas separation. Commercial magnesium AZ31 rolled sheet anodes can be dissolved in seawater for hydrogen production, down to a thickness below 100 μm thickness, resulting in hydrogen generation efficiency of the anode of over 80%. A practical specific energy/energy density of the alloy of more than 1200 Wh/kg/3000 Wh/l was achieved when coupled to a fuel cell with atmospheric air breathing cathode. The performance of several AZ31 alloy anodes was tested as well as the influence of temperature, electrolyte concentration and anode - cathode separation. The excess hydrogen produced by the magnesium hydrogen evolving cell, due to the negative difference effect, is proportional to the cell current in case of the AZ31 alloys, which simplifies system control considerably. Stable long-term operation of the system was demonstrated at low pressures which can be maintained in an open-seawater-submerged hydrogen generator.

  3. Adsorption of β-carotene on modified magnesium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Guo, Ning; Fu, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Modified flocculation magnesium silicate is prepared by a hydrothermal process at 120°C for 18 h after adding Al2(SO4)3 into the magnesium silicate gel. Compared with standard magnesium silicate with 328.116 m2 g-1 surface area, this modified magnesium silicate has a bigger BET surface area of 536.803 m2 g-1 and a lower interlayer water content. Modified magnesium silicate exhibits high β-carotene adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 364.96 mg g-1. It is shown that when suspended in organic solvent, this material can be used effectively for carotenoid separation. Furthermore, our results suggest that modified magnesium silicate may be a promising candidate as an absorbent in the decoloring of oil.

  4. Effects of magnesium deficiency--more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Weir, Christopher; Alfraji, Sumaya; Grice, Jeff; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2014-10-01

    Dead Sea and magnesium salt therapy are two of the oldest forms of treatment for skin disease and several other disorders, supported by a body of largely anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review possible pathways for penetration of magnesium ions through the epidermis to reach the circulation, in turn replenishing cellular magnesium levels. We also discuss mechanisms for intercellular movement of magnesium ions and possible mechanisms for the interaction between magnesium ions and inflammatory mediators. Upon addition of magnesium ions in vitro, the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and nuclear factor κβ (NFκβ) is down regulated. Dysregulation of these and other inflammatory mediators has been linked to several inflammatory disorders, including asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuroinflammation.

  5. Influence of the consumption pattern of magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water on magnesium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Magalie; Grandvuillemin, Antoine; Kastenmayer, Peter; Aeschliman, Jean-Marc; Bouisset, Florilène; Arnaud, Maurice J; Dumoulin, Gilles; Berthelot, Alain

    2011-08-01

    It is generally considered that the absorption of Mg is inversely related to the ingested dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if the mode of administration (bolus v. consumption throughout the day) could influence Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich natural mineral water comparing the same nutritional Mg amount (126 mg). Using a 2 d cross-over design, twelve healthy men were asked to drink 1·5 litres Mg-rich mineral water either as 2 × 750 ml or 7 × 212 ml throughout the day. Two stable isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were used to label the water in order to distinguish both regimens. Fractional apparent Mg absorption was determined by faecal monitoring and Mg retention was determined by measuring urinary excretion of Mg isotopes. Higher Mg absorption (50·7 (SD 12·7) v. 32·4 (SD 8·1) %; P = 0·0007) and retention (47·5 (SD 12·9) v. 29·0 (SD 7·5) %; P = 0·0008) from Mg-rich mineral water were observed when it was consumed in seven servings compared with larger servings. Thus, regular water consumption throughout the day is an effective way to increase Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich mineral water. PMID:21473800

  6. Natural variation of magnesium isotopes in mammal bones and teeth from two South African trophic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionations accompanying element transfer through terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to shed light on ecological interactions between primary producers and consumers, but with the exception of carbon and nitrogen this potential has barely been exploited. Here, the magnesium stable isotope composition of bones and teeth of extant mammals from Kruger National Park (KNP) and Western Cape (WC), South Africa was measured for the first time. The nature of the geological substrate proves to be a major determinant of the ecosystem isotope baseline, as indicated by the lighter magnesium isotope ratios measured in WC mammals (ranging from -1.58‰ to -0.79‰) compared to those from KNP mammals (ranging from -1.01‰ to -0.04‰). Therefore, comparisons between the isotope signatures of taxa must be restricted to a pre-defined geographic area with a homogeneous substrate. In both parks, Mg shows slight enrichment in heavier isotopes from herbivores to carnivores. Plant remains trapped in the dentition of herbivores provide direct evidence of dietary source and, when available, were measured. In KNP only, δ26Mg of plant remains is systematically lighter than the values for herbivore teeth. These results invite further exploration of the variability of Mg isotopes in vertebrate ecosystems in order to test whether magnesium, a bio-essential element present in relatively large proportions in bone and teeth apatite, may serve as an additional trophic tracer to nitrogen, which is a constituent of collagen that rapidly degrades after burial.

  7. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Marina; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jalisatgi, Satish; Jensen, Craig M.

    2011-02-17

    Thermal decomposition of magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2, in the solid state was studied by a combination of PCT, TGA/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 at 200 °C, results in the highly selective formation of magnesium triborane, Mg(B3H8)2. This process is reversible at 250 °C under 120 atm H2. Dehydrogenation at higher temperature, > 300 °C, produces a complex mixture of polyborane species. Solution phase 11B NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed decomposition products reveals the formation of the B3H8 anion, boric acid from hydrolysis of the unstable polyboranes (BnHx) (n = 3-11, x >8), and the closoborane B12H12 dianion as a minor product. A BH condensation mechanism involving metal hydride formation is proposed to explain the limited reversible hydrogen storage in magnesium borohydride.

  8. Polymorphism of new rubidium magnesium monophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Ait Benhamou, Rajia; Wallez, Gilles; Loiseau, Pascal; Viana, Bruno; Elaatmani, Mohamed; Daoud, Mohamed; Zegzouti, Abdelwahed

    2010-09-15

    Novel phase RbMgPO{sub 4}, synthesized by solid state reaction, sustains phase transitions at 169 and 184 {sup o}C. The medium ({beta})- and high- ({gamma}) temperature forms (orthorhombic, respectively Pna2{sub 1} and Pnma, Z=4) are typical stuffed tridymites but the ambient form ({alpha}) exhibits an unusual three-fold Pna2{sub 1} superstructure that results from the change of coordination of one third of the Mg atoms. Cell parameters are as follows: for {alpha}: a=26.535(1) A, b=9.2926(3) A, c=5.3368(2) A; for {beta}: a=8.7938(3) A, b=9.3698(3) A, c=5.3956(1) A; for {gamma}: a=8.7907(3) A, b=5.4059(1) A, c=9.3949(3) A. - Graphical abstract: Superstructure h k l, h{ne}3n diffraction peaks of low-temperature RbMgPO{sub 4} results of the transformation of 1/3 of the MgO{sub 4} tetrahedra into MgO{sub 5} pyramids.

  9. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.; Song, GuangLing

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  10. Design Considerations of a Condensing System for Vaporized Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, Walter R; Prok, George M; Keller, Thomas A

    1955-01-01

    The effect of the design characteristics of various condensing chambers on magnesium build-up at the chamber inlet was investigated. The condensing chambers are used in the vapor-condensation process for making magnesium slurries. A complete description of the various chamber designs and the procedure used in testing the chambers is given. The results are evaluated on the basis of clogging and total magnesium distilled per run. Orifice design was also considered.

  11. Initial observations on using magnesium metal in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Vennemeyer, J J; Hopkins, T; Hershcovitch, M; Little, K D; Hagen, M C; Minteer, D; Hom, D B; Marra, K; Pixley, S K

    2015-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium metal filaments placed inside biodegradable nerve conduits might provide the physical guidance support needed to improve the rate and extent of regeneration of peripheral nerves across injury gaps. In this study, we examined basic issues of magnesium metal resorption and biocompatibility by repairing sub-critical size gap injuries (6 mm) in one sciatic nerve of 24 adult male Lewis rats. Separated nerve stumps were connected with poly(caprolactone) nerve conduits, with and without magnesium filaments (0.25 mm diameter, 10 mm length), with two different conduit filler substances (saline and keratin hydrogel). At 6 weeks after implantation, magnesium degradation was examined by micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. Magnesium degradation was significantly greater when the conduits were filled with an acidic keratin hydrogel than with saline (p < 0.05). But magnesium filaments in some animals remained intact for 6 weeks. Using histological and immunocytochemical analyses, good biocompatibility of the magnesium implants was observed at 6 weeks, as shown by good development of regenerating nerve mini-fascicles and only mild inflammation in tissues even after complete degradation of the magnesium. Nerve regeneration was not interrupted by complete magnesium degradation. An initial functional evaluation, determination of size recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle, showed a slight improvement due to magnesium with the saline but not the keratin filler, compared with respective control conduits without magnesium. These results suggest that magnesium filament implants have the potential to improve repair of injured peripheral nerve defects in this rodent model.

  12. Power law behavior in chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Claycomb, J R; Nawarathna, D; Vajrala, V; Miller, J H

    2004-12-22

    Reactions between metals and chloride solutions have been shown to exhibit magnetic field fluctuations over a wide range of size and time scales. Power law behavior observed in these reactions is consistent with models said to exhibit self-organized criticality. Voltage fluctuations observed during the dissolution of magnesium and aluminum in copper chloride solution are qualitatively similar to the recorded magnetic signals. In this paper, distributions of voltage and magnetic peak sizes, noise spectra, and return times are compared for both reactions studied. PMID:15606263

  13. Power law behavior in chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, J. R.; Nawarathna, D.; Vajrala, V.; Miller, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Reactions between metals and chloride solutions have been shown to exhibit magnetic field fluctuations over a wide range of size and time scales. Power law behavior observed in these reactions is consistent with models said to exhibit self-organized criticality. Voltage fluctuations observed during the dissolution of magnesium and aluminum in copper chloride solution are qualitatively similar to the recorded magnetic signals. In this paper, distributions of voltage and magnetic peak sizes, noise spectra, and return times are compared for both reactions studied.

  14. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  15. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A; Eby, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Major depression is a mood disorder characterized by a sense of inadequacy, despondency, decreased activity, pessimism, anhedonia and sadness where these symptoms severely disrupt and adversely affect the person's life, sometimes to such an extent that suicide is attempted or results. Antidepressant drugs are not always effective and some have been accused of causing an increased number of suicides particularly in young people. Magnesium deficiency is well known to produce neuropathologies. Only 16% of the magnesium found in whole wheat remains in refined flour, and magnesium has been removed from most drinking water supplies, setting a stage for human magnesium deficiency. Magnesium ions regulate calcium ion flow in neuronal calcium channels, helping to regulate neuronal nitric oxide production. In magnesium deficiency, neuronal requirements for magnesium may not be met, causing neuronal damage which could manifest as depression. Magnesium treatment is hypothesized to be effective in treating major depression resulting from intraneuronal magnesium deficits. These magnesium ion neuronal deficits may be induced by stress hormones, excessive dietary calcium as well as dietary deficiencies of magnesium. Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300 mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use. Related and accompanying mental illnesses in these case histories including traumatic brain injury, headache, suicidal ideation, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, postpartum depression, cocaine, alcohol and tobacco abuse, hypersensitivity to calcium, short-term memory loss and IQ loss were also benefited. Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness

  16. Role of magnesium in alleviation of aluminium toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed

    2011-04-01

    Magnesium is pivotal for activating a large number of enzymes; hence, magnesium plays an important role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes affecting plant growth and development. Magnesium can also ameliorate aluminium phytotoxicity, but literature reports on the dynamics of magnesium homeostasis upon exposure to aluminium are rare. Herein existing knowledge on the magnesium transport mechanisms and homeostasis maintenance in plant cells is critically reviewed. Even though overexpression of magnesium transporters can alleviate aluminium toxicity in plants, the mechanisms governing such alleviation remain obscure. Possible magnesium-dependent mechanisms include (i) better carbon partitioning from shoots to roots; (ii) increased synthesis and exudation of organic acid anions; (iii) enhanced acid phosphatase activity; (iv) maintenance of proton-ATPase activity and cytoplasmic pH regulation; (v) protection against an aluminium-induced cytosolic calcium increase; and (vi) protection against reactive oxygen species. Future research should concentrate on assessing aluminium toxicity and tolerance in plants with overexpressed or antisense magnesium transporters to increase understanding of the aluminium-magnesium interaction.

  17. Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.

    1986-01-01

    Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

  18. Joint solubility of samarium and dysprosium in solid magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlin, L. L.; Dobatkina, T. V.; Lukyanova, E. A.; Korolkova, I. G.; Tarytina, I. E.

    2016-03-01

    The phase compositions of solid Mg-Sm-Dy alloys corresponding to the magnesium-corner region of the phase diagram are studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy, electrical resistivity measurements, and electron microprobe analysis. The obtained results allowed us to determine the joint solubility of samarium and dysprosium in solid magnesium at 500, 400, and 300°C; it decreases with decreasing temperature. The magnesium solid solution is found to be in equilibrium only with the Mg41Sm5 and Mg24Dy5 compounds, which are in equilibrium with the magnesium solid solution in the binary Mg-Sm and Mg-Dy systems.

  19. Magnesium balances and /sup 28/Mg studies in man

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, H.; Schwartz, R.; Osis, D.

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of magnesium was determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in patients with normal renal function and also in patients with chronic renal failure. The average net absorption of magnesium of patients with normal renal function, expressed as percent of the magnesium intake, was 48.5%, while that of patients with chronic renal failure was significantly lower, 17%. Increasing the calcium intake from a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day to different higher intake levels up to 2000 mg/day did not change the magnesium balance nor the net absorption of magnesium of both types of patients. The lack of effect of the higher calcium intake on the absorption of magnesium was confirmed in /sup 28/Mg studies in which an oral dose of /sup 28/Mg, as the chloride, was given. The excretion of the absorbed magnesium into the intestine, the endogenous fecal magnesium, was low. Also, increasing the phosphorus intake up to 2000 mg/day in subjects with normal renal function did not affect the magnesium balance, regardless of the calcium intake.

  20. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  1. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A; Eby, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Major depression is a mood disorder characterized by a sense of inadequacy, despondency, decreased activity, pessimism, anhedonia and sadness where these symptoms severely disrupt and adversely affect the person's life, sometimes to such an extent that suicide is attempted or results. Antidepressant drugs are not always effective and some have been accused of causing an increased number of suicides particularly in young people. Magnesium deficiency is well known to produce neuropathologies. Only 16% of the magnesium found in whole wheat remains in refined flour, and magnesium has been removed from most drinking water supplies, setting a stage for human magnesium deficiency. Magnesium ions regulate calcium ion flow in neuronal calcium channels, helping to regulate neuronal nitric oxide production. In magnesium deficiency, neuronal requirements for magnesium may not be met, causing neuronal damage which could manifest as depression. Magnesium treatment is hypothesized to be effective in treating major depression resulting from intraneuronal magnesium deficits. These magnesium ion neuronal deficits may be induced by stress hormones, excessive dietary calcium as well as dietary deficiencies of magnesium. Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300 mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use. Related and accompanying mental illnesses in these case histories including traumatic brain injury, headache, suicidal ideation, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, postpartum depression, cocaine, alcohol and tobacco abuse, hypersensitivity to calcium, short-term memory loss and IQ loss were also benefited. Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness

  2. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  3. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies...

  4. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies...

  5. Cyclic Plastic Deformation, Fatigue, and the Associated Micro-Mechanisms in Magnesium: From Single Crystal to Polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin

    other twin. For Type II twin-twin interactions, one twin can transmit into the other only under some special loading conditions. In most cases, twin transmission does not occur but, instead, twin-twin boundaries form that contain boundary dislocations. The formation mechanism of the twin-twin boundary is proposed based on the reaction of twinning dislocations. Twin-twin boundary is a low-angle tilt boundary for Type I co-zone twin-twin interaction whereas it adopts a high-index crystallographic plane for Type II twin-twin interaction according to a geometry analysis. Twin-twin boundary dislocations can be inferred by reactions of twinning dislocations associated with the two twin variants. An "apparent crossing" twin structure is a consequence of twin-twin boundary formation. Under reversed loading subsequent to twinning, detwinning is retarded and secondary twinning can be activated at the twin-twin boundary for Type II twin-twin interaction. The fatigue damage mechanisms in magnesium were studied in extruded coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium through fully-reversed strain controlled tension-compression along its extrusion direction. Twinning/detwinning dominates the cyclic deformation at high strain amplitudes while dislocation slips are responsible for the cyclic deformation at low strain amplitudes. Microcrack initiation and early-stage crack growth strongly depend on cyclic loading magnitude. During most of fatigue life at twinning-dominated strain amplitudes, microcracks are incessantly initiated with limited propagation on both grain boundary and twin boundary. At slip-dominated strain amplitudes, microcracks are initiated predominantly by grain boundary cracking. Both intergranular and transgranular modes are observed for early-stage crack propagation. Early-stage transgranular propagation is dominated by cracking at twin boundaries at twinning-dominated strain amplitudes. At dislocation slip-dominated strain amplitudes, early-stage transgranular

  6. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    concentrations in solution for the experiment with 100 mg L-1 of Mg at t = 0, the most representative cases are 10% gel for the period between 3 h and 6 days, 30% for 3 h-10 days, and 50% for 3 h-16 days. Sampling losses are taken into account. All the results indicate that the magnesium phase which precipitated during the experiments had a Mg/Si molar ratio of about 0.2-0.4. Although the ratio was not exactly the same in each case, it is likely that the phase was of the same structural type. The Mg/Si ratio of 0.2-0.4 is low compared with the values above 0.6 expected for a phyllosilicate structure [22,25,26]. However, the structure of phyllosilicates can accommodate many elements, and it is possible that Mg was replaced in the structure by other elements of the system [22,25,26] such as Ni, Co, Zn, Al and Fe (these elements are present in the glass composition and their concentrations in solution are under the limits of quantification of ICP-AES). The precipitation kinetics: Mg cannot precipitate at a higher rate; in this case, adding Mg in solution would not accelerate the precipitation rate. The availability of Mg, which may be limited by the glass alteration rate and/or the gel dissolution rate; in this case, adding Mg in solution would accelerate the precipitation rate. The same two assumptions, but for another element than Mg incorporated in the structure of the secondary phase. Through other series of experiments [30], Advocat showed that the larger the quantity of Mg added to the composition of R7T7 and M7 glass (compensating the difference in composition by adjusting all the other elements) the greater the quantity of altered glass — probably because of a larger quantity of precipitated secondary phases. This raises another question: why did Mg contribute to a larger quantity of secondary phases in this case, although it was retained in the gel in Curti's experiments?A study published in 2012 by Thien et al. [29] provides answers, because it demonstrates two

  7. Al-26-Mg-26 ages of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Souzis, A. E.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Juenemann, D.; Middleton, R.

    1993-01-01

    An exposure age for an iron meteorite can be calculated from measurements of a radioactive nuclide and a stable nuclide that are produced by similar sets of nuclear reactions, provided that the stable nuclide is present with low initial abundance. The standard methods rely on either K-40 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.26 Gy), K-39, and K-41 or on a shorter-lived radionuclide and a stable, noble gas isotope. Widely used pairs of this type include Cl-36/Ar-36 and Al-26/Ne-21. Other pairs that may serve the purpose for iron meteorites contain many stable isotopes besides those of K and the noble gases that are produced partly by cosmic rays. We consider here the calculation of exposure ages, t(sub 26), from measurements of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 0.7 My) and (stable) Mg-26. Ages based on Al-26/Mg-26 ratios, like those based on Cl-36/Ar-36 ratios, are 'buffered' against changes in relative production rates due to shielding because decay of the radioactive nuclide accounts for a good part of the inventory of the stable nuclide.

  8. Variability in magnesium, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, and trace element contents of brachiopod shells: implications for paleoceanographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Saulnier, Ségolène; Vigier, Nathalie; Schumacher, Aimryc; Chaussidon, Marc; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium content in the ocean is ≈ 1290 ppm and is one of the most abundant elements. It is involved in the carbon cycle via the dissolution and precipitation of carbonates, especially Mg-rich carbonates as dolomites. The Mg/Ca ratio of the ocean is believed to have changed through time. The causes of these variations, i.e. hydrothermal activity change or enhanced precipitation of dolomite, could be constrained using the magnesium isotope composition (δ26Mg) of carbonates. Brachiopods, as marine environmental proxies, have the advantage to occur worldwide in a depth range from intertidal to abyssal, and have been found in the geological record since the Cambrian. Moreover, as their shell is in low-Mg calcite, they are quite resistant to diagenetic processes. Here we report δ26Mg, δ18O, δ13C values along with trace element contents of one modern brachiopod specimen (Terebratalia transversa) and one fossil specimen (Terebratula scillae, 2.3 Ma). We combined δ26Mg values with oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and trace element contents to look for possible shell geochemical heterogeneities in order to investigate the processes that control the Mg isotope composition of brachiopod shells. We also evaluate the potential of brachiopods as a proxy of past seawater δ26Mg values. The two investigated brachiopod shells present the same range of δ26Mg variation (up to 2 ‰)). This variation cannot be ascribed to changes in environmental parameters, i.e. temperature or pH. As previously observed, the primary layer of calcite shows the largest degree of oxygen and carbon isotope disequilibrium relative to seawater. In contrast, the δ26Mg value of this layer is comparable to that of the secondary calcite layer value. In both T. scillae and T. transversa, negative trends are observable between magnesium isotopic compositions and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions. These trends, combined to linear relationships between δ26Mg values and REE contents, are best

  9. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D J; Spann, K P

    1985-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  10. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  11. Effects of solvent, pH, salts and resin fatty acids on the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol using magnesium-silver and magnesium-palladium bimetallic systems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Upendra D; Suresh, Sumathi

    2008-08-15

    The effects of pH, organic co-solvent, salts such as sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and co-pollutants, resin and fatty acids (RFAs) on the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by magnesium/silver (Mg/Ag) and magnesium/palladium (Mg/Pd) systems were examined in the present investigations. Such studies provide relevant information about the applicability of bimetallic systems for remediation of raw wastewaters (such as pulp bleaching effluents) or groundwater. Removal efficiencies of 10 mg L(-1) PCP by Mg/Pd and Mg/Ag systems at the end of 1 h reaction were 93% and 78%, respectively, in the presence of acetone (1% v/v). On the other hand, the removal efficiencies were 86% and 70% for reactions conducted in alcoholic solvents (1% v/v) using Mg/Pd and Mg/Ag systems, respectively. The efficiencies of PCP removal by the two bimetallic systems could be correlated to the dipole moments of co-solvents used. The second order reaction rate constant for PCP removal by Mg/Ag system was highest (0.03 L mg(-1) min(-1)) in the absence of any pH-control mechanism. Optimum pH for the dechlorination of PCP by Mg/Pd system was found to be approximately 5.5 and >92% of the compound was removed within 15 min of reaction. Presence of chlorinated and non-chlorinated resin fatty acids (RFAs) resulted in substantial reduction in the rate and extent of PCP removal by Mg/Ag system whereas dechlorination by Mg/Pd remained unaffected. Presence of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride in the reaction phase reduced the rate and extent of PCP removal by Mg/Ag system. PCP dechlorination by Mg/Pd system was adversely impacted by the addition of sodium chloride and unaffected by the presence of sodium sulfate.

  12. Antinociceptive potency of aminoglycoside antibiotics and magnesium chloride: a comparative study on models of phasic and incisional pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Prado, W A; Machado Filho, E B

    2002-03-01

    A close relationship exists between calcium concentration in the central nervous system and nociceptive processing. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and magnesium interact with N- and P/Q-type voltage-operated calcium channels. In the present study we compare the antinociceptive potency of intrathecal administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics and magnesium chloride in the tail-flick test and on incisional pain in rats, taken as models of phasic and persistent post-surgical pain, respectively. The order of potency in the tail-flick test was gentamicin (ED50 = 3.34 microg; confidence limits 2.65 and 4.2) > streptomycin (5.68 microg; 3.76 and 8.57) = neomycin (9.22 microg; 6.98 and 12.17) > magnesium (19.49 microg; 11.46 and 33.13). The order of potency to reduce incisional pain was gentamicin (ED50 = 2.06 microg; confidence limits 1.46 and 2.9) > streptomycin (47.86 microg; 26.3 and 87.1) = neomycin (83.17 microg; 51.6 and 133.9). The dose-response curves for each test did not deviate significantly from parallelism. We conclude that neomycin and streptomycin are more potent against phasic pain than against persistent pain, whereas gentamicin is equipotent against both types of pain. Magnesium was less potent than the antibiotics and effective in the tail-flick test only.

  13. Use of magnesium as a drug in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Martin

    2012-01-01

    From chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 4 onwards, phosphate binders are needed in many patients to prevent the development of hyperphosphataemia, which can result in disturbed bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, we re-examine the use of magnesium-containing phosphate binders for patients with CKD, particularly as their use circumvents problems such as calcium loading, aluminum toxicity and the high costs associated with other agents of this class. The use of magnesium hydroxide in the 1980s has been superseded by magnesium carbonate, as the hydroxide salt was associated with poor gastrointestinal tolerability, whereas studies with magnesium carbonate show much better gastrointestinal profiles. The use of combined magnesium- and calcium-based phosphate binder regimens allows a reduction in the calcium load, and magnesium and calcium regimen comparisons show that magnesium may be as effective a phosphate binder as calcium. A large well-designed trial has recently shown that a drug combining calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate was non-inferior in terms of lowering serum phosphate to sevelamer-HCl and had an equally good tolerability profile. Because of the high cost of sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate, the use of magnesium carbonate could be advantageous and drug acquisition cost savings would compensate for the cost of introducing routine magnesium monitoring, if this is thought to be necessary and not performed anyway. Moreover, given the potential cost savings, it may be time to re-investigate magnesium-containing phosphate binders for CKD patients with further well-designed clinical research using vascular end points. PMID:26069822

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of magnesium substituted calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nida Iqbal; Ijaz, Kashif; Zahid, Muniza; Khan, Abdul S; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Anis-Ur-Rehman; Darr, Jawwad A; Ihtesham-Ur-Rehman; Chaudhry, Aqif A

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C. PMID:26249592

  15. Sol-gel synthesis of magnesium oxide-silicon dioxide glass compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol pct MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol pct MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol pct MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol pct) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  16. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm2. A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  17. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of magnesium substituted calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nida Iqbal; Ijaz, Kashif; Zahid, Muniza; Khan, Abdul S; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Anis-Ur-Rehman; Darr, Jawwad A; Ihtesham-Ur-Rehman; Chaudhry, Aqif A

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C.

  18. A comparison between the electrochemical behavior of reversible magnesium and lithium electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, D.; Gofer, Y.; Schechter, A.; Chusid, O.; Gizbar, H.; Cohen, Y.; Moshkovich, M.; Turgeman, R.

    This paper describes briefly the difference between reversible lithium and magnesium electrodes. In the case of lithium, the active metal is always covered by surface films. Li dissolution-deposition is reversible only when the surface films contain elastomers and are flexible. Hence, they can accommodate the morphological changes of the electrode during the electrochemical processes without breaking down. In an ideal situation, lithium is deposited beneath the surface films, while being constantly protected in a way that prevents reactions between freshly deposited lithium and solution species. In contrast to lithium, magnesium electrodes are reversible only in solutions where surface film free conditions exist. Mg does not react with ethers, and thus, in ethereal solutions of Grignard reagents (RMgX, where R=alkyl, aryl, X=halide) and complexes of the following type: Mg(AlX 4- nR n' R n″ ') 2, R and R'=alkyl groups, X=halide, A=Al, 0< n<4 and n'+ n''= n, magnesium electrodes behave reversibly. However, it should be noted that the above stoichiometry of the Mg salts does not reflect the true structure of the active ions in solutions. Mg deposition does not occur via electron transfer to simply solvated Mg 2+ ions. The behavior of Mg electrodes in these solutions is discussed in light of studies by EQCM, EIS, FTIR, XPS, STM and standard electrochemical techniques.

  19. Quantitative identification of metastable magnesium carbonate minerals by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy K; Surface, J Andrew; Brenner, Allison; Wang, Louis S; Skemer, Philip; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2015-01-01

    In the conversion of CO2 to mineral carbonates for the permanent geosequestration of CO2, there are multiple magnesium carbonate phases that are potential reaction products. Solid-state (13)C NMR is demonstrated as an effective tool for distinguishing magnesium carbonate phases and quantitatively characterizing magnesium carbonate mixtures. Several of these mineral phases include magnesite, hydromagnesite, dypingite, and nesquehonite, which differ in composition by the number of waters of hydration or the number of crystallographic hydroxyl groups. These carbonates often form in mixtures with nearly overlapping (13)C NMR resonances which makes their identification and analysis difficult. In this study, these phases have been investigated with solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including both static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments. Static spectra yield chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) lineshapes that are indicative of the site-symmetry variations of the carbon environments. MAS spectra yield isotropic chemical shifts for each crystallographically inequivalent carbon and spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, yield characteristic information that assist in species discrimination. These detailed parameters, and the combination of static and MAS analyses, can aid investigations of mixed carbonates by (13)C NMR.

  20. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.