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Sample records for magnesium oxide surface

  1. Influence of corrosive solutions on microhardness and chemistry of magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted on cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved to specimen size along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in corrosive solutions containing HCl, NaOH, or HNO3 and in water without exposing the specimen to any other environment. The results indicated that chloride (such as MgCl2) and sodium films are formed on the magnesium oxide surface as a result of interactions between an HCl-containing solution and a cleaved magnesium oxide surface. The chloride films soften the magnesium oxide surface. In this case microhardness is strongly influenced by the pH value of the solution. The lower the pH, the lower the microhardness. Sodium films, which are formed on the magnesium oxide surface exposed to an NaOH containing solution, do not soften the magnesium oxide surface.

  2. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  3. How surface reparation prevents catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on atomic gold at defective magnesium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Töpfer, Kai; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-07-21

    In this contribution, we study using first principles the co-adsorption and catalytic behaviors of CO and O2 on a single gold atom deposited at defective magnesium oxide surfaces. Using cluster models and point charge embedding within a density functional theory framework, we simulate the CO oxidation reaction for Au1 on differently charged oxygen vacancies of MgO(001) to rationalize its experimentally observed lack of catalytic activity. Our results show that: (1) co-adsorption is weakly supported at F(0) and F(2+) defects but not at F(1+) sites, (2) electron redistribution from the F(0) vacancy via the Au1 cluster to the adsorbed molecular oxygen weakens the O2 bond, as required for a sustainable catalytic cycle, (3) a metastable carbonate intermediate can form on defects of the F(0) type, (4) only a small activation barrier exists for the highly favorable dissociation of CO2 from F(0), and (5) the moderate adsorption energy of the gold atom on the F(0) defect cannot prevent insertion of molecular oxygen inside the defect. Due to the lack of protection of the color centers, the surface becomes invariably repaired by the surrounding oxygen and the catalytic cycle is irreversibly broken in the first oxidation step.

  4. Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

  5. Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

  6. Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ► The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. ► MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ∼90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

  7. Magnesium reduction of uranium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.B.

    1985-08-13

    A method and apparatus are provided for reducing uranium oxide with magnesium to form uranium metal. The reduction is carried out in a molten-salt solution of density greater than 3.4 grams per cubic centimeter, thereby allowing the uranium product to sink and the magnesium oxide byproduct to float, consequently allowing separation of product and byproduct.

  8. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  9. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4) occurs naturally as... a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate. Heating these...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  15. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (γ(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of γ(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (ΔG(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (ΔH(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)).

  16. Periodic disruptions induced by high repetition rate femtosecond pulses on magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuanggen; Kan, Hongli; Zhai, Kaili; Ma, Xiurong; Luo, Yiming; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the periodic disruption formation on magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate surfaces by a femtosecond fiber laser system with wavelength and repetition rate of 1040 nm and 52 MHz, respectively. Three main experimental conditions, laser average power, scanning speed, and orientation of sample were systematically studied. In particular, the ablation morphologies of periodic disruptions under different crystal orientations were specifically researched. The result shows that such disruptions consisting of a bamboo-like inner structure appears periodically for focusing on the surface of X-, Y- and Z-cut wafers, which are formed by a rapid quenching of the material. Meanwhile, due to the anisotropic property, the bamboo-like inner structures consist of a cavity only arise from X- and Z-cut orientation.

  17. Modification of surface layer of magnesium oxide via partial dissolution and re-growth of crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiming; Wei, Lingyan; Yan, Tingting; Zhou, Ming

    2011-02-01

    A procedure to modify surface layer of metal oxide is presented. By way of partial dissolution and re-growth of crystallites, a new MgO surface layer on the “core” of the original MgO particles was formed. XRD analyses indicate that the new surface layer is different from the original MgO particles in crystallinity. Thus a higher reducibility of surface non-lattice oxygen species is generated. As the extent of dissolution and re-growth of crystallites increased, reducible surface non-lattice oxygen species increased, which led to a lowering of surface non-lattice oxygen concentration on the X%-MgO catalysts in the OCM reaction atmosphere. This is considered to be the major reason for decreasing of CO2 formation.

  18. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. [Magnesium and the oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Zheltova, A A; Kharitonov, M V

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been shown to result in alterations of cellular functions and biological activity of molecules. The review discusses possible relationship between Mg2+ deficiency and development of oxidative stress. Decrease of Mg2+ concentration in tissues and blood is accompanied with elevation of the oxidative stress markers, including products of the oxidative modification of lipids, proteins and DNA. The reduction in antioxidant defenses is synchronous with oxidative stress markers elevation. Different mechanisms including systemic reactions (hyperactivation of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction) and cellular changes (mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of fatty acids) are supposed to be involved in development and maintenance of the oxidative stress due to Mg2+ deficiency. Therefore the facts consolidated into the review evidence clear relation between Mg2+ deficiency and the oxidative stress development.

  9. Uniform magnesium oxide adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, J. G.; Ecke, R.; Stoltenberg, J.; Vilches, O. E.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Kr adsorption on MgO is used to characterize the surface uniformity of MgO smoke and thermally decomposed Mg(OH)2. It is found that initially heterogeneous samples develop progressively sharper stepwise isotherms with increasingly-high-temperature heat treatment, apparently due to the removal of imperfections and high-energy facets, leaving surfaces of highly uniform (100) planes.

  10. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  11. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  12. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  13. In vivo Study on the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy Surface Treated with Micro-arc Oxidation and Hydrothermal Deposition.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chuan-Yi; Li, Jian-Wu; Ta, Wan-Bao; Li, Bo; Han, Yong

    2017-08-01

    To study the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy surface treated with micro-arc oxidation and hydrothermal deposition in living animals. A magnesium oxide (MgO) layer was prepared on Mg alloy using micro-arc oxidation technology, and then a composite coating composed of magnesium hydroxide, hydroxyapatite, and MgO was coated on the MgO layer using the hydrothermal deposition method for 2 h and 24 h. Male 3-month-old white New Zealand rabbits (n = 48) weighting 2200-2300 g, were divided into four groups randomly. The prepared Mg alloy samples with composite coatings were implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rabbits. For the Mg group, bare Mg samples without any treatment were implanted; for the MgO group, bare Mg samples undergoing MAO treatment were implanted; for the HT2h group, samples of the MgO group undergoing hydrothermal treatment (HT) for 2 h were implanted; and for the HT24h group, samples of group MgO undergoing HT for 24 h were implanted. Then the in vivo corrosion behaviors of implants were evaluated by X-ray observation, micro-CT analysis and serum Mg(2+) examination. The X-ray showed that samples implanted in animals were decreased as time went by. The micro-CT showed that on the fourth week, the residual volume percentages (RVP) of samples of the Mg, MgO, HT2h, and HT24h groups were 72.81% ± 2.10%, 71.68% ± 1.49%, 81.14% ± 1.54%, and 82.04% ± 0.89%, respectively; on the eighth week, the RVP of four groups were 29.45% ± 1.06%, 41.82% ± 1.13%, 53.92% ± 0.37%, and 62.53% ± 2.06%, respectively; while on the 12th week, RVP were 8.45% ± 0.49%, 9.97% ± 0.75%, 37.09% ± 0.89%, 46.71% ± 1.87%. The RVP of the HT2h group and the HT24h group were higher than for the Mg group and the MgO group for all three time points (P < 0.05); the RVP for HT24h was higher than for HT2h at 8 and 12 weeks, and the differences were significant, indicating that the degradation of Mg alloy

  14. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  15. Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

  16. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  17. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5 wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  18. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium oxide supported catalysts with a meso-macropore structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Inho; Moon, Dong Ju

    2013-08-01

    Nanostructured magnesium oxide catalyst support materials with controlled morphology and size were synthesized from a supercritical carbon dioxide/ethanol solution via chemical reaction of soluble precursors and subsequent thermal decomposition. Leaf-like magnesium hydroxide precursors with high specific surface area were formed by a low-temperature chemical reaction at below 140 degrees C, while magnesium carbonate cubes with a very low surface area less than 3.3 m2/g were formed by temperature-induced phase transition from a loose to a dense structure during carbonation reaction at above 150 degrees C. The specific surface area has significantly increased higher than 90 m2/g due to the creation of highly porous MgO cubes with mesopore structure formed after thermal decomposition of the magnesium carbonate precursors. Ni-magnesium oxide catalysts with bimodal pore structure were finally formed by the consequence of packing heterogeneity of the porous magnesium oxides with different morphologies and sizes.

  20. A surface site as polydentate ligand of a metal complex: Density functional studies of rhenium subcarbonyls supported on magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, A.; Neyman, K.M.; Staufer, M.; Belling, T.; Gates, B.C.; Roesch, N.

    1999-05-12

    Notwithstanding the importance of supported organometallic species as industrial catalysts, most are nonuniform mixtures, with only a few being well-characterized at the atomic level. Rhenium subcarbonyls on MgO, in contrast, consist of nearly uniform surface species and are among the best-studied organometallic complexes on oxides. EXAFS and infrared spectra showed that decomposition of the precursors [HRe(CO){sub 5}], [H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}], and [Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}] on MgO powder results in fragments, assigned as Re(CO){sub 3}{sup n+}, coordinated to surface ligands. The concept of a surface site as a polydentate ligand evokes the remarkable circumstance in which the adsorbate-substrate bonds are as strong as metal-ligand bonds in common transition metal complexes, as shown by the present investigation.

  1. Controlled morphological structure of magnesium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradita, T.; Aji, B. B.; Shih, S. J.; Sudibyo

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium Oxide (MgO) based material have been widely used as catalyst, paints, flame retardants, semiconductors, additives in refractory and solid adsorbent. Morphology of a particle has significant influence towards their application. MgO particles were prepared from Magnesium Acetate (MgAc) and Magnesium Nitrate (MgN) precursors using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method (SP). The MgO particles were characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Field Emission-Secondary Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). This experimental study results each precursor could have more than one morphologies. It also suggests that the morphology of the MgO particles were controlled by the selection of the precursor, each precursor possess different particle formation characteristic, including the different crystallization rate and also related from the different decomposition behavior during the heating process of SP.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  7. Characterization of AZ31 magnesium alloy by duplex process combining laser surface melting and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cancan; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Lingqian

    2016-09-01

    Top ceramic coatings were fabricated on the laser surface melting (LSM) modified AZ31 alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in a phosphate electrolyte. The effect of LSM treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the bare and PEO treated AZ31 alloy was evaluated. Results showed that LSM treatment produced a homogeneous modified layer with redistributed intermetallic compounds, resulting in enhanced corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy. The LSM treatment had no obvious influence on the surface and cross-sectional microstructures of the PEO coatings on AZ31 alloy. Besides, MgO was the main constituent for PEO coatings, regardless of LSM pretreatment. However, the long-term corrosion properties of the PEO coated AZ31 alloy with LSM pretreatment revealed large enhancement. Based on the analysis of microstructure and corrosion property, the corrosion mechanisms of the PEO and LSM-PEO coated AZ31 alloy were proposed.

  8. Effects of Oxidation Time on Micro-arc Oxidized Coatings of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D in Aluminate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Weiyi; Li, Zhengxian; Du, Jihong; Luo, Ruixue; Xi, Zhengping

    Micro-arc oxidation coatings were prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D at different oxidation times in aluminate solution. The effects of the oxidation time on the microstructure, growth rate and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated. The results indicate that the coatings are uniform in thickness and mainly composed of MgAl2O4 and MgO. There were many residual discharging channels on the coatings surface. The coatings improved the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ91D considerably. With increased oxidation time, the crystalline substances content and thickness of the coatings increased, while the growth rate of the coatings decreased, and the resulting coatings surface had lower porosity and larger pore sizes. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91D surfaces is superior to the magnesium alloy AZ91D substrate in the NaCl solution, and the effect is more remarkable with longer oxidation times.

  9. Laser-induced Magnesium Production from Magnesium Oxide for Renewable Magnesium Energy Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shi-Hua; Yabe, Takashi; Baasandash, Choijil; Sato, Yuji; Ichikawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Masashi; Fukushima, Chika; Uchida, Shigeaki; Ohkubo, Tomomasa

    2010-10-01

    We succeeded in reducing magnesium [Mg] from magnesium oxide [MgO] by laser irradiation. The laser-induced vapor temperature was measured to be approximately 5000 K on the irradiating spot, where MgO separated into Mg and oxygen [O] atoms through thermal dissociation. The Mg vapor was intercepted a cooper plate, forming solid deposits on it. However, the presence of oxygen, resulting from MgO dissociation, leads to Mg oxidization in the course of vapor cooling. The deoxidization process results in lower Mg fraction in the deposits and degrades energy recovery efficiency from laser irradiation. To quench this recombination, we also employed silicon as reducing agents to capture oxygen in favor of Mg extraction. In these experiments, the molar ratio effect (MgO:Si = 1:0-1) on the magnesium fractions and energy efficiencies were measured by means of a chemical reaction. The maximal energy efficiency, %, was obtained at the ratio of MgO:Si = 1:0.5. This ratio is lower than that of the Pidgeon process with Mg:Si = 1:1 resulting in a lower energy efficiency of %. This implies laser-induced Mg production is a economical process of using reducing agents with large throughput. The usage of laser radiation generated from solar energy for Mg metallurgy will significantly reduce CO2 emission.

  10. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (15.6-8.1) and MgSO4 (17.0-8.7) but there was no significant difference between treatments. The mean rumen pH values changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (7.-8.7) and MgSO4 (7.3-8.3) but there was no significant difference between treatments. However, use of the MgO product caused a more severe (P<0.001) metabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181

  11. Isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24 is prepared from magnesium-24 oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellew, N. R.; Schilb, J. D.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus is used to prepare isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24, suitable for use in neutron scattering and polarization experiments. The apparatus permits thermal reduction of magnesium-24 oxide with aluminum and calcium oxide, and subsequent vaporization of the product metal in vacuum. It uses a resistance-heated furnace tube and cap assembly.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. Effects of environment on microhardness of magnesium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Micro-Vickers hardness measurements of magnesium oxide single crystals were conducted in various environments. These environments included air, nitrogen gas, water, mineral oil with or without various additives, and aqueous solutions with various pH values. Indentations were made on the (100) plane with the diagonals of the indentation in the (100) direction. The results indicate that a sulfur containing additve in mineral oil increased hardness, a chlorine containing additive in mineral oil decreased hardness, and aqueous solutions of hydrogen chloride decreased hardness. Other environments were found to have little effect on hardness. Mechanically polished surfaces showed larger indentation creep than did as-cleaved surfaces.

  15. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, p<0.001 and 34.7±2 versus 35.4±2 mEq/L, p=0.097; respectively), reduced total cholesterol (201±37 versus 186±27 mg/dL, p=0.016 and 187±28 versus 187±25 mg/dL, p=0.978; respectively) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (128±22 versus 120±25 mg/dL, p=0.042 and 120±23 versus 121±22 mg/dL, p=0.622; respectively). Noteworthy is that both treatments significantly reduced epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation (78.9±16% versus 71.7±23%, p=0.013 and 81.3±15% versus 73.3±23%, p=0.036; respectively). Thus, oral magnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  16. Laser-induced magnesium production from magnesium oxide using reducing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Mori, Y.; Shi-Hua, Liao; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2008-12-01

    Experiments for laser induced production of magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) using reducing agents (R) were conducted. In these experiments, continuous wave CO2 focused laser is focused on a mixture of magnesium oxide and reducing agent. High power density of focused laser leads to high temperature and the reduction reaction resulting in Mg production. The resultant vapor is collected on a copper plate and analyzed in terms of magnesium deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies with various reducing agents such as Zr, C, and Si have been measured to be 60, 9.2, and 12.1 mg/kJ respectively. An excess addition of reducing agent over their corresponding reaction stoichiometric amounts is found to be optimum condition for the most of performed laser induced reactions. In addition, utilizing solar-pumped laser in Mg production with reducing agent will reduce CO2 emission and produce magnesium with high-energy efficiency and large throughput.

  17. Solid oxide membrane process for the direct reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Ajay

    The Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) process is an emerging generic technology for the environmentally friendly extraction of high-energy-content metals directly from their oxides. This process has the potential to offer a viable, cost effective and cleaner alternative to existing state of the art primary magnesium extraction processes. The SOM process in principle uses a tubular yttria stabilized-zirconia-based solid oxide fuel cell with liquid metal (copper or tin) as an anode in the temperature range of 1100--1300°C. Magnesium oxide is dissolved in a molten ionic flux and oxygen ions are pumped out of the flux through the zirconia membrane and are oxidized at, the liquid metal anode. Magnesium vapor evolves at the cathode and is condensed in a separate chamber (condenser). The proof of concept for the SOM process was initially demonstrated at 1300°C using a magnesium fluoride-based flux. Since the membrane is the most expensive part of the process, its long-term stability is critical to the scale up and eventual commercialization of the process. Temperature, flux chemistry and cell operating conditions have been identified as key process parameters for membrane stability. A new low temperature flux based on the eutectic: magnesium fluoride-calcium fluoride system, has been developed which has lowered the operating temperature of the SOM cell to 1150°C. Additionally, a minor addition of yttrium fluoride to the flux minimized yttria diffusion from the yttria-stabilized-zirconia membrane, thereby further enhancing membrane stability. Important thermo-physical properties of the selected flux compositions critical to the process such as viscosity, density, volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity have been measured. The SOM cell has been electrochemically characterized and concepts related to MgO dissociation voltage, observed leakage current and mass transfer in the SOM cell are explained. The viability of the SOM process has been demonstrated by the

  18. Corrosion prevention of magnesium surfaces via surface conversion treatments using ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2016-09-06

    A method for conversion coating a magnesium-containing surface, the method comprising contacting the magnesium-containing surface with an ionic liquid compound under conditions that result in decomposition of the ionic liquid compound to produce a conversion coated magnesium-containing surface having a substantially improved corrosion resistance relative to the magnesium-containing surface before said conversion coating. Also described are the resulting conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface, as well as mechanical components and devices containing the conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface.

  19. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy (examination of the inside of the colon to check ...

  20. Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Cernak, I; Savic, V; Kotur, J; Prokic, V; Kuljic, B; Grbovic, D; Veljovic, M

    2000-03-01

    Magnesium and oxidative status were investigated in young volunteers exposed to chronic stress (political intolerance, awareness of potential military attacks, permanent stand-by duty and reduced holidays more than 10 years) or subchronic stress consisting of everyday mortal danger in military actions lasting more than 3 months. Significant decreases in plasma ionized Mg2+, total Mg and ionized Ca2+ concentrations were found in both groups. Similarly, both study groups exhibited oxidative stress as assessed by increased plasma superoxide anions and malondialdehyde and modified antioxidant defense. There were no significant differences between the two stress groups. A negative correlation between magnesium balance and oxidative stress was observed suggesting that the same etiological factor (chronic stress) initiate decreases in both free and total magnesium concentrations and simultaneously increase oxidative stress intensity. These findings support the need for magnesium supplementation with antioxidant vitamins for people living in conditions of chronic stress.

  1. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Weigel, Scott Jeffrey; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  2. Nanostructured magnesium oxide biosensing platform for cholera detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manoj K.; Azahar Ali, Md.; Agrawal, Ved V.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    We report fabrication of highly crystalline nanostructured magnesium oxide (NanoMgO, size >30 nm) film electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate for Vibrio cholerae detection. The single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) probe, consisting of 23 bases (O1 gene sequence) immobilized onto NanoMgO/ITO electrode surface, has been characterized using electrochemical, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, and UltraViolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The hybridization studies of ssDNA/NanoMgO/ITO bioelectrode with fragmented target DNA conducted using differential pulse voltammetry reveal sensitivity as 16.80 nA/ng/cm2, response time of 3 s, linearity as 100-500 ng/μL, and stability of about 120 days.

  3. Oxide Film and Porosity Defects in Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Rhee, Hongjoo; Felicelli, Sergio D.; Sabau, Adrian S; Berry, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation in magnesium alloy AZ91. Microstructure analysis was performed on several samples obtained from gravity-poured ingots in graphite plate molds. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. Tensile tests and conventional four point bend tests were also conducted on specimens cut from the cast plates. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure on the fracture surface of the specimens. The results of this study revealed the existence of abundant oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. Remnants of oxide films were detected on some pore surfaces, and folded oxides were observed in fracture surfaces indicating the presence of double oxides entrained during pouring.

  4. Oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Phil

    2008-07-02

    Although the history of metal oxides and their surfaces goes back several decades to landmark studies, such as Mott and Peierls' explanation of electrical insulation in materials that are predicted in band theory to be conducting, or the observation by Morin of the superfast metal-to-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide, it is only in the last two decades that the world of condensed matter physics has become increasingly dominated by research into complex metal oxides. This has been driven most notably by an attempt to better understand and describe the fundamental physical processes behind their seemingly endless spectrum of properties, which in turn has also led to the discovery of novel phenomena, most prominently demonstrated by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986, colossal magnetoresistance in 1994, and most recently, the formation of a two-dimensional conducting layer at the interface between two band insulators in 2004. One important reason why metal oxides, particularly in the form of thin films, have become such a popular subject for basic condensed matter research is that they offer a uniquely versatile materials base for the development of novel technologies. They owe this versatility both to the many different elemental combinations that lead to structurally similar forms, and also to the fact that in many cases, the strong interaction between the valence electrons means that there is a subtle interplay between structure and magnetic and electronic properties. This aspect has led in recent years to the birth or renaissance of research fields such as spintronics, orbital ordering, and multiferroics. Surfaces and interfaces are especially interesting in these strongly-correlated electron systems, where the rearrangement of electrical charge resulting from a minimization of surface or interfacial energy can have unexpected and often exciting consequences. Indeed, as the drive to miniaturize devices well below the micron size

  5. Surface Charge at the Oxide/Electrolyte Interface: Toward Optimization of Electrolyte Composition for Treatment of Aluminum and Magnesium by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nominé, Alexandre; Martin, Julien; Noël, Cédric; Henrion, Gérard; Belmonte, Thierry; Bardin, Ilya V; Lukeš, Petr

    2016-02-09

    Controlling microdischarges in plasma electrolytic oxidation is of great importance in order to optimize coating quality. The present study highlights the relationship between the polarity at which breakdown occurs and the electrolyte pH as compared with the isoelectric point (IEP). It is found that working at a pH higher than the IEP of the grown oxide prevents the buildup of detrimental cathodic discharges. The addition of phosphates results in a shift in the IEP to a lower value and therefore promotes anodic discharges at the expense of cathodic ones.

  6. Mechanism of heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Xu, Wenqing; Yu, Yunbo

    2007-05-24

    Heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) on magnesium oxide (MgO) under ambient conditions was investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It reveals that OCS can be catalytically hydrolyzed by surface hydroxyl on MgO to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and then H2S can be further catalytically oxidized by surface oxygen or gaseous oxygen on MgO to form sulfite (SO3(2-)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)). Hydrogen thiocarbonate (HSCO2-) was found to be the crucial intermediate. Surface hydrogen sulfide (HS), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and surface sulfite (SO3(2-)) were also found to be intermediates for the formation of sulfate. Furthermore, the surface hydroxyl contributes not only to the formation of HSCO2- but also to HSCO2- decomposition. On the basis of experimental results, the heterogeneous reaction mechanism of OCS on MgO was discussed.

  7. Magnesium oxide for improved heavy metals removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, J.E.; Khalafalla, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    To improve technology for treating process water, US Bureau of Mines research has shown that magnesium oxide (MgO) has many advantages over lime or caustic soda for precipitating heavy metals. Sludge produced by MgO occupies only 0.2-0.3 times as much volume as the precipitate made using a soluble base. While a settled, lime-formed precipitate is easily resuspended, the MgO-metal hydroxide sludge becomes cemented together on standing. Settling of the metal hydroxides from a dilute suspension is more complete than precipitates formed with other bases. Virtually any metal that can be precipitated by raising the pH can be treated using MgO. A three-fold to four-fold stoichiometric excess of solid reagent is added. The mixture is reacted for five to 10 minutes. Polymer is added, and settling or filtration completes the process. Because of the greater cost of MgO compared with lime, large-scale practice of this technology will probably be limited to water containing 50 mg/L (3 gr per gal) or less of dissolved metals. For such dilute solutions, chemicals are not a large fraction of total treatment costs, so more desirable sludge properties might justify higher chemical expenses. While the MgO process is technically suitable for widespread application, the extent to which it is adopted will probably be determined by a trade-off between the greater cost of MgO compared with lime and the superior properties of the precipitates and their corresponding ultimate disposal costs.

  8. Role of Magnesium in Oxidative Stress in Individuals with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Santos, Loanne Rocha Dos; de Sousa Melo, Stéfany Rodrigues; de Oliveira Santos, Raisa; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that promotes excessive production of reactive oxygen species when in excess, thus contributing to lipid peroxidation. Magnesium deficiency contributes to the development of oxidative stress in obese individuals, as this mineral plays a role as an antioxidant, participates as a cofactor of several enzymes, maintains cell membrane stability and mitigates the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to bring together updated information on the participation of magnesium in the oxidative stress present in obesity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the keywords 'magnesium', 'oxidative stress', 'malondialdehyde', 'superoxide dismutase', 'glutathione peroxidase', 'reactive oxygen species', 'inflammation' and 'obesity'. The studies show that obese subjects have low serum concentrations of magnesium, as well as high concentrations of oxidative stress marker in these individuals. Furthermore, it is evident that the adequate intake of magnesium contributes to its appropriate homeostasis in the body. Thus, this review of current research can help define the need for intervention with supplementation of this mineral for the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  9. Ramp compression of magnesium oxide to 234 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, R. F.; Coppari, F.; ...

    2014-05-07

    Single-crystal magnesium oxide (MgO) samples were ramp compressed to above 200 GPa pressure at the Omega laser facility. Multi-stepped MgO targets were prepared using lithography and wet etching techniques. Free surface velocities of ramp-compressed MgO were measured with a VISAR. The sound velocity and stress-density response were determined using an iterative Lagrangian analysis. The measured equation of state is consistent with expectations from previous shock and static data as well as with a recent X-ray diffraction measurement under ramp loading. The peak elastic stresses observed in our samples had amplitudes of 3-5.5 GPa, decreasing with propagation distance.

  10. Melting of thin films of alkanes on magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, T.; Barbour, A.; Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E.; Fernandez-Canato, D.; Landry, P.; Seydel, T.; Yaron, P.; Larese, J. Z.

    2009-02-01

    Recent incoherent neutron scattering investigations of the dynamics of thin alkane films adsorbed on the Magnesium Oxide (100) surface are reported. There are marked differences in the behaviour of these films, as a function of temperature and coverage, compared to similar measurements on graphite. In particular, it has previously been shown that adsorbed multilayer films on graphite exhibit an interfacial solid monolayer that coexists with bulk-like liquid, well above the bulk melting point. In contrast, these studies show that the alkane films on MgO exhibit no such stabilization of the solid layer closest to the substrate as a function of the film thickness, even though the monolayer crystal structures are remarkably similar. These studies are supported by extensive thermodynamic data, a growing body of structural data from neutron diffraction and state of the art computer modelling

  11. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  12. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  13. Retardation of surface corrosion of biodegradable magnesium-based materials by aluminum ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guosong; Xu, Ruizhen; Feng, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Wu, Zhengwei; Sun, Guangyong; Zheng, Gang; Li, Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    Aluminum ion implantation is employed to modify pure Mg as well as AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys and their surface degradation behavior in simulated body fluids is studied. Polarization tests performed in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the surface corrosion resistance after Al ion implantation is improved appreciably. This enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a gradient surface structure with a gradual transition from an Al-rich oxide layer to Al-rich metal layer. Compared to the high Al-content magnesium alloy (AZ91), a larger reduction in the degradation rate is achieved from pure magnesium and AZ31. Our results reveal that the surface corrosion resistance of Mg alloys with no or low Al content can be improved by Al ion implantation.

  14. Improved transmittance measurement with a magnesium oxide coated integrating sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. L.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Simple and convenient technique has been found for extending transmittance measurement capability of conventional magnesium oxide coated integrating sphere system at low (near ultraviolet) wavelengths. Technique can be used to determine effect of contaminants on window materials and can also be used for measurements on thermal control coatings and telescope mirrors.

  15. Synthesis, structural and luminescence studies of magnesium oxide nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Devaraja, P B; Avadhani, D N; Prashantha, S C; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Nagabhushana, B M; Nagaswarupa, H P

    2014-01-24

    Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide (MgO) have been prepared by low temperature solution combustion and hydrothermal method respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns of MgO samples prepared by both the methods show cubic phase. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies reveal, the combustion derived product show highly porous, foamy and fluffy in nature than hydrothermally derived sample. The optical absorption studies of MgO show surface defects in the range 250-300 nm. The absorption peak at ∼290 nm might be due to F-centre. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were carried upon exciting at 290 nm. The sample prepared via combustion method show broad emission peak centred at ∼395 nm in the bluish-violet (3.14 eV) region. However, in hydrothermal prepared sample show the emission peaks at 395 and 475 nm. These emission peaks were due to surface defects present in the sample since nanoparticles exhibits large surface to volume ratio and quantum confinement effect.

  16. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2012-01-15

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period.

  17. Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide inhibit plasma coagulation by Staphylococcus aureus cells at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Yamasaki, O; Tada, J; Arata, J

    1999-12-01

    We examined the effect of ceramic powder slurries on the coagulation of plasma by Staphylococcus aureus cells. Plasma coagulation by S. aureus strains or their cultured supernatant was inhibited in the plasma with 0.12% calcium oxide or 0.25% magnesium oxide after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Inhibition of plasma coagulation by calcium oxide and magnesium oxide was observed at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

  18. Synthesis of micromesoporous magnesium oxide cubes with nanograin structures in a supercritical carbon dioxide/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Deok; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Sang Woo

    2011-07-01

    Micromesoporous magnesium oxide architectures with cubic morphologies were prepared via the chemical reaction of magnesium hydroxide in a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2)-ethanol system, and via the sequential thermal combustion of the reaction products. The morphological change to the cube shape from an irregular form was induced by the dehydoxylation-carbonation reaction of magnesium hydroxide with supercritical CO2 at a reaction temperature of 150 degrees C, which leads to the greatly improved carbonation efficiency of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium carbonate. The precursor cubes with 3-5 microm sizes were decarbonized and transformed into the nanocrystalline MgO phase with pore sizes of 1.3-6 nm after calcining at 600 degrees C. The micromesoporous cube with high surface area of 117.5 m2/g was obtained by the thermal decarbonation with phase transition from rhombohedral to cubic phase. As a result, nanograined magnesium oxide cubes with micromesoporous structures and high specific surface areas were formed by the carbonation reaction of the magnesium hydroxide with the supercritical CO2, and the subsequent thermal decomposition of the magnesium carbonate cubes.

  19. Facile and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has many special functions and is widely investigated by researchers. Magnesium alloy is one of the lightest metal materials among the practice metals. It plays an important role in automobile, airplane and digital product for reducing devices weight. But due to the low standard potential, magnesium alloy has a high chemical activity and easily be corroded. That seriously impedes the application of magnesium alloy. In the process of fabrication a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy, there are two ineluctable problems that must be solved: (1) high chemical activity and (2) the chemical activity is inhomogeneous on surface. In this study, we solved those problems by using the two characters to gain a rough surface on magnesium alloy and obtained a superhydrophobic surface after following modification process. The results show that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has obvious anti-corrosion effect in typically corrosive solution and naturally humid air. The delay-icing and self-cleaning effects are also investigated. The presented method is low-cost, fast and has great potential value in large-scale industry production.

  20. Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-04-01

    Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

  1. Relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly outpatients treated with magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Ken; Tanoue, Akiko; Ito, Masaaki; Takemura, Yousuke

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly patients treated with magnesium oxide (MgO) in an outpatient setting of an urban hospital in Japan. In the present study, 44 elderly outpatients (23 patients with constipation treated with daily oral MgO and 21 untreated patients in the control group) who visited Kameyama municipal medical center were enrolled. Variables were age, sex, weight, height, serum magnesium concentration, serum blood urea nitrogen level, serum creatinine level, use of other magnesium-containing supplements and symptoms associated with hypermagnesemia. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and classified patients based on eGFR category. Compared with the control group, the MgO group showed a significantly higher concentration of serum magnesium (median 2.2 mg/dL [interquartile range 2.1-2.3] vs 2.4 mg/dL [2.2-2.6], P < 0.001). Hypermagnesemia (>2.6 mg/dL) was noted only in the MgO group. However, symptoms associated with hypermagnesemia occurred in patients from both groups, with no significant difference between groups. In the MgO group, significant difference was seen in the median serum magnesium concentration between eGFR categories (P < 0.05). The category G4 (eGFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) group had the highest serum magnesium concentration in the MgO group (3.0 mg/L [2.9-3.1]). Elderly patients treated with MgO have higher serum magnesium levels compared with the control group. MgO should be prescribed with caution in patients with low renal function as shown by a GFR category G3b or less (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 600-605. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Pulsed laser cleaning of aluminium-magnesium alloys: effect of surface modifications on adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autric, Michel; Oltra, Roland

    2008-05-01

    Surface cleaning is a key step in many industrial processes and especially in laser surface treatments. During laser cleaning of metallic alloys using pulsed lasers, surface modification can be induced due to transient thermal effect. In ambient atmospheric conditions, an oxidation of the cleaned surface can be detected. The aim of this work was to characterize this transient oxidation that can occur below the laser energy domain leading to any phase change (melting, ablation) of the cleaned substrate. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) with 10 ns pulse duration was used for this study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used for surface analysis of irradiated samples. Thermal oxidation took place on the aluminium-magnesium alloy (5000 series) during the irradiation in air (fluence range 0.6-1.4 Jcm-2). It has been demonstrated that this 10 ns laser thermal oxidation and the steady state thermal oxidation have the same mechanism. When the laser fluence reached 1 J cm -2 , the oxide formed by the thermal oxidation became in a large extent crystalline and its outer part was entirely covered by a continuous magnesium oxide layer.

  3. Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Metal oxide nanoparticles have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents in food safety applications due to their structure, surface properties, and stability. In this study, the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles (MgO NPs, with an average size o...

  4. Influence of Pulse Time on the Structural and Tribological Properties of Micro Arc Oxidized AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Deniz; Muhaffel, Faiz; Yurekturk, Yakup; Baydogan, Murat

    Micro arc oxidation process is recently developed as a promising surface modification technique applying high voltage and current density onto the light metals. The magnesium alloys exhibit nearly the lowest density among metallic structural materials but its poor characteristics in corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, limit its wide-range of applications. Through micro arc oxidation, thick and wear-resistant ceramic coatings are directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloys. In this study, oxide coatings were formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte by micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. MAO process was applied in an alkaline electrolyte with different pulse time and the contribution of applied pulse time in micro structural and wear resistance was systematically investigated. Structure, composition and tribological characteristics of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dry sliding reciprocating wear tests.

  5. Lignopolymers as viscosity-reducing additives in magnesium oxide suspensions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lisa R; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R; Erk, Kendra A

    2015-12-01

    Lignopolymers are a new class of polymer additives with the capability to be used as dispersants in cementitious pastes. Made with kraft lignin cores and grafted polymer side-chains, the custom-synthesized lignopolymers were examined in terms of the molecular architecture for viscosity reducing potential in inert model suspensions. Lignin-poly(acrylic acid) (LPAA) and lignin-polyacrylamide (LPAm) have been found to vary the rheology of magnesium oxide (MgO) suspensions based on differences in chain architecture and particle-polymer interactions. A commercial comb-polymer polycarboxylate ester was compared to LPAA and LPAm at 2.7 mg/mL, a typical dosage for cement admixtures, as well as 0.25mg/mL. It was found that LPAm was a more effective viscosity reducer than both LPAA and the commercial additive at low concentrations, which was attributed to greater adsorption on the MgO particle surface and increased steric dispersion from PAm side-chain extension. The influence of chain adsorption and grafted side-chain molecular weight on rheology was also tested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Some polarization characteristics of magnesium oxide and other diffuse reflectors.

    PubMed

    Carmer, D C; Bair, M E

    1969-08-01

    Measurements were made with a laser at a wavelength of 6328 A to determine the effects of polarization on the reflection properties of "diffuse" reflectors. Bidirectional reflectance, with the polarization plane of the laser source and the plane of a polarization analyzer at the receiver as parameters, was measured in the incidence plane for smoke-deposited magnesium oxide, pressed magnesium oxide powder, a diffusely reflecting white paint, and Fiberfrax ceramic insulating felt. It is shown that the bidirectional reflectance, rho', of these samples and the extent to which it departs from Lambert's cosine law are definitely functions of source and receiver polarization. The percentage polarization of reflected radiation is also given for both polarized and unpolarized sources.

  7. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  8. Status of Research on Magnesium Oxide Backfill

    SciTech Connect

    PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BYNUM,R. VANN; WANG,YIFENG; KELLY,JOHN W.; ANDERSON,HOWARD; NOWAK,E. JAMES

    2000-07-31

    For the WIPP, chemical and physical characteristics of MgO suggest it to be the most beneficial backfill choice, particularly because it has the ability to buffer the aqueous chemical conditions to control actinide volubility. In the current experimental program, the authors are developing a technical basis for taking credit for the complete set of attributes of MgO in geochemical, hydrogeological, and geomechanical technical areas, resulting in an improved conceptual model for the WIPP such as the following. Water uptake by MgO will delay the development of mobile actinides and gas generation by microbes and corrosion. Reduced gas generation will reduce or even eliminate spallings releases. As MgO hydrates, it swells, reducing porosity and permeability, which will inhibit gas flow in the repository, in turn reducing spallings releases. Hydration will also result in a self-sealing mechanism by which water uptake and swelling of MgO adjacent to a groundwater seep cuts off further seepage. Reaction with some groundwaters will produce cementitious materials, which will help to cement waste particles or produce a cohesive solid mass. Larger particles are less likely to be entrained in a spallings release. If sufficient water eventually accumulates in a repository to support microbial gas generation, magnesium carbonate cements will form; also producing good cohesion and strength.

  9. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  10. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  11. Bioactive calcium phosphate coating formed on micro-arc oxidized magnesium by chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. Y.; Hu, J.; Ding, Z. K.; Wang, C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of the micro-arc oxidized magnesium, a calcium phosphate coating was formed on the surface of micro-arc oxidized magnesium using a chemical method. The microstructures of the substrate and the calcium phosphate coating before and after the simulated body fluids (SBF) incubation were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the calcified coating was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). After SBF incubation, some new apatite formation on the calcified coating surface from SBF could be found. The corrosion behaviours of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and immersion tests. The results showed that calcium phosphate coating increased the corrosion potential, and decreased the hydrogen gas release.

  12. Highly mobile oxygen holes in magnesium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Minoru M.; Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois

    1989-01-01

    High-purity MgO exhibits an unexpected giant anomaly of the apparent static dielectric constant and a positive surface charge of the order of 5 x 10 to the 21st/cu cm in the top 15 nm. It is postulated that the MgO matrix contains traces of peroxy defects, O2(2-), associated with Mg(2+) vacancies. Above approximately 400 C the O2(2-) dissociates to vacancy bound O(-) and highly mobile O(-) states, which diffuse to the surface, giving rise to a high surface conductivity.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface...

  15. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  16. Novel process for recycling magnesium alloy employing refining and solid oxide membrane electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei

    Magnesium is the least dense engineering metal, with an excellent stiffness-to-weight ratio. Magnesium recycling is important for both economic and environmental reasons. This project demonstrates feasibility of a new environmentally friendly process for recycling partially oxidized magnesium scrap to produce very pure magnesium at low cost. It combines refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) based oxide electrolysis in the same reactor. Magnesium and its oxide are dissolved in a molten flux. This is followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium, which is subsequently condensed in a separate condenser. The molten flux acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium collected has high purity. Potentiodynamic scans are performed to monitor the magnesium content change in the scrap as well as in solution in the flux. The SOM electrolysis is employed in the refining system to enable electrolysis of the magnesium oxide dissolved in the flux from the partially oxidized scrap. During the SOM electrolysis, oxygen anions are transported out of the flux through a yttria stabilized zirconia membrane to a liquid silver anode where they are oxidized. Simultaneously, magnesium cations are transported through the flux to a steel cathode where they are reduced. The combination of refining and SOM electrolysis yields close to 100% removal of magnesium metal from partially oxidized magnesium scrap. The magnesium recovered has a purity of 99.6w%. To produce pure oxygen it is critical to develop an inert anode current collector for use with the non-consumable liquid silver anode. In this work, an innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and used in SOM electrolysis experiments. The current collector employs a sintered strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO 3-delta or LSM) bar, an Inconel alloy 601 rod, and a liquid silver contact in between. SOM electrolysis experiments

  17. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  18. Composition of highly concentrated silicate electrolytes and ultrasound influencing the plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simchen, F.; Rymer, L.-M.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are increasingly in use as lightweight construction materials. However, their inappropriate corrosion and wear resistance often prevent their direct practical use. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a promising, environmentally friendly method to improve the surface characteristics of magnesium materials by the formation of oxide coatings. These PEO layers contain components of the applied electrolyte and can be shifted in their composition by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte constituents. Therefore, in contrast to the use of conventional low concentrated electrolytes, the process results in more stable protective coatings, in which electrolyte species are the dominating constitutes. In the present work, the influence of the composition of highly concentrated alkaline silicate electrolytes with additives of phosphate and glycerol on the quality of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ31 was examined. The effect of ultrasound coupled into the electrolyte bath was also considered. The process was monitored by recording the electrical process variables with a transient recorder and by observation of the discharge phenomena on the sample surface with a camera. The study was conducted on the basis of a design of experiments. The effects of the process parameter variation are considered with regard to the coatings thickness, hardness and corrosion resistance. Information about the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on the considered properties is obtained by an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  19. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  20. Interactions between aggressive ions and the surface of a magnesium-yttrium alloy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Perchy, Daniel; Liu, Huinan

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium alloys possess many desirable properties for biodegradable orthopedic implants. Unfortunately, magnesium degrades too rapidly in vivo. This rapid degradation reduces the alloys' mechanical properties and increases the alkalinity of the local environment. Controlling the degradation rate and mode is an essential step in the development of magnesium based biomaterials. Accomplishing this essential step will require an improved understanding of magnesium alloy degradation. Herein, three interacting factors controlling magnesium degradation were investigated; (1) alloy composition, (2) alloy surface, (3) presence of aggressive ions in the immersion media. The magnesium-yttrium alloy was more susceptible to degradation in water than the high purity magnesium alloy. However, the polished surface magnesium-yttrium alloy had the least susceptibility to degradation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) among all the sample compositions and surfaces.

  1. Microstructural and physical properties of magnesium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, V.; Lukianova, O.; Krasilnikov, V.; Selemenev, V.; Dokalov, V.

    Silicon nitride based ceramics with aluminum, yttrium and magnesium oxides were produced by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering. The phase composition of the starting MgO powder obtained by the novel technology has been studied. The effect of magnesium oxide content on the structure of the produced materials has been investigated. It was found, that obtained materials with 1 and 2 wt.% of magnesium oxide and without it have a typical β-silicon nitride structure with elongated grains. Ceramics with 5 wt.% magnesia has a duplex α/β-structure with elongated and equiaxed grains. Ceramics with 2 wt.% magnesium oxide has a maximum density of 2.91 g/cm3. The increases in magnesium oxide content upto 5% led to decrease in the shrinkage (from 16% to 12%) and density (from 2.88 to 2.37 g/cm3).

  2. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-01-01

    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment.

  3. Remanufacture of Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Jin, Guo; Song, Jiahui; Cui, Xiufang; Cai, Zhaobing

    2017-04-01

    Brush plating provides an effective method for creating a coating on substrates of various shapes. A corroded zirconium-based conversion coating was removed from the surface of a magnesium alloy and then replaced with new coatings prepared via brush plating. The structure and composition of the remanufactured coating were determined via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the coatings consist of oxide, fluoride, and tannin-related organics. The composition of the coatings varied with the voltage. Furthermore, as revealed via potentiodynamic polarization spectroscopy, these coatings yielded a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The friction coefficient remained constant for almost 300s during wear resistance measurements performed under a 1-N load and dry sliding conditions, indicating that the remanufactured coatings provide effective inhibition to corrosion.

  4. Remanufacture of Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Jin, Guo; Song, Jiahui; Cui, Xiufang; Cai, Zhaobing

    2017-03-01

    Brush plating provides an effective method for creating a coating on substrates of various shapes. A corroded zirconium-based conversion coating was removed from the surface of a magnesium alloy and then replaced with new coatings prepared via brush plating. The structure and composition of the remanufactured coating were determined via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the coatings consist of oxide, fluoride, and tannin-related organics. The composition of the coatings varied with the voltage. Furthermore, as revealed via potentiodynamic polarization spectroscopy, these coatings yielded a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The friction coefficient remained constant for almost 300s during wear resistance measurements performed under a 1-N load and dry sliding conditions, indicating that the remanufactured coatings provide effective inhibition to corrosion.

  5. Luminescence of ultrafine magnesium oxide ceramics with deep traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, S. V.; Kortov, V. S.; Kiryakov, A. N.; Petrovykh, K. A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of ultrafine anion-defective magnesium oxide ceramics with a grain size of about 150 nm, which were thermally treated in highly reducing conditions at T=1100-1400 °C, has been studied after high-dose irradiation with a pulse electron beam (130 keV). Thermal treatment was found to cause TL intensity grow, which is associated with an increasing concentration of F-type centers. It was shown that varying occupancy of deep trapping centers changes a yield of the TL peak at 380 K. A hypothesis was made that the traps which are responsible for the TL peak at 380 K mainly have a hole nature in the samples under study.

  6. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  7. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  8. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-11-30

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  9. Structure and in vitro bioactivity of ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys by microarc oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to serve as lightweight, degradable, biocompatible and bioactive orthopedic implants for load-bearing applications. However, severe local corrosion attack and high corrosion rate have prevented their further clinical use. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is proved to be a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry technique that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. In this paper, electrolyte containing silicate salts was used for microarc oxidation to form ceramic bioactive coatings on the ZK61 alloy substrate. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The surface characteristic of the immersed coatings was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that these MAO coatings have low crystallinity and are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Mg2Si2O6. The coating surface is porous. During the SBF immersion period, the nucleation and precipitation of bone-like apatites occur on the MAO coating surface. The corrosion resistance of the substrate is improved by the MAO coatings.

  10. Effect of magnesium oxide content on oxidation behavior of some superalloy-base cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of increasing magnesium oxide (MgO) content on the cyclic oxidation resistance of hot-pressed cermets of MgO in NiCrAlY, MgO in Hoskins-875, MgO in Inconel-702, and MgO in Hastelloy-X was investigated. The cermets with magnesium oxide levels of 5, 10, 20, and 40 vol percent were examined. The cyclic oxidation behavior of these cermets at 1100 and 1200 C in still air was determined by a thermogravimetric method supplemented by X-ray diffraction analysis and light and electron microscopy. In all instances, MgO prevented grain growth in the metallic phase. No evidence of oxidation along interphase boundaries was detected. Cermets of MgO in NiCrAlY and MgO in Hoskins-875 were superior to cermets of MgO in Inconel-702 and MgO in Hastelloy-X. Their oxidation resistance was degraded only when the MgO content was 40 vol percent. The oxidation behavior of MgO-in-Inconel-702 powder cermets containing 5- and 10-vol percent MgO was approximately similar to that of pure Inconel-702 compacts. The 20- and 40-vol percent MgO content reduced the oxidation resistance of MgO-in-Inconel-702 powder cermets relative to that of pure Inconel-702.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-06

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO{sub 2} was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  13. Magnesium-based composites with improved in vitro surface biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Zhiguang; Duszczyk, Jurek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) particles were added to a biodegradable magnesium alloy (ZK30) through a semi-solid high-pressure casting process in order to improve the surface biocompatibility of the biomaterial and potentially its bioactivity. The observation of the as-cast microstructures of ZK30-BG composites indicated homogeneous dispersion of BG particles in the matrix. SEM, EDX and EPMA showed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the as-cast composite materials. In vitro tests in a cell culture medium confirmed that the composites indeed possessed an enhanced ability to induce the deposition of a bone-like apatite layer on the surface, indicating an improved surface biocompatibility as compared with the matrix alloy. PMID:20922559

  14. The effect of magnesium oxide supplementation to aluminum oxide slip on the jointing of aluminum oxide bars.

    PubMed

    Odatsu, Tetsurou; Sawase, Takashi; Kamada, Kohji; Taira, Yohsuke; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modifying aluminum oxide slips with magnesium oxide (MgO) to create a jointing material for In-Ceram Alumina. Jointed In-Ceram Alumina bars with In-Ceram Alumina slips containing 0-1.0 mass% MgO were examined by a three-point bending test. Joint-free bars were also tested as controls. Fracture surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, linear shrinkage and fracture toughness were assessed. The 0.3 mass% MgO group showed the highest flexural strength among the jointed groups, and there were no statistical differences between the joint-free control groups. The fracture surface of 0.3 mass% MgO group showed increased sintering densification with reduced micropore size. No linear shrinkage was observed with the addition of MgO to the alumina slip. Added MgO was also effective in boosting fracture toughness. The present findings indicate that the MgO-supplemented binding material is useful for clinical applications.

  15. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2004-04-16

    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  16. Growth Kinetics of the S Sub H Center on Magnesium Oxide Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the growth of S sub H centers on magnesium oxide powder which had hydrogen adsorbed on its surface. The centers were produced by ultraviolet radiation. The effects of both radiation intensity and hydrogen pressure were also studied. At constant hydrogen pressure and radiation dose, the initial S sub H center growth rate was found to be zero order. Beyond the initial region the growth rate deviated from zero order and finally approached saturation. The results are interpreted in terms of a model which assumes that the S sub H center is a hydrogen atom associated with a surface vacancy. Saturation appears to result from a limited supply of surface vacancies.

  17. Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for CO oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Au was loaded (1 wt%) on a commercial MgO support by three different methods: double impregnation, liquid-phase reductive deposition and ultrasonication. Samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -96°C, temperature-programmed reduction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Upon loading with Au, MgO changed into Mg(OH)2 (the hydroxide was most likely formed by reaction with water, in which the gold precursor was dissolved). The size range for gold nanoparticles was 2-12 nm for the DIM method and 3-15 nm for LPRD and US. The average size of gold particles was 5.4 nm for DIM and larger than 6.5 for the other methods. CO oxidation was used as a test reaction to compare the catalytic activity. The best results were obtained with the DIM method, followed by LPRD and US. This can be explained in terms of the nanoparticle size, well known to determine the catalytic activity of gold catalysts. PMID:21711499

  18. The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg‒Al oxide) was investigated. Mg‒Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg‒Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg‒Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg‒Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg‒Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg‒Al oxide quantity.

  19. Characterization of various magnesium oxides by XRD and {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aramendia, M.A.; Benitez, J.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C.; Marinas, J.M.; Ruiz, J.R.; Urbano, F.

    1999-04-01

    A magnesium oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of commercially available magnesium hydroxide was refluxed in water and acetone in order to improve its chemical and textural properties with the purpose of using it as a support for metals in heterogeneous catalysts. X-ray diffraction, CO{sub 2} chemisorption, and {sup 1}H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance were used to identify crystal phases, the number of basic sites, and the nature of OH groups in the oxide, respectively.

  20. The structure and dynamics of hydrated and hydroxylated magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Dino; Allen, Jeremy P; Parker, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    An understanding of the structure of water on metal oxide nanoparticles is important due to its involvement in a number of surface processes, such as in the modification of transport near surfaces and the resulting impact on crystal growth and dissolution. However, as direct experimental measurements probing the metal oxide-water interface of nanoparticles are not easily performed, we use atomistic simulations using experimentally derived potential parameters to determine the structure and dynamics of the interface between magnesium oxide nanoparticles and water. We use a simple strategy to generate mineral nanoparticles, which can be applied to any shape, size, or composition. Molecular dynamics simulations were then used to examine the structure of water around the nanoparticles, and highly ordered layers of water were found at the interface. The structure of water is strongly influenced by the crystal structure and morphology of the mineral and the extent of hydroxylation of the surface. Comparison of the structure and dynamics of water around the nanoparticles with their two-dimensional flat surface counterparts revealed that the size, shape, and surface composition also affects properties such as water residence times and coordination number.

  1. Effect of surface treatment on the corrosion properties of magnesium-based fibre metal laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, Q. Y.; Dai, Y.; Hu, F. P.; Wei, G. B.; Xu, T. C.; Zeng, Q. W.; Wang, S. Z.; Xie, W. D.

    2017-02-01

    The surface roughness, weight of phosphating film and wettability of magnesium alloy substrates after abrasion and phosphating treatment were investigated in this work. The interfacial bonding and corrosion properties of a magnesium-based fibre metal laminate (MgFML) were analysed. The results showed that the wettability of the magnesium alloy was greatly influenced by the surface roughness, and the rough surface possessed a larger surface energy and better wettability. The surface energy and wettability of the magnesium alloy were significantly improved by the phosphating treatment. After phosphating for 5 min, a phosphating film with a double-layer structure was formed on the magnesium substrate, and the weight of the phosphating film and the surface energy reached their maximum values. The surface energies of the phosphated substrate after abrasion with #120 and #3000 grit abrasive papers were 84.31 mJ/m2 and 83.65 mJ/m2, respectively. The wettability of the phosphated magnesium was significantly better than the abraded magnesium. The phosphated AZ31B sheet had a better corrosion resistance than the abraded AZ31B sheet within short times. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy was greatly increased by being composited with glass fibre/epoxy prepregs.

  2. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide using vinyltriethoxysilane by dry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shengjie; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Defang; Zhu, Donghai; Liu, Zhiqi; Nie, Feng

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the compatibility between magnesium hydroxide (MH) and polymer matrix, the surface of MH was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process and the interfacial interaction between MH and VTES was also studied. Zeta potential measurements implied that the MH particles had better dispersion and less aggregation after modification. Sedimentation tests showed that the surface of MH was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MH particles significantly improved in the organic phase. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that a thin layer had formed on the surface of the modified MH, but did not alter the material's crystalline phase. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the VTES molecules bound strongly to the surface of MH after modification. Chemical bonds (Sisbnd Osbnd Mg) formed by the reaction between Si-OC2H5 and hydroxyl group of MH, also there have physical adsorption effect in the interface simultaneously. A modification mechanism of VTES on the MH surface by dry process was proposed, which different from the modification mechanism by wet process.

  3. Fluoride ions as modifiers of the oxide layer produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanski, Barbara; Kossenko, Alexey; Zinigrad, Michael; Lugovskoy, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a powerful technique allowing hardening and corrosion protection of valve metals due to formation of an oxide layer on the metal surface. PEO produces much thicker oxide layers as compared to anodizing, which is of critical importance for many technological applications. The present research investigated the influence of the fluoride ion concentration on the composition, structure and morphology of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ91D. The obtained oxide layers were characterized with XRD, SEM, EDS and tested for corrosion resistance by linear sweep voltammetry in 3.5% NaCl medium. During this investigation it was found that KF addition produces significant changes in the structure and properties of the oxide layers. Fluorine was detected as an amorphous phase in the vicinity of the base metal for both alloys and plausible mechanism was suggested to explain these phenomena. Fluoride ions have pronounced catalytic activity and their presence considerably increases the thickness of the oxide layer. Depending on the process parameters, significant improvement of the corrosion stability of AZ91D alloy is achieved by the use of PEO.

  4. Iron oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  5. Degradation of paraoxon (VX chemical agent simulant) and bacteria by magnesium oxide depends on the crystalline structure of magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Sellik, A; Pollet, T; Ouvry, L; Briançon, S; Fessi, H; Hartmann, D J; Renaud, F N R

    2017-04-01

    In this work, our goal was to study the capability of a single metallic oxide to neutralize a chemical agent and to exhibit an antibacterial effect. We tested two types of magnesium oxides, MgO. The first MgO sample tested, which commercial data size characteristic was -325 mesh (MgO-1) destroyed in 3 h, 89.7% of paraoxon and 93.2% of 4-nitrophenol, the first degradation product. The second MgO sample, which commercial data size was <50 nm (MgO-2) neutralized in the same time, 19.5% of paraoxon and 10.9% of 4-nitrophenol. For MgO-1 no degradation products could be detected by GC-MS. MgO-1 had a bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli (6 log in 1 h), and showed a decrease of almost 3 log on a Staphylococcus aureus population in 3 h. MgO-2 caused a decrease of 2 log of a E.coli culture but had no activity against S. aureus. Neither of these two products had an activity on Bacillus subtilis spores. Analytical investigations showed that the real sizes of MgO nanoparticles were 11 nm for MgO-1 and 25 nm for MgO-2. Moreover, their crystalline structures were different. These results highlighted the importance of the size of the nanoparticles and their microscopic arrangements to detoxify chemical products and to inhibit or kill microbial strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnesium Status and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; da Silva Dias, Thaline Milany; de Assis, Régina Célia; Colli, Célia; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between magnesium status and oxidative stress in obese and nonobese women. This cross-sectional study included 83 women, aged between 20 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups: the obese group (n = 31) and the control group (n = 52). The control group was age-matched with the obese group. Magnesium intake was monitored using 3-day food records and NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined as biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and therefore of oxidative stress. The mean values of the magnesium content in the diet were found to be lower than those recommended, though there was no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The mean concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium were within the normal range, with no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The mean concentration of plasma TBARS was higher in obese woman, and the difference between the groups was statistically different (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between erythrocyte magnesium and plasma TBARS in the obese group (p = 0.021). Obese patients ingest low dietary magnesium content, which does not seem to affect the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of the mineral. The study showed a negative correlation between erythrocyte magnesium concentrations and plasma TBARS, suggesting the influence of magnesium status on the parameters of oxidative stress in obese women.

  7. Low temperature growth of crystalline magnesium oxide on hexagonal silicon carbide (0001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, T. L.; Parisi, J.; Cai, Z.; Ziemer, K. S.

    2007-01-22

    Magnesium oxide (111) was grown epitaxially on hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) (0001) substrates at low temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy and a remote oxygen plasma source. The films were characterized by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Crystal structure, morphology, and growth rate of the magnesium oxide (MgO) films were found to be dependent on the magnesium flux, indicating a magnesium adsorption controlled growth mechanism. The single crystalline MgO thin films had an epitaxial relationship where MgO (111) parallel 6H-SiC (0001) and were stable in both air and 10{sup -9} Torr up to 1023 K.

  8. Mechanochemistry of magnesium oxide revisited: facile derivatisation of pharmaceuticals using coordination and supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ernest H H; Strobridge, Fiona C; Friscić, Tomislav

    2010-09-14

    Liquid-assisted grinding allows the rapid, waste-free and one-pot synthesis of a variety of magnesium drug derivatives directly from the excipient MgO; such reactivity is relevant for the behaviour of ibuprofen formulations involving MgO and can be used for oxide-based mechanosynthesis of metal-organic salts, discrete complexes and carboxylate clusters involving magnesium and pharmaceutically active ingredients.

  9. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test.

  10. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Magnesium Oxide Nanorods for Oxidation of Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, P; Babu, S Ganesh; Karvembu, R; Kadirvelu, K; Dharmaraj, N

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide nanorods (Au-MgO) have been synthesised by a solution based chemical reduction method. Au-MgO nanorods were found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of alcohols with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium at room temperature. To find out the best reaction conditions for oxidation, optimization of catalyst quantity, solvent, mole equivalence of hydrogen peroxide were carried out. The scope of the reaction was extended to several aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, product yields were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectroscopy. Heterogeneity and reusability tests were performed. The use of water as a solvent and hydrogen peroxide as co-catalyst at room temperature makes the reaction interesting from sustainable development point of view.

  11. Influence of natural adsorbates of magnesium oxide on its reactivity in basic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Damien; Petitjean, Hugo; Costentin, Guylène; Guesmi, Hazar; Krafft, Jean-Marc; Lauron-Pernot, Hélène

    2013-12-07

    Solid materials possessing basic properties are naturally covered by carbonates and hydroxyl groups. Those natural adsorbates modify their chemical reactivity. This article aims to specifically evidence the role of surface carbonates and hydroxyls in basic heterogeneous catalysis on MgO. It compares the catalytic behaviors of hydroxylated or carbonated MgO surfaces for two types of reactions: one alkene isomerization and one alcohol conversion (hept-1-ene isomerization and 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol conversion). Catalysis experiments showed that carbon dioxide adsorption poisons the catalyst surface and the DRIFT-DFT combination showed that the nature of active sites in the two reactions differs. On the reverse, partial hydroxylation of the surface enhances activity for both reactions. Interestingly hept-1-ene isomerization gives a volcano curve for the conversion as a function of hydroxyl coverage. Calculations of the electronic structure of magnesium oxide surfaces show that neither Lewis basicity nor Brønsted basicity of the surface defects (steps for example) are enhanced by hydroxylation. Meanwhile CO2 adsorption followed by IR spectroscopy shows that (110) and (111) unstable planes are strongly basic and are stabilized by partial surface hydroxylation. These results could explain the volcano curve obtained for the evolution of alkene isomerisation as a function of hydroxyl coverage.

  12. Surface modification of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are being paid much attention recently as temporary implants, such as orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. However, the rapid degradation of them in physiological environment is a major obstacle preventing their wide applications to date, which will result in rapid mechanical integrity loss or even collapse of magnesium-based implants before injured tissues heal. Moreover, rapid degradation of the magnesium-based implants will also cause some adverse effects to their surrounding environment, such as local gas cavity around the implant, local alkalization and magnesium ion enrichment, which will reduce the integration between implant and tissue. So, in order to obtain better performance of magnesium-based implants in clinical trials, special alloy designs and surface modifications are prerequisite. Actually, when a magnesium-based implant is inserted in vivo, corrosion firstly happens at the implant-tissue interface and the biological response to implant is also determined by the interaction at this interface. So the surface properties, such as corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the implant, are critical for their in vivo performance. Compared with alloy designs, surface modification is less costly, flexible to construct multi-functional surface and can prevent addition of toxic alloying elements. In this review, we would like to summarize the current investigations of surface modifications of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical application. The advantages/disadvantages of different surface modification methods are also discussed as a suggestion for their utilization. PMID:26816637

  13. Preparation of Grayish Black Film on AM50 Magnesium Alloy by Chemical Conversion-Micro Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhongcai; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Qingfang; Yang, Li; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2017-07-01

    The grayish black film was prepared on AM50 magnesium alloy with a new method which combined chemical conversion with micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The optimum formula of chemical conversion was obtained by L9(34) orthogonal test. Meanwhile, the morphology, structure, composition and corrosion resistance of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy spectrum analysis (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical tests and CuSO4 drip experiment. The results indicated that Mo element was introduced into the MAO film by chemical conversion pretreatment. The surface of composite film was smooth and compact. The main phase composition of the composite film were SiO2, Mo9O26, MgSiO3, Mg2SiO4 and Mo9O26 was identified to be responsible for giving color to the film. The corrosion resistance of the grayish black film was improved obviously.

  14. Optimized deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline magnesium indium oxide thin films for opto-electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, A. Moses Ezhil; Ravidhas, C.; Ravishankar, R.; Kumar, A. Rathish; Selvan, G.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2009-05-06

    Transparent conducting magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were deposited on to quartz substrates without a buffer layer at an optimized deposition temperature of 450 deg. C to achieve high transmittance in the visible spectral range and electrical conductivity in the low temperature region. Magnesium ions are distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverted spinel structure with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) Miller plane. The possible mechanism that promotes conductivity in this system is the charge transfer between the resident divalent (Mg{sup 2+}) and trivalent (In{sup 3+}) cations in addition to the available oxygen vacancies in the lattice. A room temperature electrical conductivity of 1.5 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and an average transmittance >75% have been achieved. Hall measurements showed n-type conductivity with electron mobility value 0.95 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and carrier concentration 2.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Smoothness of the film surface observed through atomic force microscope measurements favors this material for gas sensing and opto-electronic device development.

  15. Association between magnesium status, oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Rocha, Vivianne; Della Rosa, Fernanda Brunacci; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Colli, Célia

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia is responsible for more than one-third of all maternal deaths in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate magnesium status and its association with oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclamptic women, and to identify the predictor variables of the disorder. The study population consisted of 36 women divided into preeclamptic (n = 18) and control groups (n = 18). The preeclamptic group included women (≥20 weeks of pregnancy) with arterial pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria >0.3 g/24 h, while the control group comprised pregnant women with no clinical/obstetric complications. Magnesium intake was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire validated for pregnant women in Brazil. Plasma, erythrocyte and urinary magnesium levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, while oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were assessed using standard protocols. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of preeclampsia. Preeclamptic and control groups were similar with respect to magnesium intake and urinary excretion, while plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations were higher in the former group. Plasma magnesium was positively correlated with catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and with concentrations of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Regression analysis showed that plasma magnesium and urinary 8-isoprostane were associated with preeclampsia. Magnesium status appears to result from homeostatic imbalance and physiological alterations typical of preeclampsia. Increased plasma magnesium and decreased urinary 8-isoprostane were considered predictors of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitric oxide as a mediator of the laxative action of magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, A A; Gaginella, T S; Mascolo, N; Capasso, F

    1994-01-01

    1. Magnesium sulphate was studied for its effects on diarrhoea, fluid secretion, gastrointestinal transit and nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in rats. 2. At a dose of 2 g kg-1 orally magnesium sulphate produced diarrhoea that was delayed in onset and intensity in a dose-related manner by the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This was prevented by the NO precursor, L-arginine and the NO donating compound, isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IMN). 3. Nitric oxide synthase activity was stimulated in gut tissue from rats given magnesium sulphate and this was inhibited by L-NAME. Dexamethasone (1 mg kg-1, i.p.), an inhibitor of inducible NO synthase, had no effect on magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea. 4. Magnesium sulphate stimulated fluid and electrolyte accumulation in the intestinal lumen; these effects were prevented by L-NAME but not D-NAME. 5. Gastrointestinal transit of a non-absorbable marker (charcoal suspension) was increased by oral magnesium sulphate from a mean value of 54.1% to 72.9% (P < 0.01), and this was prevented by pretreatment with L-NAME. 6. The results demonstrate that oral magnesium sulphate produces diarrhoea in rats by increasing the accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen and enhancing flow from the proximal to distal intestine. The mechanism involves release of NO, probably through stimulation of the constitutive form of NO synthase. Whether or not the effects of magnesium sulphate are due to an osmotic action or an intrinsic effect of the magnesium or sulphate ions cannot be determined from these experiments. PMID:7529110

  17. Magnesium supplementation through seaweed calcium extract rather than synthetic magnesium oxide improves femur bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Jung; Bu, So Young; Kim, Jae Young; Yeon, Jee-Young; Sohn, Eun-Wha; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Commercially available seaweed calcium extract can supply high amounts of calcium as well as significant amounts of magnesium and other microminerals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which the high levels of magnesium in seaweed calcium extract affects the calcium balance and the bone status in ovariectomized rats in comparison to rats supplemented with calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley female rats (7 weeks) were divided into four groups and bred for 12 weeks: sham-operated group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX), ovariectomized with inorganic calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-Mg), and ovariectomized with seaweed calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-SCa). All experimental diets contained 0.5% calcium. The magnesium content in the experimental diet was 0.05% of the diet in the Sham and OVX groups and 0.1% of the diet in the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups. In the calcium balance study, the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups were not significantly different in calcium absorption compared to the OVX group. However, the femoral bone mineral density and strength of the OVX-SCa group were higher than those of the OVX-Mg and OVX groups. Seaweed calcium with magnesium supplementation or magnesium supplementation alone did not affect the serum ALP and CTx levels in ovariectomized rats. In summary, consumption of seaweed calcium extract or inorganic calcium carbonate with magnesium oxide demonstrated the same degree of intestinal calcium absorption, but only the consumption of seaweed calcium extract resulted in increased femoral bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats. Our results suggest that seaweed calcium extract is an effective calcium and magnesium source for improving bone health compared to synthetic calcium and magnesium supplementation.

  18. Influence of Surrounding Cations on the Surface Degradation of Magnesium Alloy Implants under a Compressive Pressure.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chengyun; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Ye; Li, Ying; Yu, Peng; Wang, Shuangying; He, Tianrui; Li, Weiping; Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Yingjun; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-22

    The effect of cations in the surrounding solutions on the surface degradation of magnesium alloys, a well-recognized biodegradable biomaterial, has been neglected compared with the effect of anions in the past. To better simulate the compressive environment where magnesium alloys are implanted into the body as a cardiovascular stent, a device is designed and employed in the test so that a pressure, equivalent to the vascular pressure, can be directly applied to the magnesium alloy implants when the alloys are immersed in a medium containing one of the cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) found in blood plasma. The surface degradation behaviors of the magnesium alloys in the immersion test are then investigated using hydrogen evolution, mass loss determination, electron microscopy, pH value, and potentiodynamic measurements. The cations are found to promote the surface degradation of the magnesium alloys with the degree decreased in the order of K(+) > Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+). The possible mechanism of the effects of the cations on the surface degradation is also discussed. This study will allow us to predict the surface degradation of magnesium alloys in the physiological environment and to promote the further development of magnesium alloys as biodegradable biomaterials.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the surface film on magnesium powders.

    PubMed

    Burke, Paul J; Bayindir, Zeynel; Kipouros, Georges J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are attractive for use in automotive and aerospace applications because of their low density and good mechanical properties. However, difficulty in forming magnesium and the limited number of available commercial alloys limit their use. Powder metallurgy may be a suitable solution for forming near-net-shape parts. However, sintering pure magnesium presents difficulties due to surface film that forms on the magnesium powder particles. The present work investigates the composition of the surface film that forms on the surface of pure magnesium powders exposed to atmospheric conditions and on pure magnesium powders after compaction under uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 500 MPa and sintering under argon at 600 °C for 40 minutes. Initially, focused ion beam microscopy was utilized to determine the thickness of the surface layer of the magnesium powder and found it to be ~10 nm. The X-ray photoelectron analysis of the green magnesium sample prior to sintering confirmed the presence of MgO, MgCO(3)·3H(2)O, and Mg(OH)(2) in the surface layer of the powder with a core of pure magnesium. The outer portion of the surface layer was found to contain MgCO(3)·3H(2)O and Mg(OH)(2), while the inner portion of the layer is primarily MgO. After sintering, the MgCO(3)·3H(2)O was found to be almost completely absent, and the amount of Mg(OH)(2) was also decreased significantly. This is postulated to occur by decomposition of the compounds to MgO and gases during the high temperature of sintering. An increase in the MgO content after sintering supports this theory.

  20. Chemical surface alteration of biodegradable magnesium exposed to corrosion media.

    PubMed

    Willumeit, Regine; Fischer, Janine; Feyerabend, Frank; Hort, Norbert; Bismayer, Ulrich; Heidrich, Stefanie; Mihailova, Boriana

    2011-06-01

    The understanding of corrosion processes of metal implants in the human body is a key problem in modern biomaterial science. Because of the complicated and adjustable in vivo environment, in vitro experiments require the analysis of various physiological corrosion media to elucidate the underlying mechanism of "biological" metal surface modification. In this paper magnesium samples were incubated under cell culture conditions (i.e. including CO(2)) in electrolyte solutions and cell growth media, with and without proteins. Chemical mapping by high-resolution electron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and infrared reflection microspectroscopy revealed a complex structure of the formed corrosion layer. The presence of CO(2) in concentrations close to that in blood is significant for the chemistry of the oxidised layer. The presence of proteins leads to a less dense but thicker passivation layer which is still ion and water permeable, as osmolality and weight measurements indicate. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Process for Magnesium Oxide Reduction: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports a solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis experiment using an LSM(La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ)-Inconel inert anode current collector for production of magnesium and oxygen directly from magnesium oxide at 1423 K (1150 °C). The electrochemical performance of the SOM cell was evaluated by means of various electrochemical techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic scan, and electrolysis. Electronic transference numbers of the flux were measured to assess the magnesium dissolution in the flux during SOM electrolysis. The effects of magnesium solubility in the flux on the current efficiency and the SOM stability during electrolysis are discussed. An inverse correlation between the electronic transference number of the flux and the current efficiency of the SOM electrolysis was observed. Based on the experimental results, a new equivalent circuit of the SOM electrolysis process is presented. A general electrochemical polarization model of SOM process for magnesium and oxygen gas production is developed, and the maximum allowable applied potential to avoid zirconia dissociation is calculated as well. The modeling results suggest that a high electronic resistance of the flux and a relatively low electronic resistance of SOM are required to achieve membrane stability, high current efficiency, and high production rates of magnesium and oxygen.

  2. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic 'lotus leaf' hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7-9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured 'over growth' oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from -1.521 V of the bare magnesium to -1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the other metal materials.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  4. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium-aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovović, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium-aluminium alloys is studied in this work by means of Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). Spectral line shapes of the Hβ, Al II 704.21 nm and Mg II 448.11 nm line are analyzed to measure plasma electron number density Ne. From the Hβ line profile, two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne ≈ 1015 cm-3 and Ne ≈ 2 × 1016 cm-3 were discovered while the shape and shift of Al II and Mg II lines revealed the third process characterized by large electron density Ne = (1-2) × 1017 cm-3. Low Ne processes, related with breakdown in gas bubbles and on oxide surface, are not influenced by anode material or electrolyte composition. The ejection of evaporated anode material through oxide layer is designated here as third PEO process. Using the Boltzmann plot technique, electron temperature of 4000 K and 33000 K is determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. Several difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are met during this study and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

  5. Oxidation at Surfaces of Uranium Oxide Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueneman, Richard; Burgraff, Larry

    2001-04-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2 (S)) is unstable in an oxidizing environment and oxidizes until covered with a layer of uranium trioxide (UO3 (C)). During the oxidation process, uranium cations change from U+4 to U+6 and the oxide crystal structure changes from face centered cubic to orthorhombic. Seven UO2(S) samples were prepared by pressing UO2 (S) powder into a tungsten screen and then subjected to five different temperatures and three partial pressures of oxygen. UO2 (S) oxidation was monitored with in situ photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantitative oxidation data was obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in situ PL spectra did not identify UO3 (C) forming on the sample surfaces however, a new PL signature not associated with uranyl was observed. SIMS and XPS data from oxidized UO2 (S) samples indicated that at low temperatures, surface oxidation is kinetically limited and at high temperatures, surface oxidation is limited by diffusion. A model for the oxidation rate to UO3 (C) was not developed due to the temperature dependant oxidation process and high vacuum reduction of amorphous UO3 (A) present on the UO2 (S) sample surfaces prior to oxidation. A PL emission spectra intensity reduction was noticed on a UO3 (C) sample at room temperature under high vacuum. A reduction and re-oxidation of three additional UO3 (C) samples identified a kinetically irreversible reduction process for UO3(C) under high vacuum. A SIMS surface scan was performed on a fourth UO3(C) sample before and after exposure to ultra-high vacuum (10-8 torr) and the results suggest the reduction of UO3(C) to lower oxides (U3O8, U3O7 and UO2) at room temperature.

  6. Magnesium oxide grafted carbon nanotubes based impedimetric genosensor for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md Azahar; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Ansari, S G; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2013-12-15

    Nanostructured magnesium oxide (size<10nm) grafted carboxyl (COOH) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (nMgO-cMWCNTs) deposited electrophoretically onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass electrode and have been utilized for Vibrio cholerae detection. Aminated 23 bases single stranded DNA (NH2-ssDNA) probe sequence (O1 gene) of V. cholerae has been covalently functionalized onto nMgO-cMWCNTs/ITO electrode surface using EDC-NHS chemistry. This DNA functionalized MgO grafted cMWCNTs electrode has been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques. The results of XPS studies reveal that sufficient O-C=O groups present at the nMgO-cMWCNTs surface are utilized for DNA binding. The results of hybridization studies conducted with fragmented target DNA (ftDNA) of V. cholerae using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveal sensitivity as 3.87 Ω ng(-1) cm(-2), detection limit of ~21.70 ng µL(-1) in the linear range of 100-500 ng µL(-1) and stability of about 120 days. The proposed DNA functionalized nMgO-cMWCNTs nanomatrix provides a novel impedimetric platform for the fabrication of a compact genosensor device for biomedical application.

  7. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-27

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO{sub 2} adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were − 117.5 kJ⋅mol{sup −1} and − 65.4 kJ⋅mol{sup −1}, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD−CO{sub 2}. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m{sup 2}/g and 702.5 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm{sup 3}/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions as well as better CO{sub 2} adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent.

  8. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO2 adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-01

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO2 adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were - 117.5 kJṡmol-1 and - 65.4 kJṡmol-1, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD-CO2. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m2/g and 702.5 m2/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm3/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO2 emissions as well as better CO2 adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO2 adsorbent.

  9. An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

  10. Improved Interfacial Bonding in Magnesium/Aluminum Overcasting Systems by Aluminum Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqing; Luo, Alan A.

    2014-12-01

    "Overcasting" technique is used to produce bimetallic magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al) structures where lightweight Mg can be cast onto solid Al substrates. An inherent difficulty in creating strong Mg/Al interfacial bonding is the natural oxide film on the solid Al surfaces, which reduces the wettability between molten Mg and Al substrates during the casting process. In the paper, an "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment has been developed to disrupt the oxide film on a dilute Al-0.08 wt pct Ga alloy, improving the metallurgical bonding between molten Mg and Al substrates in the bimetallic experiments carried out in a high-vacuum test apparatus. The test results provided valuable information of the interfacial phenomena of the Mg/Al bimetallic samples. The results show significantly improved metallurgical bonding in the bimetallic samples with "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment and Ga alloying. It is recommended to adjust the pre-heating temperature and time of the Al substrates and the Mg melt temperature to control the interfacial reactions for optimum interfacial properties in the actual overcasting processes.

  11. Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20 nm) have strong antibacterial activities against several important foodborne pathogens. Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. Th...

  12. Serum free fatty acid levels in PCOS patients treated with glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul; Kaplan, Julie; Joulak, Ibrahim; Yang, Lianfu; Von Gizycki, Hans; Nacharaju, Vijaya L

    2013-05-01

    To assess the effect of glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone in altering free fatty acids (FFAs), 36 PCOS women were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 14) was treated with 500 mg glucophage po bid, group 2 (n = 10) was treated with 400 mg magnesium oxide po bid and group 3 (n = 12) was treated with 50 mg spironolactone po bid for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test with 75 g glucose load was performed before and after treatment, collecting blood at 0, 1 and 2 h for insulin, glucose, FFA and aldosterone. Amount of FFA before and after treatment were compared by repeated measure ANOVA and represented as area under the curve. FFA levels before treatment were 0.83 ± 0.23, 0.77 ± 0.15 and 0.85 ± 0.28 and after treatment were 0.77 ± 0.48, 0.71 ± 0.18 and 0.66 ± 0.25 for glucophage, magnesium oxide and spironolactone-treated patients, respectively. The FFA levels were unchanged in the groups treated with glucophage and magnesium oxide but were significantly (p < 0.03) decreased in the group treated with spironolactone. Since FFAs are known to be involved in the development of insulin resistance, these results suggest that spironolactone may be useful for lowering insulin resistance in PCOS patients.

  13. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achievin...

  14. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  15. Nickel/magnesium-lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst in the Kumada-coupling.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Arpád; Hell, Zoltán; Bálint, Mária

    2010-01-21

    A new, heterogeneous, magnesium-lanthanum mixed oxide solid base-supported nickel(ii) catalyst was developed. The catalyst was used successfully in the Kumada coupling of aryl halides, especially aryl bromides. The optimal reaction conditions of the coupling were determined.

  16. Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

  17. Study of Coating Growth Behavior During the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Magnesium Alloy ZK60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhaozhong; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yushen; Qu, Yunfei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation technique was used to coat ZK60 magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte. Effects of oxidation time on the morphology, phase structure, and corrosion resistance of the resulting coatings were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The main components of the inner and the outer coating layers were MgO and Mg2SiO4, respectively. It was also found that the oxidation time has a significant impact on the corrosion resistance properties of the coatings. The coating obtained within the oxidation time of 360 s exhibited a corrosion current of 7.6 × 10-8 A/cm2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, which decreased significantly when comparing with the pristine magnesium alloy.

  18. Effect of plasma etching on destructive adsorption properties of polypropylene fibers containing magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lange, Laura E; Obendorf, S Kay

    2012-02-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides poses a danger for agricultural workers. Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is required to provide protection; some of the current PPE involves impermeable barriers. In these barrier materials, the same mechanism that prevents the penetration of toxic chemicals also blocks the passage of water vapor and air from flowing through the material, making the garments uncomfortable. Fibers that degrade organophosphate pesticides, such as methyl parathion, were developed by incorporating metal oxides. These modified fibers can be incorporated into conventional fabric structures that allow water vapor to pass through, thereby maintaining comfort. Fibers with self-decontamination functionality were developed by incorporating magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles into a polypropylene (PP) melt-extruded fiber. These fibers were then treated with plasma etching to expose increased surface area of the MgO nanoparticles. Three steps were involved in this research project: (1) determining the reactivity of MgO and methyl parathion, (2) making melt-spun MgO/PP fibers, and (3) testing the reactivity of MgO/PP composite fibers and methyl parathion. It was confirmed that MgO stoichiometrically degrades methyl parathion by way of destructive adsorption. The etching of the PP fibers containing MgO nanoparticles increased the chemical accessibility of MgO reactive sites, therefore making them more effective in degrading methyl parathion. These fibers can enhance the protection provided by PPE to agricultural and horticultural workers and military personnel.

  19. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

  20. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod-nanotube semiconductor/p-silicon heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Görgün, Kamuran; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Mujdat; Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide material is usable in electronic device applications such as light-emitting diodes, heterojunction diode, sensors, solar cell due to its interesting electrical conductivity and optical properties. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod (NR)-nanotube (NT) films were grown by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition to fabricate ZnO-based heterojunction diode. It is found that ZnO hexagonal nanorods turn into hexagonal nanotubes when the Mg doping ratio is increased from 1 to 10 %. The values of the optical band gap for 1 % Mg-doped ZnO NR and 10 % Mg-doped ZnO NT films are found to be 3.14 and 3.22 eV, respectively. The n-ZnO:Mg/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated. The diodes exhibited a rectification behavior with ideality factor higher than unity due to the presence of surface states in the junction and series resistance. The obtained results indicate that Mg doping improves the electrical and optical properties of ZnO.

  1. Preparation of aluminum-magnesium alloy from magnesium oxide in RECl3-KCl-MgCl2 electrolyte by molten salts electrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Wu, Lin; Yang, Fengli; Li, Mingzhou; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Gao, Bingliang

    Aluminum-magnesium alloys were prepared from magnesium oxide by molten salt electrolysis method. 10w%RECl3-63.5w%KCl-23.5w%MgCl2-3w%MgO was taken as electrolyte. The results showed that RE could be attained in aluminum-magnesium alloy, and it was proved that the RE was reduced directly by aluminum. Magnesium in the alloy was produced by electrolysis on cathode. The content of RE in the alloy was about 0.8wt %-1.2wt%, and the content of Mg in the alloy was lwt%˜6wt% with electrolytic times. The highest current efficiency was 81.3% with 0.8A/cm2 current density. The process of electrolysis was controlled together by electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of hydrogen thiocarbonate for heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong

    2009-04-09

    In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy combined with derivative spectroscopy analysis, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis, and quantum chemical calculations were used to investigate the infrared absorbance assignment and the molecular structure of hydrogen thiocarbonate on magnesium oxide. The bands at 1283 and 1257 cm(-1), which had the typical characteristic of intermediate, were observed in experiments for the heterogeneous reaction of COS on MgO. On the basis of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis and quantum chemical calculations, the band at 1283 cm(-1) was assigned to the v(s) band of bridged thiocarbonate which formed on the two neighboring Mg atoms in the (100) face of MgO crystal, and the band at 1257 cm(-1) was the v(s) band of monodentate thiocarbonate on MgO. The v(as)(OCO) band of thiocarbonates was invisible in the experiment due to their weak absorbance and the interruption of surface carbonate. The formation mechanism of thiocarbonates is proposed, which occurred through a nucleophilic attack of preadsorbed COS by surface -OH groups followed by hydrogen atom transfer from the -OH group to the sulfur atom of preadsorbed COS. The activation energy for the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction of bridged thiocarbonate was calculated to be 18.52 kcal x mol(-1) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory.

  3. Effect of Magnesium Oxide Supplementation on Nocturnal Leg Cramps: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Roguin Maor, Noga; Alperin, Mordechai; Shturman, Elena; Khairaldeen, Hassan; Friedman, Moran; Karkabi, Khaled; Milman, Uzi

    2017-05-01

    Magnesium supplements are widely marketed for prophylaxis of nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) despite no evidence of significant benefit. To determine whether magnesium oxide is better than placebo for NLC prophylaxis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 2 weeks eligibility screening followed by 4 weeks of treatment was conducted in northern Israel, from February to October 2013. An intention-to-treat data analysis was performed from March 22, 2014, to April 17, 2016. We used a volunteer sample of community-dwelling individuals experiencing NLC, 21 years or older, with 4 or more documented episodes of NLC during 2 weeks of screening. Capsules containing either magnesium oxide or a similar-looking placebo to be taken orally, once daily at bedtime for a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference in the mean number of NLC per week between the screening and treatment phases. Secondary outcomes included severity and duration of NLC, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Of the 166 volunteers, 72 (43%) were excluded, of whom 15 declined to participate and 57 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 94 individuals (39% male; mean [SD] age, 64.9 [11.1] years) randomly assigned to magnesium oxide (48) or placebo (46), 6 did not complete the study protocol (3 in each group). Mean (SD) change of NLC was -3.41 (4.05) (from 7.84 [5.68] to 4.44 [5.66]) and -3.03 (4.53) (from 8.51 [5.20] to 5.48 [4.93]) per week in the magnesium oxide and placebo groups, respectively, a difference between groups of 0.38 (0.48) NLC per week (P = .67 in an intention-to-treat analysis). There were no between-group differences in the severity and duration of NLC, quality of life, or quality of sleep. Oral magnesium oxide was not superior to placebo for older adults experiencing NLC. The decrease in the mean number of NLC per week, from the screening to the treatment phase in both groups, is probably a placebo effect that may explain the wide use of

  4. Activated Metal Oxide Surfaces as Highly Reactive Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    underway. " Synthesis of Ultra-High Surface Area Fe203 by Precipitation Methods Yong-Xi Li A series of precipitations of Fe(OH) 3 (from FeCl 3) at...Progress was also made on developing new aerogel procedures for synthesis of ultra-high surface area magnesium oxide. Finally,’ome metal oxide molecules...were studied in chemical reactions and by theoretical methods .-) Three students earned Ph.D. degrees and one an M.S. degree. A visiting professor and

  5. Quasi-planar homopolymetallic and heteropolymetallic coordination arrays. Surface-like molecular clusters of magnesium and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Megumi; Lightbody, Owen C; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Stryker, Jeffrey M

    2009-04-08

    The sterically isolated preorganized tetradentate ligand systems, tetrakis(2-hydroxy-3-n-propylphenyl)ethene and tetrakis(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-3-trimethylsilylphenyl)ethene, nucleate the formation of quasi-planar raft-like polymetallic coordination complexes with high selectivity, providing topologically consistent structural models for metal coordination to the "oxo-surface" of silica- and alumina-supported heterogeneous catalysts. The coordination of magnesium salts to these systems yields trimetallic magnesium halide and alkyl complexes arrayed on the oxygen "surface" of the ligand, regardless of the steric profile of the ortho-substituents. The magnesium complexes, characterized in the solid state by X-ray crystallography, contain two chemically distinct metal environments, a relatively inert central magnesium bis(alkoxide) and two more labile pseudotetrahedral "wing" magnesium atoms. The central metal coordination is pseudo-octahedral; crystallography strongly suggests the presence of an unprecedented dative magnesium-olefin bonding interaction from the metal to ethene bridge of the ligand. Consistent with the chemistry proposed for typical magnesium-treated catalyst supports, the labile wing magnesium centers can be cleanly and sequentially exchanged for aluminum with retention of the surface-like coordination array. Thus, treatment with diethylaluminum chloride provides heterotrimetallic magnesium-aluminum complexes containing one aluminum and two magnesium sites or two aluminum and one magnesium site, respectively. All four heteropolymetallic complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  6. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by aluminum and oxygen plasma surface-modified magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Tam, Vivian; Wu, Shuilin; Chu, Paul K; Zheng, Yufeng; To, Michael Kai Tsun; Leung, Frankie K L; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2013-12-01

    A newly developed magnesium implant is used to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The magnesium implant after undergoing dual aluminum and oxygen plasma implantation is able to suppress rapid corrosion, leaching of magnesium ions, as well as hydrogen gas release from the biodegradable alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). No released aluminum is detected from the SBF extract and enhanced corrosion resistance properties are confirmed by electrochemical tests. In vitro studies reveal enhanced growth of GFP mouse osteoblasts on the aluminum oxide coated sample, but not on the untreated sample. In addition to that a small amount (50 ppm) of magnesium ions can enhance osteogenic differentiation as reported previously, our present data show a low concentration of hydrogen can give rise to the same effect. To compare the bone volume change between the plasma-treated magnesium implant and untreated control, micro-computed tomography is performed and the plasma-treated implant is found to induce significant new bone formation adjacent to the implant from day 1 until the end of the animal study. On the contrary, bone loss is observed during the first week post-operation from the untreated magnesium sample. Owing to the protection offered by the Al2O3 layer, the plasma-treated implant degrades more slowly and the small amount of released magnesium ions stimulate new bone formation locally as revealed by histological analyses. Scanning electron microscopy discloses that the Al2O3 layer at the bone-implant interface is still present two months after implantation. In addition, no inflammation or tissue necrosis is observed from both treated and untreated implants. These promising results suggest that the plasma-treated magnesium implant can stimulate bone formation in vivo in a minimal invasive way and without causing post-operative complications.

  7. Effect of Native Oxide Film on Commercial Magnesium Alloys Substrates and Carbonate Conversion Coating Growth and Corrosion Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Bermudez, Elkin Alejandro; El-Hadad, Amir Abdelsami; Llorente, Irene; Galván, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Possible relations between the native oxide film formed spontaneously on the AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy substrates with different surface finish, the chemistry of the outer surface of the conversion coatings that grows after their subsequent immersion on saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution treatment and the enhancement of corrosion resistance have been studied. The significant increase in the amount of aluminum and carbonate compounds on the surface of the conversion coating formed on the AZ61 substrate in polished condition seems to improve the corrosion resistance in low chloride ion concentration solutions. In contrast, the conversion coatings formed on the AZ31 substrates in polished condition has little effect on their protective properties compared to the respective as-received surface. PMID:28788582

  8. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration.

  9. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  10. In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure in Several Mammalian Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abudayyak; Ezgi, Öztaş; Merve, Arici; Özhan, Gül

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide researchers have rising concerns about magnesium-based materials, especially magnesium oxide (MgO) nanaoparticles, due to increasing usage as promising structural materials in various fields including cancer treatment. However, there is a serious lack of information about their toxicity at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, the toxic potentials of MgO nanoparticles were investigated on liver (HepG2), kidney (NRK-52E), intestine (Caco-2), and lung (A549) cell lines. For the toxicological assessment, the following assays were used: the particle characterization by transmission electron microscopy, the determination of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, MTT and neutral red uptake assays for cytotoxicity, comet assay for genotoxicity, and the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, protein carbonyl, and glutathione levels by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assays for the potential of oxidative damage and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection assay with propidium iodide (PI) for apoptosis. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were taken up by the cells depending on their concentration and agglomeration/aggregation potentials. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles induced DNA (≤14.27 fold) and oxidative damage. At a concentration of ≥323.39 µg/mL, MgO nanoparticles caused 50% inhibition in cell viability by 2 different cytotoxicity assays. The cell sensitivity to cytotoxic and genotoxic damage induced by MgO nanoparticles was ranked as HepG2 < A549 < Caco-2 < NRK-52E. Although it was observed that MgO nanoparticles induced apoptotic effects on the cells, apoptosis was not the main cell death. DNA damage, cell death, and oxidative damage effects of MgO nanoparticles should raise concern about the safety associated with their applications in consumer products.

  11. Surface modification of magnesium alloys developed for bioabsorbable orthopedic implants: a general review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiali; Tang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yangde; Wang, Jue; Lai, Yuxiao; Qin, Ling

    2012-08-01

    As a bioabsorbable metal with mechanical properties close to bone, pure magnesium or its alloys have great potential to be developed as medical implants for clinical applications. However, great efforts should be made to avoid its fast degradation in vivo for orthopedic applications when used for fracture fixation. Therefore, how to decease degradation rate of pure magnesium or its alloys is one of the focuses in Research and Development (R&D) of medical implants. It has been recognized that surface modification is an effective method to prevent its initial degradation in vivo to maintain its desired mechanical strength. This article reviews the recent progress in surface modifications for prevention of fast degradation of magnesium or its alloys using in vitro testing model, a fast yet relevant model before moving towards time-consuming and expensive in vivo testing. Pros and cons of various surface modifications are also discussed for the goal to design available products to be applied in clinical trials.

  12. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  13. Synthesis and properties of hydroxyapatite-containing coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Han, Yu; Wu, Tao; Tao, Wei; Jian, Xian; Wu, Yunfeng; Xu, Fangjun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite-containing coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy surface to improve its biodegradation performance. Five applied voltages were chosen to prepare the MAO coatings. The results demonstrate that the number of micropores in the films increases but their dimensions decrease after higher voltage is applied. As the surface roughness of the MAO coatings increases with the applied voltage, the wettability of the coatings improves continuously. The MAO coatings were mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO) and hydroxyapatite. The amount of hydroxyapatite phase increased with increasing voltage that was applied. The bonding strength became slightly weaker after a higher voltage was applied. But the bonding strengths of all the coatings were consistently higher than 37 MPa, which met the requirement of implant biomaterials. All coatings exhibited higher corrosion resistances and lower hydrogen evolution rate than the bare AZ31 Mg substrate, implying that the degradation rate of the AZ31 Mg alloy was enhanced by the hydroxyapatite-containing coatings. The results indicate that the present treatment of applying hydroxyapatite-containing coatings is a promising technique for the degradable Mg-based biomaterials for orthopedic applications.

  14. Magnesium proteinate is more protective than magnesium oxide in heat-stressed quail.

    PubMed

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Cikim, G; Kucuk, O

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with Mg-oxide and Mg-proteinate on performance; nutrient digestibilities; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in serum, liver, and thigh meat; and serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature. The birds (n = 360; 10 d old) were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of 5 birds each in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (temperature, Mg source, Mg level). Birds were maintained in temperature-controlled rooms at 22 degrees C for 24 h/d or 34 degrees C for 8 h/d (0900-1700 h) and fed a basal diet or that diet supplemented with 1 or 2 g Mg-oxide or Mg-proteinate/kg of diet. Heat exposure decreased (P = 0.0001) live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass weight in quail fed the basal diet. A linear increase in feed intake (P = 0.008) and body weight (P = 0.001), and improvements in feed efficiency (P = 0.001), carcass weight (P < 0.0001), digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were found in Mg-supplemented, heat-stressed quail. The effects of Mg-proteinate were greater than those of Mg-oxide (P < or = 0.0001). Serum Mg (P = 0.001) concentration increased, whereas the concentration of MDA in serum (P = 0.0001), liver (P = 0.04), and thigh meat (P = 0.0001) and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly (P = 0.001) with the level of Mg in the diet. Interactions between dietary Mg source, temperature, and level of supplementation (P < or = 0.05) were found for several variables. Results of the present study suggest that supplementation with Mg-proteinate is more protective than Mg-oxide in reducing the negative effects of heat stress in quail.

  15. Atomically Thin Interfacial Suboxide Key to Hydrogen Storage Performance Enhancements of Magnesium Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liwen F; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Cho, Eun Seon; Forster, Jason D; Jeong, Sohee; Wang, Hsiao-Tsu; Urban, Jeffrey J; Guo, Jinghua; Prendergast, David

    2017-09-13

    As a model system for hydrogen storage, magnesium hydride exhibits high hydrogen storage density, yet its practical usage is hindered by necessarily high temperatures and slow kinetics for hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycling. Decreasing particle size has been proposed to simultaneously improve the kinetics and decrease the sorption enthalpies. However, the associated increase in surface reactivity due to increased active surface area makes the material more susceptible to surface oxidation or other side reactions, which would hinder the overall hydrogenation-dehydrogenation process and diminish the capacity. Previous work has shown that the chemical stability of Mg nanoparticles can be greatly enhanced by using reduced graphene oxide as a protecting agent. Although no bulklike crystalline MgO layer has been clearly identified in this graphene-encapsulated/Mg nanocomposite, we propose that an atomically thin layer of honeycomb suboxide exists, based on first-principles interpretation of Mg K-edge X-ray absorption spectra. Density functional theory calculations reveal that in contrast to conventional expectations for thick oxides this interfacial oxidation layer permits H2 dissociation to the same degree as pristine Mg metal with the added benefit of enhancing the binding between reduced graphene oxide and the Mg nanoparticle, contributing to improved mechanical and chemical stability of the functioning nanocomposite.

  16. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  17. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO(3) form.

  18. Mechanical and oxidation properties of some B2 rare earth–magnesium intermetallic

    SciTech Connect

    Stumphy, Brad

    2006-12-15

    The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on three main topics. First is a discussion about the basic structure and composition of binary B2 intermetallic compounds. Second, the mechanical properties of intermetallics are examined, starting with the cause for the typically inherent brittleness observed in B2 intermetallics. A number of B2 compounds have been found to possess an abnormal level of ductility compared to other intermetallics in this class, including a handful of other rare earth–non-rare earth (RM) B2 line compounds, and these findings are also discussed. Finally, oxidation studies of rare earth metals, focusing on yttrium and cerium, as well as magnesium and some B2 materials are discussed. Chapter 2 is an in-depth look into certain aspects of the laboratory work done during this study. The many challenges and difficulties encountered required that a variety of laboratory techniques be attempted in the making, processing, and testing of these two intermetallic materials. The results and ensuing discussion for the mechanical testing that was performed are found in Chapter 3. Tensile and compression testing results for YMg are shown first, followed by those for CeMg. Some samples were made using electrical discharge machining (EDM) while others were polished into the desired shape. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to inspect surfaces of the tensile and compression samples. Hardness values and attempts to determine fracture toughness are also recorded before beginning the discussion. Chapter 4 follows the same basic format for the oxidation study portion of the research. Oxidation curves for CeMg are followed by a qualitative chemical analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The YMg oxidation curves are shown next followed by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the oxidation process for this material and a discussion of the results. Chapter 5 is a summary of the research performed in the mechanical and

  19. A study on factors affecting the degradation of magnesium and a magnesium-yttrium alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  20. A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  1. Protective effects of selenium, calcium, and magnesium against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Deepti; Subramanian, Ramlingam B; Madamwar, Datta; Flora, Swaran J S

    2010-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a potent carcinogen and environmental pollutant. More than one hundred million people are reported to be exposed to elevated concentrations of arsenic mainly via drinking water. Essential trace elements can affect toxicity of metals by interacting with metals at the primary site of action and can also modify the body's response to toxic metals by altering their metabolism and transport. This study investigates the effects of concomitant administration of selenium, magnesium, and calcium with arsenic on blood biochemistry and oxidative stress. Selenium was the most effective in reducing arsenic-induced inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and liver oxidative stress. Calcium and magnesium also showed favourable effects on haematological and other biochemical parameters. Because selenium was the most effective, it should be added to chelation therapy to achieve the best protective effects against arsenic poisoning in humans.

  2. Release of albumin from oligoester plastic matrices: effect of magnesium oxide and bivalent stearates.

    PubMed

    Kladnícková, I; Dittrich, M; Klein, T; Pokorová, D

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable implantable matrices containing bovine serum albumin were prepared from oligoesters by melting, and subsequently tested on in vitro albumin release. The linear poly (DL-lactic acid) and the branched terpolymer of DL-lactic acid, glycolic acid, and mannitol were synthesized. Products were of similar molecular weight and possessed different thermal and swelling characteristics. Oligoesters were loaded with 4% albumin and plasticized by 30% triacetin. Other additives added into the matrices as albumin stabilizers were divalent stearates and magnesium oxide. The influences of oligomer molecules constitution, divalent ion stearates or magnesium oxide addition, and triacetin concentration on the albumin release were quantified. SDS-PAGE revealed protein hydrolysis during the dissolution tests.

  3. Phisicochemistry of alkaline-earth metals oxides surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimova, Irina; Minakova, Tamara; Ogneva, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The surface state of alkaline-earth metals and magnesium oxides obtained by means of commercial and laboratory ways has been studied in this paper. A complex of methods has been used for identification, determination of a phase composition and morphology of the samples. The high basic character of surface centres has been shown with the help of pH-metry and adsorption of indicators methods. Acid-basic parameters (pHt, pHiis, etc.) can be used for the estimation of a general acid-basic state of metal oxides samples surface and for the supposition about different nature and strength of acid-basic centres as well as for the initial control in the process of acid basic properties of solid oxides surface properties evaluation.

  4. Method of conditioning fireside fouling deposits using super large particle size magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Merrell, G.A.; Sujdak, R.J.

    1989-01-10

    This patent describes a method for minimizing the deleterious effects of combustion residues on structures normally contacted thereby. It consists of burning coal in a furnace combustion zone and adding to the furnace an effective amount of a magnesium oxide material, comprising particles the major mass fraction of which is about 150 microns in diameter or greater so as to increase the friability of the residues which may normally adhere to the structures.

  5. Preparation of Si-containing oxide coating and biomimetic apatite induction on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are recently found important in the field of bone repairing for their ideal mechanical performance and excellent biocompatibility. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry method that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. The properties of the MAO coating, such as thickness, microstructure, roughness and composition, can easily be controlled by adjusting the voltage, current density, duration or the electrolyte concentration. In this work, MAO coatings are prepared on ZK61 magnesium alloy at different voltages. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating are investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples are immersed in SBF for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The corrosion behaviors of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion products were characterized by EDS and FT-IR. The MAO coated ZK61 alloy samples showed excellent corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The MAO method demonstrates a great potential in the preparation of degradable and bioactive orthopedic magnesium-based implants.

  6. Thermoelectric properties and oxidation behaviour of Magnesium Silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, J.; Takahashi, M.; Kido, H.

    2011-05-01

    We study the oxidation behaviour of Mg2Si and the thermoelectric properties of Mg2Si composites. Above 723 K, Mg2Si reacts with O2 in air to yield MgO and Si. Using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation, the Avrami exponent (n) is equal to ~0.5, and it depends on the reaction temperature and time; this indicates that the oxidation is controlled by the diffusion-controlled reaction. In order to improve the oxidation-resistance of Mg2Si, β-FeSi2 films were fabricated on sintered Mg2Si samples by RF magnetron-sputtering deposition at RT followed by post-annealing at 873 K in vacuum. The β-FeSi2 layer effectively prevented the diffusion of oxygen at 873 K and improved the oxidation resistance of Mg2Si. The thermoelectric properties of impurity-doped Mg2Si composites fabricated using the reduction method of metal oxide / carbonate / hydroxide additives (Al2O3, Sb2O3, Bi2O3, Li2CO3, CuO, Ag2O, In2O3, La(OH)3, Ga2O3, Na2CO3, and Y2O3) have been characterized. The maximum values of ZT for impurity-doped Mg2Si composites fabricated using the reduction method of Al2O3, Bi2O3, Sb2O3, and La(OH)3 additives show 0.58 at 862 K, 0.68 at 864 K, 0.63 at 863 K, and 0.06 at 865 K, respectively.

  7. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  8. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  9. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono-and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  10. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  11. Interfacial chemistry of organic conversion film on AZ61 magnesium alloy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Dingfei

    2008-12-01

    The anodic electrochemical behavior of AZ61 magnesium alloy in sodium hydroxide medium in the absence and presence of p-nitro-benzene-azo-resorcinol (PNBAR) was studied using electrochemical techniques. In the presence of PNBAR, organic conversion film formed on the surface of magnesium alloy. The nature of chemical mechanisms, bonds, and structures at the interface of PNBAR/magnesium alloy was investigated by using energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An in situ electrochemical deposition was evidenced to produce a corrosion protective barrier by the formation of organic conversion film of magnesium-PNBAR complex and to enhance film adhesion by the covalent bonds of Mg sbnd O sbnd N linkage. The linear sweep voltammetry experiments and the score tests were used to investigate the adhesion and evaluate the potential of corrosion resistance of organic conversion film. The results indicated the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy was improved, the organic conversion film showed excellent adhesion not only to the substrate but also to the outer paint coatings.

  12. Research on Micro-arc Oxidation Coatings with Thermal Control on Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sizhen; Bai, Jingying; Feng, Li; Zhang, Ligong; Cui, Qingxin; Jiang, Wenwu; Zhao, Guimei

    The Micro-arc coatings with antisepsis and thermal control function was grew in situ on magnesium alloys by Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) method in order to satisfy the antisepsis and thermal control demand of magnesium alloys for spacecraft. The effect of electrolyte formulation and temperature were reviewed by orthogonal test. The appearance and bonding strength of Micro-arc coatings were checked by eyeballing and draw-testing. Hemisphere emissivity ɛH was tested by using hemisphere emissivity testing apparatus. The results showed that the micro-arc coatings were homogeneous and uniform when the Electrolyte components correspond to temperature. Hemisphere emissivity ɛH test result showed that ɛH≥0.85.All the Performance of micro-arc coatings were qualified with technology guideline.

  13. Effect of surface area on corrosion properties of magnesium for biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Cheol; Han, Kwon-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Gu; Yang, Seok-Jo; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Young-Yul

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effect of the surface area on the corrosion properties of magnesium through in vivo (weight loss test) and in vitro (electrochemical and weight loss tests in Hank's solution) tests. The corrosion rate was reduced as the surface area increased. Surface analysis showed that the precipitation of calcium phosphate increased with increasing surface area. Moreover, the pH level around the specimen increased with increasing surface area. This increase of pH can accelerate the precipitation of calcium phosphate on the surface. However, different mechanism of calcium phosphate precipitation was found for in vivo and vitro test environment. In vitro environment showed an increase of calcium phosphate due to the continuous increase in pH, whereas in vivo environment showed increase of calcium phosphate to maintain homeostasis and reduced the level of pH in physiological system. Consequently, the increase in magnesium surface area leads to increase the precipitation of calcium phosphate as a more stable rust layer which ultimately increases the corrosion resistance of magnesium.

  14. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  15. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  16. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-04

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  17. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  18. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  19. Crystal structure of complex natural aluminum magnesium calcium iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2010-07-15

    The structure of a new natural oxide found near the Tashelga River (Eastern Siberia) was studied by X-ray diffraction. The pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell parameters are a = 5.6973(1) A, b = 17.1823(4) A, c = 23.5718(5) A, {beta} = 90{sup o}, sp. gr. Pc. The structure was refined to R = 0.0516 based on 4773 reflections with vertical bar F vertical bar > 7{sigma}(F) taking into account the twin plane perpendicular to the z axis (the twin components are 0.47 and 0.53). The crystal-chemical formula (Z = 4) is Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}{sup IV}Fe{sub 2}{sup (2+)IV}[Al{sub 14}{sup VI}O{sub 31}(OH)][Al{sub 2}{sup IV}O][Al{sup IV}]AL{sup IV}(OH)], where the Roman numerals designate the coordination of the atoms. The structure of the mineral is based on wide ribbons of edge-sharing Al octahedra (an integral part of the spinel layer). The ribbons run along the shortest x axis and are inclined to the y and z axes. The adjacent ribbons are shifted with respect to each other along the y axis, resulting in the formation of step-like layers in which the two-ribbon thickness alternates with the three-ribbon thickness. Additional Al octahedra and Mg and Fe{sup 2+} tetrahedra are located between the ribbons. The layers are linked together to form a three-dimensional framework by Al tetrahedra, Ca polyhedra, and hydrogen bonds with the participation of OH groups.

  20. Magnesium sulfate affords protection against oxidative damage during severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Abad, C; Vargas, F R; Zoltan, T; Proverbio, T; Piñero, S; Proverbio, F; Marín, R

    2015-02-01

    MgSO4 is the drug of choice to prevent seizures in preeclamptic pregnant women, but its mechanism of action at the molecular level remains an enigma. In previous works, we found that treating preeclamptic women with MgSO4 reduces the lipid peroxidation of their red blood cell membranes to normal levels and leads to a significant reduction in the osmotic fragility of the red blood cells that is increased during preeclampsia. In addition, the increase in lipid peroxidation of red cell membranes induced by the Fenton reaction does not occur when MgSO4 is present. The antioxidant protection of MgSO4 was evaluated in UV-C-treated red blood cell ghosts and syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes by measuring their level of lipid peroxidation. The interaction of MgSO4 with free radicals was assessed for its association with the galvinoxyl radical, the quenching of H2O2-induced chemiluminescence and its effect on sensitized peroxidation of linoleic acid. a) MgSO4 protected red blood cell ghosts and the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of normotensive pregnant women against lipid peroxidation induced by UV-C irradiation. b) MgSO4 does not seem to scavenge the galvinoxyl free radical. c) The quenching of the H2O2-enhanced luminol chemiluminescence is increased by the presence of MgSO4. d) The peroxidation of linoleic acid is significantly blocked by MgSO4. MgSO4 may provide protection against oxidative damage of plasma membranes through interactions with alkyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase Transformations and Metallization of Magnesium Oxide at High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, R. Stewart; Spaulding, Dylan K.; Eggert, Jon H.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hicks, Damien G.; Smith, Raymond F.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is representative of the rocky materials comprising the mantles of terrestrial planets, such that its properties at high temperatures and pressures reflect the nature of planetary interiors. Shock-compression experiments on MgO to pressures of 1.4 terapascals (TPa) reveal a sequence of two phase transformations: from B1 (sodium chloride) to B2 (cesium chloride) crystal structures above 0.36 TPa, and from electrically insulating solid to metallic liquid above 0.60 TPa. The transitions exhibit large latent heats that are likely to affect the structure and evolution of super-Earths. Together with data on other oxide liquids, we conclude that magmas deep inside terrestrial planets can be electrically conductive, enabling magnetic field-producing dynamo action within oxide-rich regions and blurring the distinction between planetary mantles and cores.

  2. Removal of hydrogen chloride from gaseous streams using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Park, Kye-Sung; Grause, Guido; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2008-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide) obtained by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) effectively removed HCl from gaseous streams. HCl removal was greater in the presence of added water vapor at all temperatures examined and increased with decreasing temperature in both the presence and absence of added water vapor. Wet and dry removal of gaseous HCl were attributed to the production of MgCl2 . 6H2O and MgCl2 . 4H2O, respectively. For the wet scrubbing process, the reconstruction reaction of Mg-Al LDH from Mg-Al oxide was the primary mechanism for increased HCl removal.

  3. [Solution kinetics of magnesium oxide containing granules produced by laboratory scale fluidization].

    PubMed

    Rácz, I; Zelkó, R; Bihari, E

    1994-09-01

    In practice of manufacturing industrial pharmaceutical products, the technique of fluidization has been used extensively in the past decades. The authors studied the magnesium oxide-containing granulates made by fluidization granulation in laboratory, to optimize the process, to determine the neutralization kinetic parameters of granulates, to establish the connections between the method of granulation and the release of active substances. According to our findings, the pharmaceutical product's characteristics in the aspects of physics, chemistry, stability and bioavailability may remarkably change without fixing the border conditions of parameters within limits.

  4. Clustering on Magnesium Surfaces – Formation and Diffusion Energies

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Haijian; Huang, Hanchen; Wang, Jian

    2017-07-12

    The formation and diffusion energies of atomic clusters on Mg surfaces determine the surface roughness and formation of faulted structure, which in turn affect the mechanical deformation of Mg. This paper reports first principles density function theory (DFT) based quantum mechanics calculation results of atomic clustering on the low energy surfaces {0001} and {more » $$\\bar{1}$$011} . In parallel, molecular statics calculations serve to test the validity of two interatomic potentials and to extend the scope of the DFT studies. On a {0001} surface, a compact cluster consisting of few than three atoms energetically prefers a face-centered-cubic stacking, to serve as a nucleus of stacking fault. On a {$$\\bar{1}$$011} , clusters of any size always prefer hexagonal-close-packed stacking. Adatom diffusion on surface {$$\\bar{1}$$011} is high anisotropic while isotropic on surface (0001). Three-dimensional Ehrlich–Schwoebel barriers converge as the step height is three atomic layers or thicker. FInally, adatom diffusion along steps is via hopping mechanism, and that down steps is via exchange mechanism.« less

  5. Fogging technique used to coat magnesium with plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroz, T. S.

    1967-01-01

    Cleaning process and a fogging technique facilitate the application of a plastic coating to magnesium plates. The cleaning process removes general organic and inorganic surface impurities, oils and greases, and oxides and carbonates from the magnesium surfaces. The fogging technique produces a thin-filmlike coating in a clean room atmosphere.

  6. Mg2+-induced vesicles of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide and magnesium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Teng, Minmin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2009-10-15

    A Mg2+-induced vesicle phase was prepared from a mixture of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide (C14DMAO) and magnesium dodecyl sulfate [Mg(DS)2] in aqueous solution. Study of the phase behavior shows that at the appropriate mixing ratios, Mg2+-ligand coordination between C14DMAO and Mg(DS)2 results in the formation of molecular bilayers, in which Mg2+ can firmly bind to the head groups of the two surfactants. The area of the head group can be reduced because of the complexation. In this case, no counterions exist in aqueous solution because of the fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes. Therefore, the charges of the bilayer membranes are not shielded by salts. The birefringent solutions of Mg(DS)2 and C14DMAO mixtures consist of vesicles which were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and rheological measurements. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoplates were obtained via the decomposition of Mg(OH)2 which were synthesized in Mg2+-induced vesicle phase which was used as the microreactor under the existence of ammonia hydroxide. The morphologies and structures of the obtained MgO nanoplates have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the crystal growth is along the (111) direction which can be affected by the presence of a vesicle phase having a fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes.

  7. Chiral magnesium BINOL phosphate-catalyzed phosphination of imines: access to enantioenriched α-amino phosphine oxides.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Gajendrasingh K; Liang, Yuxue; Mormino, Michael G; Li, Guilong; Fronczek, Frank R; Antilla, Jon C

    2011-04-15

    A new method to synthesize chiral α-amino phosphine oxides is reported. The reaction combines N-substituted imines and diphenylphosphine oxide and is catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate salt. A wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldimines substituted by electron-neutral benzhydryl or dibenzocycloheptene groups were excellent substrates for the addition reaction. The dibenzocycloheptene protected imines afforded improved enantioselectivity in the resulting products. Substituted diphenylphosphine oxide nucleophiles also showed good reactivity.

  8. Chiral Magnesium BINOL Phosphate-Catalyzed Phosphination of Imines: Access to Enantioenriched α-Amino Phosphine Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Gajendrasingh K.; Liang, Yuxue; Mormino, Michael G.; Li, Guilong; Fronczek, Frank R.; Antilla, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    A new method to synthesize chiral α-amino phosphine oxides is reported. The reaction combines N-substituted imines and diphenylphosphine oxide, and is catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate salt. A wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldimines substituted by electron neutral benzhydryl or dibenzocycloheptene groups were excellent substrates for the addition reaction. The dibenzocycloheptene protected imines afforded improved enantioselectivity in the resulting products. Substituted diphenylphosphine oxide nucleophiles also showed good reactivity. PMID:21413695

  9. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  10. THE HYDROLYSIS AND OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE DETERMINED BY CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K; Donald Anton, D; Joshua Gray, J; Bruce Hardy, B

    2008-03-13

    Lithium borohydride, magnesium hydride and the 2:1 'destabilized' ball milled mixtures (2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2}) underwent liquid phase hydrolysis, gas phase hydrolysis and air oxidation reactions monitored by isothermal calorimetry. The experimentally determined heats of reaction and resulting products were compared with those theoretically predicted using thermodynamic databases. Results showed a discrepancy between the predicted and observed hydrolysis and oxidation products due to both kinetic limitations and to the significant amorphous character of observed reaction products. Gas phase and liquid phase hydrolysis were the dominant reactions in 2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2} with approximately the same total energy release and reaction products; liquid phase hydrolysis displayed the maximum heat flow for likely environmental exposure with a peak energy release of 6 (mW/mg).

  11. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Song, Yang; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Jianan; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2011-04-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 µm were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E(corr)) and smaller corrosion currents (I(corr)) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 °C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  12. EPR study of the surface basicity of calcium oxide. 3. Surface reactivity and nonstoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Maria Cristina; Chiesa, Mario; Dolci, Francesco; Martino, Paola; Giamello, Elio

    2006-06-22

    High surface area polycrystalline calcium oxide forms ozonide O3- ions upon O2 adsorption and NO3(2-) anions under low pressures of NO. Both radical anions, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), are not observed in the case of the homologous magnesium oxide. This behavior reveals the presence, in CaO, of anomalies with respect to the ideal composition of an ionic oxide which are identified in terms of two main types of defects. The first type consists of positive holes dispersed in the bulk and originated by the unavoidable presence of Na+ ions in the composition of the solid. The decomposition of the surface ozonide shows the formation of a transient surface stabilized O- (the chemical notation of a positive hole associated to an oxide ion) which is for the first time reported at the surface of CaO. The second type of defect consists of surface peroxide groups (present at particular surface sites where they are formed by pairing of two distinct O-) which react with nitric oxide (NO) yielding NO3(2-) radical anions. The presence of peroxide is not related to the presence of impurities but, rather, to a certain propensity of the solid to form such ions at the surface along the dehydration process.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium oxide nanocrystallites and probing the vacancy-type defects through positron annihilation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anjan; Mandal, Atis Chandra; Roy, Soma; Prashanth, Pendem; Ahamed, Sk Izaz; Kar, Subhrasmita; Prasad, Mithun S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium oxide nanocrystallites exhibit certain abnormal characteristics when compared to those of other wide band gap oxide semiconductors in the sense they are most prone to water absorption and formation of a hydroxide layer on the surface. The problem can be rectified by heating and pure nanocrystallites can be synthesized with controllable sizes. Inevitably the defect properties are distinctly divided between two stages, the one with the hydroxide layer (region I) and the other after the removal of the layer by annealing (region II). The lattice parameters, the optical band gap and even the positron annihilation characteristics are conspicuous by their distinct behavior in the two stages of the surface configurations of nanoparticles. While region I was specific with the formation of positronium-hydrogen complexes that drastically altered the defect-specific positron lifetimes, pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium atoms marked region II. The vacancy clusters within the nanocrystallites also trapped positrons. They agglomerated due to the effect of the higher temperatures and resulted in the growth of the nanocrystallites. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic measurements supported these findings and all the more indicated the trapping of positrons additionally into the neutral divacancies and negatively charged trivacancies. This is apart from the Mg2+ monovacancies which acted as the dominant trapping centers for positrons.

  14. Microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bontrager, J; Mahapatro, A; Gomes, A S

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradable materials including biodegradable metals are continuously being investigated for the development of next generation cardiovascular stents. Predictive in vitro tests are needed that could evaluate potential materials while simulating in vivo conditions. In this manuscript we report the microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions. A corrosion test bench was designed and fabricated and static and dynamic corrosion tests were carried out with samples of magnesium alloy. The fluid wall shear stress equation and the Churchill's friction factor equation were used to calculate the fluid velocity required to generate the desired shear stress on samples in the test bench. Static and dynamic corrosion tests at 24 and 72 h were carried out at 0.88 Pa shear stress mimicking the in vivo shear stress. Microscopic evaluations of the corroded surfaces were carried out by optical, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate the corrosion behaviour and surface properties of the test samples. The surface and interface analysis of magnesium samples post test indicated that dynamic conditions prevented the build-up of corrosion by-products on the sample surface and the corrosion mechanism was uniform as compared to static conditions. The use of a masking element to restrict the exposed area of the sample didn't result in increased corrosion at the boundary. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the designed test bench as a viable method for bio-corrosion surface analysis under dynamic corrosion conditions for potential biodegradable cardiovascular stent materials.

  15. Antibiofilm surface functionalization of catheters by magnesium fluoride nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lellouche, Jonathan; Friedman, Alexandra; Lahmi, Roxanne; Gedanken, Aharon; Banin, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to colonize catheters is a major cause of infection. In the current study, catheters were surface-modified with MgF2 nanoparticles (NPs) using a sonochemical synthesis protocol described previously. The one-step synthesis and coating procedure yielded a homogenous MgF2 NP layer on both the inside and outside of the catheter, as analyzed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The coating thickness varied from approximately 750 nm to 1000 nm on the inner walls and from approximately 450 nm to approximately 580 nm for the outer wall. The coating consisted of spherical MgF2 NPs with an average diameter of approximately 25 nm. These MgF2 NP-modified catheters were investigated for their ability to restrict bacterial biofilm formation. Two bacterial strains most commonly associated with catheter infections, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were cultured in tryptic soy broth, artificial urine and human plasma on the modified catheters. The MgF2 NP-coated catheters were able to significantly reduce bacterial colonization for a period of 1 week compared to the uncoated control. Finally, the potential cytotoxicity of MgF2 NPs was also evaluated using human and mammalian cell lines and no significant reduction in the mitochondrial metabolism was observed. Taken together, our results indicate that the surface modification of catheters with MgF2 NPs can be effective in preventing bacterial colonization and can provide catheters with long-lasting self-sterilizing properties. PMID:22419866

  16. Study on the mechanism of surface modification of magnesium oxysulfate whisker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Li; Nai, Xueying; Zhu, Donghai; Jing, Yanwei; Liu, Xin; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic-lipophilic magnesium oxysulfate whisker (MOSw) was prepared by surface modification with lauric acid and the surface morphology of MOSw was examined with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystalline degree of MOSw and modified MOSw (MOSw-LA). Both FESEM and XRD suggested that modification occurred on the surface of MOSw exclusively. The inexistence of physisorbed lauric acid was proved by Fouier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analyses ruled out the possibility that magnesium laurate (LA-Mg) physisorbed on the surface of MOSw-LA. Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) further verified the formation of COO-Mg< bonds based on the significant changes of chemical shift and decrease in intensity. Hence, we confirmed that the type of surface modification of MOSw with lauric acid was chemical adsorption taken place between lauric acid and Mg<. In order to study the dynamic state approach of this reaction, a pH meter was employed to monitor the reaction process synchronously, and then we proposed a reaction mechanism which was similar to the "acid-base neutralization". This research provides a detailed explanation for a kind of surface modification, which may be further used in the performance of whisker/polymer matrix composites.

  17. Development of Laser Surface Technologies for Anti-Corrosion on Magnesium Alloys: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rujian; Guan, Yingchun; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been increasingly used in industries and biomaterial fields due to low density, high specific strength and biodegradability. However, poor surface-related properties are major factors that limit their practical applications. This paper mainly focuses on laser-based anti-corrosion technologies for Mg alloys, beginning with a brief review of conventional methods, and then demonstrates the feasibility of laser surface technologies including laser surface melting (LSM), laser surface alloying (LSA), laser surface cladding (LSC) and laser shock peening (LSP) in achieving enhancement of corrosion resistance. The mechanism and capability of each technique in corrosion resistance is carefully discussed. Finally, an outlook of the development of laser surface technology for Mg alloy is further concluded, aiming to serve as a guide for further research both in industry applications and biomedical devices.

  18. New method of treating dilute mineral acids using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Yabuuchi, Fumiko; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Uchida, Miho; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    2003-04-01

    Mineral acids, such as H(3)PO(4), H(2)SO(4), HCl, and HNO(3,) were treated with magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide), which behaved as a neutralizer and fixative of anions. Anion removal increased with increasing Mg-Al oxide quantity, time, Mg/Al molar ratio, and initial acid concentration. Up to 95% removal of anions was achieved in 0.5 N acids using a stoichiometric quantity of Mg(0.80)Al(0.20)O(1.10) for H(3)PO(4), 1.75 stoichiometric quantities for H(2)SO(4), or 2.5 stoichiometric quantities for HCl or HNO(3) at 20 degrees C over a period of 6 h. The final solutions were found to have a pH in the range of 8-12. Selectivity of acid removal was found to follow the following order: H(3)PO(4) > H(2)SO(4) > HCl > HNO(3). The equivalent of acid removal per 1 g of Mg-Al oxide decreased as the Mg/Al molar ratio of Mg-Al oxide increased.

  19. Nitric oxide further attenuates pulmonary hypertension in magnesium-treated piglets.

    PubMed

    Haas, Kelly Mullins; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Ineko; Ban, Kyoko; Tanaka, Taihei; Fukuda, Sumio; Togari, Hajime

    2002-12-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) commonly appears as a complication of several pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. The hypoxia possibly inhibits Ca2+ +/- dependent K+ channels, thus resulting in membrane depolarization of pulmonary smooth muscle cells, which leads to the opening of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ entry, resulting in contraction of the vascular smooth muscle. However, magnesium (Mg2+) is an antagonist of Ca2+. We studied the effect of magnesium sulfate on the treatment of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and compared to the site of action of nitric oxide (NO). Zero-day-old piglets were used in each experiment. The effects of Mg2+ were tested in each hypoxic, normoxic and hyperoxic states. Once the desired physical state was achieved, Mg2+ was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg approximately every 10 min. In order to determine the exact mechanism of the Mg2+, Nw-nitro-l-arginine (LNNA), a NO synthase-inhibitor, was administered simultaneously with Mg2+ in some of the experiments. There was a significant correlation between the percent reduction of the pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) caused by magnesium and the level of oxygen (O2) present in the pulmonary artery. The greatest amount of reduction was seen in the hypoxic condition where the least amount of O2 is found. A further reduction in the PAP was seen when NO was given at the end of the Mg2+ trials. There was no significant reduction seen in the systemic arterial pressure. Inhaled NO further reduced the PAP in piglets already treated with Mg2+.

  20. The effect of magnesium sulfate on bleeding time and nitric oxide production in preeclamsia.

    PubMed

    Moslemizade, Narges; Rafiei, Alireza; Yazdani, Fereshteh; Hosseini-khah, Zahra; Yusefnezhad, Keyvan

    2011-01-15

    Preeclampsia is a disease regarding with altered vascular reactivity leading to hypertension of the mother and metabolic alterations in the fetus. This study aimed to assess nitric oxide and bleeding time following administration of magnesium sulfate to preeclamtic patients compared to normotensive pregnant women. A total of 112 subjects (56 preeclamtic patients and 56 normotensive pregnant controls) were enrolled in this case-control study. Cases and controls were matched for age, BMI, gestational age, parity and gravidity. Total concentration of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) was measured before and during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) treatment using a modified Griess-based method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased during MgSO4 treatment in preeclamtic patients (p < 0.0001). NOx levels were significantly increased in preeclamtic women after MgSO4 administration (33.7 +/- 18.5 vs. 50.2 +/- 21.6, p < 0.0001) but it was not seen in normotensive parturients (52.4 +/- 28.9 vs. 57.3 +/- 21.7, p = 0.362). The bleeding time was scarcely increased following magnesium sulfate treatment in preeclamptic patients compared to normotensive pregnant women but it was not significant (p = 0.18). In addition, there was only a significantly reverse correlation between NOx levels and systolic or diastolic blood pressure in preeclamtic parturients after MgSO4 treatment (r = -0384; p = 0.003 and r = -0.29; p = 0.03, respectively). This study demonstrates that administrating MgSO4 to preeclamtic patients induced significant changes in NOx production which had a major role in modulating vasculature changes in preeclamsia.

  1. In vivo study of microarc oxidation coated biodegradable magnesium plate to heal bone fracture defect of 3mm width.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y F; Wang, Y M; Jing, Y B; Zhuang, J P; Yan, J L; Shao, Z K; Jin, M S; Wu, C J; Zhou, Y

    2017-06-23

    Microarc oxidation (MAO) coated magnesium (Mg) with improved corrosion resistance appeal increasing interests as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for fractured bone fixing implants application. However, the in vivo corrosion degradation of the implants and bone healing response are not well understood, which is highly required in clinic. In the present work, 10μm and 20μm thick biocompatible MAO coatings mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, CaSiO3 and Mg3(PO4)2 phases were fabricated on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The electrochemical tests indicated an improved corrosion resistance of magnesium by the MAO coatings. The 10μm and 20μm coated and uncoated magnesium plates were separately implanted into the radius bone fracture site of adult New Zealand white rabbits using a 3mm width bone fracture defect model to investigate the magnesium implants degradation and uninhibited bone healing. Taking advantage of the good biocompatibility of the MAO coatings, no adverse effects were detected through the blood test and histological examination. The implantation groups of coated and uncoated magnesium plates were both observed the promoting effect of bone fracture healing compared with the simple fracture group without implant. The releasing Mg(2+) by the degradation of implants into the fracture site improved the bone fracture healing, which is attributed to the magnesium promoting CGRP-mediated osteogenic differentiation. Mg degradation and bone fracture healing promoting must be tailored by microarc oxidation coating with different thickness for potential clinic application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Thermoluminescence properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses system doped with dysprosium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mhareb, M H A; Hashim, S; Ghoshal, S K; Alajerami, Y S M; Saleh, M A; Razak, N A B; Azizan, S A B

    2015-12-01

    We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters.

  3. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  4. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  5. Monitoring surface water chemistry near magnesium chloride dust suppressant treated roads in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Betsy A; Koski, Ronda D; Jacobi, William R

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)-based dust suppression products are commonly used throughout western United States on nonpaved roads for dust suppression and road stabilization by federal, state, and county transportation agencies. The environmental implications of annually applying these products throughout spring and summer months on adjacent stream chemistry are not known. Sixteen streams were monitored biweekly for 1 to 2 yr in two Colorado counties for a suite of water quality variables up and downstream of nonpaved roads treated with MgCl2-based dust suppression products. Eight of 16 streams had significantly higher downstream than upstream concentrations of chloride or magnesium over the entire monitoring period (pmagnesium concentrations ranged from 1.06 to 12.8 mg/L. Several other ions and compounds, including those commonly found in dust suppression products such as sodium, calcium, and sulfate, were also significantly higher downstream at some sites. Downstream electrical conductivity (EC), chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with road surface area draining water toward the stream and yearly amount of MgCl2 applied (R2=0.75, 0.51 and 0.49, respectively), indicating that road managers can limit the amount of product entering roadside streams by assessing drainage characteristics and application rates in best management practices. Although MgCl2-based dust suppressants did move into some roadside streams, the concentrations detected were below those reported to adversely affect fresh water aquatic organisms, but the ultimate fate of these ions in Colorado waterbodies are not known.

  6. Functional Improvement in Rats' Pancreatic Islets Using Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Through Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Pathways.

    PubMed

    Moeini-Nodeh, Shermineh; Rahimifard, Mahban; Baeeri, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    According to undiscovered toxicity and safety of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in isolated pancreatic islet cells, this study was designed to examine the effects of its various concentrations on a time-course basis on the oxidative stress, viability, and function of isolated islets of rat's pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated and exposed to different MgO NP (<100 nm) concentrations within three different time points. After that, oxidative stress biomarkers were investigated and the best exposure time was selected. Then, safety of MgO NPs was investigated by flow cytometry and fluorescent staining, and levels of insulin secretion and caspase activity were measured. The results illustrated a considerable decrease in oxidative stress markers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of pancreatic islets which were treated by MgO NPs for 24 h. Also, in that time of exposure, cell apoptosis investigation by flow cytometry and insulin test showed that MgO NPs, in a concentration of 100 μg/ml, decreased the rate of apoptotic cells via inhibiting caspase-9 activity and made a significant increase in the level of insulin secretion. Data of function and apoptosis biomarkers correlated with each other. It is concluded that the use of MgO NPs in concentration of as low as 100 μg/ml can induce antiapoptotic, antioxidative, and antidiabetic effects in rat pancreatic islets, which support its possible benefit in islet transplantation procedures.

  7. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  8. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  9. Oxidation of Ti silicide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, A.; Pirri, C.; Derrien, J.

    1985-04-01

    The oxidation of clean Ti suicide surface prepared under ultra high vacuum conditions, has been studied by ultraviolet and X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy techniques. At room temperature, the oxide overlayer is composed of both TiO 2 and SiO 2. An annealing at 400-600°C provokes the reduction of TiO 2 in the form of Ti suboxide while the liberated oxygen atoms bond to Si. This is not due to the presence of Si atoms and is rather an intrinsic property of native TiO 2. The simultaneous presence at high temperature of both SiO 2 and Ti suboxide is attributed to the existence of a rate limiting process due to diffusion barriers.

  10. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, J.; Arruebarrena, G.; Sáenz De Argandoña, E.; Ruiz De Eguino, G.; Infante, A.; Rodríguez, C. I.

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  11. Application Of Phenol/Amine Copolymerized Film Modified Magnesium Alloys: Anticorrosion And Surface Biofunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Yingqi; Zhao, Sheng; Chen, Meiyun; Li, Xin; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2015-11-11

    Magnesium metal as degradable metallic material is one of the most researched areas, but its rapid degradation rate restricts its development. The current anticorrosion surface modification methods require expensive equipment and complicated operation processes and cannot continue to introduce biofunction on modified surface. In this study, the GAHD conversion coatings were fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloys (MZM) by incubating in the mixture solution of gallic acid (GA) and hexamethylenediamine (HD) to decrease the corrosion rate and provide primary amines (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH), and quinone groups, which is supposed to introduce biomolecules on MZM. Chemical structures of the MZM-GAHD and MZM-HEP-GAHD were explored by analyzing the results of FTIR and XPS comprehensively. Furthermore, it was proved that the heparin (HEP) molecules were successfully immobilized on MZM-GAHD surface through carbodiimide method. The evaluation of platelet adhesion and clotting time test showed that MZM-HEP-GAHD had higher anticoagulation than MZM-GAHD. Through electrochemical detection (polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Nyquist spectrum) and immersion test (Mg(2+) concentration and weight loss), it was proved that compared to MZM, both the MZM-GAHD and MZM-HEP-GAHD significantly improved the corrosion resistance. Finally, in vivo experimentation indicated that mass loss had no significant difference between MZM-1:1, MZM-HEP-1:1, and MZM. However, the trend still suggested that MZM-1:1 and MZM-HEP-1:1 possessed corrosion resistance property.

  12. Interaction of free-base tetraphenylporphyrin with magnesium oxide: Influence of MgO morphology on metalation.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Gianluca; Classen, Andrej; Pöschel, Rebecca; Fauster, Thomas

    2017-02-14

    Using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the self-metalation of free-base tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) on thin MgO(100) films on Ag(100). The deposition of one monolayer 2HTPP on MgO results in the formation of magnesium(ii) tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) at room temperature. We demonstrate that the efficiency of the reaction drastically depends on the morphology of the oxide layers. The latter is changed by varying the substrate temperature during the oxide growth. We observe the complete metalation of the 2HTPP monolayer when the MgO films are grown at 393 K. The increase of the growth temperature to 573 K leads to the reduction of the percentage of metalated molecules to ∼50%. We ascribe these results to the fact that MgTPP formation takes place through the hydroxilation of steps and defects on the MgO surface, which leads to an increase of the OH component in the O 1s line.

  13. Interaction of free-base tetraphenylporphyrin with magnesium oxide: Influence of MgO morphology on metalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Gianluca; Classen, Andrej; Pöschel, Rebecca; Fauster, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the self-metalation of free-base tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) on thin MgO(100) films on Ag(100). The deposition of one monolayer 2HTPP on MgO results in the formation of magnesium(ii) tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) at room temperature. We demonstrate that the efficiency of the reaction drastically depends on the morphology of the oxide layers. The latter is changed by varying the substrate temperature during the oxide growth. We observe the complete metalation of the 2HTPP monolayer when the MgO films are grown at 393 K. The increase of the growth temperature to 573 K leads to the reduction of the percentage of metalated molecules to ˜50 % . We ascribe these results to the fact that MgTPP formation takes place through the hydroxilation of steps and defects on the MgO surface, which leads to an increase of the OH component in the O 1s line.

  14. Glancing-angle-deposited magnesium oxide films for high-fluence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Spaulding, J.; Rigatti, A. L.; Charles, B.; Papernov, S.; Taylor, B.; Foster, J.; Carr, C. W.; Luthi, R.; Hollingsworth, B.; Cross, D.

    2016-06-15

    Here, Birefringent magnesium oxide thin films are formed by glancing angle deposition to perform as quarter-wave plates at a wavelength of 351 nm. These films are being developed to fabricate a large aperture distributed-polarization rotator for use in vacuum, with an ultimate laser-damage–threshold goal of up to 12 J/cm2 for a 5-ns flat-in-time pulse. The laser-damage threshold, ease of deposition, and optical film properties are evaluated. While the measured large-area laser-damage threshold is limited to ~4 J/cm2 in vacuum, initial results based on small-spot testing in air (>20 J/cm2) suggest MgO may be suitable with further process development.

  15. Thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed and PECS-sintered magnesium-doped copper aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Morelli, Donald T

    2011-02-03

    Copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO{sub 2}) is considered as a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. Partially magnesium-doped CuAlO{sub 2} bulk pellets were fabricated using solid-state reactions, hot-pressing, and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were adopted for structural analysis. High-temperature transport property measurements were performed on hot-pressed samples. Electrical conductivity increased with Mg doping before secondary phases became significant, while the Seebeck coefficient displayed the opposite trend. Thermal conductivity was consistently reduced as the Mg concentration increased. Effects of Mg doping, preparation conditions, and future modification on this material’s properties are discussed.

  16. Glancing-angle-deposited magnesium oxide films for high-fluence applications

    DOE PAGES

    Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Spaulding, J.; ...

    2016-06-15

    Here, Birefringent magnesium oxide thin films are formed by glancing angle deposition to perform as quarter-wave plates at a wavelength of 351 nm. These films are being developed to fabricate a large aperture distributed-polarization rotator for use in vacuum, with an ultimate laser-damage–threshold goal of up to 12 J/cm2 for a 5-ns flat-in-time pulse. The laser-damage threshold, ease of deposition, and optical film properties are evaluated. While the measured large-area laser-damage threshold is limited to ~4 J/cm2 in vacuum, initial results based on small-spot testing in air (>20 J/cm2) suggest MgO may be suitable with further process development.

  17. Toxic effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on early developmental and larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ghobadian, Mehdi; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Parivar, Kazem; Fathi, Mojtaba; Pazooki, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) are used in medicine, manufacturing and food industries. Because of their extensive application in our daily lives, environmental exposure to these nanoparticles is inevitable. The present study examined the effects of MgONPs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stages. The results showed that, at different concentrations, MgONPs induced cellular apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The hatching rate and survival of embryos decreased in a dose dependent manner. The 96-h LC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish survival was 428 mg/l and the 48-h EC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish embryo hatching rate was 175 mg/l. Moreover different types of malformation were observed in exposed embryos. The results demonstrate the toxic effects of MgONPs on zebrafish embryos and emphasize the need for further studies.

  18. Numerical simulation of early stages of oxide formation in molten aluminium magnesium alloys in a reverberatory furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanti De, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sen, Swarnendu; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2004-05-01

    A significant amount of aluminium is processed by melting aluminium scrap that contains small amounts of magnesium. A major drawback of aluminium production in secondary melt furnaces is the formation of dross or aluminium oxide by the oxidation of the molten metal. Since aluminium scrap forms a major source of the metal in secondary aluminium processing, the presence of alloying elements plays a key role in the oxidation process. Here, we consider the early stage of oxidation of an Al-Mg alloy during which primarily the oxidation of magnesium to its oxide occurs. Our model simulates the process in an aluminium melting furnace and considers metal oxidation to be diffusion limited. The phenomenon is assumed to be one-dimensional and the reaction of Al/Mg with O2 to be infinitely fast. We are able to obtain a closed form analytical solution of the evaporation rate and the amount of oxide that is formed. We find that the evaporation of the metal vapour and its oxidation depend on the furnace size, melt composition, melt temperature, gas temperature and oxygen concentration in the gas. Oxide formation decreases with increasing furnace height and with decreasing oxygen concentration and melt temperature. Dross formation is weakly dependent on the ambient temperature and alloy composition. The results indicate that there are essentially two parameters, namely, the equivalence ratio of the fuel-air mixture (which controls the ambient oxygen concentration) and the melt temperature that can be manipulated to influence oxide formation in practical furnaces.

  19. On the surface properties of biodegrading magnesium and its alloys: a survey and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Kirkland, N. T.; Chen, X. B.; Lyndon, J. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys present exceptional promise as functional implants, as evidenced by the significant research effort associated with the topic in recent years. However, a salient point regarding the degradation of Mg and Mg-alloys—in any aqueous environment, including biological media—is the certain presence and accumulation of surface films, representing dissolution products. The corrosion of Mg does not require that bare metal surfaces be presented to the surrounding environment, it follows that any tissue or cells in the immediate vicinity of a Mg-based implant will therefore be in intimate contact with the dissolution products of Mg. To this end, the present work describes the typical Mg/Mg-alloy surface evolution during dissolution in biological media, and the associated factors which govern the morphology and control of surface films. This combines original research with review, finishing with prospects for further illumination.

  20. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  1. Stabilization of magnesium dichloride surface defects by mono- and bidentate donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklin, Mikhail S.; Bazhenov, Andrey S.; Denifl, Peter; Leinonen, Timo; Linnolahti, Mikko; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the stabilization of magnesium dichloride surfaces by mono- and bidentate electron donors typically used in heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerization catalysis: tetrahydrofuran, ethyl benzoate, 2,2-dimethyl 1,3-dimethoxy propane, 2S,2R-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl) propane, dimethyl phthalate, and dimethyl succinate. Structural defects are generated into the ideal (104) and (110) MgCl2 surfaces, and both ideal and defective surfaces are saturated by the donors. The quantum chemical calculations (PBE0 density functional theory method), performed with periodic boundary conditions, show that all donors stabilize all surfaces. Stabilization energy of the surfaces by the ethers is linearly dependent on surface site coordination, the four-coordinate (110) surface being stabilized the most, the five-coordinate (104) surface the least, and all the defective structure fitting in between the two limiting cases of the ideal surfaces. However, the esters can additionally stabilize the defective surfaces depending on the steric effects at the point of coordination. The results suggest that defects need to be taken into account to properly address the surface-donor complexation.

  2. Nanoparticle coating on the silane-modified surface of magnesium for local drug delivery and controlled corrosion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min; Kim, Myung Hun; Park, Chun Gwon; Huh, Beom Kang; Seok, Hyun Kwang; Choy, Young Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a potential method for the preparation of a magnesium-based medical device for local drug delivery and controlled corrosion. A magnesium surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane, and the resulting surface was then coated with drug-loaded nanoparticles made of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) via electrophoretic deposition. The drug-loaded nanoparticles (i.e., Tr_NP) exhibited a size of 250 ± 67 nm and a negative zeta potential of -20.9 ± 2.75 mV. The drug was released from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner for 21 days, and this did not change after their coating on the silane-modified magnesium. The silane-modified surface suppressed magnesium corrosion. When immersed in phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4, the average rate of hydrogen gas generation was 0.41-0.45 ml/cm(2)/day, compared to 0.58-0.6 ml/cm(2)/day from a bare magnesium surface. This corrosion profile was not significantly changed after nanoparticle coating under the conditions employed in this work. The in vitro cell test revealed that the drug released from the coating was effective during the whole release period of 21 days, and both the silane-modified surface and carrier nanoparticles herein were not cytotoxic. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Nitric oxide mediates low magnesium inhibition of osteoblast-like cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Leidi, Marzia; Dellera, Federica; Mariotti, Massimo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Crapanzano, Calogero; Albisetti, Walter; Maier, Jeanette A M

    2012-10-01

    An adequate intake of magnesium (Mg) is important for bone cell activity and contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis. Because (a) Mg is mitogenic for osteoblasts and (b) reduction of osteoblast proliferation is detected in osteoporosis, we investigated the influence of different concentrations of extracellular Mg on osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cell behavior. We found that low Mg inhibited SaOS-2 cell proliferation by increasing the release of nitric oxide through the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Indeed, both pharmacological inhibition with the iNOS inhibitor l-N(6)-(iminoethyl)-lysine-HCl and genetic silencing of iNOS by small interfering RNA restored the normal proliferation rate of the cells. Because a moderate induction of nitric oxide is sufficient to potentiate bone resorption and a relative deficiency in osteoblast proliferation can result in their inadequate activity, we conclude that maintaining Mg homeostasis is relevant to ensure osteoblast function and, therefore, to prevent osteoporosis.

  4. Detection of the adsorption of water monolayers through the ion oscillation frequency in the magnesium oxide lattice by means of low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara-Bertsch, M.; Avendaño, E.; Ramírez-Hidalgo, G.; Chavarría-Sibaja, A.; Araya-Pochet, J. A.; Herrera-Sancho, O. A.

    2016-03-15

    We investigate the variation of the oscillation frequency of the Mg{sup 2+} and O{sup 2−} ions in the magnesium oxide lattice due to the interactions of the surface with water monolayers by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction. Our key result is a new technique to determine the adsorbate vibrations produced by the water monolayers on the surface lattice as a consequence of their change in the surface Debye temperature and its chemical shift. The latter was systematically investigated for different annealing times and for a constant external thermal perturbation in the range of 110–300 K in order to accomplish adsorption or desorption of water monolayers in the surface lattice.

  5. Technique for surface oxidation of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Golden, T.C.

    1987-10-27

    A method of activating a carbon adsorbent is described, which comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mild oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidizing carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent. In a process for the removal of water or carbon dioxide from a gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide of the type wherein the gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide is contacted with a solid phase adsorbent under pressure-swing adsorption or thermal-swing adsorption processing conditions, the improvement is described comprising utilizing an adsorbent produced by the activation of a carbon adsorbent. The activation comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mold oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidized carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent.

  6. Surface properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy after PEO treatment using molybdate salts and low current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzato, Luca; Brunelli, Katya; Napolitani, Enrico; Magrini, Maurizio; Dabalà, Manuele

    2015-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process is a recently developed electrochemical method used to produce on the surface of various metals oxide ceramic coatings that improve corrosion and wear properties of the substrate. In this work, PEO process was applied on AZ91 magnesium alloy using low current densities (0.05 A/cm2) and an alkaline solution of silicates with different concentrations of sodium molybdate (0.3-3 g/l). The effect of the low current densities of process and of molybdate salts on the corrosion resistance of the coatings was studied with potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride and sulfate environment. The morphology, the phases and the chemical composition of the coatings were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion properties of the PEO coated samples were remarkably improved if compared with the uncoated samples. The addition of sodium molybdate, in determinate conditions, had a positive effect on the characteristics of the coatings in terms of corrosion resistance.

  7. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  8. Experimental evidence for a phase transition in magnesium oxide at exoplanet pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Coppari, F.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; ...

    2013-09-22

    Here, magnesium oxide, an important component of the Earth’s mantle, has been extensively studied in the pressure and temperature range found within the Earth. However,much less is known about its behavior under conditions appropriate for newly-discovered super-Earth planets, where pressures can exceed 1000 GPa (10 Mbar). It is widely believed that MgO will follow the rocksalt (B1) to cesium chloride (B2) transformation pathway commonly found for many alkali halides, alkaline earth oxides and various other ionic compounds. Static compression experiments have determined the structure of MgO to 250 GPa but have been unable to reach pressures necessary to induce themore » predicted transformation, resulting in large uncertainties regarding its properties under conditions relevant to super-Earths and other large planets. Here we report new dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements of ramp-compressed MgO to 900 GPa.We report evidence for the B2 phase beginning near 600 GPa, remaining stable on further compression to 900 GPa, the highest pressure diffraction data ever collected.« less

  9. Experimental evidence for a phase transition in magnesium oxide at exoplanet pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Coppari, F.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Wang, J.; Rygg, J. R.; Lazicki, A.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Collins, G. W.; Duffy, T. S.

    2013-09-22

    Here, magnesium oxide, an important component of the Earth’s mantle, has been extensively studied in the pressure and temperature range found within the Earth. However,much less is known about its behavior under conditions appropriate for newly-discovered super-Earth planets, where pressures can exceed 1000 GPa (10 Mbar). It is widely believed that MgO will follow the rocksalt (B1) to cesium chloride (B2) transformation pathway commonly found for many alkali halides, alkaline earth oxides and various other ionic compounds. Static compression experiments have determined the structure of MgO to 250 GPa but have been unable to reach pressures necessary to induce the predicted transformation, resulting in large uncertainties regarding its properties under conditions relevant to super-Earths and other large planets. Here we report new dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements of ramp-compressed MgO to 900 GPa.We report evidence for the B2 phase beginning near 600 GPa, remaining stable on further compression to 900 GPa, the highest pressure diffraction data ever collected.

  10. Development and evaluation of magnesium oxide-based ceramics for chamber parts in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Kota; Mitomi, Shinzo; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In mass-production plasma etching equipment, the corrosion of ceramic chamber parts reduces the production yield of LSI and overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) owing to contamination, short useful life, and particle generation. Novel ceramics that can improve the production yield and OEE are highly required. We develop magnesium oxide (MgO)-based ceramics and evaluate them under mass-production plasma etching conditions. The results of this study indicate that the developed MgO-based ceramics with high mechanical properties and low electric resistivity have a higher resistance to corrosion in plasma etching using CF4 gas than Si and conventional ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide and yttrium oxide.

  11. Tensile strain effect in ferroelectric perovskite oxide thin films on spinel magnesium aluminum oxide substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolan

    Ferroelectrics are used in FeRAM (Ferroelectric random-access memory). Currently (Pb,Zr)TiO3 is the most common ferroelectric material. To get lead-free and high performance ferroelectric material, we investigated perovskite ferroelectric oxides (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and BiFeO3 films with strain. Compressive strain has been investigated intensively, but the effects of tensile strain on the perovskite films have yet to be explored. We have deposited (Ba,Sr)TiO3, BiFeO3 and related films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and analyzed the films by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. To obtain inherently fully strained films, the selection of the appropriate substrates is crucial. MgAl2O4 matches best with good quality and size, yet the spinel structure has an intrinsic incompatibility to that of perovskite. We introduced a rock-salt structure material (Ni 1-xAlxO1+delta) as a buffer layer to mediate the structural mismatch for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. With buffer layer Ni1-xAlxO1+delta, we show that the BST films have high quality crystallization and are coherently epitaxial. AFM images show that the films have smoother surfaces when including the buffer layer, indicating an inherent compatibility between BST-NAO and NAO-MAO. In-plane Ferroelectricity measurement shows double hysteresis loops, indicating an antiferroelectric-like behavior: pinned ferroelectric domains with antiparallel alignments of polarization. The Curie temperatures of the coherent fully strained BST films are also measured. It is higher than 900°C, at least 800°C higher than that of bulk. The improved Curie temperature makes the use of BST as FeRAM feasible. We found that the special behaviors of ferroelectricity including hysteresis loop and Curie temperature are due to inherent fully tensile strain. This might be a clue of physics inside ferroelectric stain engineering. An out-of-plane ferroelectricity measurement would provide a full whole story of the tensile strain. However, a

  12. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers using a silane coupling agent by dry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Donghai; Nai, Xueying; Lan, Shengjie; Bian, Shaoju; Liu, Xin; Li, Wu

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers with polymers, the surface of MHSH whiskers was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process. The possible mechanism of the surface modification and the interfacial interactions between MHSH whiskers and VTES, as well as the effect of surface modification, were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the agglomerations were effectively separated and a thin layer was formed on the surface of the whiskers after modification. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the VTES molecules were bound to the surface of MHSH whiskers after modification. Chemical bonds (Sisbnd Osbnd Mg) were formed by the reaction between Sisbnd OC2H5 or Sisbnd OH and the hydroxyl group of MHSH whiskers. The effect of surface modification was evaluated by sedimentation tests, contact angle measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the surface of MHSH whiskers was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MHSH whiskers were significantly improved in the organic phase. Additionally, the thermal stability of the VTES-modified MHSH whiskers was improved significantly.

  13. Bulk and surface properties of magnesium peroxide MgO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Tobit R.; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium peroxide has been identified in Mg/air batteries as an intermediate in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [1]. It is assumed that MgO2 is involved in the solid-electrolyte interphase on the cathode surface. Therefore its structure and stability play a crucial role in the performance of Mg/air batteries. In this work we present a theoretical study of the bulk and low-index surface properties of MgO2. All methods give a good account of the experimental lattice parameters for MgO2 and MgO bulk. The reaction energies, enthalpies and free energies for MgO2 formation from MgO are compared among the different DFT methods and with the local MP2 method. A pronounced dependence from the applied functional is found. At variance with a previous theoretical study but in agreement with recent experiments we find that the MgO2 formation reaction is endothermic (HSE06-D3BJ: ΔH = 51.9 kJ/mol). The stability of low-index surfaces MgO2 (001) (Es = 0.96 J/m2) and (011) (Es = 1.98 J/m2) is calculated and compared to the surface energy of MgO (001). The formation energy of neutral oxygen vacancies in the topmost layer of the MgO2 (001) surface is calculated and compared with defect formation energies for MgO (001).

  14. Collagen Self-Assembly on Orthopedic Magnesium Biomaterials Surface and Subsequent Bone Cell Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) biomaterials are a new generation of biodegradable materials and have promising potential for orthopedic applications. After implantation in bone tissues, these materials will directly interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules and bone cells. Type I collagen, the major component of bone ECM, forms the architecture scaffold that provides physical support for bone cell attachment. However, it is still unknown how Mg substrate affects collagen assembly on top of it as well as subsequent cell attachment and growth. Here, we studied the effects of collagen monomer concentration, pH, assembly time, and surface roughness of two Mg materials (pure Mg and AZ31) on collagen fibril formation. Results showed that formation of fibrils would not initiate until the monomer concentration reached a certain level depending on the type of Mg material. The thickness of collagen fibril increased with the increase of assembly time. The structures of collagen fibrils formed on semi-rough surfaces of Mg materials have a high similarity to that of native bone collagen. Next, cell attachment and growth after collagen assembly were examined. Materials with rough surface showed higher collagen adsorption but compromised bone cell attachment. Interestingly, surface roughness and collagen structure did not affect cell growth on AZ31 for up to a week. Findings from this work provide some insightful information on Mg-tissue interaction at the interface and guidance for future surface modifications of Mg biomaterials. PMID:25303459

  15. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meininger, M; Wolf-Brandstetter, C; Zerweck, J; Wenninger, F; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr(2+) ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr(2+) into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr(2+) ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant-bone interface.

  16. Nanoscale analysis of surface oxides on ZnMgAl hot-dip-coated steel sheets.

    PubMed

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Itani, H; Hesser, G; Riener, C K; Angeli, G; Preis, K; Stifter, D; Hingerl, K

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the first few nanometres of the surface of ZnMgAl hot-dip-galvanised steel sheets were analysed by scanning Auger electron spectroscopy, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Although the ZnMgAl coating itself is exhibiting a complex micro-structure composed of several different phases, it is shown that the topmost surface is covered by a smooth, homogeneous oxide layer consisting of a mixture of magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide, exhibiting a higher amount of magnesium than aluminium and a total film thickness of 4.5 to 5 nm. Especially by the combined analytical approach of surface-sensitive methods, it is directly demonstrated for the first time that within surface imprints--created by industrial skin rolling of the steel sheet which ensures a smooth surface appearance as well as reduced yield-point phenomenon--the original, smooth oxide layer is partly removed and that a layer of native oxides, exactly corresponding to the chemical structure of the underlying metal phases, is formed.

  17. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tony; He, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achieving more than 7 log reductions in bacterial counts. The antibacterial activity of MgO NP increased as the concentrations of MgO increased. A synergistic effect of MgO in combination with nisin was observed as well. However, the addition of ZnO NP to MgO NP did not enhance the antibacterial activity of MgO against both pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphological changes of E. coli O157:H7 before and after antimicrobial treatments. It was revealed that MgO NP treatments distort and damage the cell membrane, resulting in a leakage of intracellular contents and eventually the death of bacterial cells. These results suggest that MgO NP alone or in combination with nisin could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent to enhance food safety.

  18. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, AbdulAziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera. PMID:26611737

  19. Mechanism by Which Magnesium Oxide Suppresses Tablet Hardness Reduction during Storage.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Kachi, Shigeto; Nakamura, Shohei; Miki, Shinsuke; Kitajima, Hideaki; Yuasa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the inclusion of magnesium oxide (MgO) maintained tablet hardness during storage in an unpackaged state. Tablets were prepared with a range of MgO levels and stored at 40°C with 75% relative humidity for up to 14 d. The hardness of tablets prepared without MgO decreased over time. The amount of added MgO was positively associated with tablet hardness and mass from an early stage during storage. Investigation of the water sorption properties of the tablet components showed that carmellose water sorption correlated positively with the relative humidity, while MgO absorbed and retained moisture, even when the relative humidity was reduced. In tablets prepared using only MgO, a petal- or plate-like material was observed during storage. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry showed that this material was hydromagnesite, produced when MgO reacts with water and CO2. The estimated level of hydromagnesite at each time-point showed a significant negative correlation with tablet porosity. These results suggested that MgO suppressed storage-associated softening by absorbing moisture from the environment. The conversion of MgO to hydromagnesite results in solid bridge formation between the powder particles comprising the tablets, suppressing the storage-related increase in volume and increasing tablet hardness.

  20. Indium Tin Oxide-Magnesium Fluoride Co-Deposited Films for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joycer A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hambourger, Paul D.; Bruckner, Eric; Ferrante, Rhea; Pal, Anna Marie; Mayer, Karen; Pietromica, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Highly transparent coatings with a maximum sheet resistivity between 10(exp 8) and 10(exp 9) ohms/square are desired to prevent charging of solar arrays for low Earth polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit missions. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) were ion beam sputter co-deposited onto fused silica substrates and were evaluated for transmittance, sheet resistivity and the effects of simulated space environments including atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Optical properties and sheet resistivity as a function of MgF2 content in the films will be presented. Films containing 8.4 wt.% MgF2 were found to be highly transparent and provided sheet resistivity in the required range. These films maintained a high transmittance upon exposure to AO and to VUV radiation, although exposure to AO in the presence of charged species and intense electromagnetic radiation caused significant degradation in film transmittance. Sheet resistivity of the as-fabricated films increased with time in ambient conditions. Vacuum beat treatment following film deposition caused a reduction in sheet resistivity. However, following vacuum heat treatment, sheet resistivity values remained stable during storage in ambient conditions.

  1. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  2. A Icecap Study of the Lithium Trapped-Hole Center in Magnesium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jun

    1990-01-01

    The lithium trapped-hole center in magnesium oxide is an Li^+ ion in the vacancy of an Mg^{2+} ion with a hole trapped at a nearest O^{2-} ion. This defect center has been studied by means of experimental methods and classical simulations. But no quantum-mechanical simulation has been reported. In this work, a quantum-mechanical embedded cluster technique is applied to examine some of the properties of this defect center, using the simulation program package ICECAP, which is the abbreviation for Ionic Crystal with Electronic Clusters, Automatic Program. With this technique, the infinite crystal is simulated as an electronic cluster embedded in a classical shell-model lattice. The electronic cluster (also called defect cluster here), which contains the trapped-hole center, is treated quantum-mechanically by using the unrestricted -Hartree Fock method developed by A. B. Kunz and his co -workers. The second-order many-body-perturbation-theory (MBPT) correlation correction is included in the calculation where feasible. Different types and sizes of defect cluster are used. The equilibrium configurations of the clusters are obtained by energy minimization. The results show very consistently that the Li^+ ion and the O^- ion (the O ^{2-} ion with the trapped hole) move toward each other and the axial O^ {2-} ion moves away from the Li ^+ ion. Also, the contribution of the correlation correction is significant in the determination of the equilibrium configuration.

  3. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera.

  4. [Mechanism and technology of recovery flue gas desulphurization with magnesium oxide].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ke; Chai, Ming; Xu, Kang-fu; Ma, Yong-liang

    2006-05-01

    Taking magnesium oxide slurry as absorption solution, the simulation of bubbling absorption process of mixed SO2 gases was observed in laboratory. Experiment results show that with a high efficiency and stable situation, acidification of absorbing solution was caused by HSO3-; the acidification trend was in accordance with the pattern of hydrolyzing of SO2, pH changes slowly at high pH value with SO3(2-) and rapidly at low value with HSO3-. The experiments also show the insensitive effect of liquid temperature on the high desulphurization efficiency. With relatively high dissolution rate and oxidizability of MgSO3 as well as the high solubility of MgSO4, the desulphurization efficiency utilization of MgO. Industrial experiment of FGD of coal-fired boiler showed that by recycling absorbing liquid could be raised to the concentration of MgSO4 to the saturation concentration at the operation temperature (40-50 degrees C) without any adverse effects on FGD efficiency. Refinement and enrichment of active substance could promote the desulphurization process, thus showed the availability of technical and economy feasibility of recovery technology.

  5. Lattice distortion and electronic structure of magnesium-doped nickel oxide epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanna; Sakata, Osami; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Yang, Anli; Kumara, Loku Singgappulige Rosantha; Song, Chulho; Palina, Natalia; Taguchi, Munetaka; Ina, Toshiaki; Katsuya, Yoshio; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium-doped nickel oxide (MgxNi1 -xO ) thin films are transparent over a wide ultraviolet-visible spectral range and over a wide Mg content range. However, the influence of the Mg dopant on the structure and properties of NiO films is poorly understood. In this work, the lattice distortion and the electronic structure of MgxNi1 -xO (0 ≤x ≤0.52 ) thin films deposited on ultrasmooth sapphire substrates were investigated using synchrotron x rays. Films with higher Mg content had lower values of Debye temperature and atomic order parameter. The nearest Ni-O distance and the in-plane nearest Ni-Ni distance both expanded with increasing Mg content. The Ni 2 p core-level spectra and the valence band spectra of the MgxNi1 -xO thin films showed complex multiplet structures that were caused by the strong electron correlation in the Ni 3 d states, where the spectral features are strongly dependent on both the distortion of the NiO6 octahedra and the Mg content. We found that the electronic structures are mainly a result of hybridization of Ni 3 d and O 2 p in the NiO6 octahedra and the reduction of the Zhang-Rice bound state following Mg doping. Finally, the flexibility of the band gap tuning in MgxNi1 -xO thin films is explained.

  6. Luminescence features of dysprosium and phosphorus oxide co-doped lithium magnesium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Mhareb, M. H. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Alajerami, Y. S. M.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Lithium magnesium borate (LMB) glass system co-doped with the oxides of dysprosium (Dy2O3) and phosphorus (P2O5) were synthesized using melt-quenching method. Prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to determine the effects of co-dopants concentration variation on their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. TL glow curves of LMB:0.5Dy sample revealed a single prominent peak at Tm=190 °C, where TL intensity was enhanced by a factor of 2.5 with the increase of P2O5 concentration up to 1 mol%. This enhancement was accompanied by a shift in Tm towards higher temperature. Good linearity in the range of 1-100 Gy with linear correlation coefficient of 0.998 was achieved. PL spectra displayed two significant peaks centred at 481 nm and 573 nm. These attractive luminescence features of the proposed glass system may be useful for the development of radiation dosimetry.

  7. Mesoporous magnesium oxide nanoparticles derived via complexation-combustion for enhanced performance in carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Vishwanath; Shavi, Raghavendra; Gil Seo, Jeong

    2017-03-10

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture at high temperature applicable to pre-combustion capture in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) scheme. In this work, mesoporous MgO nanoparticles were synthesized via simple complexation-combustion method by using glycine (G) and urea (U) as fuels (F). The obtained sorbents were thoroughly characterized in terms of the crystalline structure, morphology, nature of the fuel, F/O ratio, and their consequent effects on CO2 sorption. It was observed that due to the complexation followed by combustion in the presence of glycine, MgO with crystallite size as small as∼8nm could be derived. The synthesized MgO nanoparticles exhibited exceptionally high CO2 sorption at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, CO2 sorption isotherms in assistance with FT-IR and DSC experiments demonstrated that the low CO2 uptake at ambient temperature (25-100°C) may be due to the formation of monodentate carbonates, whereas predominant bicarbonates enhance the CO2 uptake at elevated temperatures (100-300°C). MgO-1.5(G) obtained the highest sorption corresponding to 1.34mmol/g at 200°C.

  8. Effect of Food Thickener on Dissolution and Laxative Activity of Magnesium Oxide Tablets in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Kato, Kazushige; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the dissolution of magnesium oxide (MgO) from MgO tablets placed in a food thickening agent (food thickener) and its effects on laxative activity. We prepared mixtures of MgO tablets suspended in an aqueous suspension and food thickeners in order to evaluate the dissolution of MgO. The results of the dissolution tests revealed that agar-based food thickeners did not affect the MgO dissolution. In contrast, some xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates with certain mixtures containing disintegrated MgO tablets suspended in a food thickener that decrease over time. However, other xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates that decrease immediately after mixing, regardless of the time they were allowed to stand. In order to investigate the laxative activity of MgO, we orally administered a mixture of MgO suspension and food thickener to mice and observed their bowel movements. The animal experiments showed that when agar-based food thickeners were used, the laxative activity of MgO was not affected, but it decreased when xanthan gum-based food thickeners were used.

  9. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, AbdulAziz A; Fouad, H; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2015-11-27

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera.

  10. In vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Madadgar, Omid

    2015-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. No antiviral therapies are available for treating FMD virus (FMDV) infections in animals. The antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) on the FMDV were investigated in cell culture. The viability of the cells after MgO NP treatment was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The direct effects of MgO NPs on the FMDV in extracellular (virucidal assay) and also different stages of virus replication (antiviral assay) were evaluated by plaque reduction assay. The results showed that MgO NPs were safe at concentrations up to 250 µg/ml in the Razi Bovine kidney cell line. The treatments with NPs indicated that the MgO NPs exerted in vitro virucidal and antiviral activities. Plaque reduction assay revealed that MgO NPs can inhibit FMDV by more than 90% at the early stages of infection such as attachment and penetration but not after penetration. The results of this study suggested that NPs might be applied locally as an antiviral agent in early stages of infection in susceptible animals.

  11. Multi-frequency ferromagnetic resonance investigation of nickel nanocubes encapsulated in diamagnetic magnesium oxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Saritha; Nori, Sudhakar; Singamaneni, Srinivasa R.; Prater, John T.; Narayan, Jagdish; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2016-12-01

    Partially aligned nickel nanocubes were grown epitaxially in a diamagnetic magnesium oxide (MgO:Ni) host and studied by a continuous wave ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy at the X-band (9.5 GHz) from ca. 117 to 458 K and then at room temperature for multiple external magnetic fields/resonant frequencies from 9.5 to 330 GHz. In contrast to conventional magnetic susceptibility studies that provided data on the bulk magnetization, the FMR spectra revealed the presence of three different types of magnetic Ni nanocubes in the sample. Specifically, three different ferromagnetic resonances were observed in the X-band spectra: a line 1 assigned to large nickel nanocubes, a line 2 corresponding to the nanocubes exhibiting saturated magnetization even at ca. 0.3 T field, and a high field line 3 (geff ˜ 6.2) tentatively assigned to small nickel nanocubes likely having their hard magnetization axis aligned along or close to the direction of the external magnetic field. Based on the analysis of FMR data, the latter nanocubes possess an anisotropic internal magnetic field of at least ˜1.0 T in magnitude.

  12. Diagenesis-inspired reaction of magnesium ions with surface enamel mineral modifies properties of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Eimar, Hazem; Bassett, David C; Schnabel, Martin; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Nelea, Valentin; McKee, Marc D; Cerruti, Marta; Tamimi, Faleh

    2016-06-01

    Mineralized tissues such as teeth and bones consist primarily of highly organized apatitic calcium-phosphate crystallites within a complex organic matrix. The dimensions and organization of these apatite crystallites at the nanoscale level determine in part the physical properties of mineralized tissues. After death, geological processes such as diagenesis and dolomitization can alter the crystallographic properties of mineralized tissues through cycles of dissolution and re-precipitation occurring in highly saline environments. Inspired by these natural exchange phenomena, we investigated the effect of hypersalinity on tooth enamel. We discovered that magnesium ions reacted with human tooth enamel through a process of dissolution and re-precipitation, reducing enamel crystal size at the surface of the tooth. This change in crystallographic structure made the teeth harder and whiter. Salt-water rinses have been used for centuries to ameliorate oral infections; however, our discovery suggests that this ancient practice could have additional unexpected benefits. Here we describe an approach inspired by natural geological processes to modify the properties of a biomineral - human tooth enamel. In this study we showed that treatment of human tooth enamel with solutions saturated with magnesium induced changes in the nanocrystals at the outer surface of the protective enamel layer. As a consequence, the physical properties of the tooth were modified; tooth microhardness increased and the color shade became whiter, thus suggesting that this method could be used as a clinical treatment to improve dental mechanical properties and esthetics. Such an approach is simple and straightforward, and could also be used to develop new strategies to synthesize and modify biominerals for biomedical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  14. Atomistic details of oxide surfaces and surface oxidation: the example of copper and its oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattinoni, Chiara; Michaelides, Angelos

    2015-11-01

    The oxidation and corrosion of metals are fundamental problems in materials science and technology that have been studied using a large variety of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review some of the recent studies that have led to significant advances in our atomic-level understanding of copper oxide, one of the most studied and best understood metal oxides. We show that a good atomistic understanding of the physical characteristics of cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric (CuO) oxide and of some key processes of their formation has been obtained. Indeed, the growth of the oxide has been shown to be epitaxial with the surface and to proceed, in most cases, through the formation of oxide nano-islands which, with continuous oxygen exposure, grow and eventually coalesce. We also show how electronic structure calculations have become increasingly useful in helping to characterise the structures and energetics of various Cu oxide surfaces. However a number of challenges remain. For example, it is not clear under which conditions the oxidation of copper in air at room temperature (known as native oxidation) leads to the formation of a cuprous oxide film only, or also of a cupric overlayer. Moreover, the atomistic details of the nucleation of the oxide islands are still unknown. We close our review with a brief perspective on future work and discuss how recent advances in experimental techniques, bringing greater temporal and spatial resolution, along with improvements in the accuracy, realism and timescales achievable with computational approaches make it possible for these questions to be answered in the near future.

  15. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. C.; Hao, S. Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R. F.

    2014-06-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg17Al12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ∼15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg3.1Al0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg17Al12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  16. Effect of surface roughness on the in vitro degradation behaviour of a biodegradable magnesium-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, R.; Kannan, M. Bobby; He, Y.; Sandham, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy with two different surface finishes was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The polarisation resistance (Rp) of the rough surface alloy immersed in SBF for 3 h was ~30% lower as compared to that of the smooth surface alloy. After 12 h immersion in SBF, the Rp values for both the surface finishes decreased and were also similar. However, localised degradation occurred sooner, and to a noticeably higher severity in the rough surface alloy as compared to the smooth surface alloy.

  17. The protective effect of magnesium lithospermate B against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jian; Ren, Xian; Hou, Rui-ying; Dai, Xing-ping; Zhao, Ying-chun; Xu, Xiao-jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Gan; Zhou, Hong-hao; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. {yields} LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. {yields} LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. {yields} The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway. -- Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by high dose of glucose or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we explored the influences of LAB on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HEK293T cells after treatment with high dose of glucose. Materials and methods: The total nuclear proteins in HEK293T cells were extracted with Cytoplasmic Protein Extraction Kit. The ROS level was determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Results: LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. The amount of Nrf2 translocation was enhanced after cells were pretreated with 50 {mu}mol/L or 100 {mu}mol/L LAB. Silencing of Nrf2 gene eliminated the enhanced expression of HO-1 protein induced by high dose of glucose plus LAB. Conclusions: LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway.

  18. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    König, Thomas; Simon, Georg H; Heinke, Lars; Lichtenstein, Leonid; Heyde, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces of thin oxide films were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001) and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110), respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., F(0), F(+), F(2+) and divacancies, have different effects on the contact potential. These differences enabled classification and unambiguous differentiation by KPFM. True atomic resolution shows the topography at line defects in aluminum oxide. At these domain boundaries, STS and KPFM verify F(2+)-like centers, which have been predicted by density functional theory calculations. Thus, by determining the contact potential and the electronic structure with a spatial resolution in the nanometer range, NC-AFM and STM can be successfully applied on thin oxide films beyond imaging the topography of the surface atoms.

  19. Improving the corrosion properties of magnesium AZ31 alloy GTA weld metal using microarc oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Prasad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Kishore Babu, N.; Sreekanth, A.; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the morphology, phase composition, and corrosion properties of microarc oxidized (MAO) gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments of AZ31 alloy were investigated. Autogenous gas tungsten arc welds were made as full penetration bead-on-plate welding under the alternating-current mode. A uniform oxide layer was developed on the surface of the specimens with MAO treatment in silicate-based alkaline electrolytes for different oxidation times. The corrosion behavior of the samples was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The oxide film improved the corrosion resistance substantially compared to the uncoated specimens. The sample coated for 10 min exhibited better corrosion properties. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was concluded to strongly depend on the morphology, whereas the phase composition and thickness were concluded to only slightly affect the corrosion resistance.

  20. Multi-Physics Modeling of Molten Salt Transport in Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis and Recycling of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Adam; Pati, Soobhankar

    2012-03-11

    Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis is a new energy-efficient zero-emissions process for producing high-purity magnesium and high-purity oxygen directly from industrial-grade MgO. SOM Recycling combines SOM electrolysis with electrorefining, continuously and efficiently producing high-purity magnesium from low-purity partially oxidized scrap. In both processes, electrolysis and/or electrorefining take place in the crucible, where raw material is continuously fed into the molten salt electrolyte, producing magnesium vapor at the cathode and oxygen at the inert anode inside the SOM. This paper describes a three-dimensional multi-physics finite-element model of ionic current, fluid flow driven by argon bubbling and thermal buoyancy, and heat and mass transport in the crucible. The model predicts the effects of stirring on the anode boundary layer and its time scale of formation, and the effect of natural convection at the outer wall. MOxST has developed this model as a tool for scale-up design of these closely-related processes.

  1. Reagent use efficiency with removal of nitrogen from pig slurry via struvite: A study on magnesium oxide and related by-products.

    PubMed

    Romero-Güiza, M S; Tait, S; Astals, S; Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Martínez, M; Mata-Alvarez, J; Chimenos, J M

    2015-11-01

    Controlled struvite formation has been attracting increasing attention as a near mature technology to recover nutrients from wastewater. However, struvite feasibility is generally limited by the high cost of chemical reagents. With the aim to understand and control reagent use efficiency, experiments and equilibrium model simulations examined inorganic nitrogen (TAN) removal from pig manure via struvite with added magnesium and phosphate reagents. Four industrial magnesium oxide (MgO), a commercial product and three by-products from magnesite calcination, were tested with phosphate added as a highly soluble potassium salt. TAN removal extents with the MgOs ranged from 47 to 72%, with the highest grade MgO providing the greatest extent of TAN removal. However, model analysis showed that all the MgO reagents were poorly soluble (only about 40% of added magnesium actually dissolved). The model results suggested that this poor dissolution was due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. A further set of additional reagents (termed stabilization agents) were prepared by pre-treating the MgO reagents with phosphoric acid, and were tested separately as a source of both magnesium and phosphate. Results showed that acid pre-treatment of moderate to highly reactive MgOs (soft to medium-burnt) primarily formed bobierrite as the stabilizing agent, whereas the pre-treatment of very low reactivity MgOs (dead-burnt) mostly formed newberyite. The newberyite stabilizing agents achieved very high TAN removal extents of about 80%, which is significant, considering that these were formed from dead-burnt/low-grade MgOs. However, the bobierrite stabilizing agents achieved a substantially lower TAN removal extent than their medium-to-high reactivity precursor MgOs. Again, model analysis showed that the bobierrite stabilizing agents were poorly soluble, due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. In contrast, the model suggested that the newberyite stabilizing

  2. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations showmore » that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Lastly, combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.« less

  3. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.

    2015-11-21

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  4. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    2015-11-19

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Lastly, combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  5. Effect of Surface Modification on Cumulative Tensile Ductility of AZ31 Magnesium Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibnejad-korayem, Mahdi; Jain, Mukesh K.; Mishra, Raja K.

    2016-12-01

    Wire brushing and annealing (WBA) process was developed, optimized and utilized to modify the surface layer microstructure of AZ31 automotive magnesium sheet material. The process was carried out using softer brass wire brushes to mitigate the effect of wire brushing on surface quality and damage. The influence of modified surface grain structure and crystallographic texture was studied by continuous uniaxial tension test as well as by a newly proposed multi-step uniaxial stretching and annealing (MUSA) process to assess cumulative uniaxial tensile ductility of AZ31 sheet. A rotational speed of 2800 revolutions per minute for the wire brush with a near-zero depth of cut followed by annealing at 473 K (200 °C) for 60 minutes resulted in acceptable surface quality with a refined grain layer of depth 30 μm, and a modified crystallographic texture on the surface. Material flow behavior, grain microstructure, and texture evolution of WBA-processed material during subsequent MUSA process were analyzed to assess the role of wire brushing in enhancing the MUSA response of AZ31 sheet. Original fully annealed AZ31 sheet (in the non-WBA condition) was also subjected to identical MUSA process for comparison purposes. The results showed improvement in terminal uniaxial tensile ductility of WBA-MUSA-processed material compared to Standard-MUSA material. The ductility improvement is attributed to non-basal texture development and re-distribution of the texture, as well as to grain refinement within the highly deformed surface layer from the combination of WBA and MUSA processes.

  6. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of magnesium oxide: a comparison of ab initio and empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Kong, Bo; Quan, Wei-Long; Fu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Jun-Hong

    2012-04-01

    The pressure-volume equation of state (P-V EOS) and isothermal bulk modulus, the volume-temperature (V-T) EOS and thermal expansivity are investigated for magnesium oxide (MgO) by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye (QHD) model in which the phononic effects are considered and isothermal-isobaric ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with different effective pair-wise potentials that consist of the Coulomb, dispersion and repulsion interactions. Polarization and compression effects are considered in MD simulations through the shell model (SM) and breathing shell model (BSM), respectively. The P-V relationship and isothermal bulk modulus K of the MgO dependence of pressures up to 200 GPa at 300 K and the V-T relationship and volume thermal expansion coefficient α of the MgO dependence of temperatures up to 3000 K at 0.1 MPa have been obtained from MD and DFT calculations and compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. Particular attention is paid to the prediction of the first and second pressure derivatives K' and K'' of the isothermal bulk modulus of MgO at a given temperature and pressure for the first time. Compared with the SM potential, MD simulations with the BSM and QHD models are highly successful in accurately reproducing the measured volumes of MgO. At extended pressure and temperature ranges, K, K', K'', α and P-V-T EOS have also been predicted. Detailed knowledge of the thermodynamic behavior in extreme conditions is of fundamental importance for understanding the physical properties of MgO.

  8. Magnesium oxide-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic: a novel cadmium(II) adsorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Md; Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Maneesh, Namburath; Munekage, Yukihiro; Motomura, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The contamination of cadmium (Cd) in the aquatic environment is one of the serious environmental and human health's risks. The present study attempted to develop the potential magnesium oxide (MgO)-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic (MITDC)-based novel adsorbent media for adsorbing higher rate of cadmium [Cd(II)] from water phase. A potential MITDC adsorbent media was developed using volcanic raw tuff soil and its Cd(II) adsorption capacity from water phase was evaluated comparing with the raw tuff soil. A series of studies were carried out in an agitated batch method at 20 ± 2 °C to characterize the adsorption capacity of MITDC under different conditions of factors, such as contact time (0-360 min), initial pH (3-11) of solution, dose of MITDC (2, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/L), and initial concentration of Cd(II) (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L), influencing the adsorption mechanism. MITDC exhibited the equilibrium state of maximum Cd(II) adsorption at the contact time 120 min and pH 4.7 (removed 98.2 % Cd) when initial Cd(II) concentration was 10 mg/L in the present study. The dose of 7.5 g MITDC/L showed maximum removal of Cd(II) from water. Experimental data were described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherms and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model ( R 2 = 0.996). The Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MITDC was 31.25 mg/g. The high Cd(II) adsorption capacity indicated that novel MITDC could be used as a potential ceramic adsorbent media to remove high rate of Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  9. Magnesium oxide-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic: a novel cadmium(II) adsorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Md; Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Maneesh, Namburath; Munekage, Yukihiro; Motomura, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of cadmium (Cd) in the aquatic environment is one of the serious environmental and human health's risks. The present study attempted to develop the potential magnesium oxide (MgO)-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic (MITDC)-based novel adsorbent media for adsorbing higher rate of cadmium [Cd(II)] from water phase. A potential MITDC adsorbent media was developed using volcanic raw tuff soil and its Cd(II) adsorption capacity from water phase was evaluated comparing with the raw tuff soil. A series of studies were carried out in an agitated batch method at 20 ± 2 °C to characterize the adsorption capacity of MITDC under different conditions of factors, such as contact time (0-360 min), initial pH (3-11) of solution, dose of MITDC (2, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/L), and initial concentration of Cd(II) (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L), influencing the adsorption mechanism. MITDC exhibited the equilibrium state of maximum Cd(II) adsorption at the contact time 120 min and pH 4.7 (removed 98.2 % Cd) when initial Cd(II) concentration was 10 mg/L in the present study. The dose of 7.5 g MITDC/L showed maximum removal of Cd(II) from water. Experimental data were described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherms and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model (R 2 = 0.996). The Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MITDC was 31.25 mg/g. The high Cd(II) adsorption capacity indicated that novel MITDC could be used as a potential ceramic adsorbent media to remove high rate of Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  10. Temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Ma, Qingxin

    2008-04-03

    The experimental determination of rate constants for atmospheric reactions and how these rate constants vary with temperature remain a crucially important part of atmosphere science. In this study, the temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide (COS) on magnesium oxide (MgO) has been investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor and a temperature-programmed reaction apparatus. We found that the adsorption and the heterogeneous reaction are sensitive to temperature. The initial uptake coefficients (gammat(Ini)) of COS on MgO decrease from 1.07 +/- 0.71 x 10-6 to 4.84 +/- 0.60 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 228 to 300 K, and the steady state uptake coefficients (gammat(SS)) increase from 5.31 +/- 0.06 x 10-8 to 1.68 +/- 0.41 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 240 to 300 K. The desorption rate constants (kdes) were also found to increase slightly with the enhancement of temperature. The empirical formula between the uptake coefficients, desorption rate constants and temperature described in the form of Arrhenius expression were obtained. The activation energies for the heterogeneous reaction and desorption of COS on MgO were measured to be 11.02 +/- 0.34 kJ.mol-1 and 6.30 +/- 0.81 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results demonstrate that the initial uptake of COS on MgO is mainly contributed by an adsorption process and the steady state uptake is due to a catalytic reaction. The environmental implication was also discussed.

  11. Mechanical Strength and Surface Roughness of Magnesium-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson; de Souza Resende, Celso Renato; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluated the mechanical strength and surface roughness of MgZn30Ca5 ribbon manufactured via a melt spinning technique for applications in the biomedical field. Annealing was performed at 280°C. The inner side (in contact with the wheel) and the outer side (not in contact with the wheel) of the ribbons were mechanically evaluated using nanoindentation, and its surfaces were analyzed by an optical profilometer. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were also performed to identify the structure and devitrification of the magnesium metallic glass (MgMG). The nanohardness and elastic modulus increased after annealing (p < 0.0001). No differences were seen in the strength between the two sides of the ribbons (p > 0.05). Although both sides of the ribbons showed different surface profiles (p < 0.0001), no statistical difference was detected in roughness parameters on either ribbon side before (p = 0.3094) and after (p = 0.8742) annealing. DSC curves showed disturbances in enthalpy attributed to a relaxation in the MgMG structure and free volume annihilation. The DRX diffractogram showed sharp peaks after annealing, with MgZn and Ca2Mg5Zn13 phases being identified. Although the use of MgMG in biomedical applications is promising, the ribbons displayed limited ductility, toughness, and a relevant embrittlement after the annealing procedure. There were significant changes in the surface profile of both sides of the ribbons. Nevertheless, neither annealing nor the ribbon side had influenced surface roughness parameters.

  12. Mechanical Strength and Surface Roughness of Magnesium-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson; de Souza Resende, Celso Renato; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2017-07-01

    This work evaluated the mechanical strength and surface roughness of MgZn30Ca5 ribbon manufactured via a melt spinning technique for applications in the biomedical field. Annealing was performed at 280°C. The inner side (in contact with the wheel) and the outer side (not in contact with the wheel) of the ribbons were mechanically evaluated using nanoindentation, and its surfaces were analyzed by an optical profilometer. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were also performed to identify the structure and devitrification of the magnesium metallic glass (MgMG). The nanohardness and elastic modulus increased after annealing ( p < 0.0001). No differences were seen in the strength between the two sides of the ribbons ( p > 0.05). Although both sides of the ribbons showed different surface profiles ( p < 0.0001), no statistical difference was detected in roughness parameters on either ribbon side before ( p = 0.3094) and after ( p = 0.8742) annealing. DSC curves showed disturbances in enthalpy attributed to a relaxation in the MgMG structure and free volume annihilation. The DRX diffractogram showed sharp peaks after annealing, with MgZn and Ca2Mg5Zn13 phases being identified. Although the use of MgMG in biomedical applications is promising, the ribbons displayed limited ductility, toughness, and a relevant embrittlement after the annealing procedure. There were significant changes in the surface profile of both sides of the ribbons. Nevertheless, neither annealing nor the ribbon side had influenced surface roughness parameters.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization under dynamic conditions of cobalt oxide nanoparticles supported over magnesium oxide nano-plates.

    PubMed

    Alayoglu, Selim; Rosenberg, Daniel J; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-06-14

    A nano-catalyst comprised of oxidized Co NPs supported on MgO nano-plates was synthesized via a hydrothermal co-precipitation strategy and calcination in O2 and subsequently in H2 at 250 °C. Spectro-microscopy characterization was performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and scanning X-ray transmission microscopy. Surface measurements under H2 and H2 + CO atmospheres were obtained by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the 225-480 °C range. These measurements at the atomic and microscopic levels demonstrated that the oxidized Co nanoparticles uniformly decorated the MgO nano-plates. The surfaces are enriched with Co, and with a mixture of Co(OH)2 and CoO under H2 and H2 + CO atmospheres. Under a H2 atmosphere, the outermost surfaces were composed of (lattice) O(2-), CO3(2-) and OH(-). No inorganic carbonates were observed in the bulk. Chemisorbed CO, likely on the oxidized Co surfaces, was observed at the expense of O(2-) under 300 mTorr H2 + CO (2 : 1) at 225 °C. Gas phase CO2 was detected under 32 Torr H2 + CO (2 : 1) at 225 °C upon prolonged reaction time, and was attributed to a surface chemical reaction between O(2-) and chemisorbed CO. Furthermore, sp(3) like carbon species were detected on the otherwise carbon free surface in H2 + CO, which remained on the surface under the subsequent reaction conditions. The formation of sp(3) like hydrocarbons was ascribed to a surface catalytic reaction between the chemisorbed CO and OH(-) as the apparent hydrogen source.

  14. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications.

  15. Surface complexes of acrolein on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, G.Ya.; Davydov, A.A.; Andrushkevich, T.V.; Zakharov, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that acrolein can be adsorbed by different mechanisms on the surface of oxide catalysts with the formation of {sigma}- and {pi}-complexes, H-complexes with surface OH groups; a species bound via the carbonyl group (the dissociative form of adsorption); and oxidized fragments, such as surface acrylates, carboxylates, formylacetates, and malonates. On the basis of the quantum-chemical analysis of the acrolein interaction with the surface of oxide catalysts in combination with IR-spectroscopic, thermodesorption, and catalytic studies, a conclusion has been drawn that the formation of a certain surface species and its reactivity are determined by the nature of an adsorption site and by the reactivity of surface oxygen.

  16. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  17. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Leerdam, Monique E. van; Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  18. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  19. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  20. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  1. Degradation and biological properties of Ca-P contained micro-arc oxidation self-sealing coating on pure magnesium for bone fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidan; Wan, Peng; Liu, Chen; Tan, Lili; Li, Weirong; Li, Lugee; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance is one of the main disadvantages for biodegradable magnesium-based metals, especially applied for bone fixation, where there is a high demand of bio-mechanical strength and stability. Surface coating has been proved as an effective method to control the in vivo degradation. In this study a Ca-P self-sealing micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was studied to verify its efficacy and biological properties by in vitro and in vivo tests. It was found that the MAO coating could effectively retard the degradation according to immersion and electrochemical tests as well as 3D reconstruction by X-ray tomography after implantation. The MAO coating exhibited no toxicity and could stimulate the new bone formation. Therefore, the Ca-P self-sealing MAO coating could be a potential candidate for application of biodegradable Mg-based implant in bone fixations. PMID:26816635

  2. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  3. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  4. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water. PMID:27725757

  5. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water.

  6. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties. PMID:25028198

  7. Surface wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane microspheres via wet surface chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-07-16

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties.

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: relationship to insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress. Treatment approaches using vitamin E, magnesium, and betaine.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2002-08-01

    Nonalcoholic steatotic hepatitis (NASH), the most prevalent form of progressive liver disease in the United States, is considered to be a manifestation of insulin resistance syndrome. There is increasing evidence that steatosis in NASH is a result of the pathology in fat metabolism occurring in obesity and insulin resistance. For steatosis to progress to necroinflammation and fibrosis, however, the theory of mitochondrial oxidative-stress induced cellular damage is receiving wide acceptance. Treatment approaches that address these etiologies are reviewed: betaine, magnesium, and vitamin E.

  9. Functionalization of metallic magnesium with protein layers via linker molecules.

    PubMed

    Killian, Manuela S; Wagener, Victoria; Schmuki, Patrik; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2010-07-20

    We present an innovative method to cover pure magnesium with protein monolayers by utilizing the OH termination of the oxide surface and silane coupling chemistry. The protein of interest was albumin. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to monitor the success of the treatment. The attachment of proteins via linker groups yielded smoother and more homogeneous surfaces than coatings produced by steeping magnesium in protein solution. A positive effect on the corrosion behavior of pure magnesium was also observed.

  10. Design of magnesium alloys with controllable degradation for biomedical implants: From bulk to surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, K W K; Zheng, Yufeng; Chu, Paul K

    2016-11-01

    The combination of high strength, light weight, and natural biodegradability renders magnesium (Mg)-based alloys promising in orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. Being metallic materials, Mg and Mg alloys made for scaffolds provide the necessary mechanical support for tissue healing and cell growth in the early stage, while natural degradation and reabsorption by surrounding tissues in the later stage make an unnecessarily follow-up removal surgery. However, uncontrolled degradation may collapse the scaffolds resulting in premature implant failure, and there has been much research in controlling the degradation rates of Mg alloys. This paper reviews recent progress in the design of novel Mg alloys, surface modification and corrosion mechanisms under different conditions, and describes the effects of the structure, composition, and surface conditions on the degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. Owing to their unique mechanical properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility, Mg based biomaterials are becoming the most promising substitutes for tissue regeneration for impaired bone, vascular and other tissues because these scaffolds can provide not only ideal space for the growth and differentiation of seeded cells but also enough strength before the formation of normal tissues. The most important is that these scaffolds can be fully degraded after tissue regeneration, which can satisfy the increasing demand for better biomedical devices and functional tissue engineering biomaterials in the world. However, the rapid degradation rate of these scaffolds restricts the wide application in clinic. This paper reviews recent progress on how to control the degrdation rate based on the relevant corrosion mechanisms through the design of porous structure, phase structure, grains, and amorphous structure as well as surface modification, which will be beneficial to the better understanding and functional design of Mg-based scaffolds for wide clinical applications

  11. Surface fabrication of oxides via solution chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chenglin; Sun, Congting; Shi, Yong; Xue, Dongfeng

    2008-04-01

    A template- and catalyst-free strategy has been successfully designed to prepare MgO and hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide (Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O) nanosheets with different patterns (such as chrysalides- and rose-like morphology) on the substrate surface. Experimental results reveal that the temperature and substrate allow us to tune the morphology of patterns. Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O thermodynamically prefers to grow into the sheet-like crystal at the current solution growth environment, which has been successfully explained by using the chemical bonding theory. The predicted morphology can accord well with the current experimental results. The obtained MgO and its precursor Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O with novel patterns might find enhanced applications in catalysis, refractory materials, plastics, fire retardants, and functional nanodevices.

  12. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Zhang, X.; Xi, T. F.; Wei, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 1 °C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  13. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  14. Characterisation of magnesium oxide and its interface with α-Mg in Mg-Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Fan, Z.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G. E.

    2011-08-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) films and particles have been collected by pressurised filtration of a Mg-8.6wt%Al-0.67wt%Zn (AZ91D) alloy melt. The morphology of the oxides and their interfaces with the α-Mg phase were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the oxide films consisted of large numbers of sub-micrometre-sized MgO particles, and that melt shearing can effectively break up the oxide films and disperse the oxide particles. For the first time, orientation relationships (ORs) of OR I: [1 overline 1 1]MgO∼2° from (0 0 0 1)α-Mg and (0 1 1)MgO //[2 overline 1 overline 1 0)α-Mg; and OR II: (overline 1 overline 1 1)MgO//(1 overline 1 0 1)α-Mg and [0 1 1]MgO//[overline 1 2 overline 1 1]α-Mg, were observed between the MgO particles and the α-Mg matrix. The calculated Bramfitt planar disregistries were 5.5% and 2.5% for the two ORs, respectively, indicating good lattice matching between MgO and α-Mg at the interface. With the evidence of grain refinement effect observed in the sheared AZ91D magnesium alloy, the possibility of MgO particles to act as potent nucleants for heterogeneous nucleation of α-Mg grains is discussed in terms of the crystallographic criterion.

  15. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model.

    PubMed

    Basralı, Filiz; Koçer, Günnur; Ülker Karadamar, Pınar; Nasırcılar Ülker, Seher; Satı, Leyla; Özen, Nur; Özyurt, Dilek; Şentürk, Ümit Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral magnesium supplementation (Mg-supp) on blood pressure (BP) and possible mechanism in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced hypertension model. Hypertension and/or Mg-supp were created by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (25 mg/kg/day by drinking water) and magnesium-oxide (0.8% by diet) for 6 weeks. Systolic BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff method. The effects of hypertension and/or Mg-supp in thoracic aorta and third branch of mesenteric artery constriction and relaxation responses were evaluated. NOS-inhibition produced a gradually developing hypertension and the magnitude of the BP was significantly attenuated after five weeks of Mg-supp. The increased phenylephrine-induced contractile and decreased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilation responses were found in both artery segments of hypertensive groups. Mg-supp was restored ACh-relaxation response in both arterial segments and also Phe-constriction response in thoracic aorta but not in mesenteric arteries. The contributions of NO, prostaglandins and K(+) channels to the dilator response of ACh were similar in the aorta of all the groups. The contribution of the NO to the ACh-mediated relaxation response of mesenteric arteries was suppressed in hypertensive rats, whereas this was corrected by Mg-supp. The flow-mediated dilation response of mesenteric arteries in hypertensive rats failed and could not be corrected by Mg-supp. Whereas, vascular eNOS protein and magnesium levels were not changed and plasma nitrite levels were reduced in hypertensive rats. The results of this study showed that Mg-supp lowered the arterial BP in NOS-inhibition induced hypertension model by restoring the agonist-induced relaxation response of the arteries.

  16. Nano-Structured Magnesium Oxide Coated Iron Ore: Its Application to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Lead.

    PubMed

    Nagarajah, Ranjini; Jang, Min; Pichiah, Saravanan; Cho, Jongman; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically separable nano-structured magnesium oxide coated iron ore (IO(MgO)) was prepared using environmentally benign chemicals, such as iron ore (IO), magnesium(II) nitrate hexahydrate [Mg(NO3)2 x 6H2O] and urea; via an easy and fast preparation method. The lO(MgO) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) analyses. The isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that lO(MgO) has a comparably higher Langmuir constant (K(L), 1.69 L mg(-1)) and maximum sorption capacity (33.9 mg g(-1)) for lead (Pb) than other inorganic media. Based on MgO amount, the removal capacity of Pb by IO(MgO) was 2,724 mg Pb (g MgO)(-1), which was higher than that (1,980 mg g(-1)) for flowerlike magnesium oxide nanostructures reported by Cao et al. The kinetics, FE-SEM, elemental mapping and XRD results revealed that the substitution followed by precipitation was identified as the mechanism of Pb removal and plumbophyllite (Pb2Si4O10 x H2O) was the precipitated phase of Pb. A leaching test revealed that IOMgO) had negligible concentrations of leached Fe at pH 4-9. Since the base material, IO, is cheap and easily available, lO(MgO) could be produced in massive amounts and used for remediation of wastewater containing heavy metals, applying simple and fast magnetic separation.

  17. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-01

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO3(001 ) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a dx y -derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO2 plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  18. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  19. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

  20. A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J.

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter. The calorimeter was made using a covered Styrofoam cup as the reaction chamber. A thermistor was used as a temperature-sensing element and was incorporated in a temperature-to-voltage converter circuit based on a bridge amplifier. The instrument was interfaced to a personal computer via an I/O board, and data acquisition software was used to monitor the output voltage of the bridge amplifier. The design and construction of this instrument offer many possible applications of operational amplifiers and related basic electronics theory in chemistry and in interfacing experiments to computers. One application, the determination of the enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide by applying Hess's law of heat of summation, is demonstrated in this paper. Experimental results for the heat of formation for magnesium oxide were within 1% of the literature value. This experiment also demonstrates the utility and ease of automating temperature measurements for other applications.

  1. Influence of defect luminescence and structural modification on the electrical properties of Magnesium Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoshkumar, B.; Biswas, Amrita; Kalyanaraman, S.; Thangavel, R.; Udayabhanu, G.; Annadurai, G.; Velumani, S.

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays on zinc oxide seed layers were grown by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the growth orientation along the preferential (002) direction. The hexagonal morphology was revealed from the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images. The elemental composition of the samples was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis spectra (EDS) and mapping dots. Carrier concentration, resistivity and mobility of the samples were obtained by Hall measurements. I-V characteristic curve confirmed the increase in resistivity upon doping. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exposed the characteristic of UV emission along with defect mediated visible emission in the samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were undertaken to study the charge transport property. Owing to the change in the structural parameters and defect concentration the electrical properties of the doped samples were altered.

  2. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water-gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid-base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focus of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. Most surface science studies have been conducted on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.

  3. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focus of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.

  4. Surface studies of gas sensing metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Batzill, Matthias; Diebold, Ulrike

    2007-05-21

    The relation of surface science studies of single crystal metal oxides to gas sensing applications is reviewed. Most metal oxide gas sensors are used to detect oxidizing or reducing gases and therefore this article focuses on surface reduction processes and the interaction of oxygen with these surfaces. The systems that are discussed are: (i) the oxygen vacancy formation on the surface of the ion conductor CeO(2)(111); (ii) interaction of oxygen with TiO(2) (both adsorption processes and the incorporation of oxygen into the TiO(2)(110) lattice are discussed); (iii) the varying surface composition of SnO(2)(101) and its consequence for the adsorption of water; and (iv) Cu modified ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces and its interaction with oxygen. These examples are chosen to give a comprehensive overview of surface science studies of different kinds of gas sensing materials and to illustrate the potential that surface science studies have to give fundamental insight into gas sensing phenomena.

  5. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focusmore » of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.« less

  6. Single-site, catalytic water oxidation on oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W; Meyer, Thomas J

    2009-11-04

    Electrocatalytic water oxidation occurs through the use of the phosphonate-derivatized single-site catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(4,4'-((HO)(2)OPCH(2))(2)bpy)(OH(2))](2+) [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] at pH 1 and 5 on fluorine-doped SnO(2) or Sn(IV)-doped In(2)O(3) electrodes or on nanocrystalline TiO(2). The surface-bound catalyst appears to retain the water oxidation mechanism found for [Ru(tpy)(bpm)(OH(2))](2+) and [Ru(tpy)(bpz)(OH(2))](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine) in solution and acts as a surface electrocatalyst for sustained water oxidation.

  7. Coating magnesium hydroxide on surface of carbon microspheres and interface binding with poly (ethylene terephthalate) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Baoxia; Niu, Mei; Yang, Yongzhen; Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun; Liu, Xuguang

    2017-08-01

    In this account, magnesium hydroxide (MH) employed as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs using liquid phase deposition, then was modified by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to form FMH@CMSs. To investigate the interface binding forces, a series of PET composites was prepared by melt compounding with MH@CMSs or FMH@CMSs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, chemical structure, and effect of functionalization of CMSs. The coating degree and thermal stability were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis. The results showed that CMSs were coated by an inorganic shell layer of MH as a capsule wall. On the other hand, MH@CMSs were coated with an organic layer of APTS. When compared to MH@CMSs, the interface binding forces between FMH@CMSs and PET matrix were significantly improved, and the tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET was higher than that of MH@CMSs/PET. At 1 wt% mass fraction of FMH@CMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PET composites increased from 21% to 27.6% following a V-0 rating. The tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET increased by 66.2% to reach 47.20 MPa, a value nearly similar to that of PET. Overall, the formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties, which would broaden their scope of application.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  16. Influence of Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Joints on Growth and Properties of Microarc Oxidation Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tingfang; Li, Yongliang; Xue, Wenbin; Yang, Chaolin; Qu, Yao; Hua, Ming

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic coatings on friction stir welded (FSW) joints of AZ31B magnesium alloy were fabricated by microarc oxidation (MAO) method in silicate electrolyte. Microstructure, phase constituents, microhardness and electrochemical corrosion behaviors of bare and coated magnesium alloys at different zones of FSW joints for different oxidation time were investigated. The influence of microstructure at different zones on the growth of MAO coatings was analyzed. The results show that the MAO coatings on FSW joints are uniform, and they have almost the same morphology, phase constituents, hardness and corrosion resistance at base metal, stir zone and heat-affected zone. The properties of MAO coatings are independent on the microstructures of AZ31B alloy. In addition, the microstructures of magnesium alloy near the coating/alloy interface at different zones of FSW joint was not changed by microarc discharge process.

  17. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.

    2017-05-01

    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  18. Anti-hyperalgesic effect of systemic magnesium sulfate in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in rats: influence of the nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja; Vujović, Katarina Savić; Prostran, Milica

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether systemic magnesium sulfate (an antagonist at the glutamate subtype of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) affects inflammatory pain, and whether the nitric oxide pathway is involved. Carrageenan (0.5%, 0.1 mL, intraplantar)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated using the electronic von Frey test in male Wistar rats. Magnesium sulfate had no effect when injected locally into the inflamed rat paw. However, subcutaneous magnesium sulfate, at doses of 0.5, 5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, reduced the hyperalgesia by 44.4 ± 8.8, 68 ± 8.4, 24.6 ± 6.9 and 45.3 ± 6.7% respectively. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (3 and 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, significantly reduced the effects of magnesium sulfate. Also, L-arginine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly reversed the effect of L-NAME in the magnesium sulfate-treated rats. A selective inhibitor of neuronal or inducible nitric oxide synthase, N-ω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NPA) (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and S-methylisothiourea (SMT) (0.005, 0.01 and 0.015 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) reduced the effect of magnesium sulfate significantly only at the highest doses tested. When given alone, L-NAME (3 and 5 mg/kg) L-NPA (2 mg/kg) and SMT (0.015 mg/kg) did not have any influence on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. The present study revealed that magnesium sulfate is effective against inflammatory pain after systemic, but not after local peripheral administration, and activation of the nitric oxide pathway is probably involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of magnesium sulfate. Low doses of systemic magnesium sulfate given as a pretreatment or a treatment might have a beneficial effect in patients with inflammatory somatic pain.

  19. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Zhao, Leihua; Zhang, Li; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108° and a well dispersion.

  20. Sol-gel synthesis of magnesium oxide-silicon dioxide glass compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol pct MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol pct MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol pct MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol pct) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  1. Sol-gel synthesis of magnesium oxide-silicon dioxide glass compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol pct MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol pct MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol pct MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol pct) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  2. Room temperature stable CO x -free H2 production from methanol with magnesium oxide nanophotocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengqing; Yin, Zongyou; Cox, Casandra; Bosman, Michel; Qian, Xiaofeng; Li, Na; Zhao, Hongyang; Du, Yaping; Li, Ju; Nocera, Daniel G

    2016-09-01

    Methanol, which contains 12.6 weight percent hydrogen, is a good hydrogen storage medium because it is a liquid at room temperature. However, by releasing the hydrogen, undesirable CO and/or CO2 byproducts are formed during catalytic fuel reforming. We show that alkaline earth metal oxides, in our case MgO nanocrystals, exhibit stable photocatalytic activity for CO/CO2-free H2 production from liquid methanol at room temperature. The performance of MgO nanocrystals toward methanol dehydrogenation increases with time and approaches ~320 μmol g(-1) hour(-1) after a 2-day photocatalytic reaction. The CO x -free H2 production is attributed to methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde, photocatalyzed by surface electronic states of unique monodispersed, porous MgO nanocrystals, which were synthesized with a novel facile colloidal chemical strategy. An oxygen plasma treatment allows for the removal of organic surfactants, producing MgO nanocrystals that are well dispersible in methanol.

  3. Controlling interlayer interactions in vanadium pentoxide-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites for enhanced magnesium-ion charge transport and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Archer, Randall B.; Damin, Craig A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Rhodes, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries provide the potential for lower cost and improved safety compared with lithium-ion batteries, however obtaining cathode materials with highly reversible Mg-ion capacities is hindered by the high polarizability of divalent Mg-ions and slow solid-state Mg-ion diffusion. We report that incorporating poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) between the layers of hydrated vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) xerogels results in significantly improved reversible Mg-ion capacities. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the interlayer spacing between V2O5 layers was increased by PEO incorporation. Vibrational spectroscopy supports that the polymer interacts with the V2O5 lattice. The V2O5-PEO nanocomposite exhibited a 5-fold enhancement in Mg-ion capacity, improved stability, and improved rate capabilities compared with V2O5 xerogels. The Mg-ion diffusion coefficient of the nanocomposite was increased compared with that of V2O5 xerogels which is attributed to enhanced Mg-ion mobility due to the shielding interaction of PEO with the V2O5 lattice. This study shows that beyond only interlayer spacing, the nature of interlayer interactions of Mg-ions with V2O5, PEO, and H2O are key factors that affect Mg-ion charge transport and storage in layered materials. The design of layered materials with controlled interlayer interactions provides a new approach to develop improved cathodes for magnesium batteries.

  4. Laser-induced Mg production from magnesium oxide using Si-based agents and Si-based agents recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, S. H.; Yabe, T.; Mohamed, M. S.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Fukushima, C.; Ichikawa, M.; Nakatsuka, M.; Uchida, S.; Ohkubo, T.

    2011-01-01

    We succeeded in laser-induced magnesium (Mg) production from magnesium oxide (MgO) using Si-based agents, silicon (Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO). In these experiments, a cw CO2 laser irradiated a mixture of Mg and Si-based agents. Both experimental studies and theoretical analysis help not only understand the function of reducing agents but also optimize Mg extraction in laser-induced Mg production. The optimal energy efficiencies 12.1 mg/kJ and 4.5 mg/kJ of Mg production were achieved using Si and SiO, respectively. Besides, the possibility of recycling Si and SiO was preliminarily investigated without reducing agents but only with laser-irradiation. As for the Si-based agents recycling, we succeed in removing 36 mol % of oxygen fraction from SiO2 , obtaining 0.7 mg/kJ of Si production efficiency as well as 15.6 mg/kJ of SiO one at the same time. In addition, the laser irradiation to MgO-SiO mixture produced 24 mg/kJ of Si with more than 99% purity.

  5. A chemical approach to understanding oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enterkin, James A.; Becerra-Toledo, Andres E.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Marks, Laurence D.

    2012-02-01

    Chemical bonding has often been ignored in favor of physics based energetic considerations in attempts to understand the structure, stability, and reactivity of oxide surfaces. Herein, we analyze the chemical bonding in published structures of the SrTiO3, MgO, and NiO surfaces using bond valence sum (BVS) analysis. These simple chemical bonding theories compare favorably with far more complex quantum mechanical calculations in assessing surface structure stability. Further, the coordination and bonding of surface structures explains the observed stability in a readily comprehensible manner. Finally, we demonstrate how simple chemical bonding models accurately predict the adsorption of foreign species onto surfaces, and how such models can be used to predict changes in surface structures.

  6. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  7. Preparation of superhydrophobic silicon oxide nanowire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Janel, Sébastien; Addad, Ahmed; Blossey, Ralf; Gengembre, Léon; Payen, Edmond; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2007-02-13

    The paper reports on the preparation of superhydrophobic amorphous silicon oxide nanowires (a-SiONWs) on silicon substrates with a contact angle greater than 150 degrees by means of surface roughness and self-assembly. Nanowires with an average mean diameter in the range 20-150 nm and 15-20 microm in length were obtained by the so-called solid-liquid-solid (SLS) technique. The porous nature and the high roughness of the resulting surfaces were confirmed by AFM imaging. The superhydrophobicity resulted from the combined effects of surface roughness and chemical modification with fluorodecyl trichlorosilane.

  8. Surface coating from phosphonate ionic liquid electrolyte for the enhancement of the tribological performance of magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ana Eva; Rossi, Antonella; Fantauzzi, Marzia; Espinosa, Tulia; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquin; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2015-05-20

    A chronoamperometric method has been applied for the growth of a surface coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy, using the imidazolium alkylphosphonate room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate ([EMIM][EtPO3H]) as electrolyte. A surface coating layer is obtained after 4 h under a constant voltage bias of -0.8 V with respect to the standard electrode. The coating nucleation and growth process correlates well with a 3D progressive mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis of [EMIM][EtPO3H] shows new P 2p and O 1s peaks after its use as electrolyte, as a consequence of reaction between the phosphonate anion and the magnesium substrate. Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) analysis of [EMIM][EtPO3H] did not show any change in the composition of the surface before and after chronoamperometry, since the sampling depth (1.5 nm at the highest emission angle) is larger than the cation and anion sizes (ca. 7 and 5 Å, respectively). Characterization of the coating was made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focussed ion beam SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, XPS, and ARXPS. FIB-SEM shows that the coating presents a mean thickness of 374 (±36) nm and contains magnesium and aluminum phosphates. Linear reciprocating tribological tests under variable load show that the presence of the coating can reduce friction coefficients of the coated AZ31B against steel up to 32% and wear rates up to 90%, with respect to the uncoated alloy.

  9. Characterization of the Surface Film Formed on Molten AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Atmospheres Containing SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Fei; Xiong, Shou-Mei

    2012-11-01

    The surface film formed on molten AZ91D magnesium alloy in an atmosphere containing SO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface film primarily contained MgO and MgS and had a network structure. MgS increased the Pilling-Bedworth ratio of the film and enhanced its protective capability. The films with a few pores at the surface consisted of two layers with an outer MgO layer and an inner layer of MgO and MgS. The film without pores at the surface also contained MgS and small amounts of MgSO4 in the outer layer. Increasing the SO2 content in the atmosphere promoted film growth and the formation of the protective film was prevented with the increased temperature.

  10. Decomposition of O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothiolate by ammonia on magnesium oxide: a theoretical study of catalytic detoxification of a chemical warfare agent.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Chandan; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Sen, Kaushik; Das, Abhijit K

    2015-08-21

    The adsorption of a model nerve agent, O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothiolate (DMPT), on the hydroxylated and unhydroxylated nano-crystalline magnesium oxide surface followed by the nucleophilic attack of ammonia (NH3) is investigated at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory using the representative cluster models. The geometries of DMPT and NH3 are fully optimized, while the geometry of the oxide fragment is kept frozen. The main insight of this study is the incorporation of the Eley-Rideal mechanism for the first time in the detoxification process, where one of the reactant molecules (DMPT) is adsorbed and the other one (NH3) reacts with it directly impinging from the gas phase. There are two possible pathways of nucleophilic detoxification, either concerted or stepwise. The nature of the first transition state of nucleophilic attack in both pathways is the vital step for degradation. Our calculated results predict that the reaction of DMPT with NH3 gives rise to both P-S and P-O bond cleavage completely. Also, the P-S cleavage is found to be the favorable one over P-O bond breaking. The exploration of the overall reaction mechanism has established the catalytic activity of nano-crystalline MgO in nucleophilic DMPT degradation, as in all cases the activation barriers have reduced compared to the previously reported aminolysis of DMPT in the gas phase. Interestingly, the hydroxylated model has better catalytic performance than the unhydroxylated one.

  11. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  12. Magnesium basics

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed. PMID:26069819

  13. Critical review of electrical conductivity measurements and charge distribution analysis of magnesium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Freund, Minoru M.; Batllo, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The electrical conductivity sigma of MgO single crystals shows a sharp increase at 500-800 C, in particular of sigma surface, generally attributed to surface contamination. Charge Distribution Analysis (CDA), a new technique providing information on fundamental properties that was previously unavailable, allows for the determination of surface charges, their sign and associated internal electric field. Data on 99.99% purity, arc-fusion grown MgO crystals show that mobile charge carriers start to appear in the bulk of the MgO crystals between 200 and 400 C when sigma (measured by conventional techniques) is in t he 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -16) /omega/cm range. Above 500 C, as sigma increases to 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -7)/omega/cm, more charges appear giving rise to a strong positive surface charge supported by a strong internal field. This indicates that charges are generated in the bulk and diffuse to the surface by an internally controlled process. On the basis of their positive sign they are identified as holes (defect electrons). Because of the low cation content of these very pure MgO crystals, theses holes cannnot be associated with transition metal impurties. Instead, they are associated with the O(2-) sublattice, e.g. consist of O(-) states or positive holes. This conclusion is supported by magnetic susceptibility data showing the appearance of 1000 +/- 500 ppm paramagnetic species between 200-500 C. The magnetic data are consistent with strongly coupled, diamagnetic O(-) pairs below 200-500 C, chemically equivalent to peroxy anions, O2(2-), and probably associated with cation vacancies in the MgO matrix. The formation of O2(2-) in arc-fusion grown MgO crystals is very unexpected because of the highly reducing growth conditions. Their presence implies an internal redox reaction involving dissolved 'water' by which OH(-) pairs convert to O2(2-) plus H2 molecules. This redox conversion is supported by mass spectroscopic measurements of the H2 release from highly

  14. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  15. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces.

  16. Cryogenic machining and burnishing of AZ31B magnesium alloy for enhanced surface integrity and functional performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhengwen

    Surface integrity of manufactured components has a critical impact on their functional performance. Magnesium alloys are lightweight materials used in the transportation industry and are also emerging as a potential material for biodegradable medical implants. However, the unsatisfactory corrosion performance of Mg alloys limits their application to a great extent. Surface integrity factors, such as grain size, crystallographic orientation and residual stress, have been proved to remarkably influence the functional performance of magnesium alloys, including corrosion resistance, wear resistance and fatigue life. In this dissertation, the influence of machining conditions, including dry and cryogenic cooling (liquid nitrogen was sprayed to the machined surface during machining), cutting edge radius, cutting speed and feed rate, on the surface integrity of AZ31B Mg alloy was investigated. Cryogenic machining led to the formation of a "featureless layer" on the machined surface where significant grain refinement from 12 microm to 31 nm occurred due to dynamic recrystallization (DRX), as well as increased intensity of basal plane on the surface and more compressive residual stresses. Dry and cryogenic burnishing experiments of the same material were conducted using a fixed roller setup. The thickness of the processed-influenced layer, where remarkable microstructural changes occurred, was dramatically increased from the maximum value of 20 microm during machining to 3.4 mm during burnishing. The burnishing process also produced a stronger basal texture on the surface than the machining process. Preliminary corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion performance of selected machined and burnished AZ31B Mg samples in 5% NaCl solution and simulated body fluid (SBF ). Cryogenic cooling and large edge radius tools were found to significantly improve the corrosion performance of machined samples in both solutions. The largest improvement in the material

  17. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  18. Surface modification of nanosheet oxide photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Victoria L.; Nichols, Eric J.; Liu, Jian; Misture, Scott T.

    2013-03-01

    A range of Aurivillius oxides of the form Bi2An-1BnO3n+3 were evaluated for photodegradation of methylene blue dye. Variants included 2-, 3-, and 4-layered materials with B = Ti, Nb, or Ta and A = alkaline earths, alkali and rare earths. All phases were tested as their parent oxides and after acid-exchange to form stacked protonated nanosheets. Several high-activity catalysts were identified and improvements in the photodegradation rates were achieved both by milling to increase surface area and separately by acid protonation followed by dehydration. Both processes yielded marked improvements in the photodegradation rates, some with more than 3 times improvement. The improvement is attributed to improved adsorption after the surface reconstruction that occurs with acid treatment and dehydration.

  19. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E; Chen, Edward H; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E; Gaathon, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5-50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core-hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed.

  20. Surface wettability of macroporous anodized aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Buijnsters, Josephus G; Zhong, Rui; Tsyntsaru, Natalia; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-24

    The correlation between the structural characteristics and the wetting of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) surfaces with large pore sizes (>100 nm) is discussed. The roughness-induced wettability is systematically examined for oxide films grown by a two-step, high-field anodization in phosphoric acid of three different concentrations using a commercial aluminum alloy. This is done for the as-synthesized AAO layers, after various degrees of pore widening by a wet chemical etching in phosphoric acid solution, and upon surface modification by either Lauric acid or a silane. The as-grown AAO films feature structurally disordered pore architectures with average pore openings in the range 140-190 nm but with similar interpore distances of about 405 nm. The formation of such AAO structures induces a transition from slightly hydrophilic to moderately hydrophobic surfaces up to film thicknesses of about 6 μm. Increased hydrophobicity is obtained by pore opening and a maximum value of the water contact angle (WCA) of about 128° is measured for AAO arrays with a surface porosity close to 60%. Higher surface porosity by prolonged wet chemical etching leads to a rapid decrease in the WCA as a result of the limited pore wall thickness and partial collapse of the dead-end pore structures. Modification of the AAO surfaces by Lauric acid results in 5-30° higher WCA's, whereas near-superhydrophobicity (WCA ~146°) is realized through silane coating. The "rose petal effect" of strongly hydrophobic wetting with high adhesive force on the produced AAO surfaces is explained by a partial penetration of water through capillary action into the dead-end pore cavities which leads to a wetting state in-between the Wenzel and Cassie states. Moreover, practical guidelines for the synthesis of rough, highly porous AAO structures with controlled wettability are provided and the possibility of forming superhydrophobic surfaces is evaluated.

  1. Oxide-assisted laser surfacing of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepp, E. E.; Kerr, Hugh W.

    1996-04-01

    CO2 laser processing has been carried out on pure aluminum substrates for travel speeds from 0.3 to 6.1 mm/s, using laser powers of about 100 W or 300 W, with various preplaced single or mixed powders including CoO, NiO, SiO2, Fe2O3 or TiO2 usually combined with enough aluminum powder to permit complete reduction of the oxides. The 100 W laser experiments included low, normal and high gravity experiments. The resulting tracks were tested qualitatively for scratch resistance, and examined metallographically. Two types of surfacing were observed; continuous oxide layers produced by melting and an oxidation- reduction reaction of the original oxides with aluminum, and alloying of the substrate by elements reduced by the reaction. Low gravity experiments produced more uniform thicknesses and generally less cracking in the continuous oxides than normal or high gravity experiments. Alloying of the substrate ranged from almost 100% intermetallic layers at low laser powers and low travel speeds to complex mixtures and bands of different phases, depending on the temporal stability of the process, the powder composition and thickness, the laser power and travel speed. Optimization of the process could provide useful wear resistant coatings in a space environment.

  2. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds.

  3. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  4. Room temperature stable COx-free H2 production from methanol with magnesium oxide nanophotocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengqing; Yin, Zongyou; Cox, Casandra; Bosman, Michel; Qian, Xiaofeng; Li, Na; Zhao, Hongyang; Du, Yaping; Li, Ju; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol, which contains 12.6 weight percent hydrogen, is a good hydrogen storage medium because it is a liquid at room temperature. However, by releasing the hydrogen, undesirable CO and/or CO2 byproducts are formed during catalytic fuel reforming. We show that alkaline earth metal oxides, in our case MgO nanocrystals, exhibit stable photocatalytic activity for CO/CO2-free H2 production from liquid methanol at room temperature. The performance of MgO nanocrystals toward methanol dehydrogenation increases with time and approaches ~320 μmol g−1 hour−1 after a 2-day photocatalytic reaction. The COx-free H2 production is attributed to methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde, photocatalyzed by surface electronic states of unique monodispersed, porous MgO nanocrystals, which were synthesized with a novel facile colloidal chemical strategy. An oxygen plasma treatment allows for the removal of organic surfactants, producing MgO nanocrystals that are well dispersible in methanol. PMID:28508036

  5. Magnesium Oxide Embedded Nitrogen Self-Doped Biochar Composites: Fast and High-Efficiency Adsorption of Heavy Metals in an Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li-Li; Liu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Hong

    2017-09-05

    Lead (Pb) pollution in natural water bodies is an environmental concern due to toxic effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, while adsorption is an effective approach to remove Pb from the water. Surface interactions between adsorbents and adsorbates play a dominant role in the adsorption process, and properly engineering a material's surface property is critical to the improvement of adsorption performance. In this study, the magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles stabilized on the N-doped biochar (MgO@N-biochar) were synthesized by one-pot fast pyrolysis of an MgCl2-loaded N-enriched hydrophyte biomass as a way to increase the exchangeable ions and N-containing functional groups and facilitate the adsorption of Pb(2+). The as-synthesized MgO@N-biochar has a high performance with Pb in an aqueous solution with a large adsorption capacity (893 mg/g), a very short equilibrium time (<10 min), and a large throughput (∼4450 BV). Results show that this excellent adsorption performance can be maintained with various environmentally relevant interferences including pH, natural organic matter, and other metal ions, suggesting that the material may be suitable for the treatment of wastewater, natural bodies of water, and even drinking water. In addition, MgO@N-biochar quickly and efficiently removed Cd(2+) and tetracycline. Multiple characterizations and comparative tests have been performed to demonstrate the surface adsorption and ion exchange contributed to partial Pb adsorption, and it can be inferred from these results that the high performance of MgO@N-biochar is mainly due to the surface coordination of Pb(2+) and C═O or O═C-O, pyridinic, pyridonic, and pyrrolic N. This work suggests that engineering surface functional groups of biochar may be crucial for the development of high performance heavy metal adsorbents.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  8. An Effective CB Material from Combined Components of Triosyn(Trademark) Resin and Surface Enhanced Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    polyoxometallate impregnation, nanoparticulate adsorbents and/or the oxidation of the carbon macrostructure. This novel synthetic methodology produced...K.J. 1996. Nanoscale metal oxide particles/ clusters as chemical reagents. Unique surface chemistry on magnesium oxide as shown by enhanced

  9. A Randomized Controlled Study of Effects of Dietary Magnesium Oxide Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content in Healthy Girls

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Thomas O.; DeLucia, Maria C.; Zhang, Jane Hongyuan; Bejnerowicz, Gina; Tartamella, Lisa; Dziura, James; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Befroy, Douglas; Cohen, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Context The role of magnesium (Mg) as a determinant of bone mass has not been extensively explored. Limited studies suggest that dietary Mg intake and bone mineral density are correlated in adults, but no data from interventional studies in children and adolescents are available. Objective We sought to determine whether Mg supplementation in periadolescent girls enhances accrual of bone mass. Design We carried out a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, one-year double-blind trial of Mg supplementation. Setting The study was conducted in the Clinical Research Centers at Yale University School of Medicine. Patients or Other Participants Healthy 8- to 14-yr-old Caucasian girls were recruited from community pediatricians’ offices. Dietary diaries from over 120 volunteers were analyzed, and those with dietary Mg intake of less than 220 mg/d were invited to participate in the intervention. Intervention Magnesium (300 mg elemental Mg per day in two divided doses) or placebo was given orally for 12 months. Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome measure was interval change in bone mineral content (BMC) of the total hip, femoral neck, Ward’s area, and lumbar spine (L1–L4) after 12 months of Mg supplementation. Results Significantly increased accrual (P = 0.05) in integrated hip BMC occurred in the Mg-supplemented vs. placebo group. Trends for a positive Mg effect were evident in the pre- and early puberty and in mid-late puberty. Lumbar spinal BMC accrual was slightly (but not significantly) greater in the Mg-treated group. Compliance was excellent; 73% of capsules were ingested as inferred by pill counts. Serum mineral levels, calciotropic hormones, and bone markers were similar between groups. Conclusions Oral Mg oxide capsules are safe and well tolerated. A positive effect of Mg supplementation on integrated hip BMC was evident in this small cohort. PMID:17018656

  10. Removal of tetrafluoroborate ion from aqueous solution using magnesium-aluminum oxide produced by the thermal decomposition of a hydrotalcite-like compound.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Kameda, Tomohito; Miyahara, Motoya; Uchida, Miho; Mizoguchi, Tadaaki; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    2007-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide) prepared by the thermal decomposition of a hydrotalcite-like compound was found to have potential for treating NaBF(4) wastewater. The Mg-Al oxide removed the BF(4)(-) and F(-) and H(3)BO(3) from the NaBF(4) solution. With increasing Mg-Al oxide quantity and time, the BF(4)(-) concentration decreased and the degree of BF(4)(-), F(-), and boron removal increased. The decrease in the BF(4)(-) concentration resulted from uptake by the Mg-Al oxide and not hydrolysis. The Mg-Al oxide took up F(-) from the solution preferentially. The Mg-Al oxide also converted the H(3)BO(3) in the aqueous solution into H(2)BO(3)(-), which it took up.

  11. Atomic scale characterization of interfacial water near an oxide surface using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2012-11-28

    Atomic scale characterization of the structure and dynamics of confined water molecules located near the metal oxide-aqueous interface is carried out using molecular dynamics simulations. Proximity effects on water molecules (H(2)O) near a magnesium oxide surface (MgO(100)) at room temperature are evaluated based on various structural and dynamical correlation functions. Translational and orientational order parameters are used to quantify the extent of ordering of water molecules near the oxide surface. There is significant ordering of water molecules in the two layers close to the oxide interface and the extent of ordering decreases with increasing distance from the oxide-water interface. The characteristic structural features of proximal water molecules near oxide-aqueous interfaces are strongly correlated to their vibrational densities of states. Systematic trends in libration, bending, and stretching bands are correlated with local ordering of water molecules and the hydrogen-bonding network. We find that restricted transverse oscillations result in larger blue shifts in O-O-O bending and O-O stretching bands for water molecules having increased proximity to the interface. The O-H stretching band is red-shifted whereas the libration bands for proximal water are blue shifted with respect to bulk water; the extent of shifts are sensitive to the interface proximity, their local confinement and their hydrogen bonding status.

  12. Biophysical characterization and activity analysis of nano-magnesium supplemented cellulase obtained from a psychrobacterium following graphene oxide immobilization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N; Biswas, S; Saha, M K

    2016-12-01

    Cellulase enzyme was purified from a psychrophilic strain of Bacillus subtilis obtained from east Himalayan mountains. The native enzyme showed optimum activity at 15°C and pH 8.0.The Magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgN) supplemented enzyme when immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport (GO), via glutaraldehyde as cross linker, showed 2.98 folds increase in enzymatic activity at 8°C and more than 3.5 folds activity increment at 90°C. The MgN-cel on graphene (GO-MgN-cel) showed a decrease in Km by 6.7 folds at 8°C and 34 folds at 90°C. GO-MgN-cel showed 5 fold and 4.7 fold increase in Vmax at 8°C and 90°C respectively than the untreated enzyme.When compared to native enzyme, GO-MgN-cel had t1/2 (half life) and Ed increased by 72.5 fold and 2.48 fold respectively at 90°C; and 41.6 fold and 2.19 fold respectively at 8°C. Enzymatic activity of GO-MgN-cel was retained even after 12 repeated uses and showed storage stability at 4°C for more than 120days. This nanoparticle assisted immobilization technique can be utilized in bioprocessing industries which require functioning at these extreme ranges of temperature.

  13. Facile approach to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles by using Clitoria ternatea—characterization and in vitro antioxidant studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Sushma, N.; Prathyusha, D.; Swathi, G.; Madhavi, T.; Deva Prasad Raju, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-03-01

    Facile approach to synthesize the metal oxide nanoparticles is getting an increased attention in various biomedical applications such as, to treat antibiotic resistant diseases. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO·NPs) were synthesized by using Clitoria ternatea as the stabilizer in a green synthesis approach. The preliminary screening of MgO·NPs in the presence of C. ternatea extract was observed by UV-visible spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern have proved the crystalline nature of the MgO·NPs; Photoluminescence (PL) measurement studies are used to identify the quality and defects in the crystal structure. FE-SEM with EDS has showed the size of 50-400 nm with specific binding energies. FT-IR has revealed the functional groups present in the plant extract and the peak at 521 cm-1 indicated the characteristic absorption bands of MgO·NPs. The DPPH activity and reducing power assay of biologically synthesized MgO·NPs could reach 65 % at a concentration of 150 µg/ml, respectively. From the results it was concluded that the biologically synthesized MgO·NPs exhibit good antioxidant activity.

  14. Stripping voltammetry study of ultra-trace toxic metal ions on highly selectively adsorptive porous magnesium oxide nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Yang, Ran; Yu, Xin-Yao; Wang, Lun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2012-05-07

    We have demonstrated highly selective and sensitive detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) using a highly selective adsorptive porous magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoflowers. The MgO nanoflower-modified glassy carbon electrode was electrochemically characterized using cyclic voltammetry; and the anodic stripping voltammetric performance of bound Pb(II) and Cd(II) was evaluated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) analysis. The MgO nanoflower-modified electrode exhibited excellent sensing performance toward Pb(II) and Cd(II) that was never observed previously at bismuth (Bi)-based electrodes. Simultaneous additions of Pb(II) and Cd(II) were investigated in the linear range from 3.3 to 22 nM for Pb(II) and 40 to 140 nM for Cd(II), and detection limits of 2.1 pM and 81 pM were obtained, respectively. Some foreign ions, such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) do not interfere with the detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a highly adsorptive metal oxide with hierarchical micro/nanostructure that allows the detection of both Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions.

  15. Oxidation-extraction spectrometry of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) under ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuwei; Cheng, Chunping; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiu; Gao, Jingqun; Kang, Pingli

    2011-09-01

    In order to examine the mechanism and process of sonodynamic reaction, the chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) acting as a sonosensitizer was irradiated by ultrasound, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the method of oxidation-extraction spectrometry (OES). That is, under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of Chl-Mg, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) is oxidized by generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can be extracted by mixed organic solvent and display a obvious visible absorption at 563 nm wavelength. Besides, the generation conditions of ROS were also reviewed. The results demonstrated that the quantities of generated ROS increased with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time, Chl-Mg concentration and DPCI concentration. Finally, several radical scavengers (l-Histidine (His), 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-methylphenol (BHT) and Vitamin C (VC)) were used to determine the kind of the generated ROS. It was found that at least the hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were generated in the presence of Chl-Mg under ultrasonic irradiation. It is wish that this paper might offer some valuable references for the study on the mechanism of SDT and the application of Chl-Mg in tumor treatment.

  16. Ethylene and nitric oxide interact to regulate the magnesium deficiency-induced root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Liu, Xing Xing; He, Xiao Lin; Liu, Li Juan; Wu, Hao; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song; Jin, Chong Wei

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene respond to biotic and abiotic stresses through either similar or independent processes. This study examines the mechanism underlying the effects of NO and ethylene on promoting root hair development in Arabidopsis under magnesium (Mg) deficiency. The interaction between NO and ethylene in the regulation of Mg deficiency-induced root hair development was investigated using NO- and ethylene-related mutants and pharmacological methods. Mg deficiency triggered a burst of NO and ethylene, accompanied by a stimulated development of root hairs. Interestingly, ethylene facilitated NO generation by activation of both nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase-like (NOS-L) in the roots of Mg-deficient plants. In turn, NO enhanced ethylene synthesis through stimulating the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase and ACC synthase (ACS). These two processes constituted an NO-ethylene feedback loop. Blocking either of these two processes inhibited the stimulation of root hair development under Mg deficiency. In conclusion, we suggest that Mg deficiency increases the production of NO and ethylene in roots, each influencing the accumulation and role of the other, and thus these two signals interactively regulate Mg deficiency-induced root hair morphogenesis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Oxidation-extraction spectrometry of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) under ultrasonic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuwei; Cheng, Chunping; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiu; Gao, Jingqun; Kang, Pingli

    2011-09-01

    In order to examine the mechanism and process of sonodynamic reaction, the chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) acting as a sonosensitizer was irradiated by ultrasound, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the method of oxidation-extraction spectrometry (OES). That is, under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of Chl-Mg, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) is oxidized by generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can be extracted by mixed organic solvent and display a obvious visible absorption at 563 nm wavelength. Besides, the generation conditions of ROS were also reviewed. The results demonstrated that the quantities of generated ROS increased with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time, Chl-Mg concentration and DPCI concentration. Finally, several radical scavengers (l-Histidine (His), 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-methylphenol (BHT) and Vitamin C (VC)) were used to determine the kind of the generated ROS. It was found that at least the hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) were generated in the presence of Chl-Mg under ultrasonic irradiation. It is wish that this paper might offer some valuable references for the study on the mechanism of SDT and the application of Chl-Mg in tumor treatment.

  18. Titanium oxide antibacterial surfaces in biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Visai, Livia; De Nardo, Luigi; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Cigada, Alberto; Imbriani, Marcello; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2011-09-01

    Titanium oxide is a heterogeneous catalyst whose efficient photoinduced activity, related to some of its allotropic forms, paved the way for its widespread technological use. Here, we offer a comparative analysis of the use of titanium oxide as coating for materials in biomedical devices. First, we introduce the photoinduced catalytic mechanisms of TiO2 and their action on biological environment and bacteria. Second, we overview the main physical and chemical technologies for structuring suitable TiO2 coatings on biomedical devices. We then present the approaches for in vitro characterization of these surfaces. Finally, we discuss the main aspects of TiO2 photoactivated antimicrobial activity on medical devices and limitations for these types of applications.

  19. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  20. Co-Registered In Situ Secondary Electron and Mass Spectral Imaging on the Helium Ion Microscope Demonstrated Using Lithium Titanate and Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, D; Wirtz, T

    2017-09-05

    The development of a high resolution elemental imaging platform combining coregistered secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution secondary electron imaging is reported. The basic instrument setup and operation are discussed and in situ image correlation is demonstrated on a lithium titanate and magnesium oxide nanoparticle mixture. The instrument uses both helium and neon ion beams generated by a gas field ion source to irradiate the sample. Both secondary electrons and secondary ions may be detected. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is performed using an in-house developed double focusing magnetic sector spectrometer with parallel detection. Spatial resolutions of 10 nm have been obtained in SIMS mode. Both the secondary electron and SIMS image data are very surface sensitive and have approximately the same information depth. While the spatial resolutions are approximately a factor of 10 different, switching between the different images modes may be done in situ and extremely rapidly, allowing for simple imaging of the same region of interest and excellent coregistration of data sets. The ability to correlate mass spectral images on the 10 nm scale with secondary electron images on the nanometer scale in situ has the potential to provide a step change in our understanding of nanoscale phenomena in fields from materials science to life science.

  1. Effects of phosphates on microstructure and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Zhao, T G

    2013-09-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O) and different phosphates (i.e. disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·H2O) and sodium hexametaphosphate((NaPO3)6)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. Systemic toxicity test was used to evaluate the coating biocompatibility. Fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure F(-) ions concentration during 30 days SBF immersion. The CaP coatings effectively reduced the corrosion rate and the surfaces of CaP coatings were covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like and scale-like apatites. The formation of these calcium phosphate apatites indicates that the coatings have excellent bioactivity. The coatings formed in (NaPO3)6-containging electrolyte exhibit thicker thickness, higher adhesive strength, slower degradation rate, better apatite-inducing ability and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). By comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps. PMID:25548155

  3. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; ...

    2014-12-29

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling upmore » of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). As a result, by comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps, we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.« less

  4. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-12-29

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). As a result, by comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps, we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.

  5. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). By comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.

  6. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Joyce

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these "real" systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF2O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  7. Structural Imaging of Surface Oxidation and Oxidation Catalysis on Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Flege, J.; Hrbek, J; Sutter, P

    2008-01-01

    Using simultaneous imaging and structural fingerprinting under reaction conditions, we probe the initial oxidation pathway and CO oxidation catalysis on Ru(0001). Oxidation beyond an initial (1 x 1)-O adlayer phase produces a heterogeneous surface, comprising a disordered trilayerlike surface oxide and an ordered RuO{sub 2}(110) thin-film oxide, which form independently and exhibit similar stability. The surface oxide and RuO{sub 2} phases both show high intrinsic catalytic activity. The oxygen adlayer is inactive in isolation but becomes active due to cooperative effects in close proximity to the surface oxide.

  8. DEGRADATION OF SM2ZR2O7 THERMAL BARRIER COATING CAUSED BY CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON OXIDE (CMAS) DEPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Honglong; Sheng, Zhizhi; Tarwater, Emily; Zhang, Xingxing; Dasgupta, Sudip; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2015-03-16

    Rare earth zirconates are promising materials for use as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engines. Among the lanthanide zirconate materials, Sm2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure has lower thermal conductivity and better corrosion resistance against calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicon oxide (CMAS). In this work, after reaction with CMAS, the pyrochlore structure transforms to the cubic fluorite structure and Ca2Sm8(SiO4)6O2 forms in elongated grain.

  9. The investigation of different particle size magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) nanoparticles on the lubrication behavior of paraffin oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani; Jaiswal, V.; Rastogi, R. B.; Kumar, D.

    2017-08-01

    Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) (ZMO) nanoparticles of 23 nm particle size have been synthesized by auto-combustion method. The variation in particle size of these nanoparticles has been performed by their further calcination at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h and the corresponding calcined particles are designated as ZMO-1 and ZMO-2, respectively. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder-XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscope. The effect of particle size on the antiwear lubrication behavior of paraffin base oil has been investigated on four-ball lubricant tester. The tribological tests of these nanoparticles as antiwear additives have been studied at an optimized concentration (0.5 %w/v) by varying load for 30 min test duration and by varying the test durations at 392 N load. Various tribological parameters such as mean wear scar diameter, friction coefficient (µ), mean wear volume, running-in and steady-state wear rates show that these nanoparticles act as efficient antiwear additives and possess high load-carrying ability. From these tribological tests it has been observed that the lubrication behavior of studied nanoparticles is strongly size-dependent. The best tribological behavior is shown by nanoparticles of the smallest size, ZMO. Being sulfur, halogen and phosphorous free, ZMO nanoparticles have potential to be used as low SAPS lubricant additives. The SEM and atomic force microscopy analysis of the worn surfaces lubricated with ZMO nanoparticles at 392 N applied load for 60 min test duration show drastic decrease in surface roughness. The values of surface roughness of different additives are in good agreement with their observed tribological behavior.

  10. Corrosion-Mitigating, Bondable, Fluorinated Barrier Coating for Anodized Magnesium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    performed. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas can modify a polymer surface through etching , introduction of chemical functional groups, and cross...coating oxidized Mg AZ31B H24 substrates with a perfluorinated silane. Then an atmospheric plasma treatment was used to promote adhesion of an epoxy...assembled monolayers, and alternative atmospheric plasma conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS anodize, magnesium, corrosion, atmospheric plasma

  11. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  12. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; ...

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  13. Electrochemical deposition of conducting polymer coatings on magnesium surfaces in ionic liquid

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiliang; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A conducting polymer based smart coating for magnesium (Mg) implants that can both improve the corrosion resistance of Mg and release drug in a controllable way is reported. As the ionic liquid is a highly conductive and stable solvent with a very wide electrochemical window, the conducting polymer coatings can be directly electrodeposited on the active metal Mg in ionic liquid at mild conditions, and Mg is considerably stable during the electrodeposition. The electrodeposited Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coatings on Mg are uniform and can significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Mg. In addition, the PEDOT coatings can load the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone during the electrodeposition which can be subsequently released upon electric stimulation. PMID:20832505

  14. Radiolysis of water with aluminum oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Sarah C.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, nanoparticles with water were irradiated with γ-rays and 5 MeV He ions followed by the determination of the production of molecular hydrogen, H2, and characterization of changes in the particle surface. Surface analysis techniques included: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), nitrogen absorption with the Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET) methodology for surface area determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Production of H2 by γ-ray radiolysis was determined for samples with adsorbed water and for Al2O3 - water slurries. For Al2O3 samples with adsorbed water, the radiation chemical yield of H2 was measured as 80±20 molecules/100 eV (1 molecule/100 eV=1.04×10-7 mol/J). The yield of H2 was observed to decrease as the amount of water present in the Al2O3 - water slurries increased. Surface studies indicated that the α-phase Al2O3 samples changed phase following irradiation by He ions, and that the oxyhydroxide layer, present on the pristine sample, is removed by γ-ray and He ion irradiation.

  15. Multiporphyrin coordination arrays based on complexation of magnesium(II) porphyrins with porphyrinylphosphine oxides.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Farzad; McMurtrie, John C; Arnold, Dennis P

    2007-06-07

    Di- and triporphyrin arrays consisting of 5,15-diphenylporphyrinatomagnesium(II) (MgDPP) coordinated to free-base and Ni(II) porphyrinyl mono- and bis-phosphine oxides, as well as the self-coordinating diphenyl[10,20-diphenylporphyrinatomagnesium(II)-5-yl]phosphine oxide [MgDPP(Ph(2)PO)], were synthesised in excellent yields and characterised by various spectroscopic techniques. Phosphine oxides stabilise Mg(II) coordination to porphyrins and the resulting complexes have convenient solubilities, while the Ni(II) complexes exhibit interesting intramolecular fluorescence quenching behaviour. The binding constant of MgDPP to triphenylphosphine oxide (5.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)) and the very high self-association constant of [MgDPP(Ph(2)PO)] (5.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(8) M(-1)) demonstrate the strong affinity of phosphine oxides towards Mg(II) porphyrins. These complexes are the first strongly bound synthetic Mg(II) multiporphyrin complexes and could potentially mimic the "special pair" in the photosynthetic reaction centre.

  16. Non-conventional halide oxidation pathways : oxidation by imidazole triplet and surface specific oxidation by ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Markus; Corral-Arroyo, Pablo; Aellig, Raphael; Orlando, Fabrizio; Lee, Ming-Tao; Artiglia, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation of halide ions (chloride, bromide, iodide) are the starting point of halogen release mechanisms out of sea water, marine aerosol or other halide containing continental aerosols. Slow oxidation of chloride and bromide by ozone in the bulk aqueous phase is of limited relevance. Faster surface specific oxidation has been suggested based on heterogeneous kinetics experiments. We provide first insight into very efficient bromide oxidation by ozone at the aqueous solution - air interface by surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicating significant build-up of an oxidized intermediate at the surface within millisecond time scales. The second source of oxidants in the condensed we have considered is the absorption of light by triplet forming photosensitizers at wavelengths longer than needed for direct photolysis and radical formation. We have performed coated wall flow tube experiments with mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) to represent secondary organic material rich marine aerosol. The halide ions bromide and iodide have been observed to act as efficient electron donors leading to their oxidation, HO2 formation and finally release of molecular halogen compounds. The photosensitization of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) involves a well-known mechanism where the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid to a reduced ketyl radical that reacts with halide ions. A competition kinetics approach has been used to evaluate the rate limiting steps and to assess the significance of this source of halogens to the gas phase.

  17. Soft-proton exchange on magnesium-oxide-doped substrates: A route toward efficient and power-resistant nonlinear converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, T.; Doutre, F.; Legoff, G.; Ayenew, G.; Tronche, H.; Tanzilli, S.; Baldi, P.; De Micheli, M.

    2017-07-01

    Despite their attractive features, integrated optical devices based on Congruent-melted Lithium Niobate (CLN) suffer from Photo-Refractive Damage (PRD). This light-induced refractive-index change hampers the use of CLN when high-power densities are in play, a typical regime in integrated optics. In bulk devices, the resistance to PRD can be largely improved by doping the lithium-niobate substrates with magnesium oxide. However, the fabrication of waveguides on MgO-doped substrates is not as straightforward as on CLN and either the resistance to PRD is strongly reduced by the waveguide fabrication process (as it happens in Ti-indiffused waveguides) or the nonlinear conversion efficiency is lowered (as it occurs in annealed-proton exchange). Here, we fabricate waveguides starting from MgO-doped substrates using the Soft-Proton Exchange (SPE) technique and we show that this combination represents a promising alternative. We demonstrate that, with a small adaptation of the exchange parameters, SPE allows producing MgO-doped LN refractive-index profiles almost identical to those produced in CLN without reducing the nonlinearity in the substrate. We also prove that the SPE does not affect substantially the resistance to PRD characteristics of MgO-doped substrates. Therefore, we think that SPE is the right recipe to outperform standard techniques and to fabricate robust and efficient waveguides for high-intensity-beam confinement.

  18. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles coated with glucose can silence important genes of Leishmania major at sub-toxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Ali Fatahi; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Daliri, Karim; Jebali, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) and MgO NPs coated with glucose (MONPCG) on Leishmania (L) major. First, the promastigotes of L. major were separately incubated with serial concentrations of MgO NPs and MONPCG for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Then, the cell viability of promastigotes was evaluated by MTT assay. On the other hand, the relative expression of Cpb and GP63 genes was detected by quantitative-real time PCR. Based on results, the increase of concentration, both MgO NPs and MONPCG, and incubation time led to decrease of cell viability. Moreover, the expression of Cpb and GP63 genes was decreased with increase of concentration of MgO NPs and MONPCG. Also, the increase of incubation time led to decrease of their expression in MgO NPs treated promastogotes. But, in case of MONPCG treated promastogotes, the increase of incubation time did not change the expression of Cpb and GP63. Interestingly, MONPCG could silence Cpb and GP63 genes better than MgO NPs. Note, the capability was also seen at sub-toxic concentrations of MONPCG.

  19. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    PubMed

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  20. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  1. Producing Nanocomposite Layer on the Surface of As-Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, P.; Besharati Givi, M. K.; Faraji, G.

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is an effective tool to produce a surface composite layer with enhanced mechanical properties and modified microstructure of as-cast and sheet metals. In the present work, the mechanical and microstructural properties of as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy were enhanced by FSP and an AZ91/SiC surface nanocomposite layer has been produced using 30 nm SiC particles. Effect of the FSP pass number on the microstructure, grain size, microhardness, and powder distributing pattern of the surface developed has been investigated. The developed surface nanocomposite layer presents a higher hardness, an ultra fine grain size and a better homogeneity. Results show that, increasing the number of FSP passes enhances distribution of nano-sized SiC particles in the AZ91 matrix, decreases the grain size, and increases the hardness significantly. Also, changing of the tool rotating direction results much uniform distribution of the SiC particles, finer grains, and a little higher hardness.

  2. Response of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, L929 fibroblasts, and J774 macrophages to fluoride surface-modified AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rosa María; Pérez-Maceda, Blanca Teresa; Carboneras, Mónica; Onofre-Bustamante, Edgar; García-Alonso, María Cristina; Escudero, María Lorenza

    2013-10-01

    The present work evaluates the biocompatibility of a fluoride surface-modified AZ31 magnesium alloy (AZ31HF) with different cell lines that coexist in the implant environment to test its potential use as a biodegradable and absorbable biomaterial for bone repair. A clear stimulation of cell proliferation and an enhancement of the mitochondrial respiratory activity were observed when mouse osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), fibroblasts (L929), and macrophages (J774) cell lines were cultured with the modified alloy. No significant change in apoptosis or viability rates was observed when osteoblasts and fibroblasts cultures were grown in the presence of this alloy. A proteomic analysis of the MC3T3-E1 cell extracts cultured in the presence of AZ31HF showed an overexpression of proteins related with the mineralization process, which is a necessary step for bone repair. An increase in the lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed in the MC3T3-E1 and J774 cell cultures that could be a response of the oxidative stress produced by the presence of the material. This stress could be related to the increase observed in the respiratory mitochondrial activity or respiratory burst measured in theses cultures that indicate damage in the cell membranes and subsequently some cell death. Results reported here, for and against AZ31HF, should be taken into account when considering the potential use of this modified alloy in bone repair applications.

  3. Surface microstructure and in vitro analysis of nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Hashemi Beni, Batoul; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys, owing to their biodegradability and good mechanical properties, have potential applications as biodegradable orthopedic implants. However, several poor properties including low corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility have prevented their clinical application, as these properties may result in the sudden failure of the implants during the bone healing. In this research, nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) powder was coated on the AZ91 Mg alloy through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) assisted micro arc oxidation (MAO) method to modify the properties of the alloy. The surface microstructure of coating, corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the samples were characterized with different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, compression test and cell culture test. The results showed that the nanostructured akermanite coating can improve the corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the biodegradable Mg alloy making it a promising material to be used as biodegradable bone implants for orthopedic applications.

  4. The high-temperature phase chemistry and thermochemistry of the lead magnesium niobium titanium oxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangham, Robert Ingvar

    The phase equilibrium diagrams for the PbO-MgO-Nb2O5 -TiO2 system were experimentally evaluated in the vicinity of 1000°C. In addition, the equilibrium vapor pressure of lead oxide was measured as a function of temperature and composition for most of the phase compatibility relationships. Together, this information was combined to map out the thermochemistry of the perovskite and pyrochlore solid solutions, and the compounds in the surrounding compositional space. The focus of this investigation has been to provide a thermodynamic description of the stability of the perovskite phase as it pertains to high-temperature synthesis and compositional control. The ternary diagram for the PbO-MgO-Nb2O5 system was previously reported at 1000°C. Here, the three remaining ternary diagrams, PbO-MgO-TiO2, PbO-Nb2O5-TiO2, and MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 are presented at 1000°C. The individual equilibrium compatibilities were assessed via more than one reaction path. Typically, samples were combinations of the constituent oxides and/or previously synthesized ternary compounds pelletized and welded shut in platinum capsules. Equilibration was a particularly slow process in the MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 system and, therefore, samples were analyzed at higher temperatures, up to 1450°C, and then extrapolated to 1000°C. Samples prepared that did not contain lead oxide were annealed in air. Upon finishing the four ternary diagrams, the complete quaternary phase equilibrium was evaluated at 1000°C. Details surrounding the perovskite and extended pyrochlore solid solutions were revealed. Lead oxide vapor pressures were measured by Knudsen cell thermogravimetric analysis (KC-TGA). Due to the multiple lead oxide species present, and discrepancies in the thermodynamic descriptions of the molecular distributions, a calibration procedure was devised from which the lead oxide activity was deduced directly from the measured weight-loss rates. From the activities, the Gibbs energy of formation was calculated for

  5. Ignition Temperature of Magnesium Powder and Pyrotechnic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen-Guang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Min, Li

    2014-07-01

    Using potassium nitrate, strontium nitrate, and potassium perchlorate as the oxidizing agents, the ignition and combustion behaviors of magnesium powders with different specific surface area were studied. The ignition temperature (Te) was extrapolated using a differential thermal analyzer, and the pyrotechnic spontaneous reaction temperature (Ts) was inferred from the temperature curve by inflection point analysis. The results showed that Ts has much better reproducibility than the extrapolated Te in characterizing the ignition of the pyrotechnic formulations. Increasing the specific surface area of the magnesium powder resulted in decreased Ts of the pyrotechnics.

  6. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, X. J.; Gong, W. X.; Wu, K.; Wang, F. H.

    2013-10-01

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiCp/AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage-time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO2 before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO2 by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiCp/AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  7. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg_sign} application

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Babu, M.; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-04-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970`s, is used by over 1400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative`s (AEC) personnel converted AEC`s Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modifications that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg_sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg_sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part of this paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-ducts and their potential uses.

  8. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} application

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Babu, M; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-07-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970's, is used by over 1,400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative's (AEC) personnel converted AEC's Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modification that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part oft his paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-products and their potential uses.

  9. Mechanism of Oxidation of Ethane to Ethanol at Iron(IV)-Oxo Sites in Magnesium-Diluted Fe2(dobdc).

    PubMed

    Verma, Pragya; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Xiao, Dianne J; Long, Jeffrey R; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-05-06

    The catalytic properties of the metal-organic framework Fe2(dobdc), containing open Fe(II) sites, include hydroxylation of phenol by pure Fe2(dobdc) and hydroxylation of ethane by its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc). In earlier work, the latter reaction was proposed to occur through a redox mechanism involving the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo species, which is an intermediate that is also observed or postulated (depending on the case) in some heme and nonheme enzymes and their model complexes. In the present work, we present a detailed mechanism by which the catalytic material, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), activates the strong C-H bonds of ethane. Kohn-Sham density functional and multireference wave function calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure of key species. We show that the catalytic nonheme-Fe hydroxylation of the strong C-H bond of ethane proceeds by a quintet single-state σ-attack pathway after the formation of highly reactive iron-oxo intermediate. The mechanistic pathway involves three key transition states, with the highest activation barrier for the transfer of oxygen from N2O to the Fe(II) center. The uncatalyzed reaction, where nitrous oxide directly oxidizes ethane to ethanol is found to have an activation barrier of 280 kJ/mol, in contrast to 82 kJ/mol for the slowest step in the iron(IV)-oxo catalytic mechanism. The energetics of the C-H bond activation steps of ethane and methane are also compared. Dehydrogenation and dissociation pathways that can compete with the formation of ethanol were shown to involve higher barriers than the hydroxylation pathway.

  10. Dynamics of photoinduced reactions at oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shamery, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes our work on UV-laser induced desorption of small molecules and atoms from transition metal oxides. The systems presented serve as examples for a simple photochemical reaction, the fission of the molecule surface bond. State resolved detection methods were used to record the final state distributions of the desorbing neutral molecules. Detailed results on the systems NO/NiO(1 1 1) and CO/Cr2O3(0 0 0 1) are presented. The experiments include investigations on stereodynamic aspects like the angular distributions of the desorbing molecules and, in the case of CO desorption, the rotational alignment with respect to the surface normal. Large desorption cross sections of (6±1) ṡ 10-17 cm2 for NO and (3.5±1) ṡ 10-17 cm2 for CO have been found for the desorption at 6.4 eV. The wavelength dependence indicates that the primary excitation step is substrate induced. The final state distributions show a high degree of translational, rotational and vibrational excitation and are clearly nonthermal of origin. The results are consistent with the formation of a negative ion intermediate state of the adsorbate. This observation is supported from a comparison to former results on NO/NiO(1 0 0) for which extensive ab initio calculations including electronically excited states exist. A spin state dependence of the vibrational excitation of NO could only be observed for NO/NiO(1 1 1) and is absent for NO/NiO(1 0 0). We attribute this observation to a spin state dependent coupling of the desorbing molecule to the surface in case the spin lattice orientation of the surface shows a preferential orientation. In the (1 1 1) plane the spin orientation is parallel within neighbour nickel ions while it is alternating in the (1 0 0) plane. For both systems studied the velocity component parallel to the surface is constant leading to a strong peaking along the surface normal for the fast molecules. The change from a preferred helicopter rotation (angular momentum

  11. Oxidation behavior of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - Magnesium oxide and nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - zirconate type of cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1976-01-01

    The 1100 and 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance of dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgO, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - CaZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - SrZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgZro3 cermets and a 70 percent dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y developmental material was determined. The cermets contained 60 and 50 volume percent of Ni-Cr-Al-Y which formed a matrix with the oxide particles imbedded in it. The cermets containing MgO were superior to cermets based on zirconates and to the porous Ni-Cr-Al-Y material.

  12. All magnesium diboride Josephson junctions with MgO and native oxide barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costache, M. V.; Moodera, J. S.

    2010-02-01

    We present results on all-MgB2 tunnel junctions, where the tunnel barrier is deposited MgO or native-oxide of base electrode. For the junctions with MgO, the hysteretic I-V curve resembles a conventional underdamped Josephson junction characteristic with critical current-resistance product nearly independent of the junction area. The dependence of the critical current with temperature up to 20 K agrees with the [Ambegaokar and Baratoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 486 (1963)] expression. For the junctions with native-oxide, conductance at low bias exhibits subgap features while at high bias reveals thick barriers. As a result no supercurrent was observed in the latter, despite the presence of superconducting-gaps to over 30 K.

  13. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-03-15

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO{sub 2} with some Mg(OH){sub 2}. The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO{sub 2} and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 3}Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37{+-}1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} phase.

  14. Preparation of Magnesium, Cobalt and Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles from Metal Oxides using Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Söldner, Anika; Zach, Julia; Iwanow, Melanie; Gärtner, Tobias; Schlosser, Marc; Pfitzner, Arno; König, Burkhard

    2016-09-05

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (DESs) dissolve simple metal oxides and are used as a reaction medium to synthesize spinel-type ferrite nanoparticles MFe2 O4 (M=Mg, Zn, Co, Ni). The best results for phase-pure spinel ferrites are obtained with the DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) and maleic acid. By employing DESs, the reactions proceed at much lower temperatures than usual for the respective solid-phase reactions of the metal oxides and at the same temperatures as synthesis with comparable calcination processes using metal salts. The method therefore reduces the overall required energy for the nanoparticle synthesis. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the thermolysis process of the eutectic melts in air occurs in one major step. The phase-pure spinel-type ferrite particles are thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The properties of the obtained nanoparticles are shown to be comparable to those obtained by other methods, illustrating the potential of natural DESs for processing metal oxides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  16. Energetics of nanoparticle oxides: interplay between surface energy and polymorphism†

    PubMed Central

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Many oxides tend to form different structures (polymorphs) for small particles. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry has been used to measure the enthalpy as a function of polymorphism and surface area for oxides of Al, Ti, and Zr. The results confirm crossovers in polymorph stability at the nanoscale. The energies of internal and external surfaces of zeolitic silicas with open framework structures are an order of magnitude smaller than those of oxides of normal density.

  17. Pretreatment of lubricated surfaces with sputtered cadmium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Cadmium oxide is used with a dry solid lubricant on a surface to improve wear resistance. The surface topography is first altered by photochemical etching to a predetermined pattern. The cadmium oxide is then sputtered onto the altered surface to form an intermediate layer to more tightly hold the dry lubricant, such as graphite.

  18. The Wetting of Ceramic Opaque Suspensions on Oxidized Alloy Surfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-10

    effective application of opaque porcelain, liquid mediums should wet oxidized metal surfaces well (indicated by a low contact angle ). The liquid-metal...of various metals, liquids, surface preparation, and possible interactions on wetting. Five opaque liquid mediums were evaluated photographically by sessile drop contact angle measurements on five oxidized metal surfaces.

  19. Effect of cw-CO2 laser surface treatment on structure and properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Strzelecka, Monika

    2016-06-01

    In the study, samples of AZ91 magnesium alloy were subjected to a surface remelting treatment by means of a continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser. The scope of the investigation included both macro- and microstructural examination, hardness measurements, and wear resistance tests. The investigation has shown that remelting treatment leads to a strong refinement of structure in the surface layer and a more even distribution of phases. Fine α-phase dendrites have been observed to dominate in the remelting zone. The dendritic arm spacing in the laser treated surface was in the range of 1-2.5 μm. The structural changes triggered by remelting have contributed to an increase in the hardness and the wear resistance of AZ91 alloy. The microhardness of the remelted zone has increased to 71-93 HV0.05 for single-strip remelting and to 84-107 HV0.05 for multi-strip remelting in comparison with about ~60 HV0.05 for untreated alloy. The friction coefficient has decreased from 0.375 for material w/o treatment to 0.311 for remelted material. SEM investigations of samples after tribological tests have revealed the presence of parallel grooves proving the occurrence of microploughing and micro cutting of the material during the tribological testing. The results of the conducted investigation have indicated a beneficial influence of the cw-CO2 laser remelting treatment on the structure and properties of AZ91 alloy.

  20. One-step fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy and its corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jingze; Luo, Dan; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Xu; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A facile, rapid and one-step electrodeposition process has been employed to construct a superhydrophobic surface with micro/nano scale structure on a Mg-Sn-Zn (TZ51) alloy, which is expected to be applied as a biodegradable biomedical implant materials. By changing the electrodeposition time, the maximum contact angle of the droplet was observed as high as 160.4°±0.7°. The characteristics of the as-prepared surface were conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution were investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results demonstrated that the anti-corrosion property of superhydrophobic surface was greatly improved. This method show beneficial effects on the wettability and corrosion behavior, and therefore provides a efficient route to mitigate the undesirable rapid corrosion of magnesium alloy in favor of application for clinical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Surface Modification and Antimicrobial Activity of Basic Magnesium Hypochlorite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Tang, Zengmin; Xu, Jianxiong; Zhang, Jide; Du, Jingjing; Li, Na

    2015-02-01

    The basic magnesium hypochlorite (BMH) nanoparticles were prepared by two micro-emulsion techniques and modified with sodium stearate. The influences of the main technical parameters such as the addition amount of sodium stearate, reaction temperature and reaction time on the Lipophilic degree (LD) of the modified BMH nanoparticles were investigated. The characteristics of the BMH nanoparticles were analysed by means of Malvern Instruments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), water contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The antimicrobial activity of the modified BMH nanoparticles was investigated with the antibacterial circle test. The results showed that the average size of the BMH nanoparticles was 305 nm. The BMH nanoparticles had been successfully modified by sodium stearate and the LD of.the modified BMH nanoparticles was 8.4% when the addition amount of sodium stearate was 0.15 g, the reaction temperature was 10 °C and the reaction time was 5 h. The dispersibility and hydrophobicity of the modified BMH nanoparticles were improved and the contact angle was up to 103 °, the modified BMH nanoparticles still had excellent antimicrobial activity after modification.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and...

  3. Generation of singlet oxygen on the surface of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Burchinov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    Generation of singlet oxygen on the surface of metal oxides is studied. It is shown that, under conditions of heterogeneous photo-catalysis, along with the conventional mechanism of singlet oxygen formation due to the formation of electron-hole pairs in the oxide structure, there is an additional and more efficient mechanism involving direct optical excitation of molecular oxygen adsorbed on the oxide surface. The excited adsorbate molecule then interacts with the surface or with other adsorbate molecules. It is shown that, with respect to singlet oxygen generation, yttrium oxide is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than other oxides, including titanium dioxide.

  4. Microwave properties of thermochromic metal oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousbäck, Jan-Olof; Kariis, Hans

    2006-09-01

    Thermochromic metal oxides with a Mott transition, such as vanadium dioxide (VO II) exhibit an extensive alteration in their infrared reflectivity when heated above the transition temperature. For VO II the infrared reflectivity increases as the material becomes more metal-like above the transition temperature at 68°C. Given these dynamic electromagnetic properties in the IR-range, it is interesting to study the reflection of the material also in other wavelength ranges. The microwave properties of VO II as a function of temperature have been investigated here. Measurements were made with an automated network analyzer combined with an electrical heating unit. Reflection properties of VO II in the microwave region were determined. Above the transition temperature, an increase in the reflection of the surface was observed. The VO II became more metal-like in the whole measured microwave frequency range, as in the infrared region. It is concluded that VO II not only can be used to adapt the thermal emissivity of a surface but also to control the microwave reflectivity. Possible applications are switchable radomes, switchable radarabsorbers and heat protection for antenna apertures.

  5. Biochemical and molecular evidences on the protection by magnesium oxide nanoparticles of chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heydary, Vida; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Rahimifard, Mahban; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Baeeri, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one of the most widely used organophosphate (OP) insecticides in agricultural and residential pest control with its attendant adverse health effect. In the present study, it is proposed to investigate the possible modulatory role of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) against CP-induced toxicity in human lymphocytes and determine the mechanisms lying behind this protection by viability and biochemical assays. Materials and Methods: Isolated lymphocytes were exposed to 12 μg/mL CP either alone or in combination with different concentrations of MgO NPs (0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL). After a 3-day incubation, the viability and oxidative stress markers including cellular mitochondrial activity, caspase-3 and -9 activities, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Also, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as inflammatory index, along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured. Statistical differences were determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: It is indicated that CP-exposed lymphocytes treated with MgO NPs resulted in a substantial reduction in the pace of mortality as well as the stages of oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Also, MgO NPs (100 μg/mL) meaningfully restored CP-induced increase of TNF-α (P < 0.001) and decrease of AChE activity (P < 0.001) and were capable of preventing CP-treated human lymphocytes from apoptosis (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that MgO NPs in approximate 100 nm diameter not only make cells resistant to the toxic properties of CP but also attenuate toxic effects of CP, which is demonstrating the potential of MgO NPs to be applied in future immune deficiency therapeutic strategies. PMID:26941804

  6. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured metal oxides for application to biomass upgrading Polar (111) metal oxide surfaces for pyrolysis oil upgrading and lignin depolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, is one of the most promising methods to upgrade a variety of biomass to transportation fuels. Moving toward a more "green" catalytic process requires heterogeneous catalysis over homogeneous catalysis to avoid extraction solvent waste. Nanoscale catalysts are showing great promise due to their high surface area and unusual surfaces. Base catalyzed condensation reactions occur much quicker than acid catalyzed condensation reactions. However, MgO is slightly soluble in water and is susceptible to degradation by acidic environments, similar to those found in fast-pyrolysis oil. Magnesium oxide (111) has a highly active Lewis base surface, which can catalyze Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions in the organic phase. It has been shown previously that carbon coating a catalyst, such as a metal oxide, provides integrity while leaving the catalytic activity intact. Here, carbon-coated MgO(111) will be discussed with regards to synthesis, characterization and application to bio-oil upgrading through model compounds. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM are used to characterize the thickness and carbon-bonding environment of the carbon coating. Propanal self-condensation reactions have been conducted in the aqueous phase with varying amounts of acetic acid present. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography was completed to determine the catalytic activity of CC-MgO(111). ICP-OES analysis has been conducted to measure the magnesium concentration in the product solution and give insight into the leaching of the catalyst into the reaction solution.

  7. A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Magnesium Oxide for Alleviation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    owner, and will save and hold harmless the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from any damage which may arise from such copyright...is caused by stimulation of nerve endings usually due to tissue damage (Miller & Keane, 1983). Operational definition: A numeric rating scale will...excretion of magnesium by increasing secretion antidiuretic hormone, thyroid hormones, and corticoids . In addition to these effects, low serum magnesium

  8. Magnesium Corrosion Triggered Spontaneous Generation of H2O2 on Oxidized Titanium for Promoting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jimin; Du, Ping; Jeon, Jin-Kyung; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Hwang, Mintai Peter; Han, Hyung-Seop; Park, Kwideok; Lee, Kwan Hyi; Lee, Jee-Wook; Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yu-Chan; Park, Jong Woong; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Ok, Myoung-Ryul

    2015-12-01

    Although the use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been extensively studied, current systems employ external stimuli such as light or electrical energy to produce ROS, which limits their practical usage. In this report, biocompatible metals were used to construct a novel electrochemical system that can spontaneously generate H2O2 without any external light or voltage. The corrosion of Mg transfers electrons to Au-decorated oxidized Ti in an energetically favorable process, and the spontaneous generation of H2O2 in an oxygen reduction reaction was revealed to occur at titanium by combined spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. The controlled release of H2O2 noticeably enhanced in vitro angiogenesis even in the absence of growth factors. Finally, a new titanium implant prototype was developed by Mg incorporation, and its potential for promoting angiogenesis was demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Control of Surface and Edge Oxidation on Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Kaci L; Wells, Rebekah A; Hu, Jun; Yang, Teng; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Woomer, Adam H; Druffel, Daniel L; Alabanza, Anginelle; Tománek, David; Warren, Scott C

    2017-03-15

    Phosphorene is emerging as an important two-dimensional semiconductor, but controlling the surface chemistry of phosphorene remains a significant challenge. Here, we show that controlled oxidation of phosphorene determines the composition and spatial distribution of the resulting oxide. We used X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to measure the binding energy shifts that accompany oxidation. We interpreted these spectra by calculating the binding energy shift for 24 likely bonding configurations, including phosphorus oxides and hydroxides located on the basal surface or edges of flakes. After brief exposure to high-purity oxygen or high-purity water vapor at room temperature, we observed phosphorus in the +1 and +2 oxidation states; longer exposures led to a large population of phosphorus in the +3 oxidation state. To provide insight into the spatial distribution of the oxide, transmission electron microscopy was performed at several stages during the oxidation. We found crucial differences between oxygen and water oxidants: while pure oxygen produced an oxide layer on the van der Waals surface, water oxidized the material at pre-existing defects such as edges or steps. We propose a mechanism based on the thermodynamics of electron transfer to interpret these observations. This work opens a route to functionalize the basal surface or edges of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus through site-selective chemical reactions and presents the opportunity to explore the synthesis of 2D phosphorene oxide by oxidation.

  10. Cancer mortality in towns in the vicinity of installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Castelló, Adela; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether there might be excess cancer mortality in the vicinity of Spanish installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide, according to different categories of industrial activity. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 33 types of cancer (period 1997-2006) in Spain. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town to industrial facility. Using spatial Besag-York-Mollié regression models with integrated nested Laplace approximations for Bayesian inference, we assessed the relative risk of dying from cancer in a 5-km zone around installations, analyzed the effect of category of industrial activity according to the manufactured product, and conducted individual analyses within a 50-km radius of each installation. Excess all cancer mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) was detected in the vicinity of these installations as a whole (1.04, 1.01-1.07 in men; 1.03, 1.00-1.06 in women), and, principally, in the vicinity of cement installations (1.05, 1.01-1.09 in men). Special mention should be made of the results for tumors of colon-rectum in both sexes (1.07, 1.01-1.14 in men; 1.10, 1.03-1.16 in women), and pleura (1.71, 1.24-2.28), peritoneum (1.62, 1.15-2.20), gallbladder (1.21, 1.02-1.42), bladder (1.11, 1.03-1.20) and stomach (1.09, 1.00-1.18) in men in the vicinity of all such installations. Our results suggest an excess risk of dying from cancer, especially in colon-rectum, in towns near these industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nano-magnesium aided activity enhancement and biophysical characterization of a psychrophilic α-amylase immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Nalok; Biswas, Subrata; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2017-03-03

    In the current literature we have devised an immobilization technique for conferring psychrostability to a cold active α-amylase (amy) enzyme by the use of magnesium nanoparticle (MgNP) and graphene oxide (GO). The GO-MgNP-amy nanocomposite showed enhanced enzymatic activity and thermostability at both upper (90°C) and lower (8°C) temperature extremes. The GO-MgNP-amy showed increased affinity towards substrate, reflected in the decrease in its Km by 2.35 and 14.9-fold at 8°C and 90°C, respectively, than the untreated enzyme. GO-MgNP-amy showed 2.34-fold and 4.29-fold increase in Vmax at 8°C and 90°C, respectively, than the untreated enzyme. When compared to native enzyme at 90°C, GO-MgNP-amy had t1/2 (half life) increased by 44-fold with simultaneous increase in Ed by 1.9-fold. Again at 8°C, GO-MgNP-amy had t1/2 increased by 6.48-fold with simultaneous increase in Ed by 2.21-fold when compared to the native enzyme. The enzymatic activity of GO-MgNP-amy was retained even after 12 repeated uses and showed storage stability at 4°C for more than 120 days. The ability of GO-MgNP to sustain and aggravate enzyme activity and stability at temperatures beyond the optimal range can be utilized in bioprocessing industries which requires functioning at these extreme ranges of temperature.

  12. Positive holes in magnesium oxide - Correlation between magnetic, electric, and dielectric anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Parvin, K.; Freund, F.; Freund, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The present magnetic susceptibility investigation of high purity MgO single crystals notes an anomally at 800 K which is associated with increasing electrical conductivity, a rise in static dielectric constant from 9 to 150, and the appearance of a pronounced positive surface charge. These phenomena can be accounted for in terms of peroxy defects which represent self-trapped, spin-paired positive holes at Mg(2+) vacancy sites. The holes begin to decouple their spins above 600 K.

  13. Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy substrate: Wettability and corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Shuyi; Wang, Yaming; Wang, Huiyuan; Gao, Ke; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-09-15

    Superamphiphobic (both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces have attracted great interests in the fundamental research and practical application. This research successfully fabricated the superamphiphobic surfaces by combining the nickel plating process and modification with perfluorocaprylic acid. The cooperation of hierarchical micro-nano structures and perfluorocaprylic acid with low surface energy plays an important role in the formation of superamphiphobic surfaces. The contact angles of water/oil have reached up to 160.2±1°/152.4±1°, respectively. Contrast with bare substrate, the electrochemical measurements of superamphiphobic surfaces, not only the EIS measurement, but also potentiodynamic polarization curves, all revealed that, the surface corrosion inhibition was improved significantly. Moreover, superamphiphobic surfaces exhibited superior stability in the solutions with a large pH range, also could maintain excellent performance after storing for a long time in the air. This method is easy, feasible and effective, and could be used to fabricate large-area mutli-functional surface. Such a technique will develop a new approach to fabricate superamphiphobic surfaces on different engineering materials.

  14. Solid-State Metalized Reduction of Magnesium-Rich Low-Nickel Oxide Ores Using Coal as the Reductant Based on Thermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baozhong; Xing, Peng; Yang, Weijiao; Wang, Chengyan; Chen, Yongqiang; Wang, Hua

    2017-08-01

    The solid-state metalized reduction of magnesium-rich low-nickel oxide ore using coal as a reductant was studied based on thermodynamic analysis. The major constituent minerals of the ore were silicates and goethite. The former was the main nickel-bearing mineral, and the latter was the main iron-bearing mineral. Single factor tests were conducted to investigate the effects of reduction temperature, duration, and coal dosage on the beneficiation of nickel and iron such that optimal conditions were achieved. Considering the low recoveries of nickel and iron (Ni, 13.9 pct; Fe, 30.3 pct) under the obtained optimal conditions, an improved process, adding CaF2 before the reaction, was proposed to modify the solid-state metalized process. The results showed that the recoveries of nickel and iron reached to 96.5 and 73.4 pct, respectively, and that the grades of nickel and iron in the concentrate increased from 2.5 and 62.6 wt pct to 6.9 and 71.4 wt pct, respectively. Nickel and iron in the absence of CaF2 were metalized; nevertheless, the size of ferronickel particles was only 1 μm. Furthermore, alloys in the presence of CaF2 aggregated and exhibited bands with a length greater than 200 µm. These observations suggested that CaF2 could effectively reduce the surface tension of the newly generated alloy interface and promote the migration and polymerization of the alloy particles, which improves the beneficiation of nickel and iron by magnetic separation.

  15. Interaction of CO, NO, and H2 molecules on the surface of a Ni/MgO(111) metal oxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Ramonova, A. G.; Kibizov, D. D.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2017-07-01

    The adsorption and interaction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen (H2) molecules on the surface of a system produced when nanosize nickel clusters are formed on the surface of a magnesium oxide film [MgO (111)] has been studied in an ultrahigh vacuum by IR, thermal desorption, and photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that, at a substrate temperature of 85 K, CO and NO molecules at low surface concentrations, are mostly adsorbed on the surface of Ni particles, whereas at higher surface coverage CO molecules are forced to the Ni/MgO(111) interface. The adsorption of hydrogen results in NO molecules also being displaced to the interface. The particular state of the molecules at the interface between the metal and the polar surface of the oxide is responsible for the observed processes in which CO is converted to CO2 due to the reduction of NO to N2.

  16. Magnesium-Aluminum-Zirconium Oxide Amorphous Ternary Composite: A Dense and Stable Optical Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahoo, N. K.; Shapiro, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, the process parameter dependent optical and structural properties of MgO-Al(2)O(3)-ZrO(2) ternary mixed-composite material have been investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases and process dependent material composition of films have been investigated through the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction analysis and Energy Dispersive X- ray (EDX) analysis. EDX analysis made evident the correlation between the optical constants and the process dependent compositions in the films. It is possible to achieve environmentally stable amorphous films with high packing density under certain optimized process conditions.

  17. Electrical properties of magnesium incorporated zinc tin oxide thin film transistors by solution process.

    PubMed

    Jeon, In Young; Lee, Ji Yoon; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2013-03-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate as a function of Mg concentration (the ratio of 3 to 10 atomic%) using a spin-coating process. For the characterization of thin film transistors (TFTs), Zn0.3Sn0.70 channel TFT exhibited a higher on/off ratio compared to Zn0.5 Sn.0.5O channel TFT because the higher Sn concentration can induce more charge carriers. 3 atomic% Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs showed stable electrical performances such as I(on/off) - 1 x 10(7), micro(sat) = 1.40 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), and S = 0.39 V/decade. However, 10 atomic% Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs deteriorated their electrical performances due to Mg segregation. The Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs effectively suppress off-current and threshold voltage change during positive gate bias stress due to their strong bonding with oxygen.

  18. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Treesearch

    Iris C. Anderson; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Poth; Philip J. Riggan

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least 6 months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of...

  19. Engineering Polarons at a Metal Oxide Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, C. M.; Watkins, M. B.; Wolf, M. J.; Pang, C. L.; Hermansson, K.; Thornton, G.

    2016-09-01

    Polarons in metal oxides are important in processes such as catalysis, high temperature superconductivity, and dielectric breakdown in nanoscale electronics. Here, we study the behavior of electron small polarons associated with oxygen vacancies at rutile TiO2(110 ) , using a combination of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), density functional theory, and classical molecular dynamics calculations. We find that the electrons are symmetrically distributed around isolated vacancies at 78 K, but as the temperature is reduced, their distributions become increasingly asymmetric, confirming their polaronic nature. By manipulating isolated vacancies with the STM tip, we show that particular configurations of polarons are preferred for given locations of the vacancies, which we ascribe to small residual electric fields in the surface. We also form a series of vacancy complexes and manipulate the Ti ions surrounding them, both of which change the associated electronic distributions. Thus, we demonstrate that the configurations of polarons can be engineered, paving the way for the construction of conductive pathways relevant to resistive switching devices.

  20. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  1. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2014-09-01

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  2. On the Utility of Spinel Oxide Hosts for Magnesium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Knight, James C; Therese, Soosairaj; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-10-21

    There is immense interest to develop Mg-ion batteries, but finding suitable cathode materials has been a challenge. The spinel structure has many advantages for ion insertion and has been successfully used in Li-ion batteries. We present here findings on the attempts to extract Mg from MgMn2O4-based spinels with acid (H2SO4) and with NO2BF4. The acid treatment was able to fully remove all Mg from MgMn2O4 by following a mechanism involving the disproportionation of Mn(3+), and the extraction rate decreased with increasing cation disorder. Samples with additional Mg(2+) ions in the octahedral sites (e.g., Mg1.1Mn1.9O4 and Mg1.5Mn1.5O4) also exhibit complete or near complete demagnesiation due to an additional mechanism involving ion exchange of Mg(2+) by H(+), but no Mg could be extracted from MgMnAlO4 due to the disruption of Mn-Mn interaction/contact across shared octahedral edges. In contrast, no Mg could be extracted with the oxidizing agent NO2BF4 from MgMn2O4 or Mg1.5Mn1.5O4 as the electrostatic repulsion between the divalent Mg(2+) ions prevents Mg(2+) diffusion through the 16c octahedral sites, unlike Li(+) diffusion, suggesting that spinels may not serve as potential hosts for Mg-ion batteries. The ability to extract Mg with acid in contrast to that with NO2BF4 is attributed to Mn dissolution from the lattice and the consequent reduction in electrostatic repulsion. The findings could provide insights toward the design of Mg hosts for Mg-ion batteries.

  3. Quantum-mechanical description of ions in crystals: Electronic structure of magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luaña, Víctor; Recio, J. M.; Pueyo, L.

    1990-07-01

    The electronic structure of the MgO crystal has been calculated with the recently reported ab initio perturbed-ion (PI) method, a scheme derived from the theory of electronic separability of multielectron systems and the ab initio model-potential approach of Huzinaga. The PI atomiclike orbitals are eigenfunctions of Fock operators that contain nuclear, Coulombic, and exchange lattice potentials plus lattice projection operators enforcing the ion-lattice orthogonality. These lattice-consistent ionic orbitals form a crystalline basis set that may be useful in a variety of applications. The PI bonding picture of MgO consists of lattice-stabilized Mg2+ and O2- ions described with well-separated wave functions. The PI electron density of Mg2+ is very close to the free-ion function, but that of the oxide is more contracted than the density of O2- in vacuo. The PI densities are tested and compared with others by computing diamagnetic susceptibilities, form factors, and the change of electronic kinetic energy upon crystal formation. The PI method also gives the bulk properties of the crystal. The predicted equilibrium geometry is 0.11 Å larger than the observed value, and the lattice binding energy is 100 kcal mol-1 shorter. These results improve when the correlation energy is computed from the PI wave functions with the Coulomb-hole treatment of Clementi. The PI calculation including electron correlation reproduces the experimental equilibrium geometry within 0.001 Å, the bulk modulus within 1 GPa, and the binding energy within 25 kcal mol-1. Furthermore, the computed pressure effects on the cell volume and bulk modulus of the rocksalt phase match the available experimental data up to at least 30 GPa.

  4. Rhodium pair-sites on magnesium oxide: Synthesis, characterization, and catalysis of ethylene hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong; Xu, Pinghong; Guan, Erjia; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2016-06-01

    Supported rhodium acetate dimers were prepared by the reaction of Rh2(OAc)4 (OAc is acetate) with highly dehydroxylated MgO powder and characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and infrared (IR) spectra, which show that the supported species were well represented as Rh2(OAc)3, with each Rh atom on average bonded to one oxygen atom of the MgO surface. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy gave images of Rh atoms in pairs on the MgO. The supported rhodium dimers were probed with a pulse of CO, and the IR spectra indicate a Rh(II) species with weakly bonded carbonyl ligands; the sharpness of the νCO band indicates highly uniform surface species. Further treatment in CO led to breakup of the rhodium dimers into mononuclear species; such fragmentation took place in other treatment gases as well, with the degree of fragmentation decreasing in the order CO > C2H4 > helium. The fragmentation is inferred on the basis of IR spectra to have proceeded through intermediate Rh2 species without acetate ligands. In contrast, rhodium dimers were reduced and not fragmented in the presence of H2 at 353 K, but at higher temperatures the rhodium aggregated to give larger clusters. The supported species catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation at 298 K and 1 bar at a H2 to ethylene molar ratio of 4; after 27 h of catalysis in a once-through flow reactor, acetate ligands were removed from the dimers, and some of them fragmented, as shown by IR spectroscopy. The intermediate dirhodium species without acetate ligands are two or three orders of magnitude more active as catalysts than the supported mononuclear rhodium species or those present predominantly as Rh2(OAc)3, respectively.

  5. Electrostatic potentials for metal-oxide surfaces and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitz, F. H.; Mintmire, J. W.

    1994-10-01

    As most technologically important metals will form oxides readily, any complete study of adhesion at real metal surfaces must include the metal-oxide interface. The role of this ubiquitous oxide layer cannot be overlooked, as the adhesive properties of the oxide or oxide-metal system can be expected to differ profoundly from the adhesive properties of a bare metal surface. We report on the development of a computational method for molecular-dynamics simulations, which explicitly includes variable charge transfer between anions and cations. This method is found to be capable of describing the elastic properties, surface energies, and surface relaxation of crystalline metal oxides accurately. We discuss in detail results using this method for α-alumina and several of its low-index faces.

  6. Biocompatilibity-related surface characteristics of oxidized NiTi.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anatoli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the effect of NiTi oxidation on material surface characteristics related to biocompatibility. Correspondence between electron work function (EWF) and adhesive force predicted by electron theory of adsorption as well as the effect of surface mechanical stress on the adhesive force were studied on the nonoxidized and oxidized at 350, 450, and 600 degrees C NiTi alloy for medical application. The adhesive force generated by the material surface towards the drops of alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) was used as a characteristic of NiTi adsorption properties. The study showed that variations in EWF and mechanical stress caused by surface treatment were accompanied by variations in adhesive force. NiTi oxidation at all temperatures used gave rise to decrease in adhesive force and surface stress values in comparison to the nonoxidized state. In contrary, the EWF value revealed increase under the same condition. Variations in surface oxide layer thickness and its phase composition were also followed. The important role of oxide crystallite size in EWF values within the range of crystallite dimensions typical for NiTi surface oxide as an instrument for the fine regulation of NiTi adsorption properties was demonstrated. The comparative oxidation of pure titanium and NiTi showed that the effect of Ni on the EWF value of NiTi surface oxide is negligible.

  7. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  8. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  9. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  10. Ultra-senstitive magnesium oxide-based magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weifeng

    We systematically studied the spin-dependent tunnel properties of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Utilizing the spin-coherent tunnel effects of the MgO (001) insulating layer, we have achieved large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios (above 200%) at room temperature in optimized MTJ devices. We have shown that the MgO surface roughness, and therefore device magnetoresistance, depends strongly on the pressure of the Ar sputtering gas. We have investigated the characteristics of MgO-MTJs, including their dependence on barrier thickness and bias voltage, their thermal stability and resistance to electrostatic discharge (ESD). We have also fabricated MgO-MTJs with a synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) free layer, which exhibits a coherent, single-domain-like switching. Our data show that MgO-MTJs have superior properties for low-field magnetic field sensing applications as compared with conventional AlOx-based MTJs. Based on this giant TMR effect, we designed and developed ultra-sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors and sensor arrays for biomagnetic sensing applications. By integrating MTJ sensor arrays into microfluidic channels, we were able to detect the presence of moving, micron-size superparamagnetic beads in real time. We have obtained an average signal of 80 mV for a single Dynal M-280 bead, with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 24 dB. We also biologically treated the MTJ sensor array surfaces, and demonstrated the detection of 2.5 muM single strand target DNA labeled with 16-nm-diameter Fe3O 4 nanoparticles (NPs). Our measured signal of 72 muV indicates that the current system's detection limit for analyte DNA is better than 150 nM. We also demonstrated the detection of live HeLa cells labeled with Fe 3O4 nanoparticles, with an effective signal of 8 mV and a signal-to-noise ratio of 6 dB. These results represent an important milestone in the development of spintronics immunoassay technology: the detection of a single live cell

  11. Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate with high surface area by surfactant assisted precipitation method: Effect of preparation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mosayebi, Zeinab; Rezaei, Mehran; Hadian, Narges; Kordshuli, Fazlollah Zareie; Meshkani, Fereshteh

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a high surface area and nanocrystalline structure. ► Addition of polymeric surfactant affected the structural properties of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared with surfactant showed a hollow cylindrical shape. -- Abstract: A surfactant assisted co-precipitation method was employed for the low temperature synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel with nanocrystalline size and high specific surface area. Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer and ammonia solution were used as surfactant and precipitation agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric analyses (TG/DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The effects of several process parameters such as refluxing temperature, refluxing time, pH, P123 to metals mole ratio (P123/metals) and calcination temperature on the structural properties of the samples were investigated. The obtained results showed that, among the process parameters pH and refluxing temperature have a significant effect on the structural properties of samples. The results revealed that increase in pH from 9.5 to 11 and refluxing temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C increased the specific surface area of prepared samples in the range of 157–188 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 162–184 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. The XRD analysis showed the single-phase MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was formed at 700 °C.

  12. Solution-processed high-k magnesium oxide dielectrics for low-voltage oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guixia; Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia; Zhu, Chundan; Meng, You; Shin, Byoungchul; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fukai

    2016-10-01

    Solution-processed metal-oxide thin films with high dielectric constants (k) have been extensively studied for low-cost and high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this report, MgO dielectric films were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The MgO dielectric films annealed at various temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600 °C) were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. The electrical measurements indicate that the insulating properties of MgO thin films are improved with an increase in annealing temperature. In order to clarify the potential application of MgO thin films as gate dielectrics in TFTs, solution-derived In2O3 channel layers were separately fabricated on various MgO dielectric layers. The optimized In2O3/MgO TFT exhibited an electron mobility of 5.48 cm2/V s, an on/off current ratio of 107, and a subthreshold swing of 0.33 V/dec at a low operation voltage of 6 V. This work represents a great step toward the development of portable and low-power consumption electronics.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis and photocatalytic property of zinc oxide nanoparticles doped with magnesium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xianyong; Liu, Zhaoyue; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical strategy. {yields} Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles present good photocatalytic properties. {yields} The change of band gap contributes to their high efficiency in photocatalyst. -- Abstract: Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sonochemical method. The products were characterized by scan electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM images revealed that ZnO doped with Mg(II) nanoparticles and ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the same strategy all had spherical topography. XRD patterns showed that the doped nanoparticles had the same crystals structures as the pure ZnO nanoparticles. The Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles had larger lattice volume than the un-doped nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) not only demonstrated the moral ratio of Mg and Zn element on the surface of nanoparticles, but their valence in nanoparticles as well. The Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles presented good properties in photocatalyst compared with pure ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. The influence of magnesium oxide interfacial layer on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asemi, M.; Ghanaatshoar, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs, we introduce MgO insulating layers at the interface between TiO2 and electrolyte to decrease charge recombination rate by suppressing the electron transfer from TiO2 to the electrolyte. The thickness of the MgO layer plays a vital role in the kinetics of dye-sensitized solar cells and affects their overall efficiency. The cell with optimized thickness of MgO layer exhibits the highest conversion efficiency ( η = 5.12 %) with a high short-circuit current density (18.15 mA/cm2) and open-circuit voltage (0.571 V). Open-circuit voltage decay measurement results verify the improvement of the electrons lifetime in the DSSCs fabricated with surface-modified photoanodes due to the retarding the charge recombination. In order to explore the reasons for the J SC improvement, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurement was taken. Our results show that the enhancement in the photoinjected electron lifetime can contribute to an increase in the electron collection efficiency, leading to the improved J SC value. Furthermore, the enhancement in the photoinjected electron recombination rate is also demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  15. Chromium and yttrium-doped magnesium aluminum oxides prepared from layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, J. M.; Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

    2007-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structures, containing Mg 2+ and Al 3+, doped with Cr 3+ and Y 3+, have been prepared by precipitation at constant pH. The weight percentages of Cr 3+ and Y 3+ were 1, 2, or 3%, and 0.5 or 1%, respectively. Single phases were obtained in all cases, whose crystallinity decreased as the content in Cr and Y was increased. The solids have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (differential, thermogravimetric and programmed reduction), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies; the specific surface areas have been determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Upon calcination at 1200 °C for 5 h in air all solids display a mixed structure (spinel and rock salt for MgO); these solids have also been characterised by these techniques and their chromatic coordinates (CIE - L∗a∗b∗) have been determined. Their pink colour makes these solids suitable for being used as ceramic pigments.

  16. Efficient oxidation of oleanolic acid derivatives using magnesium bis(monoperoxyphthalate) hexahydrate (MMPP): A convenient 2-step procedure towards 12-oxo-28-carboxylic acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Vânia M; Pinto, Rui M A; Leal, Ana S; Paixão, José A

    2012-01-01

    Summary A new, straightforward and high yielding procedure to convert oleanolic acid derivatives into the corresponding δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones, by using the convenient oxidizing agent magnesium bis(monoperoxyphthalate) hexahydrate (MMPP) in refluxing acetonitrile, is reported. In addition, a two-step procedure for the preparation of oleanolic 12-oxo-28-carboxylic acid derivatives directly from Δ12-oleananes, without the need for an intermediary work-up, and keeping the same reaction solvent in both steps, is described as applied to the synthesis of 3,12-dioxoolean-28-oic acid. PMID:22423283

  17. Surface oxidation of metals by oxygen ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alov, Nikolai V.

    2007-03-01

    Surface oxidation of molybdenum, tungsten, niobium and tantalum by low-energy oxygen ion beams is investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen ion bombardment of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces leads to the formation of thin oxide films containing metals in oxidation states 4+, 5+ and 6+. At the initial stage of irradiation, rapid surface oxidation of molybdenum and tungsten was observed. At higher fluences the oxidation reaches saturation and the surface composition remains almost unchanged with increasing fluence. Oxygen ion bombardment of niobium and tantalum surfaces leads to the formation of thin oxide films containing niobium and tantalum in oxidation states 2+, 4+ and 5+. At the initial stage of irradiation, again rapid surface oxidation of niobium and tantalum was observed. At higher fluences the population of Nb2+ and Nb4+, Ta2+ and Ta4+ reaches a maximum and then begins to decrease. The population of Nb5+ and Ta5+ continues to increase and finally the entire oxide films consists of only Nb5+ and Ta5+, respectively.

  18. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium-sulfur battery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.

  19. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium-sulfur battery design.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-04-05

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.

  20. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium–sulfur battery design

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-04-05

    Lithium–sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Lastly, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.

  1. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium–sulfur battery design

    DOE PAGES

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; ...

    2016-04-05

    Lithium–sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance.more » Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Lastly, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.« less

  2. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium–sulfur battery design

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides. PMID:27046216

  3. Oxide Cathode Mechanisms: Electronic and Structural Features of Oxide Cathode Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    journals shall ensue as follows: (i) in form by Elsevier under the title Isorption and (Cont) 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS ( Continue on reverse it...Lminescence from Oxide Surfaces 19. ABSTRACT ( Continue on reverse if necesary and identify by block number) Continued fran Blk 11: and Structural...Features of Oxide Cathode Surfaces. Continued fran Blk 16: Catalysis om Oxide Surfaces" (ii) in JCS Faraday Transaction I as two scientific papers

  4. Low Temperature Optical Constants of Hydrated Magnesium Sulfates For Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Karly M.; Dalton, J. B., III

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying surface composition is essential to interpreting the surface features and understanding the formation, evolution, and interior processes of icy satellites from spacecraft spectrometer and imaging data. The composition of icy body surfaces can be constrained to first order by comparing to laboratory reflectance spectra obtained under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure, and related linear (area-based) mixture modeling. More advanced quantitative determination of surface abundances via nonlinear mixing models requires optical functions or "constants” (real and imaginary indices of refraction, n(λ) and k(λ)). In this work, we investigate three hydrated Mg sulfates (epsomite, bloedite, hexahydrite) that are spectrally similar to observations of non-icy surface deposits on outer Solar System icy satellites and Mars. These compounds are particularly important because they have aqueous chemistry consistent with that predicted for subsurface oceans and paleolake basins on Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus, and Mars and may be useful indicators of astrobiological potential. We present n(λ) and k(λ), derived from laboratory reflectance spectra (Dalton et al., 2005, Icarus 177, 472) acquired at visible to near-infrared wavelengths, for epsomite, bloedite, and hexahydrite at both 300 K (valid for Earth and Mars equatorial regions) and 120 K (optimized for Europa's dayside temperature). Applications of these cryogenic n(λ), k(λ) data to radiative transfer models of telescopic observations of icy worlds and mission data (Galileo NIMS, Cassini VIMS, and New Horizons LEISA) will be discussed. This work is supported through the NASA Outer Planets Research Program.

  5. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation. PMID:27877541

  6. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

  7. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg(2+) ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

  8. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-02-20

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  9. On the processing, structure and properties of aluminum oxide-magnesium aluminate nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnerney, Bryan William

    . High-strain-rate testing indicated better than expected performance, albeit with a small sample size at a single processing temperature. The grindability of the compositions was also evaluated and found to be excellent, with some evidence of surface plasticity. The grindability of the ceramic materials varied with the MgAl2O4 content.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  12. Kinetics of thermally oxidation of Ge(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahari, S. K.; Ohta, A.; Matsui, M.; Mishima, K.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of a Ge(100) surface was investigated by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ge oxide was grown in the temperature range of 375 to 550°C in dry-O2 ambience at atmospheric pressure. Although the Ge-oxide growth rate shows a linear relationship in a log-log plot at a fixed temperature, and the slope indicates an enhancement of GeO desorption at oxidation temperatures over 490°C. The GeO desorption was also confirmed from the XPS analysis of the Si surface which was oxidized simultaneously with the Ge(100) surface. Thus, the Ge thermal oxidation at atmospheric pressure cannot be explained simply by the Deal-Grove model, in which the contribution of thermal desorption of Ge monoxide must be taken into account.

  13. Surface integrity and process mechanics of laser shock peening of novel biodegradable magnesium-calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy.

    PubMed

    Sealy, M P; Guo, Y B

    2010-10-01

    Current permanent metallic biomaterials of orthopedic implants, such as titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt-chromium alloys, have excellent corrosive properties and superior strengths. However, their strengths are often too high resulting in a stress shielding effect that is detrimental to the bone healing process. Without proper healing, costly and painful revision surgeries may be required. The close Young's modulus between magnesium-based implants and cancellous bones has the potential to minimize stress shielding while providing both biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties. The problem with Mg implants is how to control corrosion rates so that the degradation of Mg implants matches that of bone growth. Laser shock peening (LSP) is an innovative surface treatment method to impart compressive residual stress to a novel Mg-Ca implant. The high compressive residual stress has great potential to slow corrosion rates. Therefore, LSP was initiated in this study to investigate surface topography and integrity produced by sequential peening a Mg-Ca alloy. Also, a 3D semi-infinite simulation was developed to predict the topography and residual stress fields produced by sequential peening. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the biomaterial was modeled using a user material subroutine from the internal state variable plasticity model. The temporal and spatial peening pressure was modeled using a user load subroutine. The simulated dent agrees with the measured dent topography in terms of profile and depth. Sequential peening was found to increase the tensile pile-up region which is critical to orthopedic applications. The predicted residual stress profiles are also presented.

  14. Compression of single-crystal magnesium oxide to 118 GPa and a ruby pressure gauge for helium pressure media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. D.; Holl, C. M.; Adams, K. A.; Fischer, R. A.; Martin, E. S.; Bina, C. R.; Lin, J.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Kubo, A.; Dera, P.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO, periclase) is among the most widely studied standard materials for testing experimental and theoretical methods of determining elastic properties. Because of its simple structure and geophysical relevance, knowledge of accurate elastic properties of MgO pertains to problems ranging from experimental pressure scales to interpreting Earth's seismic structure. The pressure-volume equation of state (EoS) of single-crystal MgO has been studied in diamond-anvil cells loaded with helium to 118 GPa and in a non-hydrostatic KCl pressure medium to 87 GPa using monochromatic synchrotron X-ray diffraction at GSECARS (Sector 13, APS). A third-order Birch-Murnaghan fit to the non-hydrostatic P-V data (KCl medium) yields typical results for the initial volume, V0=74.698(7)Å3, bulk modulus, KT0=164(1)GPa, and pressure derivative, K'=4.05(4) using the non-hydrostatic ruby pressure gauge of Mao et al. (1978). However, compression of MgO in helium yields V0=74.697(6)Å3, KT0=159.6(6)GPa, and K'=3.74(3) using the quasi-hydrostatic ruby gauge of Mao et al. (1986). In helium, the fitted equation of state of MgO underdetermines the pressure by 8% at 100 GPa when compared with the primary MgO pressure scale of Zha et al. (2000), with KT0=160.2GPa and K'=4.03. The results suggest that either the compression mechanism of MgO changes above 40 GPa (in helium), or the ruby pressure gauge requires adjustment for the softer helium pressure medium. We provide a revised ruby pressure gauge for helium pressure media against the primary MgO pressure scale, which will be useful for future high-pressure crystallographic studies of minerals compressed with helium in the 25-140 GPa range of the lower mantle.

  15. Facile synthesis and unique physicochemical properties of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous magnesium oxide, gamma-alumina, and ceria-zirconia solid solutions with crystalline mesoporous walls.

    PubMed

    Li, Huining; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Hongxing; He, Hong

    2009-05-18

    Three-dimensionally (3D) ordered macroporous (3DOM) MgO, gamma-Al(2)O(3), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) with polycrystalline mesoporous walls have been successfully fabricated with the triblock copolymer EO(106)PO(70)EO(106) (Pluronic F127) and regularly packed monodispersive polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres as the template and magnesium, aluminum, cerium and zirconium nitrate(s), or aluminum isopropoxide as the metal source. The as-synthesized metal oxides were characterized by means of techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/selected area electron diffraction (HRTEM/SAED), BET, carbon dioxide temperature-programmed desorption (CO(2)-TPD), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H(2)-TPR). It is shown that the as-fabricated MgO, gamma-Al(2)O(3), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) samples possessed single-phase polycrystalline structures and displayed a 3DOM architecture; the MgO, Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) samples exhibited worm-hole-like mesoporous walls, whereas the gamma-Al(2)O(3) samples exhibited 3D ordered mesoporous walls. The solvent (ethanol or water) nature and concentration, metal precursor, surfactant, and drying condition have an important impact on the pore structure and surface area of the final product. The introduction of surfactant F127 to the synthesis system could significantly enhance the surface areas of the 3DOM metal oxides. With PMMA and F127 in a 40% ethanol solution, one can generate well-arrayed 3DOM MgO with a surface area of 243 m(2)/g and 3DOM Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) with a surface area of 100 m(2)/g; with PMMA and F127 in an ethanol-HNO(3) solution, one can obtain 3DOM gamma-Al(2)O(3)with a surface area of 145 m(2)/g. The 3DOM MgO and 3DOM gamma-Al(2)O(3) samples showed

  16. Surface etching and roughening in integrated processing of thermal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberg, M.; Liehr, M.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1991-04-01

    A multichamber UHV processing and analysis system has been used to study integrated thermal oxide processing, in which the final precleaning process and the thermal oxidation process are integrated by employing transfer of the wafers through ultraclean, inert ambients (purified, dry N2 and then ultrahigh vacuum). The Al-gate MOS capacitors show high breakdown fields (approximately 12 MV/cm) when a thin oxide passivation layer is present prior to oxidation, but low fields (less than 6 MV/cm) when the Si surface is initially oxygen free. This contrasting behavior is caused by the etching of Si surfaces which occurs at elevated temperature in the presence of trace concentration (approximately 100 ppb) of oxygen (e.g., 2 Si + O2 yields 2SiO2), leading to surface roughening and then field enhancement at asperities in the structure. Oxide surface passivation prevents etching and assures the dielectric integrity of the structure.

  17. Copper Electrodeposition on a Magnesium Alloy (AZ80) with a U-Shaped Surface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ching An; Yeh, Yu Hu; Lin, Che Kuan; Hsieh, Chen Yun

    2014-01-01

    Cu electrodeposition was performed on a cylindrical AZ80 substrate with a U-shaped surface. A uniform deposition of Cu was achieved on an AZ80 electrode via galvanostatic etching, followed by Cu electrodeposition in an eco-friendly alkaline Cu plating bath. Improper wetting and lower rotational speeds of the AZ80 electrode resulted in an uneven Cu deposition at the inner upper site of the U-shaped surface during the Cu electroplating process. This wetting effect could be deduced from the variation in the anodic potential during the galvanostatic etching. The corrosion resistance of the Cu-deposited AZ80 electrode can be considerably improved after Ni electroplating. PMID:28788252

  18. On the role of magnesium and silicon in the formation of alumina from aluminum alloys by means of DIMOX processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Degui; Xu, Changqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    1996-08-01

    This article deals with the reaction mechanisms of the DIMOX (Directed Melt Oxided) processing of aluminum alloys. An orthogonalized experimental procedure was introduced to stipulate the effects of the reaction temperature, reaction time, and additional metallic elements, magnesium and silicon, on the oxidation process of aluminum alloys. Emphasis is placed on the distribution of magnesium and silicon in the products so that the behaviors of these two crucial elements for the formation of alumina from directed oxidation of aluminum alloys could be revealed. Alterative methods, including optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probing, and wave spectrum analysis were applied to specify the microstructure characters of the products and locate the position of both magnesium and silicon in the reaction products. Judged by the weight gain after reaction, the results indicated that the temperature is the most influential factor in controlling the oxidation kinetics. Silicon is more effective than magnesium in accelerating the process, although magnesium is indispensable for the process to take place. While judged by the morphology of the reaction products, an excessive amount of silicon is harmful to the DIMOX process in that the final products consist of a large amount of porosity. Both magnesium and silicon are rather concentrated in specific regions than homogeneously distributed in the whole products. The contents of magnesium and silicon in the surface region are not as high as expected, with most of the magnesium being concentrated in the region directly neighboring the bulky metals and most of the Si in the residual bulky metals, although the contents of these two elements in the surface region are a little higher than the regions next to the surface. These characteristics, combined with other investigations, suggest that the decisive role of the slight amount of magnesium and silicon in the nucleation and growth of Al2O3 could be explained by

  19. Magnesium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D At a Glance Test Sample ... checked to help diagnose problems with calcium, potassium, phosphorus , and/or parathyroid hormone – another component of calcium ...

  20. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  1. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Surface functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in preparation, structure, and magnetic properties of naked and surface functionalized iron oxide NPs and their corresponding application briefly. In order to implement the practical application, the particles must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of iron oxide NPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The problems and major challenges, along with the directions for the synthesis and surface functionalization of iron oxide NPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and prospective in these research areas are also discussed. PMID:21749733

  2. Selective placement of carbon nanotubes on metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hannon, J B; Afzali, A; Klinke, Ch; Avouris, Ph

    2005-09-13

    We describe a method to selectively position carbon nanotubes on Al2O3 and HfO2 surfaces. The method exploits the selective binding of alkylphosphonic acids to oxide surfaces with large isoelectric points (i.e. basic rather than acidic surfaces). We have patterned oxide surfaces with acids using both microcontact printing and conventional lithography. With proper choice of the functional end group (e.g., -CH3 or -NH2), nanotube adhesion to the surface can be either prevented or enhanced.

  3. Darkening effect on AZ31B magnesium alloy surface induced by nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.; Zheng, H. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2013-09-01

    Permanent darkening effect was achieved on surface of AZ31B Mg alloy irradiated with nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser, and special attention was made to examine how surface structure as well as oxidation affect the darkening effect. Experiments were carried out to characterize morphological evolution and chemical composition of the irradiated areas by optical reflection spectrometer, Talysurf surface profiler, SEM, EDS, and XPS. The darkening effect was found to be occurred at the surface under high laser energy. Optical spectra showed that the induced darkening surface was uniform over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. SEM and surface profiler showed that surface morphology of darkening areas consisted of large number of micron scale cauliflower-like clusters and protruding particles. EDS and XPS showed that compared to non-irradiated area, oxygen content at the darkening areas increased significantly. It was proposed a mechanism that involved trapping of light in the surface morphology and chemistry variation of irradiated areas to explain the laser-induced darkening effect on AZ31B Mg alloy.

  4. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  5. Ionic liquid hybrids: Progress toward non-corrosive electrolytes with high-voltage oxidation stability for magnesium-ion based batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Huie, Matthew M.; Cama, Christina A.; Smith, Paul F.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium – ion batteries have the potential for high energy density but require new types of electrolytes for practical application. Ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes offer the opportunity for increased safety and broader voltage windows relative to traditional electrolytes. We present here a systematic study of both the conductivity and oxidative stability of hybrid electrolytes consisting of eleven ILs mixed with dipropylene glycol dimethylether (DPGDME) or acetonitrile (ACN) cosolvents and magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI)2). Our study finds a correlation of higher conductivity of ILs with unsaturated rings and short carbon chain lengths, but by contrast, these ILs also exhibited lower oxidation voltagemore » limits. For the cosolvent additive, although glymes have a demonstrated capability of coordination with Mg2+ ions, a decrease in conductivity compared to acetonitrile hybrid electrolytes was observed. Lastly, when cycled within the appropriate voltage range, the IL-hybrid electrolytes that show the highest conductivity provide the best cathode magnesiation current densities and lowest polarization as demonstrated with a Mg0.15MnO2 and Mg0.07V2O5 cathodes.« less

  6. Ionic liquid hybrids: Progress toward non-corrosive electrolytes with high-voltage oxidation stability for magnesium-ion based batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huie, Matthew M.; Cama, Christina A.; Smith, Paul F.; Yin, Jiefu; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium – ion batteries have the potential for high energy density but require new types of electrolytes for practical application. Ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes offer the opportunity for increased safety and broader voltage windows relative to traditional electrolytes. We present here a systematic study of both the conductivity and oxidative stability of hybrid electrolytes consisting of eleven ILs mixed with dipropylene glycol dimethylether (DPGDME) or acetonitrile (ACN) cosolvents and magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI)2). Our study finds a correlation of higher conductivity of ILs with unsaturated rings and short carbon chain lengths, but by contrast, these ILs also exhibited lower oxidation voltage limits. For the cosolvent additive, although glymes have a demonstrated capability of coordination with Mg2+ ions, a decrease in conductivity compared to acetonitrile hybrid electrolytes was observed. Lastly, when cycled within the appropriate voltage range, the IL-hybrid electrolytes that show the highest conductivity provide the best cathode magnesiation current densities and lowest polarization as demonstrated with a Mg0.15MnO2 and Mg0.07V2O5 cathodes.

  7. Ionic liquid hybrids: Progress toward non-corrosive electrolytes with high-voltage oxidation stability for magnesium-ion based batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huie, Matthew M.; Cama, Christina A.; Smith, Paul F.; Yin, Jiefu; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium – ion batteries have the potential for high energy density but require new types of electrolytes for practical application. Ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes offer the opportunity for increased safety and broader voltage windows relative to traditional electrolytes. We present here a systematic study of both the conductivity and oxidative stability of hybrid electrolytes consisting of eleven ILs mixed with dipropylene glycol dimethylether (DPGDME) or acetonitrile (ACN) cosolvents and magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI)2). Our study finds a correlation of higher conductivity of ILs with unsaturated rings and short carbon chain lengths, but by contrast, these ILs also exhibited lower oxidation voltage limits. For the cosolvent additive, although glymes have a demonstrated capability of coordination with Mg2+ ions, a decrease in conductivity compared to acetonitrile hybrid electrolytes was observed. Lastly, when cycled within the appropriate voltage range, the IL-hybrid electrolytes that show the highest conductivity provide the best cathode magnesiation current densities and lowest polarization as demonstrated with a Mg0.15MnO2 and Mg0.07V2O5 cathodes.

  8. Abrasion Resistance of Al-Ni-Mm-Fe Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Composite Coating on the Surface of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Liang, X. B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, B. S.

    An Al-Ni-Mm-Fe amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coating was prepared onto the surface of AZ91 magnesium alloy by high velocity arc spraying process. And the microstructure of the coating was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis results indicated that the coating consists of amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline phases. It has a dense structure with a low porosity of about 2.0%. Its average micro Vickers hardness value is about 330 HV0.1, which is five times than that of AZ91 magnesium alloy (62 HV0.1) and four times than that of pure Al coating (71 HV0.1). The abrasion tests showed that the Al-Ni-Mm-Fe coating exhibits a good abrasion resistance.

  9. Multiscale Investigations of the Oxidation of Stepped Cu Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Saidi, Wissam; Yang, Judith

    2015-03-01

    Defects on metal surfaces can induce non-canonical oxidation channels that may lead to the formation of novel nanostructures. Cu surfaces have been actively researched in the surface science community due to their wide range of applications in many fields. Recently, in situ TEM experiments showed that the oxidation of stepped surfaces promotes the formation of a flat metal-oxide interface through the Cu adatoms detachment from steps and diffusion across the terraces. In order to better understand these results, and to provide a tight bridge between the experiment and theory, we have investigated the Cu (100) oxidation using a multiscale computational approach that employs density functional theory and reactive force field. Our results demonstrate that the step-edge defects induce markedly different oxidation dynamical behavior compared to the flat surface. Additionally, on the stepped-surfaces, we find that the oxidation of the upper-terrace are more favored than the lower-terrace. We show that is behavior is due to a negative Ehrlich-Schwoebel diffusion barrier for oxygen in the ascending direction. The favoring of the oxidation of the top terrace drives Cu diffusion flux from the upper-terrace to the lower-terrace that explains the recent TEM experiments. We acknowledge NSF DMR-1410055 for funding.

  10. Interactions of graphene oxide nanomaterials with natural organic matter and metal oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indranil; Duch, Matthew C; Mansukhani, Nikhita D; Hersam, Mark C; Bouchard, Dermont

    2014-08-19

    Interactions of graphene oxide (GO) nanomaterials with natural organic matter (NOM) and metal oxide surfaces were investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Three different types of NOM were studied: Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids (SRHA and SRFA) and alginate. Aluminum oxide surface was used as a model metal oxide surface. Deposition trends show that GO has the highest attachment on alginate, followed by SRFA, SRHA, and aluminum oxide surfaces, and that GO displayed higher interactions with all investigated surfaces than with silica. Deposition and release behavior of GO on aluminum oxide surface is very similar to positively charged poly-L-lysine-coated surface. Higher interactions of GO with NOM-coated surfaces are attributed to the hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl functional groups of GO; higher deposition on alginate-coated surfaces is attributed to the rougher surface created by the extended conformation of the larger alginate macromolecules. Both ionic strength (IS) and ion valence (Na(+) vs Ca(2+)) had notable impact on interactions of GO with different environmental surfaces. Due to charge screening, increased IS resulted in greater deposition for NOM-coated surfaces. Release behavior of deposited GO varied significantly between different environmental surfaces. All surfaces showed significant release of deposited GO upon introduction of low IS water, indicating that deposition of GO on these surfaces is reversible. Release of GO from NOM-coated surfaces decreased with IS due to charge screening. Release rates of deposited GO from alginate-coated surface were significantly lower than from SRHA and SRFA-coated surfaces due to trapping of GO within the rough surface of the alginate layer.

  11. Reporting central tendencies of chamber measured surface emission and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Chanton, Jeffery

    2011-05-01

    Methane emissions, concentrations, and oxidation were measured on eleven MSW landfills in eleven states spanning from California to Pennsylvania during the three year study. The flux measurements were performed using a static chamber technique. Initial concentration samples were collected immediately after placement of the flux chamber. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. When reporting overall surface emissions and percent oxidation for a landfill cover, central tendencies are typically used to report "averages" of the collected data. The objective of this study was to determine the best way to determine and report central tendencies. Results showed that 89% of the data sets of collected surface flux have lognormal distributions, 83% of the surface concentration data sets are also lognormal. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the isotope measured percent oxidation data sets are normally distributed. The distribution of data for all eleven landfills provides insight of the central tendencies of emissions, concentrations, and percent oxidation. When reporting the "average" measurement for both flux and concentration data collected at the surface of a landfill, statistical analyses provided insight supporting the use of the geometric mean. But the arithmetic mean can accurately represent the percent oxidation, as measured with the stable isotope technique. We examined correlations between surface CH(4) emissions and surface air CH(4) concentrations. Correlation of the concentration and flux values using the geometric mean proved to be a good fit (R(2)=0.86), indicating that surface scans are a good way of identifying locations of high emissions.

  12. Effects of magnesium salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Morozumi, M

    1990-08-01

    Magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium sulfate, magnesium trisilicate, and magnesium citrate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenesis. Male Wistar-strain rats which had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the magnesium-hydroxide, magnesium-citrate, and magnesium-trisilicate groups, however, had almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the magnesium-oxide and magnesium-sulfate groups showed significantly less effect than those in the former three groups. During the experimental period, the 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion and concentration were higher in the glycolic-acid group than in the other groups. The urinary citrate excretion and concentration were the highest in the magnesium-hydroxide and magnesium-citrate groups and higher in the magnesium-trisilicate and magnesium-oxide groups than in the magnesium-sulfate and glycolic-acid groups. Similar trends were observed in the urinary magnesium excretion and in its concentration. The urinary calcium excretion and concentration were higher in the experimental groups than in the glycolic-acid group. The urinary calcium/magnesium ratio remained mostly unchanged. Therefore, it can be concluded that alkaline magnesium salts increase the urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations, without changing the calcium/magnesium ratio, and inhibit urinary calculi formation, most likely by increasing the urinary citrate concentration.

  13. Wear Properties of ECAP-Processed AM80 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, K. R.; Shivananda Nayaka, H.; Sahu, Sandeep

    2017-07-01

    AM80 magnesium alloy was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), and microstructural evolution was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grain size was found to decrease up to 3 µm after four passes. An increase in number of ECAP passes led to a corresponding increase in hardness of the processed samples. Unprocessed and ECAP-processed samples were subjected to wear test using pin-on-disk wear test machine to study the wear behavior. Effects of varying loads (30 and 40 N) with sliding distances (2500 and 5000 m) were studied. The results showed reduction in wear mass loss for the ECAP-processed samples in comparison with unprocessed condition. Coefficient of friction (COF) was studied for different loads, and improvement in COF values was observed for ECAP-processed samples compared to unprocessed condition. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer, and they exhibited plastic deformation, delamination, plowing, wear debris and oxidation in the sliding direction. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted on the worn surfaces to identify the phases. It revealed the presence of magnesium oxide and magnesium aluminum oxide which led to oxidation wear in the sliding direction. Wear mechanism was found to be abrasive and oxidation wear.

  14. Activation of aromatics on the polar surfaces of zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vohs, J.M.; Barteau, M.A. )

    1989-12-28

    The reactions of the aromatic oxygenates benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and phenol exhibit both strong similarities and strong differences as compared with their aliphatic analogues on the two polar surfaces of zinc oxide. The greatest similarities between aromatic and aliphatic compounds were observed on the (0001)-Zn polar surface. Benzyl alcohol and phenol reacted on the (0001)-Zn surface to form the corresponding surface alkoxide species. In sharp contrast to aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, toward which the (0001)-O polar surface is unreactive, the aromatic compounds reacted on the (0001)-O polar surface. These results further demonstrate the effects of surface crystallographic structure in determining the activity and reaction pathways on the metal oxide surfaces.

  15. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  16. Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in the mnemonic 'MSATT' (Mars surface and atmosphere through time) is that rates of surface processes on Mars through time should be investigated, including studies of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidative weathering reactions occurring in the Martian regolith. Such measurements are described. Two major elements analyzed in the Viking Lander XRF experiment that are most vulnerable to atmospheric oxidation are iron and sulfur. Originally, they occurred as Fe(2+)-bearing silicate and sulfide minerals in basaltic rocks on the surface of Mars. However, chemical weathering reactions through time have produced ferric- and sulfate-bearing assemblages now visible in the Martian regolith. Such observations raise several question about: (1) when the oxidative weathering reactions took place on Mars; (2) whether or not the oxidized regolith is a fossilized remnant of past weathering processes; (3) deducting chemical interactions of the ancient Martian atmosphere with its surface from surviving phases; (4) possible weathering reactions still occurring in the frozen regolith; and (5) the kinetics and mechanism of past and present-day oxidative reactions on Mars. These questions may be addressed experimentally by studying reaction rates of dissolution and oxidation of basaltic minerals, and by identifying reaction products forming on the mineral surfaces. Results for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and dissolved ferrous iron are reported.

  17. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content.

  18. Role of sub-surface oxygen in Cu(100) oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minyoung; McGaughey, Alan J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to investigate the role of sub-surface oxygen in Cu(100) oxidation. We find that the presence of sub-surface oxygen atoms causes the top copper layer of the missing-row reconstructed surface to rise by 1.7 Å compared to the bare surface. This prediction compares well to an earlier scanning tunneling microscopy measurement of 1.8 Å [Lampimaki et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 126 (2007) 034703]. When the missing-row reconstructed surface is exposed to an additional oxygen molecule, surface restructuring that leads to oxide-like structures is only observed when sub-surface oxygen is present. The oxide-like nature of these structures is confirmed through structural, Bader, and electron density of states analyses. These findings, combined with our previous DFT results that predicted low energy barriers for the embedment of oxygen atoms into the sub-surface [Lee and McGaughey, Surface Science 603 (2009) 3404], demonstrate the key role played by sub-surface oxygen in Cu(100) oxidation.

  19. Nano-layered magnesium fluoride reservoirs on biomaterial surfaces strengthen polymorphonuclear leukocyte resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Geyong; Zhou, Huaijuan; Wang, Qiaojie; Wang, Jiaxing; Tan, Jiaqi; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Ping; Shen, Hao

    2017-01-05

    Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality and extended periods of hospitalization, imposing a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding of nanomaterials-bacteria-cells interactions is of both fundamental and clinical significance. Herein, nano-MgF2 films were deposited on titanium substrate via magnetron sputtering. Using this platform, the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of the nano-MgF2 films were investigated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that, for S. aureus (CA-MRSA, USA300) and S. epidermidis (RP62A), the nano-MgF2 films possessed excellent anti-biofilm activity, but poor anti-planktonic bacteria activity in vitro. Nevertheless, both the traditional SD rat osteomyelitis model and the novel stably luminescent mouse infection model demonstrated that nano-MgF2 films exerted superior anti-infection effect in vivo, which cannot be completely explained by the antibacterial activity of the nanomaterial itself. Further, using polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the critical immune cells of innate immunity, a complementary investigation of MgF2-bacteria-PMNs co-culturing revealed that the nano-MgF2 films improved the antibacterial effect of PMNs through enhancing their phagocytosis and stability. To our knowledge, this is the first time of exploring the antimicrobial mechanism of nano-MgF2 from the perspective of innate immunity both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the research results, a plausible mechanism is put forward for the predominant antibacterial effect of nano-MgF2in vivo, which may originate from the indirect immune enhancement effect of nano-MgF2 films. In summary, this study of surface antibacterial design using MgF2 nanolayer is a meaningful attempt, which can promote the host innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. This may give us a new understanding towards the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of nano-MgF2 films and pave the way towards their clinical applications.

  20. Tagging the origin of oxidized mercury in surface deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.

    2016-12-01

    Deposition of oxidized mercury from the atmosphere accounts for 75% of total mercury deposited to the Earth's surface. Oxidized mercury is produced in the atmosphere predominantly from the oxidation of elemental mercury. Ground- and aircraft-based measurements have shown higher concentrations of oxidized mercury in dry descending air masses, indicating that the upper troposphere is an important region for the production of oxidized mercury. Here we use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to examine the regions of origin of mercury depositing over different parts of the world. The model simulates oxidation of elemental mercury by bromine radicals. We have implemented a new `tagging' technique to apportion the modeled oxidized mercury based on its region of production, and quantify the contribution of these regions to oxidized mercury deposited at the surface. We find that about 50% of the deposition flux of oxidized mercury globally is from oxidation occurring in the upper troposphere above 400 hPa (7 km), 30% from the middle troposphere between 750 and 400 hPa (2.5-7 km), 15% from the lower troposphere below 750 hPa, and less than 5% from the stratosphere. The contribution of directly emitted oxidized mercury is negligible, except near large emission sources in East Asia and Europe. We also find a considerable influence (up to 40%) of upper tropospheric oxidized mercury on ground-level concentrations, and further investigate the routes of transport of oxidized mercury from the upper to the lower troposphere. Over the United States, the contribution of the upper troposphere varies between 45% in spring and 65% in summer, while over Europe the contribution of the upper troposphere is about 45% throughout the year. We use results of the tagged simulation to examine the relative importance of oxidation, transport and deposition to the seasonal variations in mercury wet deposition flux measured at the Mercury Deposition Network and European Monitoring and