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Sample records for magnetic anisotropy field

  1. Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of anisotropy in an initially isotropic spectrum is studied numerically for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anisotropy develops due to the combined effects of an externally imposed dc magnetic field and viscous and resistive dissipation at high wave numbers. The effect is most pronounced at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The anisotropy is greater at the higher wave numbers.

  2. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM ANISOTROPIES IN VELOCITY CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

    2015-11-20

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position–position–velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  3. Enhanced cosmic ray anisotropies and the extended solar magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, D.B.; Saito, T.; Mori, S.

    1981-10-01

    Saito's two-hemisphere model for the three-dimensional magnetic structure of the inner heliomagnetosphere is used to determine the orientation of the two solar magnetic hemispheres. This orientation, as viewed from the earth, varies throughout the year. The orientations during 1974 are presented and are confirmed by satellite data for the interplanetary magnetic field. These data suggest a role for the field component perpendicular to the ecliptic plane B/sub z/ in giving rise to cosmic ray anisotropies detected at the earth. It is shown that an enhanced solar diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity at the earth can arise from the constructive interference of three cosmic ray anisotropies, two of which depend on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. This is demonstrated by using cosmic ray data from the Nagaya muon telescope and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia, Embudo (New Mexico), and Socorro (New Mexico).

  4. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-13

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.

  5. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-15

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations ({epsilon}{identical_to}{delta}B/2B<<1). Solutions are obtained by integrating the drift-kinetic equation along field lines in steady state. A closure for the local value of the parallel viscous force B{center_dot}{nabla}{center_dot}{pi}{sub parallel} is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force by a factor of O(1/{epsilon}). A high-frequency limit ({omega}>>{nu}) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions.

  6. Solar Surface Anisotropy effect on the Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    Within the literature there are at least 15 references indicating that the horizontal magnetic flux does not exactly balance vertical flux in sunspots, leading to the surprising result that div B would depart from zero. Intuitively, this has to be related to the stratification at the surface of the star, due to which horizontal and vertical typical lengths are different. This surface anisotropy results from gravity, but how does gravity influence the magnetic field? To answer this question, a scenario has been proposed in two recent publications, based on anisotropic Debye shielding. The presentation reported in this paper was devoted to investigate the possibility and causes of a non-zero div B. A scaling law associated with the anisotropy is able to reestablish the nullity of div B, which would lead to a renewed MHD in the solar photosphere layer. An eventual observation in the laboratory is also reported.

  7. Variance Anisotropy of Solar Wind Velocity and Magnetic Field Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    At MHD scales in the solar wind, velocity and magnetic fieldfluctuations are typically observed to have much more energy in thecomponents transverse to the mean magnetic field, relative to theparallel components [eg, 1,2]. This is often referred to asvariance anisotropy. Various explanations for it have been suggested,including that the fluctuations are predominantly shear Alfvén waves[1] and that turbulent dynamics leads to such states [eg, 3].Here we investigate the origin and strength of such varianceanisotropies, using spectral method simulations of thecompressible (polytropic) 3D MHD equations. We report on results from runs with several different classes ofinitial conditions. These classes include(i) fluctuations polarized only in the same sense as shear Alfvénwaves (aka toroidal polarization),(ii) randomly polarized fluctuations, and(iii) fluctuations restricted so that most of the energy is inmodes which have their wavevectors perpendicular, or nearly so, to thebackground magnetic field: quasi-2D modes. The plasma beta and Mach number dependence [4] of quantities like the variance anisotropy, Alfven ratio, and fraction of the energy in the toroidal fluctuations will be examined, along with the timescales for the development of any systematic features.Implications for solar wind fluctuations will be discussed. References:[1] Belcher & Davis 1971, J. Geophys. Res, 76, 3534.[2] Oughton et al 2015, Phil Trans Roy Soc A, 373, 20140152.[3] Matthaeus et al 1996, J. Geophys. Res, 101, 7619.[4] Smith et al 2006, J. Geophys. Res, 111, A09111.

  8. Anomalous anisotropies of cosmic rays from turbulent magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Markus

    2014-01-17

    The propagation of cosmic rays (CRs) in turbulent interstellar magnetic fields is typically described as a spatial diffusion process. This formalism predicts only a small deviation from an isotropic CR distribution in the form of a dipole in the direction of the CR density gradient or relative background flow. We show that the existence of a global CR dipole moment necessarily generates a spectrum of higher multipole moments in the local CR distribution. These anomalous anisotropies are a direct consequence of Liouville's theorem in the presence of a local turbulent magnetic field. We show that the predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with the observed power spectrum of multi-TeV CRs.

  9. The manipulation of magnetic coercive field and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun-Sen; Ye, Jun; Yang, Yun-Long; Xie, Yong; Li, Wei; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2016-08-01

    We report the effects of the electric field on the magnetic coercive field (H c) and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) orientation of polycrystalline Ni film grown on an unpoled (0 1 1) [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3] x (PMN-PT) single crystal substrate. Under various electric fields, normalized magnetic hysteresis loops of Ni films change in width; this represents the change of coercive field (ΔH c). Loop shapes are found to depend on the angle between the magnetic field and the sample, where changes in the shape reveal a small rotation of UMA. All these changes show that the magnetic properties vary periodically with a periodic electric field, by strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in the Ni/Ag/PMN-PT/Ag heterostructure. The poled PMN-PT produces strains under electric fields in the range of  -4.2 kV cm-1  ⩽  E  ⩽  4.2 kV cm-1, then transfers it to Ni films resulting in changes to its H c and UMA. The curves of the in-plane H c and strain, at two mutually orthogonal directions, represent butterfly patterns versus the applied electric field. In addition, the changes observed in both the H c and strain show asymmetric features in two orthogonal directions, which results in a small rotation angle of the UMA of Ni as the electric field decreases. The effective manipulation of magnitude and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) heterostructures is an important step towards controlling the magnetic tunnel junctions.

  10. The manipulation of magnetic coercive field and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun-Sen; Ye, Jun; Yang, Yun-Long; Xie, Yong; Li, Wei; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2016-08-01

    We report the effects of the electric field on the magnetic coercive field (H c) and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) orientation of polycrystalline Ni film grown on an unpoled (0 1 1) [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1‑x)–[PbTiO3] x (PMN-PT) single crystal substrate. Under various electric fields, normalized magnetic hysteresis loops of Ni films change in width; this represents the change of coercive field (ΔH c). Loop shapes are found to depend on the angle between the magnetic field and the sample, where changes in the shape reveal a small rotation of UMA. All these changes show that the magnetic properties vary periodically with a periodic electric field, by strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in the Ni/Ag/PMN-PT/Ag heterostructure. The poled PMN-PT produces strains under electric fields in the range of  ‑4.2 kV cm‑1  ⩽  E  ⩽  4.2 kV cm‑1, then transfers it to Ni films resulting in changes to its H c and UMA. The curves of the in-plane H c and strain, at two mutually orthogonal directions, represent butterfly patterns versus the applied electric field. In addition, the changes observed in both the H c and strain show asymmetric features in two orthogonal directions, which results in a small rotation angle of the UMA of Ni as the electric field decreases. The effective manipulation of magnitude and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) heterostructures is an important step towards controlling the magnetic tunnel junctions.

  11. Field orientation dependence of magnetization reversal in thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The magnetization reversal process of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) (0001) oriented Co and C o90R u10 thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been studied as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field angle. Room temperature pure cobalt exhibits two characteristic reversal mechanisms. For angles near in-plane field orientation, the magnetization reversal proceeds via instability of the uniform magnetic state, whereas in the vicinity of the out-of-plane (OP) orientation, magnetization inversion takes place by means of domain nucleation. Temperature dependent measurements enable the modification of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and reveal a gradual disappearance of the domain nucleation process during magnetization reversal for elevated temperatures. Ultimately, this suppression of the domain nucleation process leads to the exclusive occurrence of uniform state instability reversal for all field orientations at sufficiently high temperature. Comparative magnetic measurements of C o90R u10 alloy samples allow the identification and confirmation of the high temperature remanent magnetization state of cobalt as an OP stripe domain state despite the reduction of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Detailed micromagnetic simulations supplement the experimental results and corroborate the physical understanding of the temperature dependent behavior. Moreover, they enable a comprehensive identification of the complex energy balance in magnetic films with PMA, for which three different magnetic phases occur for sufficiently high anisotropy values, whose coexistence point is tricritical in nature.

  12. Correlation between proton anisotropy and magnetic field direction in the distant geotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    A statistical analysis has been conducted of the anisotropy of suprathermal protons and the polarity of the magnetic field during April 10-16, 1983. At this time, ISEE-3 was at lunar distances in the geomagnetic tail of the earth, and well within the nominal magnetopause. The first-order anisotropy is presently correlated with the latitude angle and the z-component of the magnetic field. The anisotropy direction's frequency distribution is strongly peaked in the earthward and tailward direction, indicating fast earthward and tailward flows. For large anisotropies, and within 5 earth radii of the nominal neutral sheet position, a strong correlation is found between the earthward-streaming suprathermal protons and the northward polarity of the magnetic field; large tailward anisotropies are generally correlated with southward magnetic field polarity. This correlation is most simply interpreted in terms of a neutral line or reconnection model.

  13. Field dependent magnetic anisotropy of Fe1-xZnx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Damon A.; McClure, A.; Kuster, C. M.; Rugheimer, P.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2013-05-01

    Using longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect in combination with a variable strength rotating magnetic field, called the Rotational Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (ROTMOKE) method, we show that the magnetic anisotropy for thin Fe82Zn18 single crystal films, grown on MgO(001) substrates, depends linearly on the strength of the applied magnetic field at low fields but is constant (saturates) at fields greater than 350 Oe. The torque moment curves generated using ROTMOKE are well fit with a model that accounts for the uniaxial and cubic anisotropy with the addition of a cubic anisotropy that depends linearly on the applied magnetic field. The field dependent term is evidence of a large effect on the effective magnetic anisotropy in Fe1-xZnx thin films by the magnetostriction.

  14. Field dependent magnetic anisotropy of Ga0.2Fe0.8 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Damon A.; McClure, A.; Kuster, C. M.; Rugheimer, P.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2011-04-01

    Using longitudinal MOKE in combination with a variable strength rotating magnetic field, called the rotational MOKE (ROTMOKE) method, we show that the magnetic anisotropy for a Ga0.2Fe0.8 single crystal film with a thickness of 17 nm, grown on GaAs (001) with a thick ZnSe buffer layer, depends linearly on the strength of the applied magnetic field. The torque moment curves generated using ROTMOKE are well fit with a model that accounts for the uniaxial, cubic, or fourfold anisotropy, as well as additional terms with a linear dependence on the applied magnetic field. The uniaxial and cubic anisotropy fields, taken from both the hard and the easy axis scans, are seen to remain field independent. The field dependent terms are evidence of a large affect of the magnetostriction and its contribution to the effective magnetic anisotropy in GaxFe1-x thin films.

  15. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced low field anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance in manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Huijben, Mark; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus

    2014-09-01

    La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 films with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy were coherently grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The uniaxial anisotropy has strong effect on magnetoresistance (MR). A positive MR was observed when the current is along magnetic easy axis under the current-field perpendicular geometry. In contrast, no positive MR is observed when current is along the magnetic hard axis regardless of the field direction. Our analysis indicates that the anomalous anisotropic MR effect arises from the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy caused stripe domains which contribute to strong anisotropic domain wall resistivity.

  16. Alignment of Iron Nanoparticles in a Magnetic Field Due to Shape Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Nicholson, Don M; Eisenbach, Markus; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Rios, Orlando; Parish, Chad M

    2015-07-09

    During high magnetic field processing there is evidence for alignment of non-spherical metallic particles above the Curie temperature in alloys with negligible magneto-crystalline anisotropy. The main driving force for alignment is the magnetic shape anisotropy. Current understanding of the phenomenon is not adequate to quantify the effect of particle size, aspect ratio, temperature and the magnetic field on particle alignment. We demonstrate a Monte Carlo approach coupled with size scaling to show the conditions under which alignment is possible.

  17. Method and means for measuring the anisotropy of a plasma in a magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Shohet, J.L.; Greene, D.G.S.

    1973-10-23

    Anisotropy is measured of a free-free-bremsstrahlungradiation-generating plasma in a magnetic field by collimating the free-free bremsstrahlung radiation in a direction normal to the magnetic field and scattering the collimated free- free bremsstrahlung radiation to resolve the radiation into its vector components in a plane parallel to the electric field of the bremsstrahlung radiation. The scattered vector components are counted at particular energy levels in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and also normal to the magnetic field of the plasma to provide a measure of anisotropy of the plasma. (Official Gazette)

  18. Magnetic field-dependent shape anisotropy in small patterned films studied using rotating magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electric rotating magnetoresistance method, the shape anisotropy of a Co microstrip has been systematically investigated. We find that the shape anisotropy is dependent not only on the shape itself, but also on the magnetization distribution controlled by an applied magnetic field. Together with micro-magnetic simulations, we present a visualized picture of how non-uniform magnetization affects the values and polarities of the anisotropy constants and . From the perspective of potential appliantions, our results are useful in designing and understanding the performance of micro- and nano-scale patterned ferromagnetic units and the related device properties. PMID:26563520

  19. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Barsukov, I. Krivorotov, I. N.; Fu, Yu; Gonçalves, A. M.; Sampaio, L. C.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Arias, R. E.

    2014-10-13

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films of Ta/Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO as a function of the Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} layer thickness. The first and second order anisotropy terms show unexpectedly strong dependence on the external magnetic field applied to the system during the measurements. We propose strong interfacial spin pinning as a possible origin of the field-dependent anisotropy. Our results imply that high-field anisotropy measurements cannot be directly used for quantitative evaluation of zero-field performance parameters of CoFeB-based devices such as spin torque memory.

  20. Cosmic-Ray Small-scale Anisotropies and Local Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Barquero, V.; Farber, R.; Xu, S.; Desiati, P.; Lazarian, A.

    2016-10-01

    Cosmic-ray anisotropy has been observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments over the past decade. However, no comprehensive or satisfactory explanation has been put forth to date. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays at Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium- and small-scale angular structure could be an effect of nondiffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation for the observed small-scale anisotropy observed at the TeV energy scale may be the effect of particle propagation in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low-β compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence to study how the cosmic rays’ arrival direction distribution is perturbed when they stream along the local turbulent magnetic field. We utilize Liouville’s theorem for obtaining the anisotropy at Earth and provide the theoretical framework for the application of the theorem in the specific case of cosmic-ray arrival distribution. In this work, we discuss the effects on the anisotropy arising from propagation in this inhomogeneous and turbulent interstellar magnetic field.

  1. Effects of anisotropies in turbulent magnetic diffusion in mean-field solar dynamo models

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-10

    We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the 'minimal τ-approximation'). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude 'butterfly' diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.

  2. Measuring remanence anisotropy of hematite in red beds: anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardello, Dario; Kodama, Kenneth P.

    2009-09-01

    The potential of using high-field anisotropy of isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR) measurements for determining the origin of natural remanent magnetization in red beds and for identifying and correcting possible red-bed inclination shallowing was investigated for specimens of the Carboniferous Shepody Formation of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The technique makes it possible for a typical paleomagnetic laboratory to measure the remanence anisotropy of high-coercivity hematite. High-field (hf) AIR was used in conjunction with 100 mT alternating field (af) and 120°C thermal demagnetization to separate the contribution of hematite to the remanence anisotropy from that of magnetite/maghemite and goethite, respectively. A 5-T impulse DC magnetic field was used for the hf-AIR to reset the magnetic moment of high-coercivity hematite so that demagnetization between AIR orientations was not necessary. The ability of a 5-T field to reset the magnetization was tested by generating an isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curve for hematite by using impulse DC magnetic fields up to 5 T in one orientation and followed by applying a field in the opposite direction at each step. Each field application was treated by 120°C heating and 100 mT af demagnetization before measurement. At 5 T, the difference between the magnetizations applied in opposite directions disappeared indicating that no magnetic memory persisted at this field strength. We performed a validity and reproducibility test of our hf-AIR measurement technique by measuring three specimens multiple times along two orthogonal coordinate systems. The method yielded highly reproducible results and, on rotating the specimen's coordinates, the fabric rotated by 90° as expected, showing that it is not an artifact of the technique. We also measured hf-AIR on samples that had previously been chemically demagnetized in 3N HCl to remove the secondary, chemically grown pigmentary hematite. The hf

  3. Nonlinear evolution of cosmic magnetic fields and cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banerjee, Robi

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effects of primordial magnetic fields on cosmic microwave background anisotropies (CMB). Based on cosmological magneto-hydro dynamic (MHD) simulations [R. Banerjee and K. Jedamzik, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 70, 123003 (2004).10.1103/PhysRevD.70.123003] we calculate the CMB anisotropy spectra and polarization induced by fluid fluctuations (Alfvén modes) generated by primordial magnetic fields. The strongest effect on the CMB spectra comes from the transition epoch from a turbulent regime to a viscous regime. The balance between magnetic and kinetic energy until the onset of the viscous regime provides a one to one relation between the comoving coherence length L and the comoving magnetic field strength B, such as L˜30(B/10-9Gauss)3pc. The resulting CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies for the initial power law index of the magnetic fields n>3/2 are somewhat different from the ones previously obtained by using linear perturbation theory. In particular, differences can appear on intermediate scales l<2000 and small scales l>20000. On scales l<2000 the CMB anisotropy and polarization spectra are flat in the case of our nonlinear calculations whereas the spectra have a blue index calculated with linear perturbation theory if we assume the velocity fields of baryons induced by the magnetic fields achieved Alfvén velocity due to the turbulent motions on large scales in the early universe. Our calculation gives a constraint on the magnetic field strength in the intermediate scale of CMB observations. Upper limits are set by WMAP and BOOMERANG results for comoving magnetic field strength of B<28nGauss with a comoving coherence length of L>0.7Mpc for the most extreme case, or B<30nGauss and L>0.8Mpc for the most conservative case. We may also expect higher signals on large scales of the polarization spectra compared to linear calculations. The signal may even exceed the B-mode polarization from gravitational lensing depending on

  4. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-03-10

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  5. Tuning of the nucleation field in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Kimling, Judith; Gerhardt, Theo; Kobs, Andre; Vogel, Andreas; Peter Oepen, Hans; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido; Wintz, Sebastian; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter

    2013-04-28

    We report on domain nucleation in nanowires consisting of Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are patterned by electron-beam lithography, sputter deposition, and lift-off processing. It is found that the nucleation field can be tuned by changing the geometry of the wire ends. A reduction of the nucleation field by up to 60% is achieved when the wire ends are designed as tips. This contrasts with the behavior of wires with in-plane anisotropy where the nucleation field increases when triangular-pointed ends are used. In order to clarify the origin of the reduction of the nucleation field, micromagnetic simulations are employed. The effect cannot be explained by the lateral geometrical variation but is attributable to a local reduction of the perpendicular anisotropy caused by shadowing effects due to the resist mask during sputter deposition of the multilayer.

  6. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPIES AT TeV ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Battaner, Eduardo; Castellano, Joaquín; Masip, Manuel E-mail: jcastellano@correo.ugr.es

    2015-02-01

    Several cosmic-ray (CR) observatories have provided high-accuracy maps of the sky at TeV-PeV energies. The data reveal an O(0.1%) deficit from north galactic directions that peaks at 10 TeV and then evolves with the energy, together with other anisotropies at smaller angular scales. Using the Boltzmann equation, we derive expressions for the CR flux that fit these features. The anisotropies depend on the local interstellar magnetic field B{sub IS}, on the average galactic field B{sub R} in our vicinity, and on correlations between fluctuating quantities. We show that the initial dipole anisotropy along B{sub IS} can be modulated by changes in the global CR flow, and that a variation in the dipole direction would imply a given radius of coherence for the local B{sub IS}. We also show that small- and medium-scale anisotropies may appear when the full-sky anisotropy finds a field configuration acting as a magnetic lens.

  7. Engineering the magnetic anisotropy of atomic-scale nanostructure under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wanjiao; Ding, Hang-Chen; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2015-02-01

    Atomic-scale magnetic nanostructures are promising candidates for future information processing devices. Utilizing external electric field to manipulate their magnetic properties is an especially thrilling project. Here, by carefully identifying the different contributions of each atomic orbital to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of the ferromagnetic metal films, we argue that it is possible to engineer both the MAE and the magnetic response to the electric field of atomic-scale magnetic nanostructures. Taking the iron monolayer as a matrix, we propose several interesting iron nanostructures with dramatically different magnetic properties. Such nanostructures could exhibit a strong magnetoelectric effect. Our work may open new avenues to the artificial design of electrically controlled magnetic devices.

  8. Effects of the galactic magnetic field upon large scale anisotropies of extragalactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, D.; Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E. E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2010-11-01

    The large scale pattern in the arrival directions of extragalactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth is different from that of the flux arriving to the halo of the Galaxy as a result of the propagation through the galactic magnetic field. Two different effects are relevant in this process: deflections of trajectories and (de)acceleration by the electric field component due to the galactic rotation. The deflection of the cosmic ray trajectories makes the flux intensity arriving to the halo from some direction to appear reaching the Earth from another direction. This applies to any intrinsic anisotropy in the extragalactic distribution or, even in the absence of intrinsic anisotropies, to the dipolar Compton-Getting anisotropy induced when the observer is moving with respect to the cosmic rays rest frame. For an observer moving with the solar system, cosmic rays traveling through far away regions of the Galaxy also experience an electric force coming from the relative motion (due to the rotation of the Galaxy) of the local system in which the field can be considered as being purely magnetic. This produces small changes in the particles momentum that can originate large scale anisotropies even for an isotropic extragalactic flux.

  9. Enhancement of electric-field-induced change of magnetic anisotropy by interface engineering of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaedy, Taufik; Choi, Jun Woo; Jang, Chaun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-06-01

    Electric-field-induced modification of magnetic anisotropy is studied using tunnel magnetoresistance of the Co40Fe40B20/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 and Co40Fe40B20/ Hf (0.08 nm)/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 magnetic tunnel junctions. In both systems, the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is increased with increasing electron density at the MgO interface. A quantitative comparison between the two systems reveals that the change of magnetic anisotropy energy with electric field is significantly enhanced in Co40Fe40B20/ Hf/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 compared to Co40Fe40B20/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20. The sub-monolayer Hf insertion at the Co40Fe40B20/MgO interface turns out to be critical to the enhanced electric field control of the magnetic anisotropy, indicating the interface sensitive nature of the effect.

  10. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the extragalactic gamma-ray background, through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thus inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that the two extreme cases (zero IGMF and IGMF strong enough to completely isotropize cascade photons) would be separable by ten years of Fermi observations and reasonable model parameters for the gamma-ray background. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  11. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  12. Hale cycle effects in cosmic ray east-west anisotropy and interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have reanalyzed diurnal anisotropy data obtained with the shielded ion chamber (IC) at Cheltenham/Fredericksburg and the neutron monitor (NM) at Swarthmore/Newark. IC data are for the 1936-1977 period and NM data are for the 1965-1988 period. We have corrected IC data for the diurnal temperature effect. Application of this correction results in a better agreement between IC and other data sets, thereby making it possible to study the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy using IC data. The behavior of the annual mean east-west anisotropy is studied for 53 years of observations. The period encompasses more than two solar magnetic (Hale) cycles. Its amplitude undergoes the expected 11 and 22 year variations, with the largest changes occurring near solar activity minima. Moreover, the data indicate the presence of the subsidiary maxima for the entire 53-year period, following the solar polar field reversals, during the declining phases of activity cycles when high-speed solar wind streams are present in the heliosphere. The data suggest that the amplitude of the subsidiary maximum is large when the solar polar magnetic field points toward the sun in the Northern Hemisphere, and radial anisotropy is absent.

  13. Effect of myocardial anisotropy on the torso current flow patterns, potentials and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ramon, C; Wang, Y; Haueisen, J; Schimpf, P; Jaruvatanadilok, S; Ishimaru, A

    2000-05-01

    The effects of myocardial anisotropy on the torso current flow patterns, voltage and the magnetic field were examined using an anatomically realistic torso model of an adult male subject. A finite element model of the torso was built with 19 major tissue types identified. The myocardial fibre orientation in the heart wall was included with a voxel resolution of 0.078 x 0.078 x 0.3 cm. The fibre orientations from the canine heart which are available in the literature were mapped to our adult male subject's human heart using deformable mapping techniques. The current and potential distribution in the whole torso were computed using an idealized dipolar source of +/-1.0 V in the middle of the septum of the heart wall as a boundary condition. An adaptive finite element solver was used. Two cases were studied. In one case the myocardium was isotropic and in the other it was anisotropic. It was found that the current density distribution shows a very noticeable difference between the isotropic and anisotropic myocardium. The resultant magnetic field in front of the torso was computed using the Biot-Savart law. It was found that the magnetic field profile was slightly affected by the myocardial anisotropy. The potential on the torso surface also shows noticeable changes due to the myocardial anisotropy. PMID:10843096

  14. Anisotropy of the Vortex Magnetic Field Distribution in LuNi2B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskildsen, M. R.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Rovira, K.; Jenkins, N.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that the vortex lattice (VL) symmetry and orientation in type-II superconductors is very sensitive to any anisotropy within the screening current plane. A classic example is the sequence of transitions from hexagonal to rhombic to square symmetry, which was first observed in the borocarbide superconductors and explained by a Fermi surface anisotropy coupled with the non-local electrodynamics responsible for vortex-vortex interactions. Recently, however, this is mounting experimental evidence for a strong gap anisotropy and possible point nodes in the basal plane of these materials. Here we report on small-angle neutron scattering studies of the VL in a carefully annealed, high quality LuNi2B2C single crystal, which permitted us to measure the VL form factor for a large number of reflections. These measurements allow a reconstruction of the real space profile of the magnetic field around the vortices, reflecting the basal plane anisotropy of the screening currents in LuNi2B2C. The results will be compared to predictions for both Fermi surface and gap anisotropies, and will serve as a valuable reference for more complicated compounds as e.g. Sr2RuO4, heavy fermions and high-Tc's.

  15. Inducing magnetic anisotropy and optimized microstructure in rapidly solidified Nd–Fe–B based magnets by thermal gradient, magnetic field and hot deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Li, W.; Wu, X. H.; Hussain, M.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, G. Q.; Greneche, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Direct preparation of Nd–Fe–B alloys by rapid solidification of copper mold casting is a very simple and low cost process for mini-magnets, but these magnets are generally magnetically isotropic. In this work, high coercivity Nd24Co20Fe41B11Al4 rods were produced by injection casting. To induce magnetic anisotropy, temperature gradient, assisted magnetic field, and hot deformation (HD) procedures were employed. As-cast samples showed non-uniform microstructure due to the melt convection. The thermal gradient during solidification led to the formation of radially distributed acicular hard magnetic grains, which gives the magnetic anisotropy. The growth of the oriented grains was confirmed by phase field simulation. A magnetic field up to 1 T applied along the casting direction could not induce significant magnetic anisotropy, but it improved the magnetic properties by reducing the non-uniformity and forming a uniform microstructure. The annealed alloys exhibited high intrinsic coercivity but disappeared anisotropy. HD was demonstrated to be a good approach for inducing magnetic anisotropy and enhanced coercivity by deforming and refining the grains. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich anisotropic bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets.

  16. Effect of MgO/Fe Interface Oxidation State on Electric-Field Modulation of Interfacial Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X. W.; Cheng, X. M.; Wang, S.; Huang, T.; Xue, K. H.; Miao, X. S.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the MgO/Fe interface oxidation state on the electric-field-modified magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe has been revealed by density functional calculations. It is shown that the influence of the interface oxidation is strong enough to dominate the effect of the electric field on the magnetic anisotropy of MgO/Fe-based films. The magnetoelectric coefficients are calculated to be positive for the ideal and overoxidized MgO/Fe interface, but an abnormal negative value emerges in the underoxidized case. By analyzing the interface states based on density of states and band structures, we demonstrate that the considerably different electronic structures of the three oxidized MgO/Fe interfaces lead to the strong discrepancy in the electric-field modulation of the interfacial magnetic anisotropy. These results are of considerable interest in the area of electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy and switching.

  17. Magnetic surface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rado, George T.

    1992-02-01

    Selected aspects of magnetic surface anisotropy are reviewed. The emphasis is on methods for deducing reliable surface anisotropy values from experiments such as ferromagnetic resonance at microwave frequencies and Brillouin scattering at optical frequencies. The methods used are the "general exchange boundary condition method" and the "effective volume anisotropy method". The essence of the former is the supplementing of the equation of motion of the magnetization with the general exchange boundary condition whereas the latter consists of using the "stratagem" of effective volume anisotropy. We find that use of the general exchange boundary condition method is not only preferable in principle but often actually necessary to prevent the prediction of wrong surface anisotropy values and to permit the prediction of some observable Brillouin shifts.

  18. Pressure-anisotropy-driven microturbulence and magnetic-field evolution in shearing, collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Scott; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Kunz, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    The non-linear state of a high-beta collisionless plasma is investigated where an imposed shear amplifies or diminishes a uniform mean magnetic field, driving pressure anisotropies and, therefore, firehose or mirror instabilities. To mimic the local behaviour of a macroscopic flow, the shear is switched off or reversed after one shear time, so a new macroscale configuration is superimposed on previous microscale state. A threshold plasma beta is found: when β ≪ Ω/S (ion cyclotron frequency/shear rate), the emergence/disappearance of firehose or mirror fluctuations is quasi-instantaneous compared to the shear time (lending some credence to popular closures that assume this). This follows from the free decay of these fluctuations being constrained by the same marginal-stability conditions as their growth in the unstable regime, giving the decay time ˜β/Ω ≪ S-1. In contrast, when β ≳ Ω/S, the old microscale state only disappears on the shear time-scale. In this `ultra-high-beta' regime, driven firehose fluctuations grow secularly to order-unity amplitudes, compensating for the decrease of the mean field and thus pinning the pressure anisotropy at marginal stability without scattering particles - unlike what happens at moderate β. After the shear reverses, the shearing away of these fluctuations compensates for the increase of the mean field and thus prevents growth of the pressure anisotropy, so the system stays close to the firehose threshold, does not go mirror-unstable, the total magnetic energy barely changing at all. Implications for various astrophysical situations, especially the origin of cosmic magnetism, are discussed: collisionless effects appear mostly beneficial to fast magnetic-field generation.

  19. CMB anisotropies generated by a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-zero helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ballardini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    We consider the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-vanishing helicity on CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization. We compute the exact expressions for the scalar, vector and tensor part of the energy-momentum tensor including the helical contribution, by assuming a power-law dependence for the spectra and a comoving cutoff which mimics the damping due to viscosity. We also compute the parity-odd correlator between the helical and non-helical contribution which generate the TB and EB cross-correlation in the CMB pattern. We finally show the impact of including the helical term on the power spectra of CMB anisotropies up to multipoles with ℓ ∼ O(10{sup 3})

  20. Anatomy of electric field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at Fe/MgO interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F.; Yang, H. X.; Hallal, A.; Dieny, B.; Chshiev, M.

    2016-01-01

    The charge-mediated effect of electric field on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Fe/MgO interfaces is investigated using first-principles calculations. We present an approach by discussing this effect in relation to the intrinsic dipole field existing at the Fe/MgO interface. A firm correlation between the PMA and the interfacial dipole is established and further verified in the absence of an applied electric field. The on-site projected PMA analysis not only elucidates that the effect of electric field on the PMA extends beyond the interfacial Fe layer, but also shows that the second Fe layer carries the largest contribution to the effect. This observation is interpreted in relation to the orbital hybridization changes induced by applying an electric field.

  1. Combined effect of demagnetizing field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic properties of manganese-zinc ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Moučka, R.; Sapurina, I.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of factors responsible for the high-frequency shift of the complex permeability (μ*) dispersion region in polymer composites of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrite, as well as to the increase in their thermomagnetic stability. The magnetic spectra of the ferrite and its composites with polyurethane (MnZn-PU) and polyaniline (MnZn-PANI) are measured in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 3 GHz in a longitudinal magnetization field of up to 700 Ое and in the temperature interval from -20 °С to +150 °С. The approximation of the magnetic spectra by a model, which takes into account the role of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation, allows one to determine the specific contribution of resonance processes associated with domain wall motion and the natural ferromagnetic resonance to the μ*. It is established that, at high frequencies, the μ* of the MnZn ferrite is determined solely by magnetization rotation, which occurs in the region of natural ferromagnetic resonance when the ferrite is in the “single domain” state. In the polymer composites of the MnZn ferrite, the high-frequency permeability is also determined mainly by the magnetization rotation; however, up to high values of magnetizing fields, there is a contribution of domain wall motion, thus the “single domain” state in ferrite is not reached. The frequency and temperature dependence of μ* in polymer composites are governed by demagnetizing field and the induced magnetic anisotropy. The contribution of the induced magnetic anisotropy is crucial for MnZn-PANI. It is attributed to the elastic stresses that arise due to the domain wall pinning by a polyaniline film adsorbed on the surface of the ferrite during in-situ polymerization.

  2. Nonlinear magnetization dynamics of the classical ferromagnet with two single-ion anisotropies in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Ming; Zhang, Wu-Shou; Pu, Fu-Cho; Zhou, Xin

    1999-11-01

    By using a stereographic projection of the unit sphere of magnetization vector onto a complex plane for the equations of motion, the effect of an external magnetic field for integrability of the system is discussed. The properties of the Jost solutions and the scattering data are then investigated through introducing transformations other than the Riemann surface in order to avoid double-valued functions of the usual spectral parameter. The exact multisoliton solutions are investigated by means of the Binet-Cauchy formula. The results showed that under the action of an external magnetic field nonlinear magnetization depends essentially on two parameters: its center moves with a constant velocity, while its shape changes with another constant velocity; its amplitude and width vary periodically with time, while its shape is also dependent on time and is unsymmetric with respect to its center. The orientation of the nonlinear magnetization in the plane orthogonal to the anisotropy axis changes with an external magnetic field. The total magnetic momentum and the integral of the motion coincident with its z component depend on time. The mean number of spins derivated from the ground state in a localized magnetic excitations is dependent on time. The asymptotic behavior of multisoliton solutions, the total displacement of center, and the phase shift of the jth peak are also analyzed.

  3. Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2010-01-01

    We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.

  4. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L

  5. Anisotropy of 2G HTS racetrack coils in external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudy, Michal; Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.

    2013-07-01

    Pancake or racetrack coils wound with second generation high-temperature superconductors (2G HTSs) are important elements for numerous applications of HTS. The applications of these coils are primarily in rotating machines such as motors and generators where they must withstand external magnetic fields from various orientations. The characterization of 2G HTS coils is mostly focused on AC loss assessment, critical current and maximum magnetic field evaluation. In this study, racetrack coils will be placed in different orientations of external magnetic fields—Jc (Ic) versus angle measurements will be performed and interpreted. Full attention is paid to studies of anisotropy Jc versus angle curves for short samples of 2G HTS tapes. As will be shown, the shape of the Jc versus angle curves for tapes has a strong influence on the Jc (Ic) versus angle curves for coils. In this work, a unique and unpredicted behavior of the Jc versus angle curves for the 2G HTS racetrack coils was found. This will be analyzed and fully explained.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy in single clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Thirion, Christophe; Dupuis, Véronique; Mélinon, Patrice; Pérez, Alain; Mailly, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic measurements on single cobalt and iron nanoclusters containing almost 1000 atoms are presented. Particles are directly buried within the superconducting film of a micro-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) which leads to the required sensitivity. The angular dependence of the switching field in three dimensions turns out to be in good agreement with a uniform rotation of cluster magnetization. The Stoner and Wohlfarth model yields therefore an estimation of magnetic anisotropy in a single cluster. In particular, uniaxial, biaxial, and cubic contributions can be separated. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple atomic model in which clusters are assimilated to “giant spins.” We present an extension of the Néel model to clusters in order to estimate surface anisotropy. In the case of cobalt, this last contribution dominates and numerical simulations allow us to get the morphology of the investigated clusters.

  7. Anisotropies of the Taylor Scale, Correlation Scale, and Effective Magnetic Reynolds Number Determination from Solar Wind Magnetic Field Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Matthaeus, M. H.; Dasso, S.; Kistler, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    ACE, Cluster, Geotail, IMP-8, Interball, THEMIS, and Wind data from many different intervals in the solar wind are employed to determine the magnetic correlation scale and the Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple point measurements. For this study we define the correlation scale as the exponential decay constant of the correlation coefficient as a function of spacecraft separation and the Taylor scale as the radius of curvature of the correlation coefficient values at zero separation. The present determination of the Taylor scale makes use of a novel extrapolation technique to derive a statistically stable estimate from a range of measurements at small spatial separations [Weygand et al., 2007]. Using all the slow solar wind data (600 km/s), the correlation scale length is found to be smallest (about 1.3x106 km) in the direction parallel to the magnetic field and largest (about 2.2x106 km) in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The anisotropies in the turbulent magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are consistent with slow solar containing mainly two-dimensional turbulence and the fast solar wind having mostly slab type turbulence. The effective magnetic Reynolds number can be expressed in terms of the correlation scale and the Taylor scale. The difference in the Taylor and correlation scale in the parallel and perpendicular direction indicates that the effective magnetic Reynolds number varies with the direction of the magnetic field and has values between 1x106 and 8x106 . Knowledge of the effective magnetic Reynolds number may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar wind and galactic cosmic ray diffusion in the heliosphere.

  8. Influence of external magnetic fields on the freezing temperature Tf of Ni 79Mn 21 alloys: Evidence for anisotropy rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öner, Y.; Firat, T.; Ercan, İ.; Aktaş, B.

    1988-04-01

    DC magnetization measurements have been performed for Ni 79Mn 21 alloys in the temperature range of 4.2 to 50 K. Taking the demagnetizing field into account, the influence of an external magnetic field, Hext, on the re-entrant spin-glass transition temperature Tf of this alloy has been investigated. It has been observed that Tf is independent of Hext if Hext is sma ller than the demagnetizing field HD ( = NMs) where N is the demagnetizing factor; Ms is the value of the saturation magnetization. However, for higher fields, Tf is displaced towards lower temperatures. These results are interpreted in terms of anisotropy rotation based on the "domain-anisotropy" model.

  9. Effect of metal-to-metal interface states on the electric-field modified magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/non-magnetic metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X. W.; Cheng, X. M.; Huang, T.; Wang, S.; Xue, K. H.; Miao, X. S.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of metal-to-metal interface on electric-field modified magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/non-magnetic metal (Ta, Pt, Au) is revealed by density functional calculations. We demonstrate that the contribution from the metal-to-metal interface can be strong enough to dominate the electric field effect on magnetic anisotropy of Fe/MgO-based films, and the strain could also effectively tune the electric field effect. By analyzing the interface states by density of states and band structures, the dependence of the magnetoelectric effect on metal-to-metal interface is elucidated. These results are of considerable interest in the area of electric field controlled magnetic anisotropy and switching.

  10. Measurement of magnetostriction and induced magnetic anisotropy by SAMR method in Co-rich stress + field annealed amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. M.; González, J.; Vázquez, M.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Hernando, A.

    1991-10-01

    The saturation magnetostriction (λ s) and induced magnetic anisotropy ( Kind) in (Co 0.95Fe 0.05) 80Si 10B 10 annealed amorphous alloy ribbons have been measured at room temperature with the SAMR (small-angle magnetization rotation) method. The ribbons were annealed under simulataneous action of a stress and/or magnetic field. The variations of λ s and Kind show parallel trends in the cases of stress and stress+field annealings but not for single field annealing. These variations are connected with microstructural changes originated during the treatments.

  11. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation in a six-coordinate mononuclear cobalt(II) complex with a positive anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Julia; Castro, Isabel; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Pardo, Emilio

    2012-09-26

    The novel mononuclear Co(II) complex cis-[Co(II)(dmphen)(2)(NCS)(2)]·0.25EtOH (1) (dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) features a highly rhombically distorted octahedral environment that is responsible for the strong positive axial and rhombic magnetic anisotropy of the high-spin Co(II) ion (D = +98 cm(-1) and E = +8.4 cm(-1)). Slow magnetic relaxation effects were observed for 1 in the presence of a dc magnetic field, constituting the first example of field-induced single-molecule magnet behavior in a mononuclear six-coordinate Co(II) complex with a transverse anisotropy energy barrier.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and crystalline electric field effects in RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Lambert, S. E.; Maple, M. B.; Dunlap, B. D.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2009-08-01

    Research on polycrystalline RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} samples has shown that crystalline electric field (CEF) effects play an important role in these compounds. The successful synthesis of single crystal samples of RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} with R = Y, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu has provided an opportunity to further investigate CEF effects in these materials. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements on the RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals revealed strong magnetic anisotropy, and the experimental results could be described well by CEF calculations based on the parameters derived from an analysis of experimental data for ErRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals. The easy directions of magnetization of these compounds are consistent with the signs of the Stevens factor {alpha}J of the CEF Hamiltonian. A strong influence of magnetic anisotropy on superconductivity was also observed.

  13. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in diamagnetic limestones reveals deflection of the strain field near the Dead Sea Fault, northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, we measured the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in northern Israel. Through integrated magnetic and geochemical methods we found that the rocks are almost pure calcite rocks and therefore the magnetic fabric is primarily controlled by preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) with the minimum principal AMS axes (k3) parallel to calcite c-axes. We applied a separation procedure in several samples with high Fe content in order to calculate the AMS anisotropy parameters and compare them to pure diamagnetic rocks. AARM, thermo-susceptibility curves and IRM were used to characterize the magnetic phases. We found that for Fe content below 500 ppm the AMS is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase and showed that differences in the degree of anisotropy P' up to 3% (P' = 1.005 to 1.023) and in anisotropy difference Δk (up to ~ 0.25 × 10- 6 SI) in diamagnetic rocks are related to differences of strain magnitudes. The spatial distribution of the magnetic fabrics indicates ~ N-S maximum shortening parallel to the strike of the Hula Western Border fault (HWBF), one of the main strands of the DSF in northern Israel. The anisotropy parameters suggest that the strain magnitudes increase eastward with the proximity to the HWBF. These results suggest that the strain field near the HWBF is locally deflected as a consequence of the DSF activity. In light of the "fault weakness" model and geological setting of the study area, we suggest that the area accommodates dominant transtension during the Pleistocene. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "iron-free" limestones as recorders of the strain field near plate boundaries.

  14. Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Local Interstellar Magnetic Field from the IBEX Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Adams, F. C.; Christian, E.; Desiati, P.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Jokipii, J. R.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes enhanced Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) emission in the keV energy range from a narrow (~20° wide) "ribbon" in the sky that appears to be centered on the direction of the local interstellar (LIS) magnetic field. The Milagro collaboration, the Asγ collaboration and the IceCube observatory have recently made global maps of cosmic ray fluxes in the TeV energy range, revealing anisotropic structures ordered in part by the local interstellar magnetic field and the interstellar flow. This paper following from a recent publication in Science makes the link between these disparate observations by developing a simple model of the magnetic structure surrounding the heliosphere in the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) that is consistent with both IBEX ENA fluxes and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies. The model also employs the revised velocity direction of the LIC derived from neutral He observations by IBEX. By modeling the propagation of cosmic rays through this magnetic field structure, we specifically show that (1) the large-scale TeV anisotropy provides a roughly consistent orientation for the local interstellar magnetic field at the center of the IBEX Ribbon and corroborates the ~ 3 μG magnitude of the local interstellar magnetic field derived from IBEX observations of the global heliosphere; (2) and small-scale structures in cosmic rays (over < 30° angular scales) are influenced by the interstellar field interaction with the heliosphere at energies < 10 TeV. Thus, we provide a link between IBEX ENA observations, IBEX neutral observations of interstellar He, and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies, which are strongly influenced by the interactions between the local interstellar magnetic field, the flow of the local interstellar plasma, and the global heliosphere.

  15. Direct measurement of the magnetic anisotropy field in Mn-Ga and Mn-Co-Ga Heusler films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowley, Ciarán; Ouardi, Siham; Kubota, Takahide; Yildirim, Oguz; Neudert, Andreas; Lenz, Kilian; Sluka, Volker; Lindner, Jürgen; Law, Joseph M.; Mizukami, Shigemi; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia; Deac, Alina M.

    2015-04-01

    The static and dynamic magnetic properties of tetragonally distorted Mn-Ga based alloys were investigated. Static properties are determined in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T using SQUID magnetometry. For the pure Mn1.6Ga film, the saturation magnetisation is 0.36 MA m-1 and the coercivity is 0.29 T. Partial substitution of Mn by Co results in Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1. The saturation magnetisation of those films drops to 0.2 MA m-1 and the coercivity is increased to 1 T. The time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) is used to probe the high-frequency dynamics of Mn-Ga. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency extrapolated to zero-field is found to be 125 GHz with a Gilbert damping, α, of 0.019. The anisotropy field is determined from both SQUID and TR-MOKE to be 4.5 T, corresponding to an effective anisotropy density of 0.81 MJ m-3. Given the large anisotropy field of the Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1 film, pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T are used to determine the field strength required to saturate the film in the plane. For this, the extraordinary Hall effect was employed as a probe of the local magnetisation. By integrating the reconstructed in-plane magnetisation curve, the effective anisotropy energy density for Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1 is determined to be 1.23 MJ m-3.

  16. Periodic magnetic domain wall pinning in an ultrathin film with perpendicular anisotropy generated by the stray magnetic field of a ferromagnetic nanodot array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Jamet, J.-P.; Ferré, J.; Gaudin, G.; Rodmacq, B.; Schuhl, A.; Stamps, R. L.

    2009-03-01

    The stray magnetic field of an array of hard ferromagnetic perpendicularly magnetized [Co/Pt]4 nanodots is used to nondestructively generate a periodic pinning potential for domain walls in an underlying [Pt/Co]2/Pt layer with perpendicular anisotropy. Pinning is evidenced using magneto-optical microscopy. The magnetic field (H) dependence of the average wall velocity in the presence of the periodic pinning potential is consistent with thermally activated creep, modified only by the addition of a uniform retarding field Hret, whose magnitude depends on the relative alignment of H and the dots' magnetizations.

  17. Limits on plasma anisotropy in a tail-like magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Voigt, G.-H.

    1992-01-01

    The condition of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium implies tight constraints on the degree of anisotropy that is supportable in a magnetotail field geometry. If the plasma pressure tensor is assumed to be gyrotropic at the tail midplane (z = 0), then equilibrium requires that it also be nearly isotropic there, with P-perpendicular sub 0/P-parallel sub 0 in the range 1 +/- delta square, where delta of about 0.1 is the ratio of the normal field component at the symmetry plane to the field strength in the tail lobe. The upper and the lower limits are essentially equivalent, respectively, to the marginal mirror and firehose stability conditions evaluated at z = 0, which have been invoked previously to limit the degree of anisotropy in the plasma sheet.

  18. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and interfacial metal-insulator transition in CoFeB/MgO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, Igor; Fu, Yu; Safranski, C.; Chen, Yu-Jin; Youngblood, B.; Goncalves, A.; Sampaio, L.; Arias, R.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Krivorotov, I.

    2015-03-01

    The CoFeB/MgO systems play a central role in magnetic tunnel junction devices due to the high tunneling magnetoresistance ratio. A strong perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) and voltage-controlled anisotropy are beneficial for spintronics application. We study PMA in thin films of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO in the thickness range of 0.9-2.5 nm and find that it can be best described by the first two order terms. Surprisingly, we find PMA to be strongly field-dependent. Our results show that the field dependence has significant implications for determining and customizing magnetic anisotropy in spintronic applications. Our data suggest that it can be caused by an inhomogeneous interfacial spin pinning with a possibly ferrimagnetic phase at the CoFeB/MgO interface. We perform magnetometry and transport measurements and find a magnetization peak and resistance transitions at 160K, which are consistent with the presence of an interfacial oxide phase undergoing a Morin-like transition.

  19. Phase Diagram of Spin-1/2 Triangular-Lattice Antiferromagnets with Exchange Anisotropy and a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2014-03-01

    A triangular-lattice spin system is a fundamental model of geometric frustration. Recent experimental developments in magnetic materials synthesis and in frustrated optical lattices of ultracold atoms have renewed interest in studying magnetic properties of ideal two-dimensional frustrated systems over wide range of external field and anisotropy. We study the spin structures of S = 1/2 antiferromagnets on a triangular lattice using a large-size cluster mean-field method combined with a scaling scheme. We determine the ground-state phase diagram of the spin model in the plane of magnetic field and XXZ anisotropy, and compare it with the classical counterpart in order to discuss the quantum effects. We find that a nontrivial continuous degeneracy existing in the classical model is broken up into two first-order phase transitions between which a non-classical phase emerges as a result of the selection by quantum fluctuations. We also use the dilute Bose gas expansion in the vicinity of the saturation field and interpret one of the first-order transitions as the 0- π transition of the relative phase between two magnon Bose-Einstein condensates. We suggest that the quantum phase transitions can be observed in current or near-future experiments. G.M. is supported by a RIKEN FPR fellowship. I.D. is supported by KAKENHI from JSPS Grants No. 25800228 and No. 25220711.

  20. Electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy and microwave absorption properties in Fe50Ni50/Teflon composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenjun; He, Jun; Ou, Xiulong; Wang, Yu; He, Shuli; Zhao, Dongliang; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-05-01

    Fe50Ni50 nanoparticle films with the size about 6 nm were deposited by a high energetic cluster deposition source. An electric field of about 0 - 40 kV was applied on the sample platform when the films were prepared. The field assisted deposition technique can dramatically induce in-plane magnetic anisotropy. To probe the microwave absorption properties, the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles were deliberately deposited on the dielectric Teflon sheet. Then the laminated Fe50Ni50/Teflon composites were used to do reflection loss scan. The results prove that the application of electric field is an effective avenue to improve the GHz microwave absorption performance of our magnetic nanoparticles films expressed by the movement of reflection loss peak to high GHz region for the composites.

  1. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ≅ 10{sup −11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy in pyroxene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea Regina; Hirt, Ann Marie; Pettke, Thomas; Bender Koch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is often used as a proxy for the mineral fabric in a rock. This requires understanding the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of the minerals that define the rock fabric. With their prismatic habit, pyroxenes describe the texture in mafic and ultramafic rocks. Magnetic anisotropy in pyroxene crystals often arises from both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components that can be separated from high-field magnetic data. The paramagnetic component is related to the silicate lattice, whereas the ferromagnetic part arises from the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic inclusions that were further characterized by isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. These inclusions often have needle-like habit and are located on the well-defined cleavage planes within the pyroxenes. We characterize low-field and high-field AMS in pyroxene single crystals of diverse orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene minerals. In addition to the magnetic measurements, we analyzed their chemical composition and Fe2+/Fe3+ distribution. The anisotropy arising from inclusions in some augite crystals displays consistent principal susceptibility directions, whereas no preferred orientation is found in other crystals. The principal susceptibilities of the paramagnetic component can be related to the crystal lattice, with the intermediate susceptibility parallel to the b-axis, and minimum and maximum in the a-c-plane for diopside, augite and spodumene. The degree of anisotropy increases with iron concentration. Aegirine shows a different behavior; not only is its maximum susceptibility parallel to the c-axis, but the anisotropy degree is also lower in relation to its iron concentration. This possibly relates to a predominance of Fe3+ in aegirine, whereas Fe2+ is dominant in the other minerals. In orthopyroxene, the maximum susceptibility is parallel to the c-axis and the minimum is parallel to b. The degree of anisotropy increases linearly with iron concentration. The

  3. Electric polarization induced by transverse magnetic field in the anisotropy-controlled conical helimagnet Ba2(Mg1-xZnx)2Fe12O22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokunaga, Y.; Murakawa, H.; Onose, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Microscopic origin of magnetic-field (B) induced electric polarization (P) potentially up to near room temperature has been investigated for helimagnets Ba2(Mg1-xZnx)2Fe12O22 with controlled magnetic anisotropy by revealing B - and x -dependent changes of magnetoelectric responses. As Zn concentration (x) increases, the B -induced P rapidly diminishes, accompanying the change in the magnetic-easy surface from conical to planar. Possible spin structures are proposed to explain the observed B dependence of P in terms of the spin-current model. The results indicate the important role of magnetic anisotropy in the B -induced ferroelectric state of this class of helimagnets.

  4. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Stanev, Todor

    2006-10-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 1018 to 1019eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  5. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its electric-field-assisted switching of Heusler-compound-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhaoqiang; Shen, Lei; Cai, Yongqing; Wu, Qingyun; Zeng, Minggang; Han, Guchang; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2014-10-01

    Employing density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we systematically investigate the structural, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Co2FeAl(CFA)/MgO interface, as well as the spin-dependent transport characteristics of the CFA/MgO/CFA perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We find that the structure of the CFA/MgO interface with the oxygen-top FeAl termination has high thermal stability, which is protected by the thermodynamic equilibrium limit. Furthermore, this structure is found to have perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Giant electric-field-assisted modifications of this interfacial MCA through magnetoelectric coupling are demonstrated with an MCA coefficient of up to 10-7 erg V-1 cm. In addition, our non-collinear spin transport calculations of the CFA/MgO/CFA p-MTJ predict a good magnetoresistance performance of the device.

  6. Slow magnetic relaxation in octahedral cobalt(II) field-induced single-ion magnet with positive axial and large rhombic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Herchel, Radovan; Váhovská, Lucia; Potočňák, Ivan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-06-16

    Pseudooctahedral mononuclear cobat(II) complex [Co(abpt)2(tcm)2] (1), where abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole and tcm = tricyanomethanide anion, shows field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization with U = 86.2 K and large axial and rhombic single-ion zero-field-splitting parameters, D = +48(2) cm(-1) and E/D = 0.27(2) (D = +53.7 cm(-1) and E/D = 0.29 from ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations), thus presenting a new example of a field-induced single-ion magnet with transversal magnetic anisotropy. PMID:24853769

  7. Cotton-mouton effects, magnetic hyperpolarizabilities, and magnetic anisotropies of the methyl halides. Comparison with molecular Zeeman and high-field NMR spectroscopic results

    SciTech Connect

    Coonan, M.H.; Ritchie, G.L.D. )

    1991-02-07

    Measurements of the vapor-phase Cotton-Mouton effects of methyl fluoride, methyl bromide, and methyl iodide are reported. Analysis of the results, in conjunction with those of an earlier study of methane and methyl chloride, shows that in the series CH{sub 3}X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I) the magnetic hyperpolarizabiity anisotropy, which is related to the quadratic response of the molecular polarizability to a magnetic field, is positive in sign and roughly proportional in magnitude to the mean polarizability. The magnetic anisotropies (10{sup 29}{Delta}{sub {chi}}/J T{sup {minus}2}) found for methyl chloride,methyl bromide, and methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}Cl, {minus}15.0 {plus minus} 1.3; CH{sub 3}Br, -15.1 {plus minus} 0.8; CH{sub 3}I, {minus}18.0 {plus minus} 1.5) are compared with values obtained by the molecular Zeeman and high-field {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopic methods.

  8. Effects of external magnetic field and magnetic anisotropy on chiral spin structures of square nanodisks investigated with a quantum simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaosen; Ian, Hou

    2016-04-01

    We employed a quantum simulation approach to investigate the magnetic properties of monolayer square nanodisks with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction. The computational program converged very quickly, and generated chiral spin structures on the disk planes with good symmetry. When the DM interaction is sufficiently strong, multi-domain structures appears, their sizes or average distance between each pair of domains can be approximately described by a modified grid theory. We further found that the external magnetic field and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy both normal to the disk plane lead to reductions of the total free energy and total energy of the nanosystems, thus are able to stabilize and/or induce the vortical structures, however, the chirality of the vortex is still determined by the sign of the DM interaction parameter. Moreover, the geometric shape of the nanodisk affects the spin configuration on the disk plane as well.

  9. Microstructural, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Magnetic Domain Structure Correlations in Epitaxial FePd Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Clavero, C.; Yang, K.; Wincheski, B.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    L1(sub 0)-ordered FePd epitaxial thin films were prepared using dc magnetron sputter deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The films were grown with varying thickness and degree of chemical order to investigate the interplay between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic domain structure. The experimentally measured domain size/period and magnetic anisotropy in this high perpendicular anisotropy system were found to be correlated following the analytical energy model proposed by Kooy and Enz that considers a delicate balance between the domain wall energy and the demagnetizing stray field energy.

  10. Scaling and anisotropy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Grappin, Roland; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2010-08-15

    We present an analysis of the anisotropic spectral energy distribution in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence permeated by a strong mean magnetic field. The turbulent flow is generated by high-resolution pseudospectral direct numerical simulations with large-scale isotropic forcing. Examining the radial energy distribution for various angles {theta} with respect to B{sub 0} reveals a specific structure which remains hidden when not taking axial symmetry with respect to B{sub 0} into account. For each direction, starting at the forced large scales, the spectrum first exhibits an amplitude drop around a wave number k{sub 0} which marks the start of a scaling range and goes on up to a dissipative wave number k{sub d}({theta}). The three-dimensional spectrum for k{>=}k{sub 0} is described by a single {theta}-independent functional form F(k/k{sub d}), with the scaling law being the same in every direction. The previous properties still hold when increasing the mean field from B{sub 0}=5 up to B{sub 0}=10b{sub rms}, as well as when passing from resistive to ideal flows. We conjecture that at fixed B{sub 0} the direction-independent scaling regime is reached when increasing the Reynolds number above a threshold which raises with increasing B{sub 0}. Below that threshold critically balanced turbulence is expected.

  11. Scaling and anisotropy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Roland; Müller, Wolf-Christian

    2010-08-01

    We present an analysis of the anisotropic spectral energy distribution in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence permeated by a strong mean magnetic field. The turbulent flow is generated by high-resolution pseudospectral direct numerical simulations with large-scale isotropic forcing. Examining the radial energy distribution for various angles θ with respect to B0 reveals a specific structure which remains hidden when not taking axial symmetry with respect to B0 into account. For each direction, starting at the forced large scales, the spectrum first exhibits an amplitude drop around a wave number k0 which marks the start of a scaling range and goes on up to a dissipative wave number k(d)(θ). The three-dimensional spectrum for k≥k0 is described by a single θ-independent functional form F(k/k(d)), with the scaling law being the same in every direction. The previous properties still hold when increasing the mean field from B0=5 up to B0=10b(rms), as well as when passing from resistive to ideal flows. We conjecture that at fixed B0 the direction-independent scaling regime is reached when increasing the Reynolds number above a threshold which raises with increasing B0. Below that threshold critically balanced turbulence is expected.

  12. Electric field control of anisotropy and magnetization switching in CoFe and CoNi thin films for magnetoelectric memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tianli; Hao, Liang; Cao, Jiangwei; Liu, Mingfeng; Dang, Honggang; Wang, Ying; Wu, Dongping; Bai, Jianmin; Wei, Fulin

    2014-04-01

    We report on the marked change in magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal in Co50Fe50/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)]1-x-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT) and Co43Ni57/PMN-PT heterostructures under an electric field. For the Co50Fe50/PMN-PT structure, the electric-field-induced magnetic anisotropy field can be as large as 1.2 kOe at 12 kV/cm, corresponding to a magnetoelectric coefficient of 100 Oe cm/kV. In the Co43Ni57/PMN-PT heterostructure, the electric-field-induced anisotropy has a sign opposite to that in Co50Fe50/PMN-PT. As a result, in the [CoNi/Cu/CoFe/Cu]n/PMN-PT heterostructure, the parallel magnetic moment between two magnetic layers in the initial state may become perpendicular under an electric field. On the basis of these discussions, a voltage-write magnetoelectric memory device model is proposed.

  13. Magnetic Anisotropy in the Radula of Chiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Gao; Qian, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Zhan, Wen-Shan

    2000-07-01

    Radular teeth of chitons were studied by using magnetic torque-meter and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic torque curves give clear evidence of presence of strong uni-axial magnetic anisotropy. The easy axis is along the length direction of tongue-like radula. The TEM pattern shows that long chip-like magnetite nano-scaled particles packed in the radular teeth with both uni-axial shape anisotropy and magneto-crystalline anisotropy.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF PLASMA BETA AND ANISOTROPY INSTABILITIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF RECONNECTING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2011-12-10

    The plasma {beta} (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) of a system can have a large effect on its dynamics as high {beta} enhances the effects of pressure anisotropies. We investigate the effects of {beta} in a system of stacked current sheets that break up into magnetic islands due to magnetic reconnection, which is analogous to the compressed heliospheric current sheet in the heliosheath. We find significant differences between systems with low and high initial values of {beta}. At low {beta}, growing magnetic islands are modestly elongated and become round as contraction releases magnetic stress and reduces magnetic energy. At high {beta}, the increase of the parallel pressure in contracting islands causes saturation of modestly elongated islands as island cores approach the marginal firehose condition. Only highly elongated islands reach finite size. The anisotropy within these islands prevents full contraction, leading to a final state of highly elongated islands in which further reconnection is suppressed. The elongation of islands at finite {beta} is further enhanced by reducing the electron-to-ion mass ratio to more realistic values. The results are directly relevant to reconnection in the sectored region of the heliosheath where there is evidence that elongated islands are present, and possibly to other high-{beta} systems such as astrophysical accretion flows and the magnetosphere of Saturn.

  15. Influence of ferroelectric polarization on magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardana, A.; Ducharme, S.; Adenwalla, S.

    2010-03-01

    Thin film heterostructures of transition metal ferromagnets (FM) and polymer ferroelectrics (FE) are investigated to look for changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer that occur on switching the FE polarization (with an ensuing change in the electric field direction).[1] Samples of [Glass/ Pd (50 nm)/Co wedge (0.9-2.6nm)/ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) (53 nm)/Al (30nm)] are deposited via sputtering or evaporation for the metallic layers and via Langmuir-Schaefer deposition for the polymer ferroelectric. [2] Magnetic and FE properties have been characterized using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) and the pyroelectric effect. Polar and longitudinal MOKE loops are measured across the Co wedge for both positive and negative FE polarization and the difference in the two MOKE loops is ascribed to the changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer. [3] These changes are most apparent in the region where the Co undergoes a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane anisotropy. This research is supported by the NSF MRSEC through Grant No. DMR- 0820521 1. Chun-Gang Duan et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 122905 (2008) 2. A. V. Bune, et al, Nature (London) 391, 874 (1998) 3. P. F. Carcia, J.Appl. Phys. 63, 5066 (1988)

  16. Large electric-field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in strained [Co/Ni] / PZT heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, Daniel; Dennis, Cindi; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Yury; Shull, Robert

    We present a piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructure with PMA - a Co/Ni multilayer sputtered directly onto a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) substrate. Chemical-mechanical polishing was used to reduce the roughness of PZT plates to below 2 nm rms, enabling optimal magnetoelectric coupling via the direct interface between PZT and sputtered Co/Ni films with large PMA (Keff = (95 +/-9 kJ/m3)) . We grew the following layer stack: Ta(3)/Pt(2)/[Co(0.15)/Ni(0.6)]x4/Co(0.15)/Pt(2)/Ta(3); numbers in parentheses indicate thicknesses in nm. Applied electric fields up to +/- 2 MV/m to the PZT generated 0.05% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayer, enabling a large electric-field reduction of the PMA (ΔKeff >= 103 J/m3) and of the coercive field (35%). Our results demonstrate that: (i) heterostructures combining PZT and [Co/Ni] exhibit larger PMA (Keff ~105 J/m3) than previous magnetoelectric heterostructures based on Co/Pt and CoFeB, enabling thermally stable hybrid magnetoelectric/spintronic devices only tens of nm in diameter and (ii) electric-field control of the PMA is promising for more energy efficient switching of spintronic devices.

  17. The influence of magnetic aftereffects on the magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashukov, A.; Mashukova, A.

    2012-04-01

    There were investigated the time dependences of the magnetic anisotropy characteristics of artificial depositions received in the geomagnetic field. The content of magnetite in the nonmagnetic matrix of kaolin did not exceed 1%. The Co content in the grains of magnetite Fe3 O4 was 0.0018%. The viscous magnetization was created in the depositions with grain sizes of Fe3O4 in micrometers (0 ÷ 8), (9 ÷ 16), (17 ÷ 32), (33 ÷ 64), (65 ÷ 100), (101 ÷ 150). The X-ray method of direct pole figures indicates that the intensity of the ordering of the ferromagnetic grains in the depositions depends strongly on the grain size in the above-mentioned ranges, getting reduced from 1.9 to 1.1. Compared with the characteristics received immediately after drying the samples and after holding them for two years in the earth's magnetic field in the direction of In, one could observe increase in all the characteristics of the magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude Hd of the magnetic field having the periodicity change of Hd 2π to π increases. This indicates the stabilization of the new domain structure. The increase in the uniaxial anisotropy constant (K) is associated with the emergence of the large induced anisotropy due to the diffusion of Co ions. It was found out that the constant K decreases markedly with increasing particle size in the range from 8 mm to 40 microns. Based on the results of the X-ray analysis by using the method direct pole figures, it may be explained by the creation of the axial texture in the depositions with grains having the size less than 40 microns. The intensity of more than 40 microns decreases insignificantly - from 1.3 to 1.1. After creating the viscous magnetization in two years, the constant K has increased by 1.5 - 2 times. The influence of the magnetic after-effects on K in strong magnetic fields denotes the diffusion nature of the viscous magnetization. The losses of the rotational magnetic hysteresis (W) also rise in the presence of the

  18. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  19. Anisotropy of MHD Turbulence at Low Magnetic Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zikanov, O.; Vorobev, A.; Thess, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Knaepen, B.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent fluctuations in MHD flows are known to become dimensionally anisotropic under the action of a sufficiently strong magnetic field. We consider the technologically relevant case of low magnetic Reynolds number and apply the method of DNS of forced flow in a periodic box to generate velocity fields. The analysis based on different anisotropy characteristics shows that the dimensional anisotropy is virtually scale-independent. We also find that, except for the case of very strong magnetic field, the flow is componentally isotropic. Its kinetic energy is practically uniformly distributed among the velocity components.

  20. ANISOTROPY DETERMINATIONS IN EXCHANGE SPRING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIS,L.H.; HARLAND,C.L.

    2002-08-18

    Ferromagnetic nanocomposites, or ''exchange spring'' magnets, possess a nanoscaled microstructure that allows intergrain magnetic exchange forces to couple the constituent grains and alter the system's effective magnetic anisotropies. While the effects of the anisotropy alterations are clearly seen in macroscopic magnetic measurement, it is extremely difficult to determine the detailed effects of the system's exchange coupling, such as the interphase exchange length, the inherent domain wall widths or the effective anisotropies of the system. Clarification of these materials parameters may be obtained from the ''micromagnetic'' phenomenological model, where the assumption of magnetic reversal initiating in the magnetically-soft regions of the exchange-spring maqet is explicitly included. This approach differs from that typically applied by other researchers and allows a quantitative estimate of the effective anisotropies of an exchange spring system. Hysteresis loops measured on well-characterized nanocomposite alloys based on the composition Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B + {alpha}-Fe at temperatures above the spin reorientation temperature were analyzed within the framework of the micromagnetic phenomenological model. Preliminary results indicate that the effective anisotropy constant in the material is intermediate to that of bulk {alpha}-Fe and bulk Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and increases with decreasing temperature. These results strongly support the idea that magnetic reversal in nanocomposite systems initiates in the lower-anisotropy regions of the system, and that the soft-phase regions become exchange-hardened by virtue of their proximity to the magnetically-hard regions.

  1. Magnetic patterning using ion irradiation for highly ordered CoPt alloys with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Abes, M.; Venuat, J.; Muller, D.; Carvalho, A.; Schmerber, G.; Beaurepaire, E.; Dinia, A.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.

    2004-12-15

    We used a combination of ion irradiation and e-beam lithography to magnetically pattern an ordered CoPt alloy with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Ion irradiation disorders the alloy and strongly reduces the magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic force microscopy showed a regular array of 1 {mu}m{sup 2} square dots with perpendicular anisotropy separated by 1 {mu}m large ranges with in-plane anisotropy. This is further confirmed by magnetic measurements, which showed that arrays protected by a 200 nm Pt layer present the same coercive field and the same perpendicular anisotropy as before irradiation. This is promising for applications in magnetic recording technologies.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy due to the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect

    Metalidis, G.; Bruno, P.

    2010-02-15

    We consider the Casimir interaction between a ferromagnetic and a nonmagnetic mirror and show how the Casimir effect gives rise to a magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic layer. The anisotropy is out of plane if the nonmagnetic plate is optically isotropic. If the nonmagnetic plate shows a uniaxial optical anisotropy (with optical axis in the plate plane), we find an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. In both cases, the energetically most favorable magnetization orientation is given by the competition between polar, longitudinal, and transverse contributions to the magneto-optical Kerr effect and will therefore depend on the interplate distance. Numerical results will be presented for a magnetic plate made out of Fe and nonmagnetic plates of Au (optically isotropic), quartz, calcite, and barium titanate (all uniaxially birefringent).

  3. Anisotropy of the Taylor scale and the correlation scale in plasma sheet and solar wind magnetic field fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, James M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dasso, S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic field data from nine spacecraft in the magnetospheric plasma sheet and the solar wind are employed to determine the correlation scale and the magnetic Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple-point measurements for multiple intervals with a range of mean magnetic field directions. We have determined that in the solar wind the Taylor scale is independent of direction relative to the mean magnetic field, but the correlation scale along the mean magnetic field (2.7 × 106 ± 0.2 × 106 km) is longer than along the perpendicular direction (1.5 × 106 ± 0.1 × 106 km). Within the plasma sheet we found that the correlation scale varies from 16,400 ± 1000 km along the mean magnetic field direction to 9200 ± 600 km in the perpendicular direction. The Taylor scale is also longer parallel to the magnetic field (2900 ± 100 km) than perpendicular to it (1100 ± 100 km). In the solar wind the ratio of the parallel correlation scale to the perpendicular correlation scale is 2.62 ± 0.79; in the plasma sheet the ratio is 1.78 ± 0.16, which indicates that the turbulence in both regions is anisotropic. The correlation and Taylor scales may be used to estimate effective magnetic Reynolds numbers separately for each angular channel. Reynolds numbers were found to be approximately independent of the angle relative to the mean magnetic field. These results may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar wind and the magnetosphere and can contribute to our understanding of solar and galactic cosmic ray diffusion in the heliosphere.

  4. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  5. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm(2) for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  6. Three-dimensional mapping of single-atom magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-03-11

    Magnetic anisotropy plays a key role in the magnetic stability and spin-related quantum phenomena of surface adatoms. It manifests as angular variations of the atom's magnetic properties. We measure the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on a copper nitride surface with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Using a three-axis vector magnet we rotate the magnetic field and map out the resulting variations of the spin excitations. We quantitatively determine the three-dimensional distribution of the magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atoms by fitting the spin excitation spectra with a spin Hamiltonian. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fully mapping the vector magnetic properties of individual spins and characterizing complex three-dimensional magnetic systems.

  7. Analysis of the Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of the Cantera Ignimbrite, San Luis Potosé­ Volcanic field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, C.; Torres-Hernandez, J.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) results from a group of 17 - 18 sites (286 - 312 specimens) from the Cantera Ignimbrite - of Oligocene age and part of the San Luis Potosí Volcanic Filed (SLPVF), México - are presented and analysed in order to help to determine the source and flow directions. In each site a flow direction is inferred based on AMS results. As the Cantera Ignimbrite is generally dipping, AMS was structural corrected. So two sets of geographical and paleo-geographical (structural corrected) inferred-flow directions were obtained. Both sets are analysed trying to define if the source of the ignimbrite is related to a calderic (concentric structure) or to the NW-SE faulting and jointing. Geographical AMS results mostly give SW flow directions, the southernmost sites give to SSE. Meanwhile structural corrected results give a wider range of flow directions, a group of them to NW and another northerly group mostly to NE. AMS was measured in a KLY2 appliance, Jelinek and other statistics and density distributions were performed, giving all very similar results in each site. Mean susceptibilities range from 147 to 27200 x10-6 SI (average = 5713 x10-6 SI). Anisotropy degree (Pj) range from 1.011 to 1.055 with two sites of 1.134-1.254 (Pj average = 1.046). Shape is mostly oblate ranging the T-factor from 0.843 to 0.409 and only one site mainly prolate: T of -0.277 (T average = 0.550).

  8. Magnetic anisotropy of polycrystalline magnetoferritin investigated by SQUID and electron magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, F.; de Miguel, R.; Jenkins, M.; Gómez-Moreno, C.; Sells, D.; Tuna, F.; McInnes, E. J. L.; Lostao, A.; Luis, F.; van Slageren, J.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetoferritin molecules with an average inorganic core diameter of 5.7±1.6 nm and polycrystalline internal structure were investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) experiments. The temperature and frequency dependence of the magnetic susceptibility allowed for the determination of the magnetic anisotropy on an experimental time scale which spans from seconds to nanoseconds. In addition, angle-dependent EMR experiments were carried out for the determination of the nanoparticle symmetry and internal magnetic field. Due to the large surface to volume ratio, the nanoparticles show larger and uniaxial rather than cubic magnetic anisotropies compared to bulk maghemite and magnetite.

  9. Magnetic Anisotropies in Samarium-Cobalt Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kailai

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermallized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th_2Zn_{17} type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 times 10^6 erg/cm^3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could be reoriented through post deposition annealing. In contrast, in-plane easy axes of films synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition could not be reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-plane anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted from partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film

  10. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni modified by extreme lattice expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhur, Y.; Imielski, P. M.; Potzger, K.; Brewer, W. D.; Dietrich, M.; Prandolini, M. J.; Bertschat, H. H.

    2005-08-01

    The induced magnetism of isolated (Cd) adatoms, soft-landed onto ultrathin Ni layers grown pseudo-morphologically on Pd(001) (aPd = 3.8907 Å), was studied using the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. The magnitude of the induced magnetic response (magnetic hyperfine field of |5.2| T) was found to be ca. 30% smaller than on bulk Ni (aNi = 3.524 Å) surfaces. This result is compared to ab initio calculations. Additionally, the magnetic anisotropy of the induced response was found to be modified as compared to bulk Ni surfaces and the induced hyperfine field was observed to emerge from the plane at an angle of 50(5)○ to the surface normal. This canted magnetic anisotropy is attributed to the large lattice expansion of the ultrathin Ni film on Pd(001).

  11. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-04-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals, such as augite, hornblende or biotite, often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that palaeointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  12. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J-M

    2016-01-01

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC. PMID:27377149

  13. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J. -M.

    2016-01-01

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC. PMID:27377149

  14. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-07-01

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC.

  15. Magnetic vortices in single crystalline Fe-V disks with four folds magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuzuka, K.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Andrieu, S.; Montaigne, F.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic vortices in circular disks made from Fe-V single crystal film have been studied by magnetic force microscopy. At remanent state, all the disks host a single vortex structure. The magnetic contrast differs drastically from the one usually observed in "traditional" materials and reveals the influence of the four folds anisotropy originating from the bcc structure of Fe-V lattice. Field dependence of vortex position has been studied. The vortex displacement is observed to be perpendicular to the field and depends on the field direction. Micromagnetic simulations reproduce quantitatively this behavior and explain the influence of cubic magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Probing transverse magnetic anisotropy by electronic transport through a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzurí, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2015-01-01

    By means of electronic transport, we study the transverse magnetic anisotropy of an individual Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) embedded in a three-terminal junction. In particular, we determine in situ the transverse anisotropy of the molecule from the pronounced intensity modulations of the linear conductance, which are observed as a function of applied magnetic field. The proposed technique works at temperatures exceeding the energy scale of the tunnel splittings of the SMM. We deduce that the transverse anisotropy for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value.

  17. Bubble and skyrmion crystals in frustrated magnets with easy-axis anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Hayami, Satoru; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D.

    2016-05-12

    We clarify the conditions for the emergence of multiple-Q structures out of lattice and easy-axis spin anisotropy in frustrated magnets. By considering magnets whose exchange interaction has multiple global minima in momentum space, we find that both types of anisotropy stabilize triple-Q orderings. Moderate anisotropy leads to a magnetic field-induced skyrmion crystal, which evolves into a bubble crystal for increasing spatial and spin anisotropy. Finally, the bubble crystal exhibits a quasi-continuous (devil’s staircase) temperature dependent ordering wave-vector, characteristic of the competition between frustrated exchange and strong easy-axis anisotropy.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy and domain patterning of amorphous films by He-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, Jeffrey; Gemming, Thomas; Schultz, Ludwig; Fassbender, Juergen; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Frommberger, Michael; Quandt, Eckhard

    2005-04-18

    The magnetic anisotropy in amorphous soft magnetic FeCoSiB films was modified by He-ion irradiation. A rotation of uniaxial anisotropy depending on the applied field direction in the irradiated areas is observed by magnetometry and complementary domain observation by Kerr microscopy. No significant degradation in magnetic properties relative to the as-deposited state is found from the magnetization loops on nonpatterned films. Using irradiation together with photolithography, the films were treated locally, resulting in 'anisotropy patterned' structures. Complicated periodic domain patterns form due to the locally varying anisotropy distribution. Overall magnetic properties and domain patterns are adjusted.

  19. Magnetic Anisotropy in Functionalized Bipyridyl Cryptates.

    PubMed

    Kreidt, Elisabeth; Bischof, Caroline; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Seitz, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic properties of molecular lanthanoid complexes are very important for a variety of scientific and technological applications, with the unique magnetic anisotropy being one of the most important features. In this context, a very rigid tris(bipyridine) cryptand was synthesized with a primary amine functionality for future bioconjugation. The magnetic anisotropy was investigated for the corresponding paramagnetic ytterbium cryptate. With the use of a combination of density functional theory calculations and lanthanoid-induced NMR shift analysis, the magnetic susceptibility tensor was determined and compared to the unfunctionalized cryptate analogue. The size and orientation of the axial and rhombic tensor components show remarkably great resilience toward the decrease of local symmetry around the metal and anion exchange in the inner coordination sphere. In addition, the functionalized ytterbium cryptate also exhibits efficient near-IR luminescence. PMID:27214575

  20. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  1. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δ χ , that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δ χ ≈2 ×1 0-8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μ m are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  2. Magnetic Anisotropy in UMn2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Morgann; de Lozanne, Alex; Baumbach, Ryan; Kim, Jeehoon; Bauer, Eric; Thompson, Joe; Ronning, Filip

    2015-03-01

    UMn2Ge2, a permanent magnet, is a ternary intermetallic compound with a tetragonal crystal structure of type ThCr2Si2 and with space group I4/mmm. Local U and Mn moments in UMn2Ge2 order on their respective sublattices at temperatures near 100 and 380 K, respectively. Previous x-ray diffraction, Kerr rotation angle, and SQUID magnetometry data support the commonly accepted notion that U moments order at low temperature and align Mn moments along the c-axis, introducing anisotropy. Previous results obtained using a multi-mode atomic force microscope in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) mode indeed confirmed that UMn2Ge2 displays uniaxial anisotropy with an easy axis coinciding with the c-axis of the material. However, the branching domains in UMn2Ge2 consistent with uniaxial anisotropy were observed all the way up to room temperature by MFM. This indicates that the effect of uranium moments on the magnetic microstructure of UMn2Ge2 is not limited to low temperatures near the ordering temperature of the uranium sublattice. We further investigate closure domains in the surface of UMn2Ge2 and report on characteristics and signatures of anisotropy revealed by the orientation and periodic structures of closure domains. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0810119.

  3. Strain-assisted magnetization reversal in Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, D. B.; Dennis, C. L.; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Y. L.; Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Shull, R. D.

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional materials composed of ultrathin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy combined with ferroelectric substrates represent a new approach toward low power, fast, high density spintronics. Here we demonstrate Co/Ni multilayered films with tunable saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy grown directly on ferroelectric PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] substrate plates. Electric fields up to ±2 MV/m expand the PZT by 0.1% and generate at least 0.02% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayered film. Modifying the strain with a voltage can reduce the coercive field by over 30%. We also demonstrate that alternating in-plane tensile and compressive strains (less than 0.01%) can be used to propagate magnetic domain walls. This ability to manipulate high anisotropy magnetic thin films could prove useful for lowering the switching energy for magnetic elements in future voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  4. Strain-assisted magnetization reversal in Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Gopman, D B; Dennis, C L; Chen, P J; Iunin, Y L; Finkel, P; Staruch, M; Shull, R D

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional materials composed of ultrathin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy combined with ferroelectric substrates represent a new approach toward low power, fast, high density spintronics. Here we demonstrate Co/Ni multilayered films with tunable saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy grown directly on ferroelectric PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] substrate plates. Electric fields up to ±2 MV/m expand the PZT by 0.1% and generate at least 0.02% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayered film. Modifying the strain with a voltage can reduce the coercive field by over 30%. We also demonstrate that alternating in-plane tensile and compressive strains (less than 0.01%) can be used to propagate magnetic domain walls. This ability to manipulate high anisotropy magnetic thin films could prove useful for lowering the switching energy for magnetic elements in future voltage-controlled spintronic devices. PMID:27297638

  5. Strain-assisted magnetization reversal in Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Gopman, D. B.; Dennis, C. L.; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Y. L.; Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Shull, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional materials composed of ultrathin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy combined with ferroelectric substrates represent a new approach toward low power, fast, high density spintronics. Here we demonstrate Co/Ni multilayered films with tunable saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy grown directly on ferroelectric PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] substrate plates. Electric fields up to ±2 MV/m expand the PZT by 0.1% and generate at least 0.02% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayered film. Modifying the strain with a voltage can reduce the coercive field by over 30%. We also demonstrate that alternating in-plane tensile and compressive strains (less than 0.01%) can be used to propagate magnetic domain walls. This ability to manipulate high anisotropy magnetic thin films could prove useful for lowering the switching energy for magnetic elements in future voltage-controlled spintronic devices. PMID:27297638

  6. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of Carbonate Rocks as a Proxy for the Strain Field near the Dead Sea Transform in Northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, Ran; Levi, Tsafrir; Weinberger, Ram; Marco, Shmuel

    2014-05-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes (k1, k2, k3) and magnitudes as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) were measured. The low-field bulk-susceptibility of Bar-Kokhba limestone formation is -10.67±1.69 [µSI], very close to the value of a single calcite crystal. Thermomagnetic curves show temperature independent and reversible behavior. Chemical composition analysis indicates minor amounts of Fe contents <300 ppm. Results of XRD diffraction and petrofabric study of thin-sections and SEM images indicate that the Bar-Kokhba rocks are calcite mono-mineralic rocks. The magnetic fabrics are solely controlled by the alignment of c-axes of almost pure calcite crystals and help to assess the direction of the maximum shortening prevailing post-deposition and during the tectonic evolution of the DST. In one studied site, high Fe contents <6000 ppm were found, which are associated with young morphological processes of chemical alteration. In this site, thermomagnetic curves indicate temperature dependency and irreversibility. IRM curves show saturation around 200 mT, evidence of ferro/ferimagnetic minerals. AARM measurements reveal isotropic fabric which suggesting that the ferro/ferimagnetic minerals are contributing no anisotropy to the AMS. The AMS of the diamagnetic fabric is masked by a paramagnetic fabric of Fe-bearing minerals. Using liner correlation between Fe content and bulk susceptibility we applied a novel tensor subtraction method and successfully isolated the diamagnetic fabric from the total AMS. The paramagnetic fabric has characteristics of sedimentary fabrics, while that of the diamagnetic fabric has tectonic characteristics. The isolation process indicates that the AMS of carbonate rocks is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase, where the Fe content is below 500 ppm. Differences in the degree of

  7. Anisotropy-graded media: Magnetic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhihong; Visscher, P. B.; Harrell, J. W.

    2008-04-01

    The concept of exchange-coupled media (each grain having a soft end whose exchange field helps to switch a hard end) has recently been generalized to allow a continuous gradation of anisotropy from soft to hard. We have recently shown that the "figure of merit" for such media ξ =2Eb/μ0MsHsw, proportional to the ratio of the energy barrier Eb to the switching field Hsw, cannot exceed 4 for any anisotropy profile K(r ). In the thin-wall limit (exchange constant A ≪KL2), it can be made to approach 4 by choosing a graded anisotropy K(z )∝z2. In developing such a medium, it is important to be able to experimentally probe the anisotropy distribution. In this paper, we study one method for doing this, the hard axis loop. In the absence of exchange, the second derivative of this loop gives the distribution directly; we show that even in the presence of realistic exchange, this remains approximately true and the anisotropy distribution can be extracted from the hard axis loop.

  8. Scale-dependent Normalized Amplitude and Weak Spectral Anisotropy of Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind was recently reported to be anisotropic, with the average power spectral index close to -2 when sampling parallel to the local mean magnetic field {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0 and close to -5/3 when sampling perpendicular to the local {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0. This result was widely considered to be observational evidence for the critical balance theory (CBT), which is derived by making the assumption that the turbulence strength is close to one. However, this basic assumption has not yet been checked carefully with observational data. Here we present for the first time the scale-dependent magnetic-field fluctuation amplitude, which is normalized by the local {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0 and evaluated for both parallel and perpendicular sampling directions, using two 30-day intervals of Ulysses data. From our results, the turbulence strength is evaluated as much less than one at small scales in the parallel direction. An even stricter criterion is imposed when selecting the wavelet coefficients for a given sampling direction, so that the time stationarity of the local {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0 is better ensured during the local sampling interval. The spectral index for the parallel direction is then found to be -1.75, whereas the spectral index in the perpendicular direction remains close to -1.65. These two new results, namely that the value of the turbulence strength is much less than one in the parallel direction and that the angle dependence of the spectral index is weak, cannot be explained by existing turbulence theories, like CBT, and thus will require new theoretical considerations and promote further observations of solar-wind turbulence.

  9. Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Han; Spencer, Jeremy; Jander, Albrecht; Nielsen, Jeffrey; Stasiak, James; Kasperchik, Vladek; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-01

    3-D printing processes, which use drop-on-demand inkjet printheads, have great potential in designing and prototyping magnetic materials. Unlike conventional deposition and lithography, magnetic particles in the printing ink can be aligned by an external magnetic field to achieve both high permeability and low hysteresis losses, enabling prototyping and development of novel magnetic composite materials and components, e.g., for inductor and antennae applications. In this work, we report an inkjet printing technique with magnetic alignment capability. Magnetic films with and without particle alignment are printed, and their magnetic properties are compared. In the alignment-induced hard axis direction, an increase in high frequency permeability and a decrease in hysteresis losses are observed. Our results suggest that unique magnetic structures with arbitrary controllable anisotropy, not feasible otherwise, may be fabricated via inkjet printing.

  10. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Bender Koch, Christian; Hirt, Ann M.

    2015-03-01

    Pyroxenes constitute an important component in mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. They often possess a prismatic habit, and their long axis, the crystallographic c axis, helps define a lineation in a textured rock. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) serves as a fabric indicator in igneous and metamorphic rocks. If a rock's AMS is carried by pyroxenes, it can be related to their crystallographic preferred orientation and degree of alignment. This requires knowing the intrinsic AMS of pyroxene single crystals. This study provides a comprehensive low-field and high-field AMS investigation of chemically diverse orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene crystals in relation to crystal structure, chemical composition, oxidation state of Fe, and the possible presence of ferromagnetic inclusions. The paramagnetic anisotropy, extracted from high-field data, shows clear relationships to crystallographic directions and Fe concentration both in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. In the diopside-augite series, the intermediate susceptibility is parallel to b, and the maximum is at 45° to the c axis. In aegirine, the intermediate axis remains parallel to b, while the maximum susceptibility is parallel to c. The AMS of spodumene depends on Fe concentration. In enstatite, the maximum susceptibility aligns with c and the minimum with b, and in the case of hypersthene, the maximum susceptibility is normal to the exsolution lamellae. Magnetite inclusions within augite possess a ferromagnetic anisotropy with consistent orientation of the principal susceptibilities, which dominates the low-field anisotropy. These results provide better understanding of magnetic anisotropy in pyroxenes and form a solid basis for interpretation of magnetic fabrics in pyroxene-bearing rocks.

  12. Angle-dependent radiative grain alignment. Confirmation of a magnetic field - radiation anisotropy angle dependence on the efficiency of interstellar grain alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Pintado, O.; Potter, S. B.; Straižys, V.; Charcos-Llorens, M.

    2011-10-01

    Context. Interstellar grain alignment studies are currently experiencing a renaissance due to the development of a new quantitative theory based on radiative alignment torques (RAT). One of the distinguishing predictions of this theory is a dependence of the grain alignment efficiency on the relative angle (Ψ) between the magnetic field and the anisotropy direction of the radiation field. In an earlier study we found observational evidence for such an effect from observations of the polarization around the star HD 97300 in the Chamaeleon I cloud. However, due to the large uncertainties in the measured visual extinctions, the result was uncertain. Aims: By acquiring explicit spectral classification of the polarization targets, we have sought to perform a more precise reanalysis of the existing polarimetry data. Methods: We have obtained new spectral types for the stars in our for our polarization sample, which we combine with photometric data from the literature to derive accurate visual extinctions for our sample of background field stars. This allows a high accuracy test of the grain alignment efficiency as a function of Ψ. Results: We confirm and improve the measured accuracy of the variability of the grain alignment efficiency with Ψ, seen in the earlier study. We note that the grain temperature (heating) also shows a dependence on Ψ which we interpret as a natural effect of the projection of the grain surface to the illuminating radiation source. This dependence also allows us to derive an estimate of the fraction of aligned grains in the cloud.

  13. Magnetic measurements of the upper critical field, irreversibility line, anisotropy, and magnetic penetration depth of grain-aligned YBa sub 2 Cu sub 4 O sub 8

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.C.; Ginsberg, D.M. )

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the upper critical field and the irreversibility line of grain-aligned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, with the magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the CuO{sub 2} planes. The upper critical field's slope, {ital dH}{sub {ital c}2}/{ital dT}, is {minus}1.57 T/K, corresponding to a zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau (GL) coherence length of 19.5 A. The irreversibility line obeys a power-law behavior similar to that of 90-K YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. Using the lower-critical-field data, we obtain the zero-temperature magnetic penetration depth {lambda}{sub {ital a}{ital b}}(0)=1960 A and GL parameter {kappa}{sub {ital c}}=100.

  14. Spin splitting anisotropy in single diluted magnetic nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Szymura, Małgorzata; Wojnar, Piotr; Kłopotowski, Łukasz; Suffczyński, Jan; Goryca, Mateusz; Smoleński, Tomasz; Kossacki, Piotr; Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; Kossut, Jacek

    2015-03-11

    We study the impact of the nanowire shape anisotropy on the spin splitting of excitonic photoluminescence. The experiments are performed on individual ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires as well as on ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires containing optically active magnetic CdMnTe insertions. When the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the nanowire axis, the spin splitting is several times larger than for the perpendicular field. We interpret this pronounced anisotropy as an effect of mixing of valence band states arising from the strain present in the core/shell geometry. This interpretation is further supported by theoretical calculations which allow to reproduce experimental results.

  15. Probing Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of Large-Diameter Armchair Carbon Nanotubes via Magnetic Linear Dichroism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroz, Erik; Kono, Junichiro; Searles, Thomas; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming; Fagan, Jeffrey; McGill, Stephen; Smirnov, Dmitry

    2012-02-01

    We studied magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, via magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy, of aqueous suspensions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in high magnetic fields up to 22T using a unique magnet system (Split-Florida Helix magnet). Specifically, we measured magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, δχ, of several armchair species ranging from (5,5)-(13,13) at room temperature over an excitation wavelength range of 400-900 nm. For large diameter armchairs such as (12,12) and (13,13), we have observed some of the strongest alignment in a static magnetic field due to their large diameters. Results will be discussed in comparison with detailed calculations involving the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  16. Mononuclear single-molecule magnets: tailoring the magnetic anisotropy of first-row transition-metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Coca, Silvia; Cremades, Eduard; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic anisotropy is the property that confers to the spin a preferred direction that could be not aligned with an external magnetic field. Molecules that exhibit a high degree of magnetic anisotropy can behave as individual nanomagnets in the absence of a magnetic field, due to their predisposition to maintain their inherent spin direction. Until now, it has proved very hard to predict magnetic anisotropy, and as a consequence, most synthetic work has been based on serendipitous processes in the search for large magnetic anisotropy systems. The present work shows how the property can be predicted based on the coordination numbers and electronic structures of paramagnetic centers. Using these indicators, two Co(II) complexes known from literature have been magnetically characterized and confirm the predicted single-molecule magnet behavior.

  17. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropymore » is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.« less

  18. Write operation in MRAM with voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munira, Kamaram; Pandey, Sumeet; Sandhu, Gurtej

    In non-volatile Magnetic RAM, information is saved in the bistable configuration of the free layer in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). New information can be written to the free layer through magnetic induction (Toggle MRAM) or manipulation of magnetization using electric currents (Spin Transfer Torque MRAM or STT-MRAM). Both of the writing methods suffer from a shortcoming in terms of energy efficiency. This limitation on energy performance is brought about by the need for driving relatively large electrical charge currents through the devices for switching. In STT-MRAM, the nonzero voltage drop across the resistive MTJ leads to significant power dissipation. An energy efficient way to write may be with the assistance of voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA), where voltage applied across the MTJ creates an electric field that modulates the interfacial anisotropy between the insulator and free layer. However, VCMA cannot switch the free layer completely by 180 degree rotation of magnetization. It can lower the barrier between the two stable configurations or at best, cancel the barrier, allowing 90 degree rotation. A second mechanism, spin torque or magnetic field, is needed to direct the final switching destination.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in the frustrated spin-ladder system BiCu2PO6 from magnetostriction in pulsed fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Atsuko; Kohama, Yoshimitsu; Wang, Shuang; Jaime, Marcelo; Rüegg, Christian

    2012-02-01

    The spin interactions in BiCu2PO6 have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility, and numerical calculation. There is strong frustration between magnetic interactions along the ladder leg, JLeg and JNNN, and it has been pointed out that a spin gap persists in this frustrated system. Both Jleg and JNNN are intra-ladder and two-leg ladder is always gapped. Longitudinal magnetostriction (MS) measurements were performed using a fiber optic strain gauge in a 60 T pulsed magnet [1] . Specific heat (Cp) and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) measurements were performed in a 35 T DC magnet. Cp vs T was obtained using both a thermal relaxation time and dual slope techniques. We have in this way determined the (H,T) phase diagram of BiCu2PO6 up to 45 T. The 3D character of phase transitions is suggested by the observation of sharp anomalies in CM and δL/L. Our MCE and MS data provides direct evidence of first-order phase transitions for H//c, while phase transitions for H//a and H//b are characterized as second-order phase transitions. The anisotropic and complex phase boundaries will be discussed. [4pt] [1] Daou R et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033909 (2010).

  20. Modification of crystal anisotropy and enhancement of magnetic moment of Co-doped SnO2 thin films annealed under magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Co-doped SnO2 thin films were grown by sputtering technique on SiO2/Si(001) substrates at room temperature, and then, thermal treatments with and without an applied magnetic field (HTT) were performed in vacuum at 600°C for 20 min. HTT was applied parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Magnetic M(H) measurements reveal the coexistence of a strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) signal and a ferromagnetic (FM) component. The AFM component has a Néel temperature higher than room temperature, the spin axis lies parallel to the substrate surface, and the highest magnetic moment m =7 μB/Co at. is obtained when HTT is applied parallel to the substrate surface. Our results show an enhancement of FM moment per Co+2 from 0.06 to 0.42 μB/Co at. for the sample on which HTT was applied perpendicular to the surface. The FM order is attributed to the coupling of Co+2 ions through electrons trapped at the site of oxygen vacancies, as described by the bound magnetic polaron model. Our results suggest that FM order is aligned along [101] direction of Co-doped SnO2 nanocrystals, which is proposed to be the easy magnetization axis. PMID:25489286

  1. Electroplated FeNi ring cores for fluxgates with field induced radial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butta, M.; Ripka, P.; Janosek, M.; Pribil, M.

    2015-05-01

    Being able to control the anisotropy of a magnetic core plays an important role in the development of a fluxgate sensor. Our aim is to induce anisotropy orthogonal to the direction of excitation because it generates a stable, low-noise fluxgate, as cited in the literature. In this paper, we present an original method for electroplating a ring core for a fluxgate with built-in radial anisotropy by performing the electroplating in a radial field produced by a novel yoke. The results show that the resulting anisotropy is homogeneously radial and makes the magnetization rotate, avoiding domain wall movement for low excitation fields.

  2. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in CoFe films on obliquely sputtered Ru underlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Y.; Lu, Z.; Fujiwara, H.; Mankey, G. J.; Butler, W. H.; Matsunuma, S.

    2009-10-01

    Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10} films with an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy have been grown on an obliquely sputtered thin Ru underlayer. The anisotropy field can be increased up to 200 Oe. The hysteresis curves show a very high squareness in the easy axis direction and almost no hysteresis in the hard axis direction, suggesting that the induced uniaxial anisotropy is uniform throughout the films. The switching characteristics of the nanoelements fabricated from the films by e-beam lithography are also investigated. There is no degradation of the magnetic anisotropy after the annealing and lithographical process.

  3. In-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in an FePt/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Feng, Julong; Liu, Pengfei; Wu, Yong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10-FePt films deposited on polarized [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 single crystal substrates. The out-of-plane coercivity (H c⊥) of FePt films exhibits a regular response to the in-plane electric field applied on substrates. The experimental change of H c⊥ is approximately 21.3% with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm. The magnetization direction can be controlled by switching the electric field. The remanence of FePt films can also be manipulated by the electric field, so that a “W”-shaped sawtooth magnetic signal can be generated by a sawtooth electric field.

  4. Magnetic Anisotropy and Magnetization Switching in Ferromagnetic GaMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, W.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Hummel, T.; Schoch, W.; Schwaiger, S.; Tabor, M.; Sauer, R.

    Characteristic features of diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors such as the anisotropic magnetoresistance or the spin polarization of charge carriers are intimately connected with a macroscopic magnetization. Since the orientation of the magnetization is controlled by magnetic anisotropy (MA), a detailed knowledge of this anisotropy is indispensable for the design of novel spintronic devices. In this article, angle-dependent magnetotransport is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for probing MA as an alternative to the standard ferromagnetic-resonance method. Moreover, its ability to trace the motion of the magnetization vector in a variable external magnetic field makes it ideally suitable for studying magnetization switching, a potential basic effect in future logical devices. The MA of a series of differently strained GaMnAs samples is analyzed by means of model calculations in a single-domain picture based on a series expansion of the resistivity tensor and a numerical minimization of the free enthalpy.

  5. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy and ultrafast spin dynamics of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhao-Hua; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Sun, Da-Li; Du, Hai-Feng; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Jun; Fang, Ya-Peng; Liu, Hao-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We present our extensive research into magnetic anisotropy. We tuned the terrace width of Si(111) substrate by a novel method: varying the direction of heating current and consequently manipulating the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic structures on the stepped substrate by decorating its atomic steps. Laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization of a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction was explored by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) for both the parallel state (P state) and the antiparallel state (AP state) of the magnetizations between two magnetic layers. It was observed that the demagnetization time is shorter and the magnitude of demagnetization is larger in the AP state than those in the P state. These behaviors are attributed to the ultrafast spin transfer between two CoFeB layers via the tunneling of hot electrons through the MgO barrier. Our observation indicates that ultrafast demagnetization can be engineered by the hot electron tunneling current. This opens the door to manipulate the ultrafast spin current in magnetic tunneling junctions. Furthermore, an all-optical TR-MOKE technique provides the flexibility for exploring the nonlinear magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials, especially with metallic materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB921403, 2011CB921801, and 2012CB933101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51427801, 11374350, 51201179, and 11274361).

  6. Experimental investigation of magnetic anisotropy in spin vortex discs

    SciTech Connect

    Garraud, N. Arnold, D. P.

    2014-05-07

    We present experimental 2D vector vibrating sample magnetometer measurements to demonstrate the shape anisotropy effects occurring in micrometer-diameter supermalloy spin vortex discs. Measurements made for different disc sizes and orientations confirm the out-of-plane susceptibility is several orders of magnitude smaller than the in-plane susceptibility. These results validate with a high certitude that spin vortices with high diameter to thickness ratio retain in-plane-only magnetization, even when subjected to fields in the out-of-plane direction. These results contribute to further computational simulations of the dynamics of spin vortex structures in colloidal suspensions where external fields may be applied in any arbitrary direction.

  7. Manifestation of coherent magnetic anisotropy in a carbon nanotube matrix with low ferromagnetic nanoparticle content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyuk, A. L.; Komissarov, I. V.; Labunov, V. A.; Le Normand, F.; Derory, A.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the magnetic medium can lead to peculiar interaction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Most research in this area involves analysis of the interplay between magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling. Increasing the average interparticle distance leads to the dominant role of the random magnetic anisotropy. Here we study the interparticle interaction in a carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix with low ferromagnetic NP content. Samples were synthesized by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. We found that below some critical NP concentration, when NPs are intercalated only inside CNTs, and at low temperatures, the extended magnetic order, of up to 150 nm, presents in our samples. It is shown by analyzing the correlation functions of the magnetic anisotropy axes that the extended order is not simply due to random anisotropy but is associated with the coherent magnetic anisotropy, which is strengthened by the CNT alignment. With increasing temperature the extended magnetic order is lost. Above the critical NP concentration, when NPs start to be intercalated not only into inner CNT channels, but also outside CNTs, the coherent anisotropy weakens and the exchange coupling dominates in the whole temperature range. We can make a connection with the various correlation functions using the generalized expression for the law of the approach to saturation and show that these different correlation functions reflect the peculiarities in the interparticle interaction inside CNTs. Moreover, we can extract such important micromagnetic parameters like the exchange field, local fields of random and coherent anisotropies, as well as their temperature and NP concentration dependencies.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and the phase diagram of chiral MnSb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J.; Koo, C.; Klingeler, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Ovchenkov, Y. A.; Polovkova, A. S.; Raganyan, G. V.; Zvereva, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic phase diagram and low-energy magnon excitations of structurally and magnetically chiral MnSb2O6 are reported. The specific heat and the static magnetization are investigated in magnetic fields up to 9 and 30 T, respectively, while the dynamic magnetic properties are probed by X-band as well as tunable high-frequency electron spin-resonance spectroscopy. Below TN=11.5 K, we observe antiferromagnetic resonance modes which imply small but finite planar anisotropy showing up in a zero-field splitting of 20 GHz. The data are well described by means of an easy-plane two-sublattice model with the anisotropy field BA=0.02 T. The exchange field BE=13 T is obtained from the saturation field derived from the pulsed-field magnetization. A crucial role of the small anisotropy for the spin structure is reflected by competing antiferromagnetic phases appearing, at T =2 K, in small magnetic fields at BC 1 ≈0.5 T and BC 2=0.9 T. We discuss the results in terms of spin reorientation and of small magnetic fields favoring helical spin structure over the cycloidal ground state which, at B =0 , is stabilized by the planar anisotropy. Above TN, short-range magnetic correlations up to ≳60 K and magnetic entropy changes well above TN reflect the frustrated triangular arrangement of Mn2 + ions in MnSb2O6 .

  9. Second order anisotropy contribution in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    PubMed Central

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sousa, R.; Chshiev, M.; Nguyen, H. T.; Dieny, B.

    2016-01-01

    Hard-axis magnetoresistance loops were measured on perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction pillars of diameter ranging from 50 to 150 nm. By fitting these loops to an analytical model, the effective anisotropy fields in both free and reference layers were derived and their variations in temperature range between 340 K and 5 K were determined. It is found that a second-order anisotropy term of the form −K2cos4θ must be added to the conventional uniaxial –K1cos2θ term to explain the experimental data. This higher order contribution exists both in the free and reference layers. At T = 300 K, the estimated −K2/K1 ratios are 0.1 and 0.24 for the free and reference layers, respectively. The ratio is more than doubled at low temperatures changing the ground state of the reference layer from “easy-axis” to “easy-cone” regime. The easy-cone regime has clear signatures in the shape of the hard-axis magnetoresistance loops. The existence of this higher order anisotropy was also confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance experiments on FeCoB/MgO sheet films. It is of interfacial nature and is believed to be due to spatial fluctuations at the nanoscale of the first order anisotropy parameter at the FeCoB/MgO interface. PMID:27246631

  10. Second order anisotropy contribution in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sousa, R.; Chshiev, M.; Nguyen, H. T.; Dieny, B.

    2016-06-01

    Hard-axis magnetoresistance loops were measured on perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction pillars of diameter ranging from 50 to 150 nm. By fitting these loops to an analytical model, the effective anisotropy fields in both free and reference layers were derived and their variations in temperature range between 340 K and 5 K were determined. It is found that a second-order anisotropy term of the form ‑K2cos4θ must be added to the conventional uniaxial –K1cos2θ term to explain the experimental data. This higher order contribution exists both in the free and reference layers. At T = 300 K, the estimated ‑K2/K1 ratios are 0.1 and 0.24 for the free and reference layers, respectively. The ratio is more than doubled at low temperatures changing the ground state of the reference layer from “easy-axis” to “easy-cone” regime. The easy-cone regime has clear signatures in the shape of the hard-axis magnetoresistance loops. The existence of this higher order anisotropy was also confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance experiments on FeCoB/MgO sheet films. It is of interfacial nature and is believed to be due to spatial fluctuations at the nanoscale of the first order anisotropy parameter at the FeCoB/MgO interface.

  11. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs. PMID:19434654

  12. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs.

  13. Field dependence of the residual-resistivity anisotropy in sodium and potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, M.; Overhauser, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the low-field, induced torque in sodium and potassium by Elliott and Datars show that the resistivity anisotropy increases with increasing magnetic field. The zero-field resistivity anisotropy, unexpected for cubic symmetry, is explained by the charge-density-wave (CDW) structure. Due to the wave-function mixing caused by the CDW potential, the momentum transfer (by isotropic impurities) is much larger for electrons near the CDW energy gap. This is modeled by an anisotropic relaxation time in k--> space. The Boltzmann transport equation in a magnetic field can then be solved exactly. The computed resistivity anisotropy is higher for ωcτ>1 compared with its zero-field value. The effect of the magnetic field is to ``stir'' the electron distribution f(k-->) this feeds electrons into the region of rapid relaxation and thereby increases the resistivity anisotropy.

  14. Growth of Co Nanomagnet Arrays with Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Laura; Ilyn, Maxim; Magaña, Ana; Vitali, Lucia; Ortega, José Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A trigon structure formed by submonolayer gadolinium deposition onto Au(111) is revealed as a robust growth template for Co nanodot arrays. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X‐Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism measurements evidence that the Co nanoislands behave as independent magnetic entities with an out‐of‐plane easy axis of anisotropy and enhanced magnetic anisotropy values, as compared to other self‐organized Co nanodot superlattices. The large strain induced by the lattice mismatch at the interface between Co and trigons is discussed as the main reason for the increased magnetic anisotropy of the nanoislands.

  15. Growth of Co Nanomagnet Arrays with Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Laura; Ilyn, Maxim; Magaña, Ana; Vitali, Lucia; Ortega, José Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A trigon structure formed by submonolayer gadolinium deposition onto Au(111) is revealed as a robust growth template for Co nanodot arrays. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X‐Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism measurements evidence that the Co nanoislands behave as independent magnetic entities with an out‐of‐plane easy axis of anisotropy and enhanced magnetic anisotropy values, as compared to other self‐organized Co nanodot superlattices. The large strain induced by the lattice mismatch at the interface between Co and trigons is discussed as the main reason for the increased magnetic anisotropy of the nanoislands. PMID:27711268

  16. Interplay between magnetic anisotropy and dipolar interaction in one-dimensional nanomagnets: Optimized magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serantes, D.; Vega, V.; Rosa, W. O.; Prida, V. M.; Hernando, B.; Pereiro, M.; Baldomir, D.

    2012-09-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in one-dimensional (1D) magnetic nanostructures is optimized for a specific value of the magnetic field H* when applied perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the system. Our results reveal that H* corresponds to the saturation field, slightly above the transition from a magnetically stable dipolar-coupled configuration to an unstable one. This MCE-optimizing field explicitly depends on the characteristic magnetic parameters of the system, namely, saturation magnetization (MS) and anisotropy constant (K): H* is directly proportional to MS2, and the anisotropy contribution is equal to the anisotropy field of the particles HA=2K/MS. Accordingly, the MCE in 1D nanomagnets can be directly tuned by a proper choice of the characteristic MS and K values of the materials.

  17. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Tie-ge; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu; Feng, Min

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles calculation based on density functional theory, we study the magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene and its dependence on carrier accumulation. We show that carrier accumulation not only impacts the magnitude of magnetic anisotropy but also switches its sign. Hole accumulation enhances the perpendicular anisotropy up to ˜16 meV per Gd atom, while electron accumulation switches the anisotropy from perpendicular to in-plane direction. Moreover, we find that the first order perturbation of spin-orbit coupling interaction induces a pseudo-gap at Γ for the perpendicular magnetization, which leads to the the anomalous magnetic anisotropy for the neutral composite. Our findings pave the way for magneto-electric materials based on rare-earth-decorated graphene for voltage-controlled spintronics.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy in Terfenol-D thin films (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Q.; Teter, J. P.; Wen, Y.; Cullen, J. R.; Wuttig, M.

    1997-04-01

    Thin-film Terfenol-D has attracted considerable attention for applications as microactuators and sensors. Depending on applications, the magnetic anisotropy plays a key role in physical property control. In this paper, the magnetic anisotropy of sputter-deposited Terfenol-D thin films on single-crystal Si substrates was studied by both dynamic torque and magnetization measurements. The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in the course of annealing treatment was followed by both types of experiments. It was found that there is a strong growth-induced anisotropy in the as-grown amorphous films, which is attributed to Fe-rare-earth bond orientation anisotropy. In samples treated at high temperatures, this growth-induced anistropy is overshadowed by the elastic anisotropy resulting from the substantial stresses in the films of giant magnetostrictive material. Domain patterns of different kinds of anisotropy were also monitored using a magnetic force microscope. The consequences of the growth-induced and elastomagnetic anisotropies to possible applications to microactuation are discussed.

  19. Light-induced magnetization reversal of high-anisotropy TbCo alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebrand, Sabine; Gottwald, Matthias; Hehn, Michel; Steil, Daniel; Cinchetti, Mirko; Lacour, Daniel; Fullerton, Eric E.; Aeschlimann, Martin; Mangin, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Magnetization reversal using circularly polarized light provides a way to control magnetization without any external magnetic field and has the potential to revolutionize magnetic data storage. However, in order to reach ultra-high density data storage, high anisotropy media providing thermal stability are needed. Here, we evidence all-optical magnetization switching for different TbxCo1-x ferrimagnetic alloy compositions using fs- and ps-laser pulses and demonstrate all-optical switching for films with anisotropy fields reaching 6 T corresponding to anisotropy constants of 3 × 106 ergs/cm3. Optical magnetization switching is observed only for alloy compositions where the compensation temperature can be reached through sample heating.

  20. Direct observation of an anisotropic in-plane residual stress induced by B addition as an origin of high magnetic anisotropy field of Ru/FeCoB film

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Ken-ichiro; Gomi, Shunsuke; Mashiko, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2010-05-15

    Although boron-free FeCo films prepared on a Ru underlayer exhibits isotropic in-plane magnetic property, boron added FeCoB films prepared on Ru underlayer revealed large in-plane magnetic anisotropy with a high anisotropy field of 500 Oe. The effect of boron addition on the in-plane anisotropic residual stress in FeCoB film was investigated using sin{sup 2} {psi} method of x-ray diffraction analysis. Large isotropic compressive stress was observed in Ru/FeCo film. In contrast, anisotropic in-plane residual stress was observed in Ru/FeCoB film. The compressive stress along the easy axis of Ru/FeCoB film is released more than that along the hard axis. Such anisotropic residual stress is regarded as an origin of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy through inverse magnetostriction effect. Owing to the configuration of the facing targets sputtering system, boron atoms are sputtered and deposited anisotropically, and so they penetrate FeCo crystals and release the compressive stress along the incidence direction.

  1. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy in single-layer crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an applied electric field and the effect of charging are investigated on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of various stable two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as graphene, FeCl2, graphone, fluorographene, and MoTe2 using first-principles calculations. We found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems change linearly with electric field, opening the possibility of electric field tuning MA of these compounds. In addition, charging can rotate the easy-axis direction of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems from the out-of-plane (in-plane) to in-plane (out-of-plane) direction. The tunable MA of the studied materials is crucial for nanoscale electronic technologies such as data storage and spintronics devices. Our results show that controlling the MA of the mentioned 2D crystal structures can be realized in various ways, and this can lead to the emergence of a wide range of potential applications where the tuning and switching of magnetic functionalities are important.

  2. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  3. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  4. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-04-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation – first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line.

  5. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Gan, W L; Kwon, J; Luo, F L; Lim, G J; Wang, J B; Lew, W S

    2016-01-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~10(12) A/m(2). Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 10(11) A/m(2). Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation - first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line. PMID:27098108

  6. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation – first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line. PMID:27098108

  7. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the strain-induced anisotropy resulting from the anisotropic thermal expansion of the β-phase PVDF. The simulation based on modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirms our results. The positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy is estimated to be 1.1 × 102 J m-3 K-1. Preparing the composite at low temperature can enlarge the temperature range where it shows the positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy. The present results may help to design magnetic devices with improved thermal stability and enhanced performance.

  8. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  9. Magnetic and structural anisotropies of Co2FeAl Heusler alloy epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T., Jr.; Tiusan, C.; Hehn, M.; Petrisor, T.

    2011-10-01

    This paper shows the correlation between chemical order, lattice strains, and magnetic properties of Heusler Co2FeAl films epitaxially grown on MgO(001). A detailed magnetic characterization is performed using vector-field magnetometery combined with a numerical Stoner-Wohlfarth analysis. We demonstrate the presence of three types of in-plane anisotropies: one biaxial, as expected for the cubic symmetry, and two uniaxial. The three anisotropies show different behavior with the annealing temperature. The biaxial anisotropy shows a monotonic increase. The uniaxial anisotropy that is parallel to the hard biaxial axes (related to chemical homogeneity) decreases, while the anisotropy that is supposed to have a magnetostatic origin remains constant.

  10. Giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of an individual atom on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-08-01

    Exploring magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in otherwise nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, is at the heart of spintronics research. Herein, using first-principles calculations we explore the possibility of reaching an atomic-scale perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by carefully exploring the large spin-orbit coupling, orbital magnetism, and ligand field in a suitable choice of a two-dimensional structure with transition metal adatoms. More specifically, we demonstrate perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energies up to an order of 100 meV per atom in individual ruthenium and osmium adatoms at a monosulfur vacancy in molybdenum disulfide. We further propose a phenomenological model where a spin state transition that involves hybridization between molybdenum a1 and adatomic e' orbitals is a possible mechanism for magnetization reversal from an in-plane to perpendicular orientation.

  11. Magnetism behaviours dominated by the interplay of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling in local Co discs.

    PubMed

    Yang, En-Cui; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Na; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-10

    Disc-like Co core-derived (4,4)- and (3,6)-connected layers, {[Co7(C2H5OH)1.5(H2O)0.5(Hdatrz)2(μ3-OH)4(ip)5]·2.5H2O·C2H5OH}n () and [Co7(H2O)4(ade)2(μ3-OH)6(sip)2]n () (Hdatrz = 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole, ade(-) = adeninate, ip(2-) = isophthalate and sip(3-) = 5-sulfoisophthalate) were solvothermally generated and structurally and magnetically characterized. The effect of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling from the local Co cores on the resulting magnetism properties are discussed. A crystallographically asymmetric Co core in exhibited an unusual single-molecule magnet (SMM)-like response under zero dc field resulting from strong anisotropy generated by two different types of Co(II) polyhedra and highly anisotropic exchange interactions. By contrast, a highly symmetric Co disc in belonging to the C2h point group showed only strong ferromagnetic exchange, to lead to an overall ST = 7/2 spin ground-state at low temperature. Thus, the interplay of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling has a great and complicated influence on the overall magnetic phenomena, which should be fully considered for the design and preparation of new Co(II)-SMMs.

  12. Magnetism behaviours dominated by the interplay of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling in local Co discs.

    PubMed

    Yang, En-Cui; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Na; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-10

    Disc-like Co core-derived (4,4)- and (3,6)-connected layers, {[Co7(C2H5OH)1.5(H2O)0.5(Hdatrz)2(μ3-OH)4(ip)5]·2.5H2O·C2H5OH}n () and [Co7(H2O)4(ade)2(μ3-OH)6(sip)2]n () (Hdatrz = 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole, ade(-) = adeninate, ip(2-) = isophthalate and sip(3-) = 5-sulfoisophthalate) were solvothermally generated and structurally and magnetically characterized. The effect of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling from the local Co cores on the resulting magnetism properties are discussed. A crystallographically asymmetric Co core in exhibited an unusual single-molecule magnet (SMM)-like response under zero dc field resulting from strong anisotropy generated by two different types of Co(II) polyhedra and highly anisotropic exchange interactions. By contrast, a highly symmetric Co disc in belonging to the C2h point group showed only strong ferromagnetic exchange, to lead to an overall ST = 7/2 spin ground-state at low temperature. Thus, the interplay of magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling has a great and complicated influence on the overall magnetic phenomena, which should be fully considered for the design and preparation of new Co(II)-SMMs. PMID:27089955

  13. Single-ion anisotropy and transverse magnetization in the frustrated gadolinium pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazkov, V. N.; Zhitomirsky, M.; Smirnov, A. I.; Marin, C.; Sanchez, J.-P.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Bonville, P.

    2007-04-01

    A single-ion anisotropy of the planar type is found in the pyrochlore antiferromagnet oxides Gd2M2O7 (M = Ti,Sn); its strength is comparable with the strength of the exchange coupling. Models considering the effects of the planar anisotropy predict the appearance of a transverse magnetization in an applied magnetic field. A detailed experimental study of Gd2Ti2O7 single crystals reveals that a transverse magnetization is really present at low temperatures. The magnetic phase diagram of Gd2Ti2O7 is refined.

  14. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy thanks to Pt insertions in synthetic antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandiera, S.; Sousa, R. C.; Auffret, S.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic antiferromagnets are of great interest as reference layers in magnetic tunnel junctions since they allow decreasing the dipolar coupling between the two magnetic electrodes and exhibit larger pinning fields than single reference layers. In this letter, we investigate the effect of the insertion of an ultrathin Pt layer in contact with the Ru spacer in synthetic antiferromagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Surprisingly, for Ru thickness below 0.75 nm, the antiferromagnetic coupling amplitude through Ru first increases upon Pt insertion up to a critical Pt thickness (˜0.25 nm) above which coupling decreases. In addition, the corresponding increase of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy enhances the thermal stability of the structure.

  15. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2009-02-01

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  16. Stress-induced large anisotropy field modulation in Ni films deposited on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, R.; Ota, S.; Namazu, T.; Takenobu, T.; Koyama, T.; Chiba, D.

    2016-08-01

    A tensile strain on the order of a few percent was created in Ni thin films deposited on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate, and the strain-induced change in the magnetic anisotropy was investigated. The magnetic easy axis was reversibly switched by 90° by the application of the stress. The easy axis was orthogonal to the applied stress. The in-plane saturation magnetic field or the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy changed linearly in reaction to the applied tensile strain up to a strain of 2.3%. Moreover, a large difference in the saturation magnetic field up to ˜0.3 T, which corresponds to a change in the magnetic anisotropy energy of ˜7 × 104 J/m3, was realized. The effective magnetoelastic coupling constant was almost independent of the thickness of Ni.

  17. A vector model for off-axis hysteresis loops using anisotropy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Torre, Edward Della; Cardelli, Ermanno; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2016-11-01

    A model for the off-axis vector magnetization of a distribution of uniaxial particles is presented. Recent work by the authors decomposed the magnetization into two components and modeled the total vector magnetization as their vector sum. In this paper, to account for anisotropy, the direction of the reversible magnetization component is specified by the vector sum of the applied field and an effective anisotropy field. The formulation of the new anisotropy field (AF) model is derived and its results are discussed considering (i) oscillation and rotational modes, (ii) lag angle, and (iii) unitary magnetization. The advantages of the AF model are outlined by comparing its results to the results of the classical Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy of the radula of chiton Acanthochiton rubrolinestus LISCHKE.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xia; Zhao, Jian-Gao; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Guo, Cheng-Hua

    2002-09-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of the whole radula, the major lateral radula teeth, and magnetic material in the major lateral radula teeth of the chiton Acanthochiton rubrolinestus LISCHKE have been studied by a magnetic torque meter and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The length and width axes of the teeth are the easily magnetized axes, while the thickness axis is difficult to magnetize. The width and thickness axes of the radula are the easily magnetized axes, and the length axis is difficult to magnetize. The measurement results of the whole radula and the major lateral radula teeth agree well with each other. The magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic material is given as well as a possible distribution of the magnetic material in the major lateral radula teeth.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of the radula of chiton Acanthochiton rubrolinestus LISCHKE.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xia; Zhao, Jian-Gao; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Guo, Cheng-Hua

    2002-09-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of the whole radula, the major lateral radula teeth, and magnetic material in the major lateral radula teeth of the chiton Acanthochiton rubrolinestus LISCHKE have been studied by a magnetic torque meter and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The length and width axes of the teeth are the easily magnetized axes, while the thickness axis is difficult to magnetize. The width and thickness axes of the radula are the easily magnetized axes, and the length axis is difficult to magnetize. The measurement results of the whole radula and the major lateral radula teeth agree well with each other. The magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic material is given as well as a possible distribution of the magnetic material in the major lateral radula teeth. PMID:12210567

  20. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-05-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy.

  1. Anisotropy of the Taylor scale and the correlation scale in plasma sheet magnetic field fluctuations as a function of auroral electrojet activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, James M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; El-Alaoui, M.; Dasso, S.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic field data from the Cluster spacecraft in the magnetospheric plasma sheet are employed to determine the correlation scale and the magnetic Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple-point measurements for multiple intervals over a range of mean magnetic field directions for three different levels of geomagnetic activity. We have determined that in the plasma sheet the correlation scale along the mean magnetic field direction decreases from 19,500 ± 2200 to 13,100 ± 700 km as the auroral electrojet activity increases from quiet (<80 nT) to active conditions (>200 nT). The reverse occurs for the correlation scale perpendicular to the magnetic field, which increases from 8200 ± 600 km to 13,000 ± 2100 km as the auroral electrojet activity increases from quiet to active conditions. This variation of the correlation scale with geomagnetic activity may mean either a change in the scale size of the turbulence driver or may mean a change in the predominance of one over another type of turbulence driving mechanism. Unlike the correlation scale, the Taylor scale does not show any clear variation with geomagnetic activity. We find that the Taylor scale is longer parallel to the magnetic field than perpendicular to it for all levels of geomagnetic activity. The correlation and Taylor scales may be used to estimate the effective magnetic Reynolds numbers separately for each angular channel. Reynolds numbers were found to be approximately independent of the angle relative to the mean magnetic field. These results may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the magnetosphere and can contribute to our understanding of energetic particle diffusion in the magnetosphere.

  2. Nanopatterned CoPt alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D.; Bermúdez-Ureña, E.; Schmidt, O. G.; Liscio, F.; Maret, M.; Brombacher, C.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Albrecht, M.

    2008-10-01

    CoPt alloy films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were grown on SiO2 nanoparticle arrays with particle sizes as small as 10 nm. In order to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the CoPt film, a MgO seed layer was sputter deposited. Despite the fact that neighboring CoPt film caps are interconnected, individual caps appear as single domain and for most of them their magnetization orientation can be reversed individually. This behavior might be caused by domain wall nucleation and pinning preferentially at the rim of each cap. Thus, arrays of magnetic caps with defined pinning sites can be considered as a percolated perpendicular medium.

  3. Induced Anisotropy in FeCo-Based Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Alloys (HITPERM) by Very High Field Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F.; Garmestani, H.; Chu, S.-Y.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Very high magnetic field annealing is shown to affect the magnetic anisotropy in FeCo-base nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic alloys. Alloys of composition Fe(44.5)Co(44.5)Zr(7)B(4) were prepared by melt spinning into amorphous ribbons, then wound to form toroidal bobbin cores. One set of cores was crystallized in a zero field at 600 deg. C for 1 h, then, field annealed at 17 tesla (T) at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Another set was crystallized in a 17-T field at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Field orientation was transverse to the magnetic path of the toroidal cores. An induced anisotropy is indicated by a sheared hysteresis loop. Sensitive torque magnetometry measurements with a Si cantilever sensor indicated a strong, uniaxial, longitudinal easy axis in the zero-field-crystallized sample. The source is most likely magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused by the residual stress from nanocrystallization and the nonzero magnetostriction coefficient for this material. The magnetostrictive coefficient lambda(5) is measured to be 36 ppm by a strain gage technique. Field annealing reduces the magnitude of the induced anisotropy. Core loss measurements were made in the zero-field-crystallized, zero-field-crystallized- than-field-annealed, and field-crystallized states. Core loss is reduced 30%-50% (depending on frequency) by field annealing. X-ray diffraction reveals no evidence of crystalline texture or orientation that would cause the induced anisotropy. Diffusional pair ordering is thought to be the cause of the induced anisotropy. However, reannealing the samples in the absence of a magnetic field at 480 deg. C does not completely remove the induced anisotropy.

  4. Ginzburg-Landau theory of the superheating field anisotropy of layered superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the superheating field of layered superconductors. We provide an intuitive argument both for the existence of a superheating field, and its dependence on anisotropy, for κ =λ /ξ (the ratio of magnetic to superconducting healing lengths) both large and small. On the one hand, the combination of our estimates with published results using a two-gap model for MgB2 suggests high anisotropy of the superheating field near zero temperature. On the other hand, within Ginzburg-Landau theory for a single gap, we see that the superheating field shows significant anisotropy only when the crystal anisotropy is large and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ is small. We then conclude that only small anisotropies in the superheating field are expected for typical unconventional superconductors near the critical temperature. Using a generalized form of Ginzburg Landau theory, we do a quantitative calculation for the anisotropic superheating field by mapping the problem to the isotropic case, and present a phase diagram in terms of anisotropy and κ , showing type I, type II, or mixed behavior (within Ginzburg-Landau theory), and regions where each asymptotic solution is expected. We estimate anisotropies for a number of different materials, and discuss the importance of these results for radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.

  5. Ferromagnetism and strong magnetic anisotropy of the PbMnBO4 orthoborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankrats, A.; Sablina, K.; Eremin, M.; Balaev, A.; Kolkov, M.; Tugarinov, V.; Bovina, A.

    2016-09-01

    The PbMnBO4 orthoborate single crystals were first grown and their magnetic properties and ferromagnetic resonance were studied. It was found that the ferromagnetic state below the Curie temperature TC=31 K is characterized by the strong magnetic anisotropy. The significant effective anisotropy fields of PbMnBO4 determine the energy gap in the FMR spectrum, which is extraordinary large for ferromagnets (112 GHz at T=4.2 K). It was shown that the static Jahn-Teller effect characteristic of the Mn3+ ion leads to both the ferromagnetic ordering and the strong magnetic anisotropy in the crystal. In the strong external magnetic field the induced ferromagnetic ordering is retained in the crystal above the Curie temperature up to the temperatures multiply higher than TC. A weak anomaly of the dielectric permittivity was observed in PbMnBO4 at the Curie temperature at which the long-range ferromagnetic order is established.

  6. Anisotropy of electric resistance and upper critical field in magnetic superconductor Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, A. V.; Zolochevskii, I. V.; Khristenko, E. V.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Bezuglyi, E. V.; Zaleski, A.; Khlybov, E. P.; Lachenkov, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    We have measured temperature dependencies of the electric resistance R and upper critical magnetic field Hc2 of a magnetic superconductor Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4. The measurements were made for different angles φ of the magnetic field inclination to the direction of measuring current and revealed strong anisotropy of the behavior of R(T) and the values of Hc2(T). By using the Werthamer-Gelfand-Hohenberg theory, we determined the Maki parameter α and the parameter of the spin-orbital interaction. For φ =0∘ and 90° both parameters are close to zero, thus the magnitude of Hc2(0) ≈ 38 kOe is basically limited by the orbital effect. At φ =45∘ , a large value of α = 4.2 indicates dominating role of the spin-paramagnetic effect in the suppression of Hc2(0) down to 8.8 kOe. We suggest that such behavior of R(T) and Hc2(T) is caused by internal magnetism of the Dy atoms which may strongly depend on the magnetic field orientation.

  7. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-08-01

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established.

  8. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V.; Melenev, Petr V.; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters.

  9. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V; Melenev, Petr V; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L

    2016-08-21

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters. PMID:27544124

  10. Magnetic anisotropy and lattice distortions in the doped perovskite manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Dover, R.B. van; Asamitsu, A.; Tokura, Y.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have investigated the magnetic anisotropies of doped manganite materials in epitaxial thin film and single crystal form. Structural characterization, including x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, indicate that the epitaxial films are single crystalline and have excellent crystallinity. Since lattice distortions greatly affect the magnetic and transport properties of this family of materials, it is not surprising to find the profound effect of strain in films due to the lattice mismatch between the substrate and film. Magnetic anisotropy results of single crystals, subject to no external stress, is compared to those of epitaxial films.

  11. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric; Berini, Bruno; Keller, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi3Fe5O12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi3Fe5O12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization.

  12. Dielectric and magnetic anisotropy of a nematic ytterbium complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrun, L. A. Sakhatskii, A. S.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Kolomiets, I. P.; Knyazev, A. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G.

    2015-05-15

    The sign and the magnitude of the dielectric anisotropy of an ytterbium-based paramagnetic nematic liquid crystal complex, namely, tris[1-(4-(4-propylcyclohexyl)phenyl)octane-1,3-dione]-[5,5'-di (heptadecile)-2,2'-bipyridine]ytterbium, are determined. The temperature dependence of the permittivity components of the complex is obtained in the temperature range of a nematic phase. The sign of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of this compound is experimentally determined.

  13. Dielectric and magnetic anisotropy of a nematic ytterbium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrun, L. A.; Sakhatskii, A. S.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Kolomiets, I. P.; Knyazev, A. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G.

    2015-05-01

    The sign and the magnitude of the dielectric anisotropy of an ytterbium-based paramagnetic nematic liquid crystal complex, namely, tris[1-(4-(4-propylcyclohexyl)phenyl)octane-1,3-dione]-[5,5'-di(heptadecile)-2,2'-bipyridine]ytterbium, are determined. The temperature dependence of the permittivity components of the complex is obtained in the temperature range of a nematic phase. The sign of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of this compound is experimentally determined.

  14. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of (Co/Ni/Co/Pt) multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbiaa, R.; Shaw, J. M.; Nembach, H. T.; Bahri, M. Al; Ranjbar, M.; Åkerman, J.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Multilayers of [Co/Ni(t)/Co/Pt]×8 with varying Ni thickness were investigated for possible use as a free layer in magnetic tunnel junctions and spintronics devices. The thickness t of the Ni sub-layer was varied from 0.3 nm to 0.9 nm and the resulting magnetic properties were compared with (Co/Ni) and (Co/Pt) multilayers. As determined from magnetic force microscopy, magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements, all multilayers exhibited perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Compared with (Co/Pt) multilayers, the sample with t of 0.9 nm showed almost the same anisotropy field of μ 0 H k   =  1.15 T but the damping constant was 40% lower. These characteristics make these multilayers attractive for spin torque based magnetoresistive devices with perpendicular anisotropy.

  16. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, C. Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  17. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C.; Miles, J. J.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Thomson, T.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  18. Magnetostriction of rare-earth random magnetic anisotropy spin glasses

    SciTech Connect

    del Moral, A.; Arnaudas, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    A model of magnetostriction for single-ion random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) spin glasses (SG) is developed, the calculation being based on the replica technique. An overall uniform strain is assumed and coupled to the local easy axis (or easy plane) by an adequate projection. The obtained bulk magnetostriction becomes proportional to the average quadrupolar moment, which depends upon the assumed ferromagnetic uniform exchange, J/sub 0/, and the RMA crystal field (CEF), D/sub 0/, strengths. Magnetostriction measurements parallel (lambda/sub X/) and perpendicular (lambda/sub perpendicular/) to the applied magnetic field (up to 7 T) have been performed between 4.2 and 150 K (much larger than the SG temperature, T/sub SG/) for the amorphous spin glasses R/sub 40/Y/sub 23/Cu/sub 37/ (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Anisotropic magnetostriction is a forced effect, with no sign of saturation, and is quite large well above T/sub SG/. The developed model fits quantitatively and remarkably well the temperature variation of the anisotropic magnetostriction, lambda/sub t/ = lambda/sub X/-lambda/sub perpendicular/, in the case of Tb, Dy, and Ho alloys. The values obtained from the fit for D/sub 0/, respectively, are +3.0, +1.25, and +0.6 K. For Er, D/sub 0/ becomes -0.37 K. The signs of D/sub 0/ are in agreement with having local axial anisotropy for the Tb, Dy, and Ho compounds, and planar for the Er one, in good agreement with the signs of the ..cap alpha../sub J/ Stevens quadrupolar parameter.

  19. Variable variance Preisach model for multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Morales, R.; Ross, C. A.; Dumas, R.; Åkerman, J.; Garcia, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present a variable variance Preisach model that fully accounts for the different magnetization processes of a multilayer structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by adjusting the evolution of the interaction variance as the magnetization changes. We successfully compare in a quantitative manner the results obtained with this model to experimental hysteresis loops of several [CoFeB/Pd ] n multilayers. The effect of the number of repetitions and the thicknesses of the CoFeB and Pd layers on the magnetization reversal of the multilayer structure is studied, and it is found that many of the observed phenomena can be attributed to an increase of the magnetostatic interactions and subsequent decrease of the size of the magnetic domains. Increasing the CoFeB thickness leads to the disappearance of the perpendicular anisotropy, and such a minimum thickness of the Pd layer is necessary to achieve an out-of-plane magnetization.

  20. Anisotropy in the resistive superconducting transition under magnetic fields in single crystal Pb{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ho{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji; Kato, Masatsune

    1996-02-01

    Anisotropic properties of the single crystal Pb{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ho{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} have been investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity in the ab-plane {rho}{sub ab}(H, {theta}, T), which depends on the angle {theta} between the ab-plane and the magnetic-field direction, in various constant fields H perpendicular to the current direction. All the angle-dependent values of {rho}{sub ab}(H, {theta}, T) at a constant temperature are scaled to be on one curve as a function of reduced field. The anisotropic parameter {gamma} {triple_bond} (m{sub c}*/m{sub ab}*){sup 1/2} is estimated as 12-13, which is larger than that of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and much smaller than that of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. It has been concluded that the anisotropy does not always depend on the thickness of the blocking layer but seems to depend on the overlap of the electronic wave functions along the c-axis. Anisotropy in the pinning potential has also been discussed from the resistive tail in the temperature dependence of {rho}{sub ab}(H, {theta}, T).

  1. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  2. Magneto-optical Kerr Effect Analysis of Magnetic Anisotropy in Soft Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Tatiana M.

    The continued progress of modern information technology relies on understanding the infuence of magnetic anisotropy on magnetic thin fims. In this work, two sources of magnetic anisotropy are examined in two different soft ferromagnets: a uniaxial anisotropy induced during the fabrication of Ni80Fe 20 and exchange anisotropy, or exchange bias, which occurs at the interface of Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4/Fe50Mn 50 bilayer. A home-built Magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer is used to measure the magnetic response of the soft ferromagnetic films and details of its construction are also discussed. A simple model of uniaxial anisotropy is described, then applied, to the uniaxial NiFe film and deviations from the model are critically analyzed. The exchange bias and coercive fields of NiFeCuMo/FeMn are reported for the first time and studied as a function of buffer layer material. The influence of the different buffer layer materials on the magnetization response of the bilayer is explained from a structural standpoint.

  3. Temperature-induced transition of magnetic anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane directions in GaMnAs film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hakjoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2016-10-01

    We used the Hall effect and magnetization measurements to investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of a ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs film grown on a (001) GaAs substrate. The Hall effect was systematically measured by applying an external magnetic field within and normal to the film plane. The switching behavior of the magnetization during the reversal process revealed the coexistence of in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropies in the film. However, these two types of magnetic anisotropies strongly depended on the temperature. Specifically, the out-of-plane anisotropy was dominant in the low-temperature region (i.e., 3-10 K), whereas the in-plane anisotropy became dominant in the temperature region higher than 15 K. This temperature dependent change in the magnetic anisotropy was further confirmed using direct magnetization measurements.

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Anisotropy of ion temperature in a reversed-field-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hörling, P.; Fall, T.; Brzozowski, J. H.; Brunsell, P.; Hokin, S.; Tennfors, E.; Sallander, J.; Drake, J. R.; Inoue, N.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    1997-03-01

    Anomalous heating of ions has been observed in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma. Ions are heated primarily in the parallel direction (with respect to the magnetic field), resulting in an appreciable anisotropy of the ion temperature. This observation suggests that the magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations are dissipated primarily by the ion viscosity.

  5. High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in D022-Mn3+xGe tetragonal Heusler alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, A.; Mizukami, S.; Yamada, Y.; Koike, K.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-03-01

    We prepared D022-Mn3+xGe (-0.67 ≤ x ≤ 0.35) epitaxial thin films on MgO(001) substrates with Cr(001) buffer layers and systematically investigated the dependence of their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant, saturation magnetization, coercivity, and tetragonal axial ratio (c/a) on their composition and substrate temperature. Single-phase D022 crystal structures were formed in films with compositions of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, prepared at 400 °C. The D022-Mn3Ge films exhibited perpendicular magnetization with a magnetic squareness close to unity. Performing magnetic torque measurements at an applied field of 140 kOe, we estimated a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant of 11.8 ± 0.5 Merg/cm3, the highest and the most reliable value yet reported.

  6. Relationship between Magnetic Anisotropy and Syndeformational Remagnetization Inferred from Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Jessica; Jackson, Mike; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Experimental investigations of deformation-induced remagnetization demonstrate that a primary remanence can survive conditions equivalent to moderate metamorphism in certain cases and that pre-deformation magnetic fabric can play an important role in determining the remanence stability. Results from shear experiments at elevated temperatures on magnetite-bearing rock-analogues demonstrate that complex interactions between temperature, applied field, stress, and anisotropy are responsible for determining the robustness of a pre-deformation magnetization. Syndeformational remagnetization is partly attributed to a stress-softening mechanism resulting in a piezoremanent magnetization, but the extent of remagnetization was largely dependent on the initial anisotropy, and generally unrelated to the deformation fabric. Similarly, the initial anisotropy of deformed samples is found to strongly influence the development of deformation fabrics and overprinting causes the deformation geometry to be obscured at low strains. These results raise several questions concerning paleomagnetic study in tectonized terranes and highlight a research area with much potential for future study.

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H B; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices. PMID:26190066

  8. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H B; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  9. On the Callen and Shtrikman approach to the theory of magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millev, Yonko; Fähnle, Manfred

    1994-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the Callen and Shtrikman theory of magnetic single-ion anisotropy. The first method exploits an explicit inversion of the Brillouin function for values of spin not greater than two. The second method is equivalent to a parametric inversion of the Brillouin and the Langevin functions and is effective for any value of spin. Both methods allow the easy generation of the anisotropy coefficients as functions of the magnetization which can then be taken either from any of the theories of the general class defined by Callen and Shtrikman or from experiment. Extension of the results to the case of strong crystal field anisotropy is possible. The parametric method itself is much wider in scope; several promising applications in related fields are pointed out.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy and fabric of some progressively deformed ophiolitic gabbros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.-J.; Hedley, I. G.; Steen, D.; Tinkler, C.; Vuagnat, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ophiolites, considered remnants of oceanic seafloor, provide a fruitful source of information on the physical and chemical behavior of the deeper uncored lithosphere. A study of the gabbros in a rather well-preserved ophiolite from the western Alps (Montgenèvre, France) shows strong evidence for intraoceanic plate deformation. To characterize the different steps of deformation observed in the outcrops, a magnetic fabric study was conducted using the anisotropy of initial magnetic susceptibility (Aims) method. The main conclusions are (1) the Aims is controlled by the paramagnetic ferromagnesian minerals, such as hornblende, resulting from the ocean floor metamorphism close to the spreading ridge (partial amphibolitization) and (2) the magnetic lineation and foliation of the gabbros show a deformation path with increasing strain. A good correspondence between petrofabric and magnetic anisotropies is observed; both suggest that the deformation mechanism was simple shear.

  11. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  12. Dynamical magnetic anisotropy in spin--1 molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Tijerina, David; Cornaglia, Pablo; Balseiro, Carlos; Ulloa, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    We study electronic transport through a deformable spin-1 molecular system in a break junction setup, under the influence of a local vibrational mode. Our study shows that the magnetic anisotropy, which arises due to stretching along the transport axis[Science 328 1370 (2010)], is renormalized by the interactions with vibrations. The coupling induces additional spin--asymmetric hybridizations that contribute to the net molecular anisotropy. We show that the low temperature physics of such device can be described by an anisotropic Kondo model (J> J), with a magnetic anisotropy term, ANetSz^2, negative at zero stretching. A quantum phase transition (QPT) is explored by stretching the molecule, driving ANet into positive values, and changing the character of the device from a non--Fermi--liquid (NFL) to a Fermi liquid (FL) ground state. This transition can be directly observed through the zero--bias conductance, which we find to be finite for negative anisotropy, zero for positive anisotropy, and to reach the unitary limit at ANet 0. At that point, an underscreened spin-1 Kondo ground state appears due to the restitution of the spin-1 triplet degeneracy.

  13. Origin of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Large Orbital Moment in Fe Atoms on MgO.

    PubMed

    Baumann, S; Donati, F; Stepanow, S; Rusponi, S; Paul, W; Gangopadhyay, S; Rau, I G; Pacchioni, G E; Gragnaniello, L; Pivetta, M; Dreiser, J; Piamonteze, C; Lutz, C P; Macfarlane, R M; Jones, B A; Gambardella, P; Heinrich, A J; Brune, H

    2015-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of individual Fe atoms deposited on MgO(100) thin films probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We show that the Fe atoms have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a zero-field splitting of 14.0±0.3  meV/atom. This is a factor of 10 larger than the interface anisotropy of epitaxial Fe layers on MgO and the largest value reported for Fe atoms adsorbed on surfaces. The interplay between the ligand field at the O adsorption sites and spin-orbit coupling is analyzed by density functional theory and multiplet calculations, providing a comprehensive model of the magnetic properties of Fe atoms in a low-symmetry bonding environment.

  14. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  15. Pinned orbital moments - A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Audehm, P; Schmidt, M; Brück, S; Tietze, T; Gräfe, J; Macke, S; Schütz, G; Goering, E

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  16. Pattern-induced magnetic anisotropy in FePt thin films by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaafar, M.; Sanz, R.; McCord, J.; Jensen, J.; Schaefer, R.; Vazquez, M.; Asenjo, A.

    2011-03-01

    The magnetic properties of FePt thin films have been modified by exposing the samples to irradiation of 4 MeV Cl{sup 2+} ions. Patterned magnetic films, without modified topographical profile, were fabricated by irradiating the films through a shadowing micrometric mask. The structural changes, ascribed to the ion-beam-induced amorphization of the thin films, promote the modification of the magnetic anisotropy. In particular, the out-of-plane component of the magnetization decreases simultaneously with an enhancement of in-plane anisotropy by increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the nonirradiated regions present unexpected anisotropic behavior owing to the stray field of the irradiated regions. The control of this effect, which can have unwished consequences for the patterning of magnetic properties by ion bombardment, needs to be suitably addressed.

  17. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    DOE PAGES

    S. -H. Baek; Gu, G. D.; Utz, Y.; Hucker, M.; Buchner, B.; Grafe, H. -J.

    2015-10-26

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal → low-temperature orthorhombic → low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T–11 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO = 54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T–11 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ∥ [001], which are completely suppressed for largemore » fields along the CuO2 planes. Lastly, our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.« less

  18. Magnetic field dependence of the critical current anisotropy in normal metal-YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin-film bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, R. H.; Goodrich, L. F.; Beall, J. A.; Johansson, M. E.; Reintsema, C. D.

    1991-03-01

    The transport critical current density J(c) was measured in epitaxial quality films of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) some of which were covered by thin (10 nm) Ag films. The films, both with and without Ag, had J(c) values greater than one million A/sq cm in liquid nitrogen. The effect of the Ag was to greatly reduce the dependence of J(c) on external magnetic fields in the case where the field was oriented in the plane of the film, that is, perpendicular to the c axis. It is unlikely that the effect is simply due to altered surface pinning, although qualitative agreement with critical state models is observed.

  19. Scaling laws for magnetic reconnection, set by regulation of the electron pressure anisotropy to the firehose threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, O.; Egedal, J.; Lukin, V. S.; Daughton, W.; Le, A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection in a weakly collisional plasma, such as in the Earth's magnetosphere, is known to be accompanied by electron pressure anisotropy. For reconnection scenarios including moderate guide magnetic field, electrons are magnetized throughout the reconnection region, and the anisotropy drives extended electron current layers. Along these layers, the anisotropy nears the firehose threshold. We describe how the anisotropy stagnates at this threshold by a mechanism that does not involve pitch-angle mixing. Using previously established anisotropic equations of state and by imposing the marginal firehose condition, scaling laws are obtained for quantities along the current layers as functions of plasma parameters upstream of the reconnection region. The predicted reconnection region quantities include the magnetic field strength, plasma density, and the parallel and perpendicular electron pressures, allowing for a characterization of electron energization solely as a function of the upstream plasma conditions. This characterization is in agreement with simulations and spacecraft observations.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic investigations on rare-earth-containing liquid crystals with large magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Galyametdinov, Yu.; Athanassopoulou, M.A.; Griesar, K.

    1996-04-01

    A new series of liquid-crystalline Schiff base lanthanide compounds of the general formula (L{sup {double_prime}}H){sub 2}L{sup {double_prime}}MX{sub 2} was prepared (L{sup {double_prime}}H = H{sub 2n+1}C{sub n}OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(OH)CHNC{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}; n = 7, 12; m = 14, 18; M =La, Tb, Dy, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Pr, and Gd; X = NO{sub 3} or Cl). The thermal behavior of these complexes was examined by polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction experiments. The ligands L {sup {double_prime}}H are nonmesomorphic, but all lanthanide complexes show smectic A mesophases. Further, temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in order to obtain information about the magnetic anisotropy of the lanthanide compounds. The Tb(III) and Dy(III) derivatives could be oriented by a magnetic field. These liquid-crystalline lanthanide complexes display magnetic anisotropies which are two orders of magnitude greater than those of known liquid crystals. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; DeMann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J S; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field.

  2. Spin–orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; DeMann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J. S.; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B.; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C.; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin–orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin–orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field. PMID:27581060

  3. Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; DeMann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J S; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field. PMID:27581060

  4. Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; Demann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J. S.; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B.; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C.; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-09-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field.

  5. Anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids containing nanoparticles exhibiting magnetic dipole interaction.

    PubMed

    Gerth-Noritzsch, M; Borin, D Yu; Odenbach, S

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this work has been the investigation of the anisotropy of the viscosity of a ferrofluid with magnetically interacting particles which are able to form structures in an applied magnetic field. The results of the experiments show a significant deviation from the case of a fluid without strong dipolar interactions. Furthermore, we have determined the dependence of the ratio of the viscosity coefficients on shear rate providing an insight into the microstructural reasons for the observed effects. PMID:21841240

  6. Size and voltage dependence of effective anisotropy in sub-100-nm perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Stephan K.; Bapna, Mukund; Oberdick, Samuel D.; Majetich, Sara A.; Li, Mingen; Chien, C. L.; Ahmed, Rizvi; Victora, R. H.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are investigated using a conductive atomic force microscope. The 1.23 -nm Co40Fe40B20 recording layer coercivity exhibits a size dependence which suggests single-domain behavior for diameters ≤100 nm. Focusing on devices with diameters smaller than 100 nm, we determine the effect of voltage and size on the effective device anisotropy Keff using two different techniques. Keff is extracted both from distributions of the switching fields of the recording and reference layers and from measurement of thermal fluctuations of the recording layer magnetization when a field close to the switching field is applied. The results from both sets of measurements reveal that Keff increases monotonically with decreasing junction diameter, consistent with the size dependence of the demagnetization energy density. We demonstrate that Keff can be controlled with a voltage down to the smallest size measured, 64 nm.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of epitaxial Co_2MnGa film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechan, Michael; Yu, Chentao; Carr, David; Palmstrom, Chris

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic Heusler alloys are gaining renewed interest due to the theoretical prediction of 100% polarization in the conduction electron bands -- an issue of particular importance in the the realization of spintronic devices. Co_2MnGa (001) films of 30 nm thick have been epitaxially grown on different substrate/buffer layers to produce various levels of strain in the magnetic layer. The present investigation utilizes ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at both X- and Q-band. For the film grown on ErAs/InGaAs/InP, which exhibits a tensile strain, an induced uniaxial out-of-plane anisotropy (1.1× 10^6 erg/cm^3)^ is measured, which aids the shape anisotropy in constraining the magnetization to the film plane. In contrast, for the film grown on ScErAs/GaAs with a compression strain, a larger, negative induced anisotropy (- 3.3× 10^6 erg/cm^3) is measured whose easy axis perpendicular to the film plane. Both cases indicate a positive magnetostriction effect in Co_2MnGa film. In-plane angular dependence of FMR measurements shows the coexistence of a small 2-fold and 4-fold anisotropy in the order of 10^3 erg/cm^3 for these pseudomorphic films under both tensile and compression. The relationship between the in-plane easy axis and the crystalline orientations in these films depends upon strain.

  8. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Fin, Samuele; Pancaldi, Matteo; Vavassori, Paolo; Sarella, Anandakumar; Bisero, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dots in an identical magnetization state appear that originate in the dominance of either Global Configurational Anisotropy or Nearest-Neighbor Magnetostatic interactions, which depends on the fields at which the magnetization reversal sets in. Based on our findings, we propose design rules to obtain the uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the array, and also suggest future research directions to achieve non-uniform state distributions of interest, e.g., when aiming at guiding spin wave edge-modes through dot arrays. Our insights are based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements as well as the extensive micromagnetic simulations.

  9. An algorithm to extract effective magnetic parameters of thin film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neo, C. P.; Ding, J.

    2010-05-01

    The calculation of high frequency complex permeability of thin ferromagnetic film requires the measured values of its saturation magnetization, anisotropic magnetic field intensity, resistivity, and thickness. It is often observed that the calculated permeability using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) theory does not agree well with the measured permeability of thin film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, owing to the measured anisotropic magnetic field intensity, saturation magnetization, etc., are not effective values at high frequency. In this work, the Landau-Lifshitz ferromagnetic resonance model is modified to take the skin depth effect into consideration. In the comparison study, its calculated magnetic permeability curves (real and imaginary) agrees very well with those calculated from the LLG model. In addition, an algorithm process to extract effective magnetic parameters (saturation magnetization Ms, magnetic anisotropy field Ha, and damping factor α) has been developed. The algorithm process has been tested for the reported magnetic permeability curves of two magnetic films (Si/NiFe/FeCoB and CoZrRe). The extracted parameters are well agreed with those reported. It is also reported that the consideration of skin depth effect is necessary for samples with lower electrical resistivity.

  10. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process. PMID:26883278

  11. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-02-17

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process.

  12. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process. PMID:26883278

  13. Controlling magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial FePt(001) films

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhihong; Walock, M. J.; LeClair, P.; Butler, W. H.; Mankey, G. J.

    2009-07-15

    Epitaxial equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} thin films with a variable order parameter ranging from 0 to 0.9 and Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} thin films with x ranging from 33 to 50 were deposited on MgO (001) substrates by dc sputtering. A seed layer consisting of nonmagnetic Cr (4 nm)/Pt (12 nm) was used to promote the crystallinity of the magnetic films. The crystal structure and magnetic properties were gauged using x-ray diffraction and magnetometry. The magnetic anisotropy can be controlled by changing the order parameter. For Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} films, the increase in Fe composition leads to an increase in coercivity in the hard axis loop and causes a loss of perpendicular anisotropy.

  14. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the strain-induced anisotropy resulting from the anisotropic thermal expansion of the β-phase PVDF. The simulation based on modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirms our results. The positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy is estimated to be 1.1 × 10(2) J m(-3) K(-1). Preparing the composite at low temperature can enlarge the temperature range where it shows the positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy. The present results may help to design magnetic devices with improved thermal stability and enhanced performance. PMID:25311047

  15. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the strain-induced anisotropy resulting from the anisotropic thermal expansion of the β-phase PVDF. The simulation based on modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirms our results. The positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy is estimated to be 1.1 × 102 J m−3 K−1. Preparing the composite at low temperature can enlarge the temperature range where it shows the positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy. The present results may help to design magnetic devices with improved thermal stability and enhanced performance. PMID:25311047

  16. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  17. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-Dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest--and more attractive--systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination--without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation--of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude.

  18. Hysteresis, critical fields and superferromagnetism of the film with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, V. M.; Kulyk, M. M.; Ryabchenko, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of hysteresis and critical phenomena of magnetization reversal of superferromagnetic (SFM) state in nanogranular (NG) Co/Al2O3 film with perpendicular anisotropy. It was demonstrated that the transition from the multidomain SFM state to the homogeneous SFM state, during the magnetization process, occurs critically. The value of the field of critical transition to the homogeneous state depends on the demagnetization field, granular anisotropy and interparticle exchange anisotropy. It turned out that the temperature dependence of the coercive force of the film, despite its SFM state, accords with the Neel-Brown formula for anisotropic single-domain ferromagnetic particles, but has an anomalous angular dependence. It was concluded that domain wall motion affects these features of the coercive field. The domain wall movement may occur due to the overturn of magnetic moments of particles in the boundaries between the superdomains. At the same time, the main factors influencing the coercivity are the anisotropy of the particles, which blocks their magnetic moment reorientation, and demagnetizing factor of the film. Together they lead to the anomalous angular dependence of the coercive field.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy as a tracer of crystal accumulation and transport, Middle Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkin, Peter A.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Meurer, William P.

    2014-08-01

    Fabric studies of layered mafic intrusions have led to improved understanding of the mechanical processes operating in large magma chambers, including crystal accumulation and crystal mush deformation. Such studies, however, are typically limited by a tradeoff between breadth (number of sites studied, characteristic of field-focused work) and sensitivity (ability to discern subtle fabric elements, characteristic of laboratory fabric analyses). Magnetic anisotropy, if analyzed in a systematic way and supported by single-crystal and petrofabric measurements, permits relatively rapid characterization of magmatic fabrics for large numbers of samples. Here we present the results of a study of remanence and susceptibility anisotropy from three transects through the Middle Banded Series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. All three transects exhibit a magnetic foliation that increases with stratigraphic height up to the top of Olivine Bearing Zone III, consistent with crystal mush compaction. Perhaps more importantly, each transect is characterized by a subtle lineation in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with a consistent direction within that transect. The magnetic lineation directions, which generally coincide with crystallographic preferred orientations of silicate minerals, likely record a pre-compaction fabric. Lineation directions differ from one transect to another, implying that the process generating the lineation - either slumping of a semiconsolidated crystal mush or magma transport - acted on length scales of at most a few km. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of magnetic anisotropy to petrofabric in mafic rocks.

  20. Manipulation of superparamagnetic beads on patterned Au/Co/Au multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, A.; Holzinger, D.; Urbaniak, M.; Ehresmann, A.; Stobiecki, F.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetophoresis of water-suspended 4 μm-diameter superparamagnetic beads above topographically patterned, sputter deposited Ti(4 nm)/Au(60 nm)/[Co(0.7 nm)/Au(1 nm)] × 3 multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated. The results impressively demonstrate that the magnetic stray field landscape above the stripe structure when superimposed with an external, slowly rotating, field enables the directed transport of magnetic beads across the stripe panel with velocities up to 12 μm s-1.

  1. Rotatable magnetic anisotropy in Si/SiO2/(Co2Fe)(x)Ge(1-x) Heusler alloy films.

    PubMed

    Ryabchenko, S M; Kalita, V M; Kulik, M M; Lozenko, A F; Nevdacha, V V; Pogorily, A N; Kravets, A F; Podyalovskiy, D Y; Vovk, A Ya; Borges, R P; Godinho, M; Korenivski, V

    2013-10-16

    Polycrystalline (Co2Fe)(x)Ge(1-x) Heusler alloy films are fabricated by sputtering on amorphous substrates and shown to possess three types of magnetic anisotropy. The nearly stoichiometric composition of x = 50 m.f.% shows a rectangular hysteresis loop and isotropic coercive and ferromagnetic resonance fields when the film is field-magnetized along any in-plane direction, thus predominantly possessing rotatable in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Higher-x compositions show evidence of two- and fourfold in-plane anisotropy superposed on the rotatable one. A qualitative model of the observed anisotropic magnetic properties is proposed. The model explains the rotatable anisotropy by taking into account dry friction for the in-plane rotation of the magnetization direction in a fine-grained polycrystalline film with the magnetic grain size smaller than the correlation length of the inter-grain exchange interaction. The observed two- and fourfold magnetic anisotropy contributions are attributed to partial texturing of the fine-grained films, even though the films are grown on amorphous SiO2 substrates. These results should be valuable for understanding and controlling the magnetic behaviour of highly spin-polarized Heusler alloy films used in various magnetic nanodevices.

  2. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  3. Easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, James; Banerjee, Sumilan; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) chiral magnetic materials, like thin films of non-centrosymmetric helimagnets and metallic magnetic layers, have revealed interesting spatially modulated spin textures such as spirals and skyrmions. Motivated by this we study the ground-state phase diagram for a 2D chiral magnet in a magnetic field using a Ginzburg-Landau model, with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term, anisotropic exchange and single-ion anisotropy. The easy-axis anisotropy region of the phase diagram has been well-studied, whereas the easy-plane region has not been discussed. In the easy-plane region, we find an unexpectedly large stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We find re-entrant transitions between ferromagnetic and SkX phases, and intriguing internal structure of the skyrmion core with two-length scales. We argue that such an easy-plane anisotropy arises naturally from the compass terms induced by spin-orbit coupling that is also responsible for the DM term, as proposed recently in the context of oxide interfaces. We also discuss the phase diagram in a tilted field configuration, relevant for torque magnetometry experiments. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  4. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan W.; Parker, David S.; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-08-01

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μB/f.u. and 2.1 μB/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be -6.7 kJ m-3 K-1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ˜4.6 T for ZrMnP and ˜10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of metal functionalized phthalocyanine 2D networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guojun; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Juexian

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of metal including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re, Os, Ir atoms functionalized phthalocyanine networks have been investigated with first-principles calculations. The magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n μB with n the electronic number of outmost d shell in the transition metals. The huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is obtained by torque method. Especially, the MAE of Re functionalized phthalocyanine network is about 20 meV with an easy axis perpendicular to the plane of phthalocyanine network. The MAE is further manipulated by applying the external biaxial strain. It is found that the MAE is linear increasing with the external strain in the range of -2% to 2%. Our results indicate an effective approach to modulate the MAE for practical application.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a rotor-foundation system coupled through passive magnetic bearings with magnetic anisotropy - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy) of the magnetic field and the weak nonlinearity of the magnetic forces. Through mathematical modelling the nonlinear equations of motion are established for describing the shaft and bearing housing lateral dynamics coupled via the nonlinear and non-uniform magnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved in the frequency domain by the methods of Finite Difference and pseudo-arclength continuation. The theoretical findings are validated against experiments carried out using a dedicated test-rig and a special device for characterisation of the magnetic anisotropy. The characterisation of the magnetic anisotropy shows that it can be quantified as magnetic eccentricities having an amplitude and a phase, which result in linear and parametric excitation. The magnetic eccentricities are also determined using the steady-state response of the rotor-bearing system due to forcing from the magnetic anisotropies and several levels of mass imbalance. Discrepancies in the results from the two methods in terms of magnetic eccentricity magnitude are due to additional geometric eccentricities in the shaft. The steady-state system response shows clear nonlinear phenomena, e.g. bent resonance peaks, jump phenomena and nonlinear cross-coupling between the two orthogonal directions, especially during counter-phase motion between shaft and bearings. The clear nonlinear behaviour is facilitated by the lack of damping resulting in relatively large vibrations. The overall nonlinear dynamic behaviour is well captured by the theoretical model, thereby validating the modelling approach.

  7. Magnetic irreversibility and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, P. V.; Madduri, Srinath, S.; Kaul, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni samples, with average grain sizes, d = 11(1) nm, 19(1) nm and 30(2) nm, synthesized by pulse electrodeposition, have been studied. We observed that (i) at low temperatures, the effective magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant, K1, increases with the crystallite size so as to reach the bulk value at d = 30 nm, and (ii) the rate of thermal decline of K1(T) slows down as the crystallite size reduces.

  8. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Zhang, X M; Miyazaki, T; Mizukami, S

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (K(u)(eff)) over 6 Merg/cm(3) is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and K(u)(eff) of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory. PMID:25597496

  9. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (Kueff) over 6 Merg/cm3 is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and Kueff of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory. PMID:25597496

  10. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (Kueff) over 6 Merg/cm3 is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and Kueff of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory.

  11. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Zhang, X M; Miyazaki, T; Mizukami, S

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (K(u)(eff)) over 6 Merg/cm(3) is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and K(u)(eff) of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory.

  12. Role of magnetic anisotropy in spin-filter junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chopdekar, R.V.; Wong, F.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2011-01-10

    We have fabricated oxide-based spin-filter junctions in which we demonstrate that magnetic anisotropy can be used to tune the transport behavior of spin-filter junctions. We have demonstrated spin-filtering behavior in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} junctions where the interface anisotropy plays a significant role in determining transport behavior. Detailed studies of chemical and magnetic structure at the interfaces indicate that abrupt changes in magnetic anisotropy across the nonisostructural interface is the cause of the significant suppression of junction magnetoresistance in junctions with MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier layers.

  13. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A. Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vélez, M.

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices. PMID:26190066

  16. Pressure anisotropy effects on nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Williams, Gina; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in a magnetized anisotropic electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with superthermal electrons and positrons. A two-dimensional plasma geometry is assumed. The ions are assumed to be warm and anisotropic due to an external magnetic field. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined using the double adiabatic Chew-Golberger-Low (CGL) theory. In the linear regime, two normal modes are predicted, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of superthermality of electrons and positrons, ion pressure anisotropy, positron concentration and magnetic field strength. A Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived for the electrostatic potential (disturbance) via a reductive perturbation method. The parametric role of superthermality, positron content, ion pressure anisotropy and magnetic field strength on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is investigated. Following Allen and Rowlands [J. Plasma Phys. 53, 63 (1995)], we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable to oblique perturbations, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on superthermality and ion pressure anisotropy.

  17. Texture development and magnetic anisotropy in semi-hard magnetic Fe20Mo5Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, H.F.G.; Teodosio, J.R.; Neto, J.M.; Silva, M.R.

    1998-10-05

    This work analyzes the crystallographic texture of cold rolled and magnetic aged samples of Fe20Mo5Ni with 0.020, 0.057 and 0.092% of carbon. Results were compared with the increase of magnetic anisotropy represented by the relation between remanence (B{sub r}) and saturation induction (B{sub s}). Results show that these alloys have a sharp {l_brace}100{r_brace}<110> texture component after magnetic hardening that increases with rolling reduction. Magnetic anisotropy increases with this component.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy control in Ga1-x Mnx As magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagraczyński, S.; Jasiukiewicz, C.; Dugaev, V. K.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Using the six-band Kane model of the electron energy spectrum in the valence band of GaMnAs magnetic semiconductor we investigate the dependence of the crystalline magnetic anisotropy on the magnitude of magnetization and on the doping with holes. Our main focus is on the difference between two possible models related to the constraint on the total hole number or on the chemical potential. Our results show that the theoretical results for magnetic anisotropy can change dramatically with the use of different constraints.

  19. Two Polymorphic Forms of a Six-Coordinate Mononuclear Cobalt(II) Complex with Easy-Plane Anisotropy: Structural Features, Theoretical Calculations, and Field-Induced Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhadip; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Colacio, Enrique; Bauza, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Kirillov, Alexander M; Drew, Michael G B; Das, Subrata

    2016-09-01

    A mononuclear cobalt(II) complex [Co(3,5-dnb)2(py)2(H2O)2] {3,5-Hdnb = 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid; py = pyridine} was isolated in two polymorphs, in space groups C2/c (1) and P21/c (2). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are not isostructural in spite of having equal formulas and ligand connectivity. In both structures, the Co(II) centers adopt octahedral {CoN2O4} geometries filled by pairs of mutually trans terminal 3,5-dnb, py, and water ligands. However, the structures of 1 and 2 disclose distinct packing patterns driven by strong intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds, leading to their 0D→2D (1) or 0D→1D (2) extension. The resulting two-dimensional layers and one-dimensional chains were topologically classified as the sql and 2C1 underlying nets, respectively. By means of DFT theoretical calculations, the energy variations between the polymorphs were estimated, and the binding energies associated with the noncovalent interactions observed in the crystal structures were also evaluated. The study of the direct-current magnetic properties, as well as ab initio calculations, reveal that both 1 and 2 present a strong easy-plane magnetic anisotropy (D > 0), which is larger for the latter polymorph (D is found to exhibit values between +58 and 117 cm(-1) depending on the method). Alternating current dynamic susceptibility measurements show that these polymorphs exhibit field-induced slow relaxation of the magnetization with Ueff values of 19.5 and 21.1 cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The analysis of the whole magnetic data allows the conclusion that the magnetization relaxation in these polymorphs mainly takes place through a virtual excited state (Raman process). It is worth noting that despite the notable difference between the supramolecular networks of 1 and 2, they exhibit almost identical magnetization dynamics. This fact suggests that the relaxation process is intramolecular in nature and that the virtual state involved in the

  20. Two Polymorphic Forms of a Six-Coordinate Mononuclear Cobalt(II) Complex with Easy-Plane Anisotropy: Structural Features, Theoretical Calculations, and Field-Induced Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhadip; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Colacio, Enrique; Bauza, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Kirillov, Alexander M; Drew, Michael G B; Das, Subrata

    2016-09-01

    A mononuclear cobalt(II) complex [Co(3,5-dnb)2(py)2(H2O)2] {3,5-Hdnb = 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid; py = pyridine} was isolated in two polymorphs, in space groups C2/c (1) and P21/c (2). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are not isostructural in spite of having equal formulas and ligand connectivity. In both structures, the Co(II) centers adopt octahedral {CoN2O4} geometries filled by pairs of mutually trans terminal 3,5-dnb, py, and water ligands. However, the structures of 1 and 2 disclose distinct packing patterns driven by strong intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds, leading to their 0D→2D (1) or 0D→1D (2) extension. The resulting two-dimensional layers and one-dimensional chains were topologically classified as the sql and 2C1 underlying nets, respectively. By means of DFT theoretical calculations, the energy variations between the polymorphs were estimated, and the binding energies associated with the noncovalent interactions observed in the crystal structures were also evaluated. The study of the direct-current magnetic properties, as well as ab initio calculations, reveal that both 1 and 2 present a strong easy-plane magnetic anisotropy (D > 0), which is larger for the latter polymorph (D is found to exhibit values between +58 and 117 cm(-1) depending on the method). Alternating current dynamic susceptibility measurements show that these polymorphs exhibit field-induced slow relaxation of the magnetization with Ueff values of 19.5 and 21.1 cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The analysis of the whole magnetic data allows the conclusion that the magnetization relaxation in these polymorphs mainly takes place through a virtual excited state (Raman process). It is worth noting that despite the notable difference between the supramolecular networks of 1 and 2, they exhibit almost identical magnetization dynamics. This fact suggests that the relaxation process is intramolecular in nature and that the virtual state involved in the

  1. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Honjo, H. Nebashi, R.; Tokutome, K.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Fukami, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Murahata, M.; Kasai, N.; Ishihara, K.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  2. Confined stripe structure in periodically grooved NdCo Films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jose I.; Hierro-Rodriguez, Aurelio; Cid, Rosalia; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Velez, Maria; Alvarez-Prado, Luis M.; Alameda, Jose M.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic multilayers are broad research field with many interesting phenomena depending on interlayer coupling. Also, since the development of nanolithography techniques, magnetic nanowires and dots have been intensively investigated [1]. Recently, as a combination of these two fields, the concept of magnetic lateral superlattice has emerged: continuous magnetic films with a lateral modulation of their magnetic properties at submicrometric length scale [2]. In this work, we have fabricated amorphous Nd-Co films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a periodic thickness modulation by e-beam lithography and ion milling. Lateral periods range from 2 μm - 500 nm and groove depths from 10 to 30 nm. MFM and Kerr magnetometry have been used for characterization. Lateral patterning modifies the interplay between magnetostatic energy, perpendicular and in plane anisotropy and exchange interaction resulting in confined magnetic stripe structures. The different regimes that appear depending on the size of the periodic thickness modulation relative to the magnetic stripe period will be discussed. [1] J.I Martin et al, JMMM, 256 (2003) 449 [2] S. P. Li et al, PRL 88 (2002) 087202; N. Martin et al, PRB 83 (2010) 174423

  3. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A. M. Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Ohodnicki, P. R.

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  4. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, AM; Keylin, V; Ohodnicki, PR; McHenry, ME

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to similar to 2 kJ/m(3). Higher anisotropies up to similar to 10 kJ/m(3) result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co80-x-yFexMnyNb4B14Si2 soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at. % with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to similar to 50 kJ/m(3) and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  5. Spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co(111) films grown on macrostep-bunched Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, A. V. Kozlov, A. G.; Chebotkevich, L. A.

    2014-10-14

    We compared magnetic properties of epitaxial Co(111) films grown on microstep- and macrostep-bunched vicinal Si(111) substrates. A surface of the microstep-bunched Si(111) substrate represents regular array of step-bunches with height of 1.7 nm divided from each other by flat microterraces with a width of 34 nm. A surface of the macrostep-bunched Si(111) substrate is constituted by macrostep bunches with a height of 75–85 nm divided by atomically flat macroterraces. The average sum width of a macrostep bunch and a macroterrace is 2.3 μm. While in-plane magnetic anisotropy was spatially uniform in Co(111) films grown on the microstep-bunched Si(111), periodic macromodulation of the topography of the Si(111) substrate induced spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) surface. The energy of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the areas of the Co(111) film deposited on the Si(111) macrosteps was higher more than by the order of magnitude than the energy of the magnetic anisotropy in the areas grown on macroterraces. Magnetization reversal in the areas with different energy of the magnetic anisotropy occurred in different magnetic fields. We showed the possibility of obtaining high density of domain walls in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) by tuning the spatial step density of the Si(111) substrate.

  6. Current control of magnetic anisotropy via stress in a ferromagnetic metal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kyongmo; Ma, Xin; Pai, Chi-Feng; Yang, Jusang; Olsson, Kevin S.; Erskine, James L.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Buhrman, Robert A.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that in-plane charge current can effectively control the spin precession resonance in an A l2O3/CoFeB /Ta heterostructure. Brillouin light scattering was used to detect the ferromagnetic resonance field under microwave excitation of spin waves at fixed frequencies. The current control of spin precession resonance originates from modification of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field Hk, which changes symmetrically with respect to the current direction. Numerical simulation suggests that the anisotropic stress introduced by joule heating plays an important role in controlling Hk. These results provide new insight into current manipulation of magnetic properties and have broad implications for spintronic devices.

  7. Emplacement of Zebín Hill, Jičín Volcanic Field, Bohemian Paradise, Czech Republic: Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Ground Magnetometry, Electric Resistivity Tomography, and Paleomagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, M. S.; Rapprich, , V.; Valenta, J.; Leman, J.; Brister, A. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2014-12-01

    A well-preserved set of mid-Miocene tuff-cones and their feeders outcrop in the Jičín Volcanic Field, Czech Republic. Zebín Hill is a tuff cone that has been quarried to reveal the volcanoes feeder system. This edifice offers the opportunity to understand how magma is transported through a monogenetic pyroclastic cone. Rock types include a coarse-grained basal phreatomagmatic layer and a stratified upper wall facies both of which are penetrated by feeder dikes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic data were collected at twenty-one sites from feeder dikes and the main conduit of the volcano. A high-resolution ground magnetometry survey, electric resistivity tomography and seismic tomography were also conducted. Magnetic susceptibility intensity indicates that the dominant magnetic mineral is a ferromagnetic phase with little contribution from paramagnetic minerals. AMS ellipsoids shapes are both oblate and prolate and inferred magma flow directions indicate magma flow away from the central vent area and subhorizontal flow towards and away from the axial conduit; both upward and downward magma flow is evident at some sites. Curie point estimates yield a spectrum of results indicating a mixture of high-Ti titanomagnetite, iron sulfide, and low-Ti titanomagnetite. Ground magnetometry data indicate that both normal and reverse polarity rocks are present at Zebín Hill. Paleomagnetic data confirm the ground magnetic data in that both normal and reverse polarity rocks are present. Most sites yield a single component magnetization that is well grouped at the site level and carried by pseudosingle domain titanomagnetite. The presence of both normal and reverse polarity magnetizations from the volcano indicate that significant time passed during the growth of this monogenic system. Complex system of branching dikes has been also observed from electric resistivity tomography. The simple external structure of monogenetic volcanoes hides a rather

  8. Spin-orbit coupling, compass anisotropy and skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Erten, Onur; Rowland, James; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) gives rise to the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in systems that lack inversion symmetry like non-centrosymmetric helimagnets, and two-dimensional magnetism at surfaces and interfaces. We explore here the role of SOC in several microscopic exchange mechanisms - superexchange, double exchange and RKKY - in insulating and itinerant electron systems. We show that, in addition to giving rise to the DM interaction, SOC generically leads to compass anisotropy terms. Although seemingly negligible, the compass terms are energetically comparable to DM and play a crucial role in deciding the fate of the magnetic ground state. We demonstrate that the compass terms act as an effective easy-plane anisotropy in 2D chiral magnets and lead to extremely large region of stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We discuss the electronic properties of SkX in this hitherto unexplored region of the anisotropy-field plane for itinerant systems. We also comment on the possibility of realizing such SkX phase in the oxide interfaces. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  9. Effect of the distribution of anisotropy constants on hysteresis losses for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is a potential remedial therapy for the reduction of cancer and other tumours. The dominant heating mechanism is hysteresis heating. This means that control of the particle size distribution is essential. However, control of the anisotropy dispersion is also required. We have calculated the effect of the anisotropy distribution on the hysteresis heating in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. Where there is a wide distribution of anisotropy constants the heat output is controlled by the distribution of anisotropy constants. This effect is significant in systems such as magnetite particles where shape anisotropy dominates.

  10. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuświk, Piotr; Lana Gastelois, Pedro; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  11. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Kuświk, Piotr; Gastelois, Pedro Lana; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-26

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy. PMID:27589202

  12. Spin-flop transition on Gd5Ge4 observed by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and first-principles calculations of magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.; Kreyssig, A.; Nandi, S.; Jia, S.; Lee, Y. B.; Lang, J. C.; Islam, Z.; Lograsso, T.; Schlagel, D.; Pecharsky, V.; Gschneidner, K.; Canfield, P.; Harmon, B.; McQueeney, R.; Goldman, A.

    2008-02-21

    X-ray resonant magnetic scattering was employed to study a fully reversible spin-flop transition in orthorhombic Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} and to elucidate details of the magnetic structure in the spin-flop phase. The orientation of the moments at the three Gd sites flop 90{sup o} from the c axis to the a axis when a magnetic field, H{sub sf} = 9 kOe, is applied along the c axis at T = 9 K. The magnetic space group changes from Pnm'a to Pn'm'a' for all three Gd sublattices. The magnetic anisotropy energy determined from experimental measurements is in good agreement with the calculations of the magnetic anisotropy based on the spin-orbit coupling of the conduction electrons and an estimation of the dipolar interactions anisotropy. No significant magnetostriction effects were observed at the spin-flop transition.

  13. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  14. Magnetic anisotropy of S m2F e17 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Kuz'min, M. D.; Skokov, K. P.; Karpenkov, D. Yu.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2016-10-01

    The previously accepted notion that the spontaneous magnetization of S m2F e17 lies in the basal plane of the crystal is true only approximately, and then only around room temperature. At low temperatures the magnetization, whose orientation is not fixed by the symmetry, is found to deviate from the basal plane by as much as 10∘. The threefold symmetry axis is a hard direction; to magnetize the crystal in this direction, a magnetic field of about 9 T is required. The hard-axis magnetization arrives at saturation discontinuously, by way of a first-order phase transition. The behavior is a general one for trigonal ferromagnets where K1<0 and the leading trigonal anisotropy constant is nonzero, K2'≠0 . Although of universal occurrence, the first-order transition is only visible at low temperatures, where it is accompanied by a magnetization anomaly of sufficient size.

  15. Determination of spin torque efficiencies in heterostructures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Tan, Aik Jun; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2016-04-01

    We report that by measuring a current-induced hysteresis loop shift versus in-plane bias magnetic field, the spin-Hall effect (SHE) contribution of the current-induced effective field per current density χSHE can be estimated for Pt- and Ta-based magnetic heterostructures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We apply this technique to a Pt-based sample with its ferromagnetic (FM) layer being wedged deposited and discover an extra effective field contribution χWedged due to the asymmetric nature of the deposited FM layer. We confirm the correlation between χWedged and the asymmetric depinning process in FM layer during magnetization switching by magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. These results indicate the possibility of engineering deterministic spin-orbit torque switching by controlling the symmetry of domain expansion through the materials growth process.

  16. Dispersed-phase structural anisotropy in homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at low magnetic Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouson, D. W. I.; Kassinos, S. C.; Moulitsas, I.; Sarris, I. E.; Xu, X.

    2008-02-01

    A new tensor statistic, the dispersed-phase structure dimensionality Dp, is defined to describe the preferred orientation of clusters of discrete bodies. The evolution of Dp is calculated via direct numerical simulations of passive, Stokesian particles driven by initially isotropic, decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Results are presented for five magnetic field strengths as characterized by magnetic interaction parameters, N, in the range 0-50. Four field strengths are studied at a grid resolution of 1283. The strongest field strength is also studied at 2563 resolution. In each case, the externally applied magnetic field was spatially uniform and followed a step function in time. Particles with initially uniform distributions were tracked through hydrodynamic turbulence for up to 2800 particle response times before the step change in the magnetic field. In the lower resolution simulation, the particle response time, τp, matched the Kolmogorov time scale at the magnetic field application time t0. The higher-resolution simulation tracked ten sets of particles with τp spanning four decades bracketing the Kolmogorov time scale and the Joule time. The results demonstrate that Dp distinguishes between uniformly distributed particles, those organized into randomly oriented clusters, and those organized into two-dimensional sheets everywhere tangent to the magnetic field lines. Lumley triangles are used to demonstrate that the degree of structural anisotropy depends on τp, N, and the time span over which the magnetic field is applied.

  17. Tailoring of magnetic anisotropy in amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys using swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Ranu; Gupta, Ajay; Sharma, Pooja; Darowski, Nora; Schumacher, G.

    2007-03-01

    Amorphous films of Fe 0.85N 0.15 and Fe 73.9Cu 0.9Nb 3.1Si 13.2B 8.9 have been prepared by using ion-beam sputtering. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and Mössbauer measurement shows that the FeN film has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy while the finemet film has a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. The anisotropy in as-deposited state may be attributed to some quenched-in stresses present in the film during deposition. Films have been irradiated with Ag and Au ions of different energies. In both the films, irradiation results in gradual removal of anisotropy and a decrease in coercivity, which may be attributed to relaxation of internal stresses. This demonstrates that swift heavy ions can be used for controlled modification of magnetic properties of thin films.

  18. Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy in organometallic metallocenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kenji Kitaoka, Yukie; Nakamura, Kohji; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori

    2015-05-07

    Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy of organometallic metallocenes (MCp{sub 2}s) were investigated by means of first principles calculations based on the constraint density functional theory. The results predict that the ground states for M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni are the {sup 3}E{sub 2g}, {sup 2}E{sub 2g}, {sup 1}A{sub 1g}, {sup 2}E{sub 1g}, and {sup 3}A{sub 2g} states, respectively. The magnetizations of the CoCp{sub 2} and NiCp{sub 2} energetically favor highly orienting along the perpendicular and parallel directions to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) plane, respectively, and the others show almost no preference for the magnetic easy axis.

  19. Quantum engineering of spin and anisotropy in magnetic molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter; Herden, Tobias; Muenks, Matthias; Laskin, Gennadii; Brovko, Oleg; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule magnets and single spin centres can be individually addressed when coupled to contacts forming an electrical junction. To control and engineer the magnetism of quantum devices, it is necessary to quantify how the structural and chemical environment of the junction affects the spin centre. Metrics such as coordination number or symmetry provide a simple method to quantify the local environment, but neglect the many-body interactions of an impurity spin coupled to contacts. Here, we utilize a highly corrugated hexagonal boron nitride monolayer to mediate the coupling between a cobalt spin in CoHx (x=1,2) complexes and the metal contact. While hydrogen controls the total effective spin, the corrugation smoothly tunes the Kondo exchange interaction between the spin and the underlying metal. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy together with numerical simulations, we quantitatively demonstrate how the Kondo exchange interaction mimics chemical tailoring and changes the magnetic anisotropy. PMID:26456084

  20. Magnetic field mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

  1. Towards Detection of Magnetofossils in Sediments: Magnetostatic Interaction and Magnetic Anisotropy Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    state of magnetofossils. Results show that intact MTB and well-dispersed magnetosome chains are characterized by strong magnetic anisotropy and weak magnetostatic interactions, but progressive chain breakup and particle clumping significantly increases the degree of the magnetostatic interaction and a change of magnetic signature towards the typical properties of interacting, single-domain particles. Specifically, the progressive chain breakup and particle clumping systematically decrease of the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization to the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (ARM/SIRM or χARM/SIRM), the crossing point of the Wohlfarth-Cisowski test, and the delta ratio (δFC/δZFC) between losses of field and zero-field cooled remanent magnetization across the Verwey transition. We hence propose a delta-plot (δFC/δZFC vs. δZFC) as a new approach to diagnose magnetosome chains of magnetosomes, and detect magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.

  2. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  3. Tri-axial magnetic anisotropies in RE{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 15−y} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, Shigeru Doi, Toshiya; Okuhira, Shota; Yamaki, Momoko; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-21

    We report a novel quantification method of tri-axial magnetic anisotropy in orthorhombic substances containing rare earth (RE) ions using tri-axial magnetic alignment and tri-axial magnetic anisotropies depending on the type of RE in RE-based cuprate superconductors. From the changes in the axes for magnetization in magnetically aligned powders of (RE′{sub 1−x}RE″{sub x}){sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub y} [(RE′,RE″)247] containing RE ions with different single-ion magnetic anisotropies, the ratios of three-dimensional magnetic anisotropies between RE′247 and RE″247 could be determined. The results in (Y,Er)247, (Dy,Er)247, (Ho,Er)247, and (Y,Eu)247 systems suggest that magnetic anisotropies largely depended on the type of RE′ (or RE″), even in the heavy RE ions with higher magnetic anisotropies. An appropriate choice of RE ions in RE-based cuprate superconductors enables the reduction of the required magnetic field for the production of their bulks and thick films based on the tri-axial magnetic alignment technique using modulated rotation magnetic fields.

  4. Magnetic ordering and slow dynamics in a Ho-based bulk metallic glass with moderate random magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Q.; Schwarz, B.; Mattern, N.; Eckert, J.

    2011-06-01

    Results of magnetic measurements are presented for a Ho-based bulk metallic glass, which shows similarities and differences with conventional spin glasses (SGs), and significant differences with weak random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) systems. Both ac and dc magnetic measurements indicate a single transition from paramagnetic to speromagnetic or spin glasslike state around 5.6 K. The moderate RMA prevents the formation of long- (or quasilong)-range magnetic order and slows down the spin dynamics in the critical region. Further its isothermal remnant magnetization exhibits a small maximum, instead of a gradual increase with field in SGs. The roles of RMA in the magnetic structure and dynamics of disordered and frustrated systems are discussed by comparisons between the weak RMA system, the moderate or strong RMA system, and conventional SG.

  5. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. PMID:26456454

  6. Enhancing the Magnetic Anisotropy of Linear Cr(II) Chain Compounds Using Heavy Metal Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Christian, Jonathan H; Brogden, David W; Bindra, Jasleen K; Kinyon, Jared S; van Tol, Johan; Wang, Jingfang; Berry, John F; Dalal, Naresh S

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic properties of the series of three linear, trimetallic chain compounds Cr2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 1, Mo2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 2, and W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 3 (dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamido), have been studied using variable-temperature dc and ac magnetometry and high-frequency EPR spectroscopy. All three compounds possess an S = 2 electronic ground state arising from the terminal Cr(2+) ion, which exhibits slow magnetic relaxation under an applied magnetic field, as evidenced by ac magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. The slow relaxation stems from the existence of an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy, which is bolstered by the axial symmetry of the compounds and has been quantified through rigorous high-frequency EPR measurements. The magnitude of D in these compounds increases when heavier ions are substituted into the trimetallic chain; thus D = -1.640, -2.187, and -3.617 cm(-1) for Cr2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, Mo2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, and W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, respectively. Additionally, the D value measured for W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2 is the largest yet reported for a high-spin Cr(2+) system. While earlier studies have demonstrated that ligands containing heavy atoms can enhance magnetic anisotropy, this is the first report of this phenomenon using heavy metal atoms as "ligands". PMID:26881994

  7. A Low-Symmetry Dysprosium Metallocene Single-Molecule Magnet with a High Anisotropy Barrier.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Thomas; Chilton, Nicholas F; Layfield, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    The single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of the isocarbonyl-ligated dysprosium metallocene [Cp*2 Dy{μ-(OC)2 FeCp}]2 (1Dy ), which contains a rhombus-shaped Dy2 Fe2 core, are described. Combining a strong axial [Cp*](-) ligand field with a weak equatorial field consisting of the isocarbonyl ligands leads to an anisotropy barrier of 662 cm(-1) in zero applied field. The dominant thermal relaxation pathways in 1Dy involves at least the fourth-excited Kramers doublet, thus demonstrating that prominent SMM behavior can be observed for dysprosium in low-symmetry environments. PMID:27460170

  8. A Low-Symmetry Dysprosium Metallocene Single-Molecule Magnet with a High Anisotropy Barrier.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Thomas; Chilton, Nicholas F; Layfield, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    The single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of the isocarbonyl-ligated dysprosium metallocene [Cp*2 Dy{μ-(OC)2 FeCp}]2 (1Dy ), which contains a rhombus-shaped Dy2 Fe2 core, are described. Combining a strong axial [Cp*](-) ligand field with a weak equatorial field consisting of the isocarbonyl ligands leads to an anisotropy barrier of 662 cm(-1) in zero applied field. The dominant thermal relaxation pathways in 1Dy involves at least the fourth-excited Kramers doublet, thus demonstrating that prominent SMM behavior can be observed for dysprosium in low-symmetry environments.

  9. Magnetic soliton transport over topological spin texture in chiral helimagnet with strong easy-plane anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A. B.; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Bostrem, I. G.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    We show the existence of an isolated soliton excitation over the topological ground-state configuration in chiral helimagnet with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia exchange and the strong easy-plane anisotropy. The magnetic field perpendicular to the helical axis stabilizes the kink crystal state which plays a role of ''topological protectorate'' for the traveling soliton with a definite handedness. To find new soliton solution, we use the Baecklund transformation technique. It is pointed out that the traveling soliton carries the magnon density and a magnetic soliton transport may be realized.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic damping in LSMO/STO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hankyu; Barsukov, Igor; Yang, Liu; Swartz, Adrian; Kim, Bongju; Hwang, Harold; Krivorotov, Ilya

    2015-03-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is a promising material for spintronics applications due to its half-metallic nature. To successively exploit LSMO, both the magnetic anisotropy (MA) and damping need to be well understood and, ultimately, controlled. Here, we study 30 nm epitaxial LSMO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on TiO2 terminated (001)SrTiO3. By means of angle- and frequency dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature, we separate various contributions to the in-plane MA: i) The four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is present but negligibly small. ii) The strongest contribution Buni = 4.2 mT is uniaxial with EA along [010]. While uniaxial MA in LSMO systems is commonly related to terrace formation from the substrate miscut, we find that the terrace direction and the MA symmetry axes do not correlate, indicating a different origin of the MA. By evaluating the FMR linewidth, three nonlinear magnetic damping channels due to the two-magnon scattering are found: j) The dominant four-fold contribution with maxima along < 100 > axes emerges due to the crystalline defects. jj) A two-fold contribution with the maximum along [010] and jjj) a small two-fold contribution with maximum perpendicular to the terraces are identified.

  11. Emergence of noncollinear anisotropies from interfacial magnetic frustration in exchange-bias systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Mikuszeit, N.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid; SPINTEC

    2009-01-01

    Exchange bias, referred to the interaction between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM), is a fundamental interfacial magnetic phenomenon, which is key to current and future applications. The effect was discovered half a century ago, and it is well established that the spin structures at the FM/AFM interface play an essential role. However, currently, ad hoc phenomenological anisotropies are often postulated without microscopic justification or sufficient experimental evidence to address magnetization-reversal behavior in exchange-bias systems. We advance toward a detailed microscopic understanding of the magnetic anisotropies in exchange-bias FM/AFM systems by showing that symmetry-breaking anisotropies leave a distinct fingerprint in the asymmetry of the magnetization reversal and we demonstrate how these emerging anisotropies are correlated with the intrinsic anisotropy. Angular and vectorial resolved Kerr hysteresis loops from FM/AFM bilayers with varying degree of ferromagnetic anisotropy reveal a noncollinear anisotropy, which becomes important for ferromagnets with vanishing intrinsic anisotropy. Numerical simulations show that this anisotropy naturally arises from the inevitable spin frustration at an atomically rough FM/AFM interface. As a consequence, we show in detail how the differences observed for different materials during magnetization reversal can be understood in general terms as originating from the interplay between interfacial frustration and intrinsic anisotropies. This understanding will certainly open additional avenues to tailor future advanced magnetic materials.

  12. Detection of electron energy distribution function anisotropy in a magnetized electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using a directional Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Kitaoka, H.

    2014-07-15

    Anisotropy in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma with magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions is experimentally investigated using a directional Langmuir probe. Under an assumption of independent EEDFs in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, the directional variation of the EEDF is evaluated. In the measured EEDFs, a significantly large population density of electrons with energies larger than 30 eV is found in one of the cross-field directions depending on the magnetic field direction. With the aid of an electron trajectory calculation, it is suggested that the observed anisotropic electrons originate from the EEDF anisotropy and the cross-field electron drift.

  13. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  14. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in granular multilayers of CoPd alloyed nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, L. G.; Rubín, J.; Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Pascarelli, S.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Chorro, M.; Rogalev, A.; Bartolomé, J.

    2016-05-01

    Co-Pd multilayers obtained by Pd capping of pre-deposited Co nanoparticles on amorphous alumina are systematically studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, SQUID-based magnetometry, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The films are formed by CoPd alloyed nanoparticles self-organized across the layers, with the interspace between the nanoparticles filled by the non-alloyed Pd metal. The nanoparticles show atomic arrangements compatible with short-range chemical order of L 10 strucure type. The collective magnetic behavior is that of ferromagnetically coupled particles with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, irrespective of the amount of deposited Pd. For increasing temperature three magnetic phases are identified: hard ferromagnetic with strong coercive field, soft-ferromagnetic as in an amorphous asperomagnet, and superparamagnetic. Increasing the amount of Pd in the system leads to both magnetic hardness increment and higher transition temperatures. Magnetic total moments of 1.77(4) μB and 0.45(4) μB are found at Co and Pd sites, respectively, where the orbital moment of Co, 0.40(2) μB, is high, while that of Pd is negligible. The effective magnetic anisotropy is the largest in the capping metal series (Pd, Pt, W, Cu, Ag, Au), which is attributed to the interparticle interaction between de nanoparticles, in addition to the intraparticle anisotropy arising from hybridization between the 3 d -4 d bands associated to the Co and Pd chemical arrangement in a L 10 structure type.

  16. On the limits of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy tuning by a ripple surface pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, Jose M.; Palomares, Francisco J.

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam patterning of a nanoscale ripple surface has emerged as a versatile method of imprinting uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) on a desired in-plane direction in magnetic films. In the case of ripple patterned thick films, dipolar interactions around the top and/or bottom interfaces are generally assumed to drive this effect following Schlömann's calculations for demagnetizing fields of an ideally sinusoidal surface [E. Schlömann, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1617 (1970)]. We have explored the validity of his predictions and the limits of ion beam sputtering to induce UMA in a ferromagnetic system where other relevant sources of magnetic anisotropy are neglected: ripple films not displaying any evidence of volume uniaxial anisotropy and where magnetocrystalline contributions average out in a fine grain polycrystal structure. To this purpose, the surface of 100 nm cobalt films grown on flat substrates has been irradiated at fixed ion energy, fixed ion fluency but different ion densities to make the ripple pattern at the top surface with wavelength Λ and selected, large amplitudes (ω) up to 20 nm so that stray dipolar fields are enhanced, while the residual film thickness t = 35–50 nm is sufficiently large to preserve the continuous morphology in most cases. The film-substrate interface has been studied with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles and is found that there is a graded silicon-rich cobalt silicide, presumably formed during the film growth. This graded interface is of uncertain small thickness but the range of compositions clearly makes it a magnetically dead layer. On the other hand, the ripple surface rules both the magnetic coercivity and the uniaxial anisotropy as these are found to correlate with the pattern dimensions. Remarkably, the saturation fields in the hard axis of uniaxial continuous films are measured up to values as high as 0.80 kG and obey a linear dependence on the parameter ω{sup 2}/Λ/t in quantitative agreement

  17. Relaxation Dynamics and Magnetic Anisotropy in a Low-Symmetry Dy(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Lucaccini, Eva; Briganti, Matteo; Perfetti, Mauro; Vendier, Laure; Costes, Jean-Pierre; Totti, Federico; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2016-04-11

    The magnetic behaviour of a Dy(LH)3 complex (LH(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxy-N'-[(E)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]benzhydrazide) was analysed in depth from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Cantilever torque magnetometry indicated that the complex has Ising-type anisotropy, and provided two possible directions for the easy axis of anisotropy due to the presence of two magnetically non-equivalent molecules in the crystal. Ab initio calculations confirmed the strong Ising-type anisotropy and disentangled the two possible orientations. The computed results obtained by using ab initio calculations were then used to rationalise the composite dynamic behaviour observed for both pure Dy(III) phase and Y(III) diluted phase, which showed two different relaxation channels in zero and non-zero static magnetic fields. In particular, we showed that the relaxation behaviour at the higher temperature range can be correctly reproduced by using a master matrix approach, which suggests that Orbach relaxation is occurring through a second excited doublet. PMID:26960531

  18. Determination of the Fe magnetic anisotropies and the CoO frozen spins in epitaxial CoO/Fe/Ag(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J. Li, Y.; Park, J. S.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Tan, A.; Son, H.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-04-28

    CoO/Fe/Ag(001) films were grown epitaxially and studied by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD). After field cooling along the Fe[100] axis to 80 K, exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy of the films were determined by hysteresis loop and XMCD measurements by rotating the Fe magnetization within the film plane. The CoO frozen spins were determined by XMLD measurement as a function of CoO thickness.We find that among the exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy, only the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy follows thickness dependence of the CoO frozen spins.

  19. Effects of spin fluctuation on the magnetic anisotropy constant of itinerant electron magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Hyodo, Kazushige; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2016-10-01

    In the disordered local moment picture, we calculated the magnetization (M) and magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of FePt, CoPt, and MnAl ordered alloys and a body-centered tetragonal FeCo (bct-FeCo) disordered alloy, assuming spatially fluctuated spin configurations at finite temperatures. All alloys exhibit the relation K 1(T)/K 1(0) = (M(T)/M(0)) n with the exponent n ≈ 2. This is consistent with the two-ion anisotropy model, in contrast to the usual single-ion anisotropy model exhibiting n = 3. Because these systems have different mechanisms of MAE, we suggest that this relation is a general rule for itinerant electron systems.

  20. Buffer influence on magnetic dead layer, critical current, and thermal stability in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, Marek; Żywczak, Antoni; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Zietek, Sławomir; Kanak, Jarosław; Banasik, Monika; Powroźnik, Wiesław; Skowroński, Witold; Checiński, Jakub; Wrona, Jerzy; Głowiński, Hubert; Dubowik, Janusz; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed study of Ta/Ru-based buffers and their influence on features crucial from the point of view of applications of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs) such as critical switching current and thermal stability. We study buffer/FeCoB/MgO/Ta/Ru and buffer/MgO/FeCoB/Ta/Ru layers, investigating the crystallographic texture, the roughness of the buffers, the magnetic domain pattern, the magnetic dead layer thickness, and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy fields for each sample. Additionally, we examine the effect of the current induced magnetization switching for complete nanopillar MTJs with lateral dimensions of 270 × 180 nm. Buffer Ta 5/Ru 10/Ta 3 (thicknesses in nm), which has the thickest dead layer, exhibits a much larger thermal stability factor (63 compared to 32.5) while featuring a slightly lower critical current density value (1.25 MA/cm2 compared to 1.5 MA/cm2) than the buffer with the thinnest dead layer Ta 5/Ru 20/Ta 5. We can account for these results by considering the difference in damping which compensates for the difference in the switching barrier heights.

  1. Effect of annealing on the magnetic anisotropy and hysteretic properties of film structures containing Tb-Co amorphous layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Svalov, A. V.; Balymov, K. G.; Kulesh, N. A.

    2012-09-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the magnetic properties of Tb-Co amorphous films and film structures based on them has been studied. Regularities of variations of the coercive force and induced magnetic anisotropy constants of Tb-Co amorphous films and the coercive force and unidirectional anisotropy field of the permalloy layer in Fe19Ni81/Tb-Co films were determined as functions of the annealing temperature. The regularities found have been interpreted by assuming temperature-induced changes in the shortrange atomic order in the amorphous structure and interlayer diffusion in two-layer films.

  2. Bifurcation of magnetic anisotropy caused by small addition of Sm in (Nd1-xSmxDy)(FeCo)B magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablov, E. N.; Ospennikova, O. G.; Kablov, D. E.; Piskorskii, V. P.; Kunitsyna, E. I.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Valeev, R. A.; Korolev, D. V.; Rezchikova, I. I.; Talantsev, A. D.; Morgunov, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    In sintered (Nd1-xSmxDy)(FeCo)B magnets, the contributions of "soft" (Nd1-xSmxDy)2(FeCo)2B and "hard" (Nd1-xSmxDy)2(FeCo)14B phases to the temperature and field dependences of magnetization have been distinguished. The increase in Sm concentration up to 3% provides stronger interlattice RE-TM (RE—rare-earth metals, TM—transition metals) exchange interaction. Contributions of the NdDy and Sm to magnetic anisotropy have been determined. The competition between the positive contribution of Nd and Dy and the negative contribution of Sm ions results in non-monotonous temperature and Sm concentration dependencies of anisotropy field. Anisotropy of the studied alloys is intermediate between "easy axis" and "easy plane" symmetry.

  3. Anisotropy Effect on Levitation Performance of Bulk High-Tc Superconductors Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Liao, Xinglin; Jing, Hailian; Lin, Qunxu; Ma, Guangtong; Yen, Fei; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu

    The anisotropy properties of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) are taken into consideration for the application of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems, which are especially based on the different flux-trapping capabilities as well as critical current density, Jc, values between the growth section boundary (GSB) and the growth sections (GS) in bulk superconductors. By adjusting the angle between the GSB of bulk HTSCs and the strongest magnetic field position of a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), the levitation force and its relaxation processes are compared at different field-cooling conditions. Experimental results show that the levitation capability and the suppression of levitation force decay can be enhanced by optimizing the GS/GSB alignment of every bulk HTSC above the PMG. Meanwhile, our conclusions may provide references to other HTS maglev systems with small levitation gaps, i.e., superconducting magnetic bearings.

  4. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  5. INTERPRETING MAGNETIC VARIANCE ANISOTROPY MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    TenBarge, J. M.; Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; Podesta, J. J.

    2012-07-10

    The magnetic variance anisotropy (A{sub m}) of the solar wind has been used widely as a method to identify the nature of solar wind turbulent fluctuations; however, a thorough discussion of the meaning and interpretation of the A{sub m} has not appeared in the literature. This paper explores the implications and limitations of using the A{sub m} as a method for constraining the solar wind fluctuation mode composition and presents a more informative method for interpreting spacecraft data. The paper also compares predictions of the A{sub m} from linear theory to nonlinear turbulence simulations and solar wind measurements. In both cases, linear theory compares well and suggests that the solar wind for the interval studied is dominantly Alfvenic in the inertial and dissipation ranges to scales of k{rho}{sub i} {approx_equal} 5.

  6. Tuning the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of co-based layers in multilayered systems.

    PubMed

    Angelakeris, M; Papaioannou, E Th; Poulopoulos, P; Kopsidis, M; Kalogirou, O; Flevaris, N K

    2010-09-01

    The combination of Pt with Co either in alloy or in multilayer form is widely studied among the potential magnetic media for ultrahigh density magnetic recording. On the other hand the combination of Co with Cr in alloy form is currently providing commercial magnetic media. In an effort to further exploit and benefit from both systems, we fabricated Co(1-x)Cr(x)/Pt multilayers with two adjustable parameters. The first one is the Cr concentration on CoCr layer (x = 0, 5, 30), which modulates segregation effects on Co grains, thus tunes macroscopic magnetic features such as saturation magnetization and coercive field. The second one is the small layer thickness (< or = 0.6 nm) that affects interlayer coupling, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization enhancement through spin polarization of Pt atoms in a ferromagnetic environment. The X-ray diffraction patterns verified the existence of multilayered structures following a preferable face-centered-cubic stacking. The Pt thickness and Cr concentration are found to significantly affect the macroscopic magnetic behavior. It is remarkable the fact that, samples present perpendicular anisotropy that scales with Pt thickness and temperature, even in the case of significant Cr concentration (30% in the alloy) when ferromagnetic behavior is expected to diminish according to relevant studies in alloys and in bulk films. Such an effect may be attributed to spin-polarization of Pt interlayers and was evidenced by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The spin-polarization of Pt is also the drive for the strong magneto-optic enhancement in the ultra-violet region between 4.5 and 5 eV shown by magnetooptic Kerr spectroscopy. PMID:21133152

  7. Investigation of magnetic properties in thick CoFeB alloy films for controllable anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Huang, Ya; Chen, Ruofei; Xu, Zhan

    2016-02-01

    CoFeB alloy material has attracted interest for its wide uses in magnetic memory devices and sensors. We investigate magnetic properties of thick Co40Fe40B20 films in the thickness range from 10 to 100 nm sandwiched by MgO and Ta layers. Strong in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is revealed in the as-deposited amorphous films by angular dependent magnetic measurements, and the growth-induced anisotropy is found to strongly depend on the film thickness. A fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy develops with annealing, as a result of improved crystalline structure in films confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The observed magnetic properties can be explained by the superposition of the uniaxial and additional cubic magnetic anisotropy, tuned by annealing temperature.

  8. The study of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the magnetic sensors with linear sensitivity using polarized neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2016-04-01

    The CoFeB sandwiched by Ta and MgO layers enables a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and provides a pathway for such application. In this paper, we reported the origin of PMA in CoFeB using the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). From PNR experiments, we obtained the details of the magnetic and structural depth profiles inside the film. It is found that the PMA properties of CoFeB layers deposited above and under MgO layer are different and PNR measurements confirmed that a large PMA in the CoFeB above MgO layer is related to its low magnetization. Based on this PMA mechanism, we obtain a high sensitivity of AHE in the perpendicular CoFeB, which opens a new avenue to detect ultralow magnetic field.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance in strongly phase separated manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Lalit M.; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Singh, H. K.

    2016-06-01

    The present study reports the impact of magnetic anisotropy (MA) on magnetotransport properties such as the magnetic transitions, magnetic liquid behavior, glass transition and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in epitaxial film (thickness 42 nm) of strongly phase separated manganite La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y≈0.4). Angle dependent magnetization measurement confirms the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy with the magnetic easy axes aligned in the plane of the film and the magnetic hard axis along the normal to the film plane. The more prominent divergence between the zero filed cooled (ZFC) and field cooled warming (FCW) and the stronger hysteresis between the field cooled cooling (FCC) and FCW magnetization for H ∥ shows the weakening of the magnetic liquid along the magnetic hard axis. The peak at Tp≈42 K in FCW magnetization, which characterizes the onset of spin freezing shifts down to Tp≈18 K as the field direction is switched from the easy axes (H ∥) to the hard axis (H ⊥). The glass transition, which appears at Tg≈28 K for H ∥ disappears for H ⊥. The easy axis magnetization (M∣∣) appears to saturate around H~20 kOe, but the hard axis counterpart (M⊥) does not show such tendency even up to H=50 kOe. MA appears well above the ferromagnetic (FM) transition at T≈170 K, which is nearly the same as the Neel temperature (TN) of M⊥ - T . The temperature dependent resistivity measured at H=10 kOe applied along the easy axis (ρ|| - T) and the hard axis (ρ⊥ - T) shows insulator metal transition (IMT) at ≈106 K and ≈99 K in the cooling cycle, respectively. The large difference between ρ⊥ - T and ρ|| - T during the cooling cycle and in the vicinity of IMT results in huge AMR of ≈-142% and -115%. The observed properties have been explained in terms of the MA induced variation in the relative fraction of the coexisting magnetic phases.

  10. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest—and more attractive—systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination—without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation—of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  11. THE ROLE OF PRESSURE ANISOTROPY ON PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Knizhnik, K.

    2013-02-20

    Voyager spacecraft observations have revealed that contrary to expectations, the source of anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) is not at the local termination shock. A possible mechanism of ACR acceleration is magnetic reconnection in the heliosheath. Using a particle-in-cell code, we investigate the effects of {beta} on reconnection-driven particle acceleration by studying island growth in multiple interacting Harris current sheets. Many islands are generated, and particles are dominantly heated through Fermi reflection in contracting islands during island growth and merging. There is a striking difference between the heating of electrons versus the heating of ions. There is a strong dependence of {beta} on electron heating, while the ion heating is insensitive to {beta}. Anisotropies develop with T {sub Parallel-To} {ne} T for both electrons and ions. The electron anisotropies support the development of a Weibel instability that suppresses the Fermi acceleration of the electrons. Since the Weibel instability develops at a larger T {sub Parallel-To }/T in lower {beta} systems, electrons are able to accelerate more efficiently by the Fermi mechanism at low {beta}. The variance in anisotropy implies less electron acceleration in higher {beta} systems, and thus less heating. This study sheds light on particle acceleration mechanisms within the sectored magnetic field regions of the heliosheath and the dissipation of turbulence such as that produced by the magnetorotational instability in accreting systems.

  12. Rhenium-phthalocyanine molecular nanojunction with high magnetic anisotropy and high spin filtering efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Hu, J.; Wang, H.; Wu, R. Q.

    2015-07-20

    Using the density functional and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches, we studied the magnetic anisotropy and spin-filtering properties of various transition metal-Phthalocyanine molecular junctions across two Au electrodes. Our important finding is that the Au-RePc-Au junction has both large spin filtering efficiency (>80%) and large magnetic anisotropy energy, which makes it suitable for device applications. To provide insights for the further experimental work, we discussed the correlation between the transport property, magnetic anisotropy, and wave function features of the RePc molecule, and we also illustrated the possibility of controlling its magnetic state.

  13. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  14. Structural origins of diamagnetic anisotropy in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, D L

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy in proteins and polypeptides can be attributed to the diamagnetic anisotropy of the planar peptide bonds. The alpha helix in particular has large anisotropy due to the axial alignment of the peptide bonds. The regular arrangements of the peptide bonds in beta pleated sheet and collagen structures also produce substantial anisotropy, but less than for alpha helix. The anisotropy permits orientation of small structures of these types in magnetic fields of several kilogauss. PMID:281695

  15. Inter-grain interaction in random magnetic anisotropy simulation in magnetic nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-J.; Inami, Nobuhito; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Ono, Kanta

    2015-05-01

    Effect of inter-grain exchange interaction on the coercive forces was analyzed with a numerical simulation in magnetic materials with random magnetic anisotropy. The magnetization of an assembly of magnetically interacting grains with randomly oriented uniaxial anisotropy was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We supposed a single spin model where the magnetizations in a grain were aligned in the same direction, for simplicity. Calculations were carried out for an N ×N ×N system, where the number of grains on a side, N ranged from 16 to 128. The relation between the coercive forces HC and the grain size D is represented by HC∝Dk . With the increase of N, k decreased gradually and tended to reach a saturated value around k = 4.5-5, which dose not correspond to the primitive theory of the random anisotropy model where k = 6. The deviation was discussed in terms of the inter-grain interaction, essentially proportional to the inverse of D.

  16. Inter-grain interaction in random magnetic anisotropy simulation in magnetic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-J.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu

    2015-05-07

    Effect of inter-grain exchange interaction on the coercive forces was analyzed with a numerical simulation in magnetic materials with random magnetic anisotropy. The magnetization of an assembly of magnetically interacting grains with randomly oriented uniaxial anisotropy was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We supposed a single spin model where the magnetizations in a grain were aligned in the same direction, for simplicity. Calculations were carried out for an N×N×N system, where the number of grains on a side, N ranged from 16 to 128. The relation between the coercive forces H{sub C} and the grain size D is represented by H{sub C}∝D{sup k}. With the increase of N, k decreased gradually and tended to reach a saturated value around k = 4.5–5, which dose not correspond to the primitive theory of the random anisotropy model where k = 6. The deviation was discussed in terms of the inter-grain interaction, essentially proportional to the inverse of D.

  17. Hybrid wood materials with magnetic anisotropy dictated by the hierarchical cell structure.

    PubMed

    Merk, Vivian; Chanana, Munish; Gierlinger, Notburga; Hirt, Ann M; Burgert, Ingo

    2014-06-25

    Anisotropic and hierarchical structures are bound in nature and highly desired in engineered materials, due to their outstanding functions and performance. Mimicking such natural features with synthetic materials and methods has been a highly active area of research in the last decades. Unlike these methods, we use the native biomaterial wood, with its intrinsic anisotropy and hierarchy as a directional scaffold for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles inside the wood material. Nanocrystalline iron oxide particles were synthesized in situ via coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions within the interconnected pore network of bulk wood. Imaging with low-vacuum and cryogenic electron microscopy as well as spectral Raman mapping revealed layered nanosize particles firmly attached to the inner surface of the wood cell walls. The mineralogy of iron oxide was identified by XRD powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as a mixture of the spinel phases magnetite and maghemite. The intrinsic structural architecture of native wood entails a three-dimensional assembly of the colloidal iron oxide which results in direction-dependent magnetic features of the wood-mineral hybrid material. This superinduced magnetic anisotropy, as quantified by direction-dependent magnetic hysteresis loops and low-field susceptibility tensors, allows for directional lift, drag, alignment, (re)orientation, and actuation, and opens up novel applications of the natural resource wood.

  18. Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy in Heavy Metal/Ferromagnet/Insulator-Based Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    Electric-field assisted writing of magnetic memory that exploits the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect offers a great potential for high density and low power applications. Magnetoelectric Random Access Memory (MeRAM) has been investigated due to its lower switching current, compared with traditional current-controlled devices utilizing spin transfer torque (STT) or spin-orbit torque (SOT) for magnetization switching. It is of great promise to integrate MeRAM into the advanced CMOS back-end-of-line (BEOL) processes for on-chip embedded applications, and enable non-volatile electronic systems with low static power dissipation and instant-on operation capability. In this thesis, different heavy metal|ferromagnet|insulator-based structures are grown by magnetron sputtering to improve the VCMA effect over the traditional Ta|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. We also established an accurate measurement technique for VCMA characterization. An improved thermal annealing stability of VCMA over 400°C is achieved in Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. In addition, we observed a weak CoFeB thickness dependence of both VCMA coefficient and interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in both Ta|CoFeB|MgO and Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures.

  19. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Anisotropic Superstructures by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Leung, Chi Wah; Pong, Philip W T

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle superstructures with controlled magnetic alignment and desired structural anisotropy hold promise for applications in data storage and energy storage. Assembly of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field could lead to highly ordered superstructures, providing distinctive magnetic properties. In this work, a low-cost fabrication technique was demonstrated to assemble sub-20-nm iron oxide nanoparticles into crystalline superstructures under an in-plane magnetic field. The gradient of the applied magnetic field contributes to the anisotropic formation of micron-sized superstructures. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field promotes the alignment of magnetic moments of the nanoparticles. The strong dipole-dipole interactions between the neighboring nanoparticles lead to a close-packed pattern as an energetically favorable configuration. Rod-shaped and spindle-shaped superstructures with uniform size and controlled spacing were obtained using spherical and polyhedral nanoparticles, respectively. The arrangement and alignment of the superstructures can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions. The two types of superstructures both show enhancement of coercivity and saturation magnetization along the applied field direction, which is presumably associated with the magnetic anisotropy and magnetic dipole interactions of the constituent nanoparticles and the increased shape anisotropy of the superstructures. Our results show that the magnetic-field-assisted assembly technique could be used for fabricating nanomaterial-based structures with controlled geometric dimensions and enhanced magnetic properties for magnetic and energy storage applications.

  20. Voltage controlled core reversal of fixed magnetic skyrmions without a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Al-Rashid, Md Mamun; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2016-08-01

    Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate core reversal of a fixed magnetic skyrmion by modulating the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a nanomagnet with an electric field. We can switch reversibly between two skyrmion states and two ferromagnetic states, i.e. skyrmion states with the magnetization of the core pointing down/up and periphery pointing up/down, and ferromagnetic states with magnetization pointing up/down, by sequential increase and decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The switching between these states is explained by the fact that the spin texture corresponding to each of these stable states minimizes the sum of the magnetic anisotropy, demagnetization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and exchange energies. This could lead to the possibility of energy efficient nanomagnetic memory and logic devices implemented with fixed skyrmions without using a magnetic field and without moving skyrmions with a current.

  1. Voltage controlled core reversal of fixed magnetic skyrmions without a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Al-Rashid, Md Mamun; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2016-01-01

    Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate core reversal of a fixed magnetic skyrmion by modulating the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a nanomagnet with an electric field. We can switch reversibly between two skyrmion states and two ferromagnetic states, i.e. skyrmion states with the magnetization of the core pointing down/up and periphery pointing up/down, and ferromagnetic states with magnetization pointing up/down, by sequential increase and decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The switching between these states is explained by the fact that the spin texture corresponding to each of these stable states minimizes the sum of the magnetic anisotropy, demagnetization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and exchange energies. This could lead to the possibility of energy efficient nanomagnetic memory and logic devices implemented with fixed skyrmions without using a magnetic field and without moving skyrmions with a current. PMID:27506159

  2. Voltage controlled core reversal of fixed magnetic skyrmions without a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Al-Rashid, Md Mamun; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2016-01-01

    Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate core reversal of a fixed magnetic skyrmion by modulating the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a nanomagnet with an electric field. We can switch reversibly between two skyrmion states and two ferromagnetic states, i.e. skyrmion states with the magnetization of the core pointing down/up and periphery pointing up/down, and ferromagnetic states with magnetization pointing up/down, by sequential increase and decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The switching between these states is explained by the fact that the spin texture corresponding to each of these stable states minimizes the sum of the magnetic anisotropy, demagnetization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and exchange energies. This could lead to the possibility of energy efficient nanomagnetic memory and logic devices implemented with fixed skyrmions without using a magnetic field and without moving skyrmions with a current. PMID:27506159

  3. Termination layer compensated tunnelling magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic Heusler compounds with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaewoo; Ferrante, Yari; Faleev, Sergey V; Samant, Mahesh G; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-18

    Although high-tunnelling spin polarization has been observed in soft, ferromagnetic, and predicted for hard, ferrimagnetic Heusler materials, there has been no experimental observation to date of high-tunnelling magnetoresistance in the latter. Here we report the preparation of highly textured, polycrystalline Mn3Ge films on amorphous substrates, with very high magnetic anisotropy fields exceeding 7 T, making them technologically relevant. However, the small and negative tunnelling magnetoresistance that we find is attributed to predominant tunnelling from the lower moment Mn-Ge termination layers that are oppositely magnetized to the higher moment Mn-Mn layers. The net spin polarization of the current reflects the different proportions of the two distinct termination layers and their associated tunnelling matrix elements that result from inevitable atomic scale roughness. We show that by engineering the spin polarization of the two termination layers to be of the same sign, even though these layers are oppositely magnetized, high-tunnelling magnetoresistance is possible.

  4. Termination layer compensated tunnelling magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic Heusler compounds with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewoo; Ferrante, Yari; Faleev, Sergey V.; Samant, Mahesh G.; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Although high-tunnelling spin polarization has been observed in soft, ferromagnetic, and predicted for hard, ferrimagnetic Heusler materials, there has been no experimental observation to date of high-tunnelling magnetoresistance in the latter. Here we report the preparation of highly textured, polycrystalline Mn3Ge films on amorphous substrates, with very high magnetic anisotropy fields exceeding 7 T, making them technologically relevant. However, the small and negative tunnelling magnetoresistance that we find is attributed to predominant tunnelling from the lower moment Mn-Ge termination layers that are oppositely magnetized to the higher moment Mn-Mn layers. The net spin polarization of the current reflects the different proportions of the two distinct termination layers and their associated tunnelling matrix elements that result from inevitable atomic scale roughness. We show that by engineering the spin polarization of the two termination layers to be of the same sign, even though these layers are oppositely magnetized, high-tunnelling magnetoresistance is possible.

  5. Shape anisotropy and exchange bias in magnetic flattened nanospindles with metallic/oxide core/shell structures.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel; Luna, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    A preliminary study of the magnetic phenomenology of Fe and Fe90Co10 nanospindles with axial ratio equal to 5 is presented. These nanospindles are constituted by single-domains single-crystals coated by oxide surface layer and assembled in chains into the nanospindle. The thermal dependence of the coercive field and the saturation magnetization in the temperature range from 4 K up to room temperature indicates that the coercive field is roughly proportional to the saturation magnetization (which follows the T3/2 Bloch law) at temperatures above the blocking temperature of the oxide. This suggests that the predominant source of magnetic anisotropy in this temperature range is the shape anisotropy. However, at temperatures below the oxide blocking temperature, the magnetic coupling between the spins of the oxide and the nanocrystals is produced at the interface. This exchange coupling enhances the effective anisotropy of the nanospindles and the coercive field increases more abruptly than the saturation of magnetization as temperature decreases.

  6. Effect of sputtering pressure on stacking fault density and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoPt alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Woong; Oh, Young-Wan; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Kim, Jai-Young; Park, Byong-Guk

    2016-09-01

    We report the effects of Ar sputtering pressure on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in disordered CoPt alloys via the modulation of stacking fault density. The coercivity and anisotropy field of CoPt alloys are gradually enlarged with an increase in Ar sputtering pressure from 3 mTorr to 30 mTorr. Structural analyses using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity show that the structural properties of the samples, such as roughness or grain size, are not significantly changed by variations in Ar sputtering pressure. On the other hand, in-plane x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the stacking fault density is reduced in films grown under higher pressure, and instead favors HCP stacking. Our results suggest that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoPt alloys can be enhanced by the growth of the sample under a high Ar sputtering pressure, which decreases stacking fault density.

  7. Temperature dependence of magnetization and anisotropy in uniaxial NiFe₂O₄ nanomagnets: Deviation from the Callen-Callen power law

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Ghosh, C. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-10-21

    The thermal variation of magnetic anisotropy (K) and saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) for uniaxial nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄) nanomagnets are investigated. Major magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for the sample at temperatures over the range 5–280 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The high-field regimes of the hysteresis loops are modeled using the law of approach to saturation, based on the assumption that at sufficiently high field only direct rotation of spin-moment take place, with an additional forced magnetization term that is linear with applied field. The uniaxial anisotropy constant K is calculated from the fitting of the data to the theoretical equation. As temperature increases from 5 K to 280 K, a 49% reduction of K, accompanied by an 85% diminution of M{sub S} is observed. Remarkably, K is linearly proportional to M{sub S}₂.₆ in the whole temperature range violating the existing theoretical model by Callen and Callen. The unusual power-law behavior for the NiFe₂O₄ uniaxial nanomagnets is ascribed to the non-negligible contributions from inter-sublattice pair interactions, Neel surface anisotropy, and higher order anisotropies. A complete realization of the unusual anisotropy-magnetization scaling behavior for nanoscale two-sublattice magnetic materials require a major modification of the existing theory by considering the exact mechanism of each contributions to the effective anisotropy.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetic domain structure in C-doped Mn5Ge3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michez, L.-A.; Virot, F.; Petit, M.; Hayn, R.; Notin, L.; Fruchart, O.; Heresanu, V.; Jamet, M.; Le Thanh, V.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn5Ge3C0.7 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied. SQUID-VSM measurements and magnetic force microscopy have been used to probe the magnetic state and determine the relevant magnetic parameters. The results are supported by a combination of improved Saito's and Kittel's models. The moderate perpendicular magnetic anisotropy ( Qe x p=2/Ku μ0MSa t 2 ≈0.2 ) leads to a stripe domain structure for film thicknesses above 28 nm. For thinner films, the magnetization lies in-plane. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline constant has been found to be much weaker than in Mn5Ge3 and is assigned to hybridization effect between the Mn and C atoms.

  9. Parametric excitation of magnetization by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jin; Lee, Han Kyu; Verba, Roman; Katine, Jordan; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei; Barsukov, Igor; Krivorotov, Ilya

    Manipulation of magnetization by electric field is of primary importance for development of low-power spintronic devices. We present the first experimental demonstration of parametric generation of magnetic oscillations by electric field. We realize the parametric generation in CoFeB/MgO/SAF nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The magnetization of the free layer is perpendicular to the sample plane while the magnetizations of the synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) lie in the plane. We apply microwave voltage to the MTJ at 2 f, where f is the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the free layer. In this configuration, the oscillations can only be driven parametrically via voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) whereby electric field across the MgO barrier modulates the free layer anisotropy. The parametrically driven oscillations are detected via microwave voltage from the MTJ near f and show resonant character, observed only in a narrow range of drive frequencies near 2 f. The excitation also exhibits a well-pronounced threshold drive voltage of approximately 0.1 Volts. Our work demonstrates a low threshold for parametric excitation of magnetization by VCMA that holds promise for the development of energy-efficient nanoscale spin wave devices.

  10. Giant magnetic anisotropy of Co, Ru, and Os adatoms on MgO (001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbo; Ou, Xuedong; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) is desirable and critical for nanoscale magnetic devices. Here, using ligand-field level diagrams and density functional calculations, we well explain the very recent discovery [I.G. Rau et al., Science 344, 988 (2014)] that individual Co adatom on MgO (001) surface has a large MAE of more than 60 meV. More importantly, we predict that a giant MAE up to 110 meV could be realized for Ru adatoms on MgO (001), and even more for the Os adatoms (208 meV). This is a joint effect of the special ligand field, orbital multiplet, and significant spin-orbit interaction, in the intermediate-spin state of the Ru or Os adatoms on top of the surface oxygens. The giant MAE could provide a route to atomic scale memory.

  11. Giant Magnetic Anisotropy of Co, Ru, and Os Adatoms on MgO (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xuedong; Wang, Hongbo; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) is desirable and critical for nanoscale magnetic devices. Here, using ligand-field level diagrams and density functional calculations, we well explain the very recent discovery [I. G. Rau et al., Science 344, 988 (2014)] that an individual Co adatom on a MgO (001) surface has a large MAE of more than 60 meV. More importantly, we predict that a giant MAE up to 110 meV could be realized for Ru adatoms on MgO (001), and even more for the Os adatoms (208 meV). This is a joint effect of the special ligand field, orbital multiplet, and significant spin-orbit interaction, in the intermediate-spin state of the Ru or Os adatoms on top of the surface oxygens. The giant MAE could provide a route to atomic scale memory.

  12. Development of an identification method of pressure anisotropy based on equilibrium analysis and magnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Cooper, W. A.

    2013-02-15

    We evaluate the fluxes measured by the magnetic flux loops installed in LHD by using a three dimensional MHD equilibrium analysis code, ANIMEC, which enable us to directly determine the calibration function between the anisotropic pressure and the measured fluxes for the non-axisymmetric plasmas for the first time. The result indicates that the diamagnetic flux represents a nearly single-valued function of the beta perpendicular with respect to the field, and the saddle loop flux represents a nearly single-valued function of an equally weighted average of the beta values parallel and perpendicular to the field, regardless of the pressure anisotropy or the amount of energetic trapped particles. The values of the beta perpendicular to the field and the equal weighting averaged beta estimated by the single-valued functions (calibration functions) are investigated in order to clarify the magnitude of deviation from those original values, and the range of anisotropy where the beta value evaluated by the magnetic flux measurement is calculated within a 10% error.

  13. Tuning magnetic anisotropy of amorphous CoFeB film by depositing on convex flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xinyu; Wang, Baomin; Tang, Zhenhua; Shen, Yuan; Yang, Huali; Wang, Junling; Zhan, Qingfeng; Mao, Sining; Xu, Xiaohong; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of amorphous Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) thin films grown on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates, which were fixed on convex molds with different curvatures during the magnetron sputtering deposition. When the flexible substrates were changed from convex to flat state after fabrication, a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was induced in the CoFeB film due to magnetostrictive effect. Furthermore, the anisotropy also depends on the thicknesses of the film and substrate. Our results demonstrate a convenient method to tune the anisotropy of magnetic thin films grown on flexible substrates.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta/Co2FeAl/MgO multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.; Petrisor, T.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Ta/Co2FeAl/MgO multilayers sputtered on thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates. The magnetic analysis points out that these films show significant interfacial anisotropy even in the as-deposited state, KS=0.67 erg/cm2, enough to provide PMA for the as-deposited films with thicknesses below 1.5 nm. Moreover, the interfacial anisotropy is enhanced by thermal annealing up to 300 °C. The presence of a magnetic dead layer, whose thickness increases with annealing temperature, was also identified.

  15. Coercivity and magnetic anisotropy of sintered Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-type permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez-Blanco, J.C.; Kou, X.C.; Groessinger, R.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Fidler, J.; Ma, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    Anisotropic and isotropic Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-type permanent magnets have been prepared by using the conventional sintering technique. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the cellular structure within the Sm{sub 2}(Fe,Co){sub 17} grains. Hysteresis loops (M{approximately}H) were measured in the temperature range from 4.2 to about 1000 K by using a pulsed-field magnetometer with a maximum field strength up to 24 MA/m. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy field H{sub A} has been measured up to 1000 K by using the singular point detection technique on anisotropic samples with external fields applied perpendicular to the magnetic alignment direction. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} has been measured on anisotropic samples with external fields applied parallel to the magnetic alignment direction. From studies of the coercivity mechanism by using a micromagnetic analysis of the temperature dependence of the coercivity field, it follows that the coercivity of Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr){sub z} is controlled at elevated temperature (above 520 K) by a nucleation process of reversal domains. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Mössbauer study of the field induced uniaxial anisotropy in electro-deposited FeCo alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Xu; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xin; Li, Fa-Shen

    2009-11-01

    Thin ferromagnetic films with in-plane magnetic anisotropy are promising materials for obtaining high microwave permeability. The paper reports a Mössbauer study of the field induced in-plane uniaxial anisotropy in electro-deposited FeCo alloy films. The FeCo alloy films were prepared by the electro-deposition method with and without an external magnetic field applied parallel to the film plane during deposition. Vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements at room temperature indicate that the film deposited in external field shows an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with an easy direction coinciding with the external field direction and a hard direction perpendicular to the field direction, whereas the film deposited without external field does not show any in-plane anisotropy. Mössbauer spectra taken in three geometric arrangements show that the magnetic moments are almost constrained in the film plane for the film deposited with applied magnetic field. Also, the magnetic moments tend to align in the direction of the applied external magnetic field during deposition, indicating that the observed anisotropy should be attributed to directional ordering of atomic pairs.

  17. Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miwa, Shinji Matsuda, Kensho; Tanaka, Kazuhito; Goto, Minori; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Kotani, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-10-19

    In this study, voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions was investigated via the magneto-optical Kerr effect, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The Fe|MgO tunnel junctions showed enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy under external negative voltage, which induced charge depletion at the Fe|MgO interface. Despite the application of voltages of opposite polarity, no trace of chemical reaction such as a redox reaction attributed to O{sup 2−} migration was detected in the x-ray absorption spectra of the Fe. The VCMA reported in the Fe|MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions must therefore originate from phenomena associated with the purely electric effect, that is, surface electron doping and/or redistribution induced by an external electric field.

  18. Large magnetic anisotropy enhancement in size controlled Ni nanowires electrodeposited into nanoporous alumina templates.

    PubMed

    Medina, J De La Torre; Hamoir, G; Velázquez-Galván, Y; Pouget, S; Okuno, H; Vila, L; Encinas, A; Piraux, L

    2016-04-01

    A large enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy of Ni nanowires (NWs) embedded in anodic aluminium oxide porous membranes is obtained as a result of an induced magnetoelastic (ME) anisotropy contribution. This unusual large anisotropy enhancement depends on the diameter of the NWs and exceeds the magnetostatic (MS) contribution. As a consequence, it leads to effective magnetic anisotropy energies as large as 1.4 × 10(6) erg cm(-3), which are of the same order of magnitude and comparable to the MS energies of harder magnetic materials like Co NWs. Specifically, from ferromagnetic resonance experiments, the magnetic anisotropy of the NWs has been observed to increase as its diameter is decreased, leading to values that are about four times larger than the corresponding value when only the MS anisotropy is present. Our results are consistent with the recently proposed growth mechanism of Ni NWs that proceeds via a poly-crystalline stage at the bottom followed by a single-crystalline stage with texture [110] parallel to the axis of the NWs. A strong correlation between reducing the diameter of the NWs with the decrease of the length of the poly-crystalline segment and the enhancement of the effective magnetic anisotropy has been shown. Magnetization curves obtained from alternating gradient magnetometry experiments show that the average ME anisotropy results from the competition between the magnetic anisotropies of both crystalline segments of the NWs. Understanding the influence of size and confinement effects on the magnetic properties of nanocomposites is of prime interest for the development of novel and agile devices. PMID:26906237

  19. Apparent anisotropy effects of upper critical field in high- textured superconducting Nb-Ti tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryev, V. V.; Shavkin, S. V.; Kruglov, V. S.; Volkov, P. V.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Ovcharov, A. V.; Likhachev, I. A.; Pashaev, E. M.; Svetogorov, R. D.; Zubavichus, Y. V.

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of the voltage-field characteristics of superconducting niobium-titanium tapes is the objective of this work. We used both the original cold-rolled and heat-treated tapes, whose structure and texture we had studied in detail. We observed anisotropy in the upper critical field and the reduction of the transition width with increasing angle between the plane of tape and the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, we have registered a significant difference of the upper critical field values, obtained from the voltage-field characteristics and field dependence of the pinning force. Considering our results, we suggest an explanation of the observed features within the macro-inhomogeneity model.

  20. Pressure-Induced Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy in Mn(N(CN)2)2

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, P. A.; Rajan, D.; Peprah, M. K.; Brinzari, T. V.; Fishman, Randy Scott; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Using DC and AC magnetometry, the pressure dependence of the magnetization of the threedimensional antiferromagnetic coordination polymer Mn(N(CN)2)2 was studied up to 12 kbar and down to 8 K. The magnetic transition temperature, Tc, increases dramatically with applied pressure (P), where a change from Tc(P = ambient) = 16:0 K to Tc(P = 12:1 kbar) = 23:5 K was observed. In addition, a marked difference in the magnetic behavior is observed above and below 7.1 kbar. Specifically, for P < 7:1 kbar, the differences between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (fc-zfc) magnetizations, the coercive field, and the remanent magnetization decrease with increasing pressure. However, for P > 7:1 kbar, the behavior is inverted. Additionally, for P > 8:6 kbar, minor hysteresis loops are observed. All of these effects are evidence of the increase of the superexchange interaction and the appearance of an enhanced exchange anisotropy with applied pressure.

  1. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  2. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  3. Design of Single-Molecule Magnets: Insufficiency of the Anisotropy Barrier as the Sole Criterion.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Dreiser, Jan; Weihe, Høgni; Sibille, Romain; Johannesen, Heini V; Sørensen, Mikkel A; Nielsen, Bjarne E; Sigrist, Marc; Mutka, Hannu; Rols, Stephane; Bendix, Jesper; Piligkos, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the electronic energy spectrum of a trigonal-symmetry mononuclear Yb(3+) single-molecule magnet (SMM) by high-resolution absorption and luminescence spectroscopies reveals that the first excited electronic doublet is placed nearly 500 cm(-1) above the ground one. Fitting of the paramagnetic relaxation times of this SMM to a thermally activated (Orbach) model {τ = τ0 × exp[ΔOrbach/(kBT)]} affords an activation barrier, ΔOrbach, of only 38 cm(-1). This result is incompatible with the spectroscopic observations. Thus, we unambiguously demonstrate, solely on the basis of experimental data, that Orbach relaxation cannot a priori be considered as the main mechanism determining the spin dynamics of SMMs. This study highlights the fact that the general synthetic approach of optimizing SMM behavior by maximization of the anisotropy barrier, intimately linked to the ligand field, as the sole parameter to be tuned, is insufficient because of the complete neglect of the interaction of the magnetic moment of the molecule with its environment. The Orbach mechanism is expected dominant only in the cases in which the energy of the excited ligand field state is below the Debye temperature, which is typically low for molecular crystals and, thus, prevents the use of the anisotropy barrier as a design criterion for the realization of high-temperature SMMs. Therefore, consideration of additional design criteria that address the presence of alternative relaxation processes beyond the traditional double-well picture is required.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy in the frustrated spin-chain compound β -TeVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weickert, F.; Harrison, N.; Scott, B. L.; Jaime, M.; Leitmäe, A.; Heinmaa, I.; Stern, R.; Janson, O.; Berger, H.; Rosner, H.; Tsirlin, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic magnetic behavior of the frustrated spin-chain compound β -TeVO4 is reported. Three magnetic transitions observed in zero magnetic field are tracked in fields applied along different crystallographic directions using magnetization, heat capacity, and magnetostriction measurements. Qualitatively different temperature-field diagrams are obtained below 10 T for the field applied along a or b and along c , respectively. In contrast, a nearly isotropic high-field phase emerges above 18 T and persists up to the saturation that occurs around 22.5 T. Upon cooling in low fields, the transitions at TN 1 and TN 2 toward the spin-density-wave and stripe phases are of the second order, whereas the transition at TN 3 toward the helical state is of the first order and entails a lattice component. Our microscopic analysis identifies frustrated J1-J2 spin chains with a sizable antiferromagnetic interchain coupling in the b c plane and ferromagnetic couplings along the a direction. The competition between these ferromagnetic interchain couplings and the helical order within the chain underlies the incommensurate order along the a direction, as observed experimentally. While a helical state is triggered by the competition between J1 and J2 within the chain, the plane of the helix is not uniquely defined because of competing magnetic anisotropies. Using high-resolution synchrotron diffraction and 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance, we also demonstrate that the crystal structure of β -TeVO4 does not change down to 10 K, and the orbital state of V4 + is preserved.

  5. Enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy barrier in critical long range spin systems.

    PubMed

    Borgonovi, F; Celardo, G L

    2013-03-13

    Magnetic materials are usually characterized by anisotropy energy barriers which dictate the timescale of the magnetization decay and consequently the magnetic stability of the sample. Here we consider magnetization decay for spin systems in a d = 3 cubic lattice with an isotropic Heisenberg interaction decaying as a power law with a critical exponent α = d and on-site anisotropy. We show that the anisotropy energy barrier can be determined from the ergodicity breaking energy of the corresponding isolated system and that, unlike in the case of nearest neighbour interaction, the anisotropy energy barrier grows as the particle volume, V, and not as the cross-sectional area.

  6. Strain engineering of magnetic anisotropy: The epitaxial growth of cobalt-manganese-gallium Heusler alloy films on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, David Michael

    This research is the first step towards manipulating thin film magnetic anisotropy through control of uniform epitaxial strain. Pseudomorphic Co 2MnGa films with thicknesses of 300 A have been grown on several III-V semiconductors to generate coherently-strained epitaxial films. Growth of Co2MnGa films at 200°C both directly on GaAs substrates and on thermodynamically stable Sc0.3Er0.7As interlayers resulted in similar physical and magnetic properties. The epitaxial strain generated an induced perpendicular anisotropy and magnetic stripe domains. This resulted in a reduced in-plane remnant magnetization, high coercivity, and a relatively low saturation field for the out-of-plane magnetization. For higher temperature growths, the interlayer was required to minimize interfacial reactions and maintain the magnetic properties of the films. When the growth temperature on the Sc0.3Er0.7As interlayers was increased from 0 to 400°C, the subsequent films had improved L21 atomic ordering, decreased out-of-plane lattice parameters, and enhanced strain-induced perpendicular anisotropy. Dramatic variations in the magnetic anisotropy were observed for films grown on different III-V semiconductors due to controlled strain-induced perpendicular anisotropy. For Co2MnGa films grown under tension on InP, the magnetization barely saturated out-of-plane with a field of 1.75 Tesla. These films displayed clear in-plane anisotropy and low coercivity switching. For films grown under compression on GaAs, the magnetization easily saturated out-of-plane with a field of a few thousand Oe. These films displayed no in-plane anisotropy in the hysteresis loops and had large coercivities. For comparison, bulk-like unstrained Co2MnGa films were grown on relaxed ErAs interlayers on InAs. These films displayed properties intermediate between films grown on GaAs and InP. Finally, growth of films on GaP resulted in partial relaxation, thereby reducing the induced perpendicular anisotropy and verifying

  7. Influence of intermittency on the anisotropy of magnetic structure functions of solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua; Yan, Limei

    2016-02-01

    Intermittency appears to be connected with the spectral anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. We use the Local Intermittency Measure to identify and remove intermittency from the magnetic field data measured by the Ulysses spacecraft in fast solar wind. Structure functions are calculated based on the time sequences as obtained before and after removing intermittency and arranged by time scale (τ) and ΘRB (the angle between local mean magnetic field B0 and radial direction R). Thus, the scaling exponent (ξ(p, ΘRB)) of every structure function of order (p) is obtained for different angles. Before removing intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) shows a distinctive dependence on ΘRB: from monofractal scaling law at ΘRB ~0° to multifractal scaling law at ΘRB ~90°. In contrast after eliminating the intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) is found to be more monofractal for all ΘRB. The extended structure-function model is applied to ξ(p, ΘRB), revealing differences of its fitting parameters α (a proxy of the power spectral index) and P1 (fragmentation fraction) for the cases with and without intermittency. Parameter α shows an evident angular trend falling from 1.9 to 1.6 for the case with intermittency but has a relatively flat profile around 1.8 for the case without intermittency. Parameter P1 rises from around 0.5 to above 0.8 with increasing ΘRB for the intermittency case and is located between 0.5 and 0.8 for the case lacking intermittency. Therefore, we may infer that it is the anisotropy of intermittency that causes the scaling anisotropy of energy spectra and the unequal fragmentation of energy cascading.

  8. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy energy and effective exchange interactions in Co intercalated graphene on Ir(1 1 1).

    PubMed

    Shick, A B; Hong, S C; Maca, F; Lichtenstein, A I

    2014-11-26

    The electronic structure, magnetic moments, effective exchange interaction parameter and the magnetic anisotropy energy of [monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1) and Co intercalated graphene on Ir(1 1 1) are studied making use of the first-principles density functional theory calculations. A large positive magnetic anisotropy of 1.24 meV/Co is found for [monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1), and a high Curie temperature of 1190 K is estimated. These findings show the Co/Ir(1 1 1) system is a promising candidate for perpendicular ultra-high density magnetic recording applications. The magnetic moments, exchange interactions and the magnetic anisotropy are strongly affected by graphene. Reduction of the magnetic anisotropy and the Curie temperature are found for graphene/[monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1). It is shown that for graphene placed in the hollow-hexagonal positions over the monolayer Co, the magnetic anisotropy remains positive, while for the placements with one of the C atoms on the top of Co it becomes negative. These findings may be important for assessing the use of graphene for magnetic recording and magnetoelectronic applications. PMID:25351898

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of Nd(OH)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S.

    1985-08-01

    Measurements are reported on the magnetic susceptibilities and anisotropies of single crystals of Nd(OH)3 in the temperature range between 300 and 77 K. The intermediate-coupling scheme with J mixing under the crystal field of C3h symmetry is used to obtain the crystal-field energy levels and their eigenfunctions. Matrix elements of the Coulomb, spin-orbit, and crystal-field interactions within the f3 configuration are calculated. The g values are found to be g=3.65+/-0.01 and g⊥=1.95+/-0.01 in close agreement with the experimental values quoted by P. D. Scott (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1970). The calculated crystal-field splitting explains successfully the temperature dependence of the specific heat as observed by Chirico and Westrum [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 12, 311 (1980)] in the temperature range between 350 and 20 K. Saturated magnetizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are found to be 271 and 145 emu/cm3, respectively.

  11. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth magnets calculated by SIC and OEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    We have pointed out in our previous study that the chemical bonding between N and Sm plays an important role in the magnetic anisotropy change of Sm2Fe17 from in-plane to uniaxial ones caused by the introducing of N. This effect of N insertion was discussed in terms of change in the electronic structure calculated in the framework of LDA+SIC. The main issue here is whether the 4f states are dealt with properly in SIC. In the present study, we examine the applicability of SIC for the evaluation of the magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth (RE) magnets by comparing the results with various methods, in particular, the optimized effective potential (OEP) method. In this study, OEP is applied only on the RE sites. Admittedly, this is a drawback from the viewpoint of the consistent treatment of uncertainly inherent in the so-called KLI (Krieger-Li-Iafrate) constants. Putting this aside for the moment, we have calculated the electronic structure of RE magnets R2Fe17Nx and RCo5 (R=light RE), by OEP with exact-exchange (EXX) combined with Colle-Salvetti correlation. Our preliminary results have shown considerable differences between the SIC and OEP calculations. We will discuss the meaning of this discrepancy. This work was supported by the Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials under the outsourcing project of MEXT and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26400330) from MEXT.

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. W.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, M. H.; Yoon, J. B.; Cho, J. H.; You, C.-Y.

    2015-05-07

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have been intensively studied for high-density nonvolatile memory such as spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory with low switching current density and high thermal stability. Compared with crystalline PMA multilayers, considerable works have been done on amorphous PMA multilayers because the amorphous materials are expected to have lower pinning site density as well as smaller domain wall width. This study is an overview of the PMA properties of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} multilayers with varying N, where the energy contribution is changed from domain wall energy to magnetostatic energy around N = 6. By measuring the field-induced domain wall motion, we obtain the creep exponent of μ = 1/4. These results in the amorphous PMA multilayers of [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} demonstrate possible potential as a free layer for PMA-based memory devices.

  14. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and damping parameter in ultra thin Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schäfer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-04-01

    B2-ordered Co2FeAl films were synthesized using an ion beam deposition tool. A high degree of chemical ordering ˜81.2% with a low damping parameter (α) less than 0.004 was obtained in a 50 nm thick film via rapid thermal annealing at 600 °C. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was optimized in ultra thin Co2FeAl films annealed at 350 °C without an external magnetic field. The reduced thickness and annealing temperature to achieve PMA introduced extrinsic factors thus increasing α significantly. However, the observed damping of Co2FeAl films was still lower than that of Co60Fe20B20 films prepared at the same thickness and annealing temperature.

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]N thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, K. J.; Yoon, J. B.; Cho, J. H.; You, C.-Y.; Jung, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have been intensively studied for high-density nonvolatile memory such as spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory with low switching current density and high thermal stability. Compared with crystalline PMA multilayers, considerable works have been done on amorphous PMA multilayers because the amorphous materials are expected to have lower pinning site density as well as smaller domain wall width. This study is an overview of the PMA properties of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]N multilayers with varying N, where the energy contribution is changed from domain wall energy to magnetostatic energy around N = 6. By measuring the field-induced domain wall motion, we obtain the creep exponent of μ = 1/4. These results in the amorphous PMA multilayers of [CoSiB/Pt]N demonstrate possible potential as a free layer for PMA-based memory devices.

  16. Impact of reduced symmetry on magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    We study the magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule on a Cu(110) (2 × 1)-O by using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Two inelastic excitations derived from the splitting of the molecular triplet spin state appear as two pairs of steps symmetrically with respect to zero sample voltage. We measured IETS spectra with external magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the molecular plane, and we analyzed the spectral evolution with the effective spin Hamiltonian approach. We determined all parameters related with magnetic anisotropy at a single-molecule level, both the easy- and hard-magnetization directions, zero-field splitting constant, D = - 4.0 meV and E = 1.1 meV, the Lande g-tensor (" separators=" g xx , g yy , g zz ) = ( 1 . 82 , 2 . 02 , 2 . 34 ) , and the constant of spin-orbit coupling λ = - 19.1 meV. We stress that the symmetry breaking caused by the adsorption of FePc on the oxidized Cu(110) significantly impacts the magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current.

  18. A review of pressure anisotropy caused by electron trapping in collisionless plasma, and its implications for magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Daughton, William

    2013-06-01

    From spacecraft data, it is evident that electron pressure anisotropy develops in collisionless plasmas. This is in contrast to the results of theoretical investigations, which suggest this anisotropy should be limited. Common for such theoretical studies is that the effects of electron trapping are not included; simply speaking, electron trapping is a non-linear effect and is, therefore, eliminated when utilizing the standard methods for linearizing the underlying kinetic equations. Here, we review our recent work on the anisotropy that develops when retaining the effects of electron trapping. A general analytic model is derived for the electron guiding center distribution f¯(v∥,v⊥) of an expanding flux tube. The model is consistent with anisotropic distributions observed by spacecraft, and is applied as a fluid closure yielding anisotropic equations of state for the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the local magnetic field direction) of the electron pressure. In the context of reconnection, the new closure accounts for the strong pressure anisotropy that develops in the reconnection regions. It is shown that for generic reconnection in a collisionless plasma nearly all thermal electrons are trapped, and dominate the properties of the electron fluid. A new numerical code is developed implementing the anisotropic closure within the standard two-fluid framework. The code accurately reproduces the detailed structure of the reconnection region observed in fully kinetic simulations. These results emphasize the important role of pressure anisotropy for the reconnection process. In particular, for reconnection geometries characterized by small values of the normalized upstream electron pressure, βe∞, the pressure anisotropy becomes large with p∥≫p⊥ and strong parallel electric fields develop in conjunction with this anisotropy. The parallel electric fields can be sustained over large spatial scales and, therefore, become important for

  19. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  20. Synergy and destructive interferences between local magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihéry, Nathalie; Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Rémi; de Graaf, Coen

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic anisotropy is responsible for the single molecule magnet behavior of transition metal complexes. This behavior is characterized by a slow relaxation of the magnetization for low enough temperatures, and thus for a possible blocking of the magnetization. This bistable behavior can lead to possible technological applications in the domain of data storage or quantum computing. Therefore, the understanding of the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy has received a considerable interest during the last two decades. The presentation focuses on the determination of the anisotropy parameters of both mono-nuclear and bi-nuclear types of complexes and on the control and optimization of the anisotropic properties. The validity of the model Hamiltonians commonly used to characterize such complexes has been questioned and it is shown that neither the standard multispin Hamiltonian nor the giant spin Hamiltonian are appropriate for weakly coupled ions. Alternative models have been proposed and used to properly extract the relevant parameters. Rationalizations of the magnitude and nature of both local anisotropies of single ions and the molecular anisotropy of polynuclear complexes are provided. The synergy and interference effects between local magnetic anisotropies are studied in a series of binuclear complexes.

  1. Synergy and destructive interferences between local magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Guihéry, Nathalie; Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Rémi

    2015-12-31

    Magnetic anisotropy is responsible for the single molecule magnet behavior of transition metal complexes. This behavior is characterized by a slow relaxation of the magnetization for low enough temperatures, and thus for a possible blocking of the magnetization. This bistable behavior can lead to possible technological applications in the domain of data storage or quantum computing. Therefore, the understanding of the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy has received a considerable interest during the last two decades. The presentation focuses on the determination of the anisotropy parameters of both mono-nuclear and bi-nuclear types of complexes and on the control and optimization of the anisotropic properties. The validity of the model Hamiltonians commonly used to characterize such complexes has been questioned and it is shown that neither the standard multispin Hamiltonian nor the giant spin Hamiltonian are appropriate for weakly coupled ions. Alternative models have been proposed and used to properly extract the relevant parameters. Rationalizations of the magnitude and nature of both local anisotropies of single ions and the molecular anisotropy of polynuclear complexes are provided. The synergy and interference effects between local magnetic anisotropies are studied in a series of binuclear complexes.

  2. Skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. A.; Allende, S.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots has been carried out. Results from micromagnetic calculations show a non-monotonic behavior between the skyrmion core size and the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. The increment of the radius reduces the skyrmion core size at constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. Thus, these results can be used for the control of the core sizes in magnetic artificial skyrmion crystals or spintronic devices that need to use a skyrmion configuration at room temperature.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy and organization of nanoparticles in heads and antennae of neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Odivaldo C.; Srygley, Robert B.; Riveros, Andre J.; Barbosa, Marcia A.; Esquivel, Darci M. S.; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2014-10-01

    Oriented magnetic nanoparticles have been suggested as a good candidate for a magnetic sensor in ants. Behavioural evidence for a magnetic compass in neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Formicidae: Attini), motivated a study of the arrangement of magnetic particles in the ants’ four major body parts by measuring the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature. Spectra of the thoraces and those of the abdomens showed no significant angular dependence, while those of the antennae and those of the heads exhibited a periodic dependence relative to the magnetic field. Fitting of the angular dependence of the resonant field resulted in an unexpected magnetic anisotropy with uniaxial symmetry. High values of the first order anisotropy constant were observed for the magnetic material in antennae (-2.9  ×  105 erg cm-3) and heads (-1  ×  106 erg cm-3) as compared to body parts of other social insects. In addition, the magnitude of the anisotropy in the heads was comparable to that observed in magnetite nanoparticles of 4-5 nm diameter. For the antennae, the mean angle of the particles’ easy magnetization axis (EA) was estimated to be 41° relative to the straightened antenna’s long axis. For the heads, EA was approximately 60° relative to the head’s axis running from midway between the spines to the clypeus. These physical characteristics indicate organized magnetic nanoparticles with a potential for directional sensitivity, which is an important feature of magnetic compasses.

  4. Coronal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haosheng

    2007-05-01

    Centuries after the birth of modern solar astronomy, the Sun's corona still keeps many of its secrets: How is it heated to a million-degree temperature? How does it harbor the cool and dense prominence gas amid the tenuous and hot atmosphere? How does it drive the energetic events that eject particles into interplanetary space with speed exceeding 1% of the speed of light? We have greatly improved our knowledge of the solar corona with decades of space X-ray and EUV coronal observations, and many theories and models were put forward to address these problems. In our current understanding, magnetic fields are undoubtedly the most important fields in the corona, shaping its structure and driving its dynamics. It is clear that the resolution of these important questions all hinge on a better understanding of the organization, evolution, and interaction of the coronal magnetic field. However, as the direct measurement of coronal magnetic field is a very challenging observational problem, most of our theories and models were not experimentally verified. Nevertheless, we have finally overcome the experimental difficulties and can now directly measure the coronal magnetic field with great accuracy. This new capability can now be used to study the static magnetic structure of the corona, and offers hope that we will, in the near future, be able to directly observe the evolution of the coronal magnetic field of energetic solar events. More importantly, it finally allows us to conduct vigorous observational tests of our theories and models. In this lecture, I will review current research activities related to the observation, interpretation, and modeling of the coronal magnetic field, and discuss how they can help us resolve some of the long standing mysteries of the solar corona.

  5. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-08-04

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33 nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60 nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65 nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6 nm.

  6. Engineering Magnetic Anisotropy in Nanostructured 3d and 4f Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chin-Jui

    Due to the increased demand for clean energy in recent years, there is a need for the scientific community to develop technology to harvest thermal energy which is ubiquitous but mostly wasted in our environment. However, there is still no efficient approach to harvest thermal energy to date. In this study, the theory of thermomagnetic energy harvesting is reviewed and unique applications of multiferroics (ferromagnetic plus ferroelectric) are introduced. Based on an efficiency analysis using experimentally measured magneto-thermal properties of 3d transitional and 4f rare earth ferromagnetic elements, the idea of using single domain ferromagnetic elements to obtain higher thermomagnetic conversion efficiencies is proposed. In order to fabricate a ferromagnetic single domain, the magnetic anisotropy of gadolinium (Gd) and nickel (Ni) is engineered at the nanoscale. Both thin films and nanostructures are fabricated and characterized with a focus on the change of magnetic anisotropy governed by shape, crystal structure, and strain. The fabrication processes include sputtering, e-beam lithography (writing and evaporation), and focused ion beam milling. Characterization techniques involving atomic/magnetic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction will also be discussed. Experimental results show that the magnetic domain structure of nanostructured Ni can be stably controlled with geometric constraints or by strain induced via electric field. The magnetic properties of nanostructured Gd, on the other hand, is sensitive to crystal structure. These results provide critical information toward the use of ferromagnetic nanostructures in thermomagnetic energy harvesting and multiferroic applications.

  7. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  8. Magnetic domain pattern asymmetry in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As with in-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Diez, L.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Gourdon, C.; Jeudy, V.; Honolka, J.; Kern, K.

    2012-04-01

    Appropriate adjustment of the tensile strain in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As films allows for the coexistence of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, typical of compressively strained (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs films, and the so-called cross-hatch dislocation pattern seeded at the (Ga,In)As/GaAs interface. Kerr microscopy reveals a close correlation between the in-plane magnetic domain and dislocation patterns, absent in compressively strained materials. Moreover, the magnetic domain pattern presents a strong asymmetry in the size and number of domains for applied fields along the easy [11¯0] and hard [110] directions which is attributed to different domain wall nucleation/propagation energies. This strong influence of the dislocation lines in the domain wall propagation/nucleation provides a lithography-free route to the effective trapping of domain walls in magneto-transport devices based on (Ga, Mn)As with in-plane anisotropy.

  9. A distinct magnetic anisotropy enhancement in mononuclear dysprosium-sulfur complexes by controlling the Dy-ligand bond length.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Shan; Lang, Ke; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Yang, Qian; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Song

    2016-05-10

    In a field-induced single-ion magnet [(dtc)3Dy(phen)] (dtc(-) = diethyldithiocarbamate anion), replacing two of the S-based dtc(-) ligands with O-based dbm(-) ligands (dbm(-) = dibenzoylmethanoate anion) leads to a significant enhancement of magnetic anisotropy, yielding a rarely reported sulfur-ligated lanthanide-based single-ion magnet [(dbm)2Dy(dtc)(phen)]. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gz value of [(dbm)2Dy(dtc)(phen)] is much larger than that of [(dtc)3Dy(phen)], consistent with the experimental results. PMID:27090361

  10. A 3-D finite-element computation of eddy currents and losses in laminated iron cores allowing for electric and magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, V.C.; Meunier, G.; Foggia, A.

    1995-05-01

    A 3-D scheme based on the Finite Element Method, which takes electric and magnetic anisotropy into consideration, has been developed for computing eddy-current losses caused by stray magnetic fields in laminated iron cores of large transformers and generators. The model is applied to some laminated iron-core samples and compared with equivalent solid-iron cases.

  11. Anisotropies of the lower and upper critical fields in MgB2 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Lyard, L; Szabó, P; Klein, T; Marcus, J; Marcenat, C; Kim, K H; Kang, B W; Lee, H S; Lee, S I

    2004-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the upper (H(c2)) and lower (H(c1)) critical fields has been deduced from Hall probe magnetization measurements of high quality MgB2 single crystals along the two main crystallographic directions. We show that Gamma(H(c2))=H(c2 axially ab)/H(c2 axially c) and Gamma(H(c1))=H(c1 axially c)/H(c1 axially ab) differ significantly at low temperature (being approximately 5 and approximately 1, respectively) and have opposite temperature dependencies. We suggest that MgB2 can be described by a single field dependent anisotropy parameter gamma(H) (=lambda(c)/lambda(ab)=xi(ab)/xi(c)) that increases from Gamma(H(c1)) at low field to Gamma(H(c2)) at high field.

  12. Competitive and cooperative anisotropy in magnetic nanocrystal chains of magnetotactic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulialias, D.; García-Rubio, I.; Rahn-Lee, L.; Komeili, A.; Löffler, J. F.; Gehring, A. U.; Charilaou, M.

    2016-08-01

    The formation of cellular magnetic dipoles by chain assemblies of stable single-domain magnetite nanocrystals is a characteristic feature in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). The dipole strength depends on the competition or cooperation between the various anisotropic energy contributions, mainly between the magnetocrystalline and the interaction-induced shape anisotropy. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and numerical simulations of intracellular magnetite assemblies in the MTB Desulfovibrio magneticus strain RS-1 show that the alignment of elongated nanocrystallites leads to a predominant uniaxial anisotropy, which is enhanced when the magnetocrystalline symmetry is collinear to the chain, i.e., the anisotropies are cooperative vs. being competitive. This direct insight into the anisotropy variations in chain assemblies provides a physical framework to tailor magnetic nanocomposites, where the collective magnetic properties result from the interactions between the individual nanocrystalline constituents.

  13. Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Bale, S D; Kasper, J C; Howes, G G; Quataert, E; Salem, C; Sundkvist, D

    2009-11-20

    The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theoretical thresholds for pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here, we use approximately 1x10;{6} independent measurements of gyroscale magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind to show for the first time that these fluctuations are enhanced along the temperature anisotropy thresholds of the mirror, proton oblique firehose, and ion cyclotron instabilities. In addition, the measured magnetic compressibility is enhanced at high plasma beta (beta_{ parallel} greater, similar1) along the mirror instability threshold but small elsewhere, consistent with expectations of the mirror mode. We also show that the short wavelength magnetic fluctuation power is a strong function of collisionality, which relaxes the temperature anisotropy away from the instability conditions and reduces correspondingly the fluctuation power.

  14. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-01

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  15. Ultra Low Energy Switching of Ferromagnet with Perpendicular Anisotropy on Topological Insulator by Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Dey, Rik; Roy, Urmimala; Register, Leonard; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate, through simulation, an ultra low energy memory device on a topological insulator thin film. The device consists of a thin layer of Fe deposited on the surface of a topological insulator, Bi2Se3. The top surface of Fe is covered with MgO so that the ferromagnetic layer has perpendicular anisotropy. Current is passed on the surface of the topological insulator which switches the magnetization of the Fe ferromagnet through strong exchange interaction, between electrons contributing to the surface current on the Bi2Se3 and the d electrons in the ferromagnet, and spin transfer torque due to shunting of current through the ferromagnet. Voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy enables ultra low energy switching. Our micromagnetic simulations, predict switching time of the order of 2.4 ns and switching energy of the order of 0.16 fJ for a ferromagnetic bit with thermal stability of 90 kBT. The proposed structure combines the advantages of both large spin torque from topological insulators and those of perpendicular anisotropy materials. This work is supported by NRI SWAN and NSF NASCENT Center.

  16. Magnetic field-controlled hysteresis loop bias in orthogonal exchange-spring coupling composite magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Yu, Tian; Pan, Rui; Zhang, Qin-Tong; Liu, Pan; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-06-01

    The exchange bias (EB) is an effective fundamental and applicational method to realize magnetic hysteresis loop shifting. However, further manipulation of EB unidirectional anisotropy is difficult after setup using either field deposition or post-annealing. In this work, we experimentally show a new approach to control the magnetic hysteresis loop bias in a [Co(0.2)/Pd(1)]5/CoFeB orthogonal exchange-spring (ES) coupling system, where the direction and strength of unidirectional anisotropy can be easily manipulated by applying an external magnetic field.

  17. Creep and Flow Regimes of Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt Films with Perpendicular Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J. P.; Mougin, A.; Cormier, M.; Ferré, J.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.; Stamps, R. L.

    2007-11-01

    We report on magnetic domain-wall velocity measurements in ultrathin Pt/Co(0.5 0.8nm)/Pt films with perpendicular anisotropy over a large range of applied magnetic fields. The complete velocity-field characteristics are obtained, enabling an examination of the transition between thermally activated creep and viscous flow: motion regimes predicted from general theories for driven elastic interfaces in weakly disordered media. The dissipation limited flow regime is found to be consistent with precessional domain-wall motion, analysis of which yields values for the damping parameter, α.

  18. Giant Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Graphene-Co Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongxin; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Spintec theory Team

    We report strongly enhanced perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) of Co films by graphene coating via ab-initio calculations. The results show that graphene coating can improve the surface anisotropy of Co film up to twice large of the bare Co case and keep the film effective anisotropy being out-of-plane till 25 Å of Co, in agreement with experiments. Our layer resolved analysis reveals that PMA of Co (Co/Gr) films mainly originates from the adjacent 3 Co layers close to surface (interface) and can be strongly influenced by graphene. Furthermore, orbital hybridization analysis uncovers the origin of the PMA enhancement which is due to graphene-Co bonding causing an inversion of Co 3dz 2 and 3dx 2 - y 2 Bloch states close to Fermi level. Finally, we propose to design Co-graphene heterostructures which possess a linearly increasing surface anisotropy and a constant effective anisotropy. These findings point towards a possible engineering graphene-Co junctions with giant anisotropy, which stands as a hallmark for future spintronic information processing. This work was supported by European Graphene Flagship, European Union-funded STREP project CONCEPT-GRAPHENE, French ANR Projects NANOSIM-GRAPHENE and NMGEM

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin ferromagnetic films adjacent to high-k oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Bi, Chong; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in thin ferromagnetic films has attracted a great deal of attention due to interesting physics and promising application in spintronic devices. The strength of PMA is often found to be strongly influenced by the adjacent heavy metal layer and oxide layer. A strong interest has emerged recently to control the PMA of these ultra-thin films by electric fields. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of perpendicularly magnetized 3d transitional metal films next to high-k oxides such as HfO2 and ZrO2. We have investigated structural, magnetic and transport properties of these films. The PMA strongly depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and the interfacial oxidation level of the bilayers. We will also discuss electric field controlled magnetic properties in these systems. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  20. Large and negative magnetic anisotropy in pentacoordinate mononuclear Ni(ii) Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Svoboda, Ingrid; Boča, Roman; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-05-28

    A series of pentacoordinate Ni(ii) complexes of the general formula [Ni(L5)] () with various pentadentate Schiff base ligands H2L5 (originating in a condensation of aromatic ortho-hydroxy-aldehydes and aliphatic triamines) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and magnetometry. The alternations of substituents on the H2L parent ligand resulted in the complexes with the geometry varying between the square-pyramid and trigonal-bipyramid. In the compounds whose chromophore geometry is closer to a trigonal-bipyramid, a large and negative uniaxial anisotropy (D = -64 cm(-1)) was identified. Moreover, the simple linear expression for the axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter, D/cm(-1) = 32.7(4.8) - 151(10)τ, was proposed, where τ (in degrees) stands for the Addison parameter. The results of magnetic analysis were also supported by ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations of the ZFS splitting parameters D and E, and g tensors. Despite large and negative D-values of the reported compounds, slow relaxation of magnetization was not observed either in zero or non-zero static magnetic field, thus no single-molecule magnetic behaviour was detected. PMID:25919125

  1. Surface impedance tensor in amorphous wires with helical anisotropy: Magnetic hysteresis and asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Panina, L. V.; Mapps, D. J.

    2001-06-01

    This article concerns the investigation of the magnetic behavior of the surface impedance tensor {cflx {var_sigma}} in CoSiB amorphous wires having a residual torsion stress and a helical anisotropy. The full tensor {cflx {var_sigma}} involving three different components is found by measuring the S{sub 21} parameter at a required excitation with a Hewlett-Packard network/spectrum analyzer at MHz frequencies. In general, the impedance plots versus axial magnetic field H{sub ex} exhibit a hysteresis related to that for the case of static magnetization. The diagonal components of {cflx {var_sigma}} (longitudinal {var_sigma}{sub zz} and circular {var_sigma}{sub {var_phi}{var_phi}}) show a sharp peak in a narrow field interval where the domain walls form and contribute to the ac magnetization dynamics. This peak is not seen for the off-diagonal component {var_sigma}{sub z{var_phi}} ({var_sigma}{sub {var_phi}z}) since the existence of the domain structure suppresses it. Applying a dc bias current results in a gradual transition to a nonhysteretic asymmetrical behavior with an enhanced sensitivity. The portions of the experimental plots associated with the rotational dynamic process are in qualitative agreement with the theory based on a single-domain model. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Surface impedance tensor in amorphous wires with helical anisotropy: Magnetic hysteresis and asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Panina, L. V.; Mapps, D. J.

    2001-06-01

    This article concerns the investigation of the magnetic behavior of the surface impedance tensor final_sigmâ in CoSiB amorphous wires having a residual torsion stress and a helical anisotropy. The full tensor final_sigmâ involving three different components is found by measuring the S21 parameter at a required excitation with a Hewlett-Packard network/spectrum analyzer at MHz frequencies. In general, the impedance plots versus axial magnetic field Hex exhibit a hysteresis related to that for the case of static magnetization. The diagonal components of final_sigmâ (longitudinal final_sigmazz and circular final_sigmaφφ) show a sharp peak in a narrow field interval where the domain walls form and contribute to the ac magnetization dynamics. This peak is not seen for the off-diagonal component final_sigmazφ (final_sigmaφz) since the existence of the domain structure suppresses it. Applying a dc bias current results in a gradual transition to a nonhysteretic asymmetrical behavior with an enhanced sensitivity. The portions of the experimental plots associated with the rotational dynamic process are in qualitative agreement with the theory based on a single-domain model.

  3. Electrically silent magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, B J; Wikswo, J P

    1986-01-01

    There has been a significant controversy over the past decade regarding the relative information content of bioelectric and biomagnetic signals. In this paper we present a new, theoretical example of an electrically-silent magnetic field, based on a bidomain model of a cylindrical strand of tissue generalized to include off-diagonal components in the conductivity tensors. The physical interpretation of the off-diagonal components is explained, and analytic expressions for the electrical potential and the magnetic field are found. These expressions show that information not obtainable from electrical potential measurements can be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field in systems with conductivity tensors more complicated than those previously examined. PMID:3779008

  4. Nonepitaxially grown nanopatterned Co-Pt alloys with out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D.; Klimenta, F.; Fischer, S.; Liscio, F.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Maret, M.; Albrecht, M.

    2009-12-01

    A study on the structural and magnetic properties of 5-nm-thick Co-Pt alloy films grown on thermally oxidized SiO2/Si(100) substrates as well as on self-assemblies of spherical SiO2 particles with sizes down to 10 nm is presented. An out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization was stabilized at deposition temperatures as low as 250 °C in a broad composition range between 40 and 70 at. % of Pt. Owing to the low deposition temperatures, no chemical long-range order is found. Thus, the strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy is expected to be caused by anisotropic short-range order effects. The magnetic behavior of CoPt alloys with an equiatomic composition grown on arrays of SiO2 particles was found to be similar to those on planar substrates. Structural investigations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a continuous CoPt layer has been formed, covering the particle tops and connecting them. The magnetic CoPt caps exhibit an out-of-plane easy axis for all particle sizes; however, no pronounced difference in coercive field with particle size was observed, which is associated with the specific morphology of the film structure.

  5. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  6. Induced magnetic anisotropy in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials: A transmission x-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, R.; Yanai, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Ohnuma, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-05-01

    In order to better understand the origin of field-induced anisotropy (Ku) in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys, the lattice spacing of the bcc-Fe phase in nanocrystalline Fe94-xNb6Bx (x = 10, 12, 14) alloys annealed under an applied magnetic field has been investigated by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry (t-XRD) with the diffraction vector parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. The saturation magnetostriction (λs) of nanocrystalline Fe94-xNb6Bx was found to increase linearly with the volume fraction of the residual amorphous phase and is well described by taking into account the volume-weighted average of two local λs values for the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites (-5 ± 2 ppm) and the residual amorphous matrix (+8 ± 2 ppm). The lattice distortion required to produce the measured Ku values (˜100 J/m3) was estimated via the inverse magnetostrictive effect using the measured λs values and was compared to the lattice spacing estimations made by t-XRD. The lattice strain required to produce Ku under the magnetoelastic model was not observed by the t-XRD experiments and so the findings of this study suggest that the origin of magnetic field induced Ku cannot be explained through the magnetoelastic effect.

  7. Correlated oscillations of the magnetic anisotropy energy and orbital moment anisotropy in thin films: The role of quantum well states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first-principles study of the correlated behavior of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and orbital moment anisotropy (OMA) as the functions of the thickness N of the Fe film. The work is motivated by recent experimental studies combining photoemission, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic anisotropy measurements. In agreement with experiment, the correlated oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) are obtained that have their origin in the formation of the 3d quantum well states (QWS) confined in the films. The main contribution to the oscillation amplitude comes from the surface layer. This is an interesting feature of the phenomenon consisting in the peculiar dependence of the physical quantities on the thickness of the film. We demonstrate that the band structure of the bulk Fe does not reflect adequately the properties of the 3d QWS in thin films and, therefore, does not provide the basis for understanding the oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) . A detailed point-by-point analysis in the two-dimensional (2D) Brillouin zone (BZ) of the film shows that the contribution of the Γ point, contrary to a rather common expectation, does not play an important role in the formation of the oscillations. Instead, the most important contributions come from a broad region of the 2D BZ distant from the center of the BZ. Combining symmetry arguments and direct calculations we show that orbital moments of the electronic states possess nonzero transverse components orthogonal to the direction of the spin magnetization. The account for this feature is crucial in the point-by-point analysis of the OMA. On the basis of the calculations for noncollinear spin configurations we suggest interpretations of two interesting experimental findings: fast temperature decay of the oscillation amplitude in MAE (N ) and unexpectedly strong spin mixing of the initial states of the photoemission process.

  8. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Duy Giang, Chu; Thi Tam, Le; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; Ángel García, José; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-01

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ˜17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  9. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  10. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications. PMID:26933975

  11. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 μG) and in central starburst regions (50-100 μG). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 μG strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field α -Ω dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos

  12. A co-crystal of polyoxometalates exhibiting single-molecule magnet behavior: the structural origin of a large magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xikui; McCallum, Kendall; Pratt III, Harry D.; Anderson, Travis M.; Dennis, Kevin; Luban, Marshall

    2012-03-29

    A polyoxometalate-based {MnIII3MnIV} single-molecule magnet exhibits a large axial anisotropy (D = −0.86 cm−1) resulting from a near-parallel alignment of Jahn–Teller axes. Its rigorous three-fold symmetry (i.e. rhombicity E → 0) and increased intercluster separation via co-crystallization effectively hamper quantum tunnelling of the magnetization. Graphical abstract: A co-crystal of polyoxometalates exhibiting single-molecule magnet behavior: the structural origin of a large magnetic anisotropy

  13. Effects of auroral-particle anisotropies and mirror forces on high-latitude electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that, for most of the mechanisms for the strong electric fields that characterize the narrow regions in which there is acceleration and precipitation of ring current and/or plasma-sheet plasma, certain effects must be taken into account in simulations of auroral electric fields. The effects are those of auroral particle anisotropy, of mirror forces due to the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, of auroral electron backscatter by the atmosphere, and of electron trapping by the combination of magnetic mirroring and electrostatic forces. What is more, the effects of the very strong perpendicular electric field must also be taken into account in a kinetic description of the Poisson equation in order to achieve a unified theory of the auroral electrostatic structure. Progress in these areas during the past few years is reviewed. It is shown that particle anisotropies and mirror forces can account for some basic electrostatic features of the quiet arc, while additional effects may be occurring in strong events in which the parallel potential drop is more than about 10 kV.

  14. Deformation-induced anisotropy of remanent and induced magnetization - implications for interpretation of rock-magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Machek, M.; Roxerová, Z.; Siemes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Induced and remanent magnetization measurements, e.g. shape of hysteresis loops, FORC diagrams and decomposition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition curves, became routine tools in rock-magnetic measurements, interpreted mostly in terms of composition and grain-size distribution of iron oxides. It is assumed that the substances investigate are with respect to these measurements isotropic and single measurement of one sample is sufficient for interpretation. This assumption is valid for powdered samples, but solid rock samples in general behave anisotropically. In our contribution we report on magnetic measurements of hematite ore samples deformed in torsion, which show significant anisotropy of shape of hysteresis loops and IRM acquisition curves; the degree of anisotropy reflecting the degree of deformation. Samples, measured in different directions, showed different shape of hysteresis loop, from regular, which may be interpreted either as randomly oriented multi-domain grains, or with different degree of distortion (wasp-waistedness), reflecting different distribution of contrasting coercivities. Also decomposition of IRM acquisition curves, measured in different direction, yielded different interpretation in terms of relative contributions of components with different coercivities. We interpret this anisotropy as result of deformation, causing preferred orientation of basal planes of hematite. Moreover, the anisotropy is asymmetric. Our results suggest that, at least in deformed rocks containing minerals with high shape and/or magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the effect of anisotropy should be considered and verified before induced and remanent magnetization measurements are interpreted.

  15. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  16. Applied magnetic field angle dependence of the static and dynamic magnetic properties in FeCo films during the deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Derang; Zhu, Zengtai; Feng, Hongmei; Pan, Lining; Cheng, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-10-01

    FeCo films were prepared by a simple and convenient electrodeposition method. An external magnetic field was applied to the film to induce magnetic anisotropy during deposition. Comparing with the previous work, the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and film plane is changed from in-plane to out-plane. The influence of the applied magnetic field on magnetic properties was investigated. As a result, it can be found that the in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the magnetic field applied during growth. In addition, the result can also be confirmed by the dynamic magnetic anisotropy of the film obtained by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance technique.

  17. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  18. A Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Anisotropy in nanomagnets with in-plane magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubukcu, M.; Sampaio, J.; Khvalkovskiy, A. V.; Apalkov, D.; Cros, V.; Reyren, N.

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) is known to be a direct manifestation of spin-orbit coupling in systems with broken inversion symmetry. We present a new anisotropy for in-plane-magnetized nanomagnets which is due to the interfacial DMI. This new anisotropy depends on the shape of the magnet, and is perpendicular to the demagnetization shape anisotropy. The DMI anisotropy term that we introduce here results from the DMI energy reduction due to an out-of-plane tilt of the spins at the edges that are oriented perpendicular to the magnetization. For large enough DMI, the reduction of the DMI and anisotropy energies takes over the demagnetization energy cost when magnetization lies along the minor axis of a structure. Our experimental, numerical and analytical results demonstrate this prediction in magnets of elongated shape for small enough volume (and thus quasi-uniform magnetization). Our results also provide the first experimental evidence of the interfacial DMI-induced tilt of the spins at the borders. This work was supported by the Samsung Global MRAM Innovation Program.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Heusler alloy Co2TiSi/GaAs(001) hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dau, M. T.; Jenichen, B.; Herfort, J.

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of the thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy in B2-type Co2TiSi films on GaAs(001), shows a pronounced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at 10 K for thicknesses up to 13.5 nm. We have evidenced that the interfacial anisotropy induced by interface clusters has a strong influence on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of this hybrid structure, especially at temperatures lower than the blocking temperature of the clusters (28 K). However, as this influence can be ruled out at higher temperatures, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy which is found to persist up to room-temperature can be ascribed to the magnetic properties of the Co2TiSi films. For thicknesses larger than 15.0 nm, we observe an alignment of the magnetic easy axis parallel to the sample surface, which is most likely due to the shape anisotropy and the film structure.

  20. Ferroelectric switching induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe/BaTiO3 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Jaswal, S. S.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2007-03-01

    Ferromagnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures have recently attracted significantly interest due to their potential applications in multifunctional electronic devices. We have recently predicted a magnetoelectric effect at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface induced by ferroelectric polarization reversal [1]. In this report, calculations are being carried out on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/BaTiO3 films. Preliminary results show that the ferroelectric switching of the BaTiO3 has appreciable effect on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic Fe films. This should be of interest in multiferroic device applications. [1] Chun-gang Duan, S. S. Jaswal, E. Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 047201 (2006).

  1. Current controlled switching of impedance in magnetic conductor with tilted anisotropy easy axis and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukova, Valentina; Zhukov, Arkady; Gonzalez, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept and prototype of a memory element based on current driven magneto-impedance (MI) effect that stores the binary data (0, 1) as the orientation of the magnetization. The magnetization orientation in the surface layer with tilted anisotropy easy axis can be switched controllably between two stable states by applying current pulses of the appropriate sign, and can be detected by sensing the impedance. We demonstrated the functioning of a non-volatile magnetic memory with a read speed performance up to and above 2 GHz. A prototype of a memory element was realized on a short piece of amorphous microwire, as this material exhibits the highest MI effect, and the required anisotropy can be quite easily obtained. Nevertheless, this concept can be extended to other materials and geometries exhibiting MI effect and possessing a required magnetic anisotropy. PMID:27782190

  2. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Jorge, Guillermo; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Negri, R. Martín

    2013-12-01

    magnetorheological composites with anisotropic properties, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains. For instance, the magnetic remanence, the FMR field, and the elastic response to compression are higher when measured parallel to the needles (about 30% with nanochains as fillers). Analogously, the elastic response is also anisotropic, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains as fillers. Therefore, all experiments performed confirm the high potential of nickel nanochains to induce anisotropic effects in magnetorheological materials.

  3. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Negri, R. Martín; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Jorge, Guillermo; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.

    2013-12-07

    possible to obtain magnetorheological composites with anisotropic properties, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains. For instance, the magnetic remanence, the FMR field, and the elastic response to compression are higher when measured parallel to the needles (about 30% with nanochains as fillers). Analogously, the elastic response is also anisotropic, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains as fillers. Therefore, all experiments performed confirm the high potential of nickel nanochains to induce anisotropic effects in magnetorheological materials.

  4. Fabrication of tunable Janus microspheres with dual anisotropy of porosity and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yin; Wang, Chaoyang; Ngai, To; Tong, Zhen

    2013-04-30

    This work presents a facile approach to produce a novel type of Janus microspheres with dual anisotropy of porosity and magnetism based on Pickering-type double emulsion templates. A stable aqueous Fe3O4 dispersion-in-oil-in-water (WF/O/W) double Pickering emulsion is first generated by using hydrophobic silica and hydrophilic mesoporous silica particles as stabilizers. Janus microspheres with multihollow structure possessing magnetite nanoparticles concentrated on one side of the microspheres are obtained after polymerization of the middle oil phase of the double emulsion under a magnetic field. The resultant Janus microspheres are characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Moreover, we have systematically investigated the influences of Fe3O4 particle concentration, hydrophobic silica particle content, and volume ratio of the inner water phase to middle oil phase (WF/O) on the double emulsion formation and consequently on the structure of the resulting Janus microspheres. Our results show that the distribution of the multihollow structures within the prepared microspheres can be accurately tailored by adjusting the ratio of WF/O. In addition, the obtained Janus microsphere can be fairly orientated under a magnetic field, making them a potential candidate for synthesizing Janus membrane. PMID:23565899

  5. Scaling Laws for Magnetic Reconnection when Electron Pressure Anisotropy is near the Firehose Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, Obioma; Egedal, Jan; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Daughton, William; Le, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection in weakly-collisional, a process linked to solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and magnetic substorms, has been widely studied through fluid and kinetic simulations. While two-fluid models often reproduce the fast reconnection rate of kinetic simulations, significant differences are observed in the structure of the reconnection regions. Recently, new equations of state that accurately account for the development of anisotropic electron pressure due to the electric and magnetic trapping of electrons have been developed. Guide-field, fluid simulations using these equations of state have been shown to reproduce the detailed reconnection region observed in kinetic simulations. Implementing this two-fluid simulation using the HiFi framework, we describe a mechanism for regulation of electron pressure anisotropy as well as study force balance of the electron layers in guide-field reconnection. Scaling laws for the heating observed in these layers based on upstream conditions are derived. Formerly of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions and/or recommendations are those of author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  6. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  7. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and coercivity in ultrathin Ru/Co/Ru films through the buffer layer engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander G.; Stebliy, Maxim E.; Ognev, Alexey V.; Samardak, Alexander S.; Fedorets, Aleksandr N.; Plotnikov, Vladimir S.; Han, Xiufeng; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results on a study of the interplay between microstructure and the magnetic properties of ultrathin Ru/Co/Ru films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). To induce PMA in the Co layer, we experimentally determined thicknesses of the buffer and capping layers of Ru. The maximum value of PMA was observed for the Co thickness of 0.9 nm with the 3 nm thick capping layer. The effective anisotropy field (H eff) and coercive force (H c) of the Co layer are very sensitive to the Ru buffer layer thickness (t b). The values of H eff and H c increase approximately by two and ten times, correspondingly, when t b changes from 6 to 20 nm, owing to an increase in volume fraction of the crystalline phase as a result of the grains’ growth. PMA is found to be mainly enhanced by elastic strains induced by the lattice mismatch on the Ru/Co and Co/Ru interfaces, leading to the deformation of the Co lattice. The surface impact is determined to be less than 10% of the magneto-elastic contribution to the effective anisotropy. Observation of the magnetic domain structure by means of polar Kerr microscopy reveals that out-of-plane magnetization reversal occurs through the nucleation, growth, and annihilation of domains, where the average size drastically rises with the increasing t b.

  8. Suppressed Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Valley-Selective Magnetoabsorption due to the Effective Mass Anisotropy in Bismuth.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Pieter J; Levallois, Julien; Tran, Michaël K; Poumirol, Jean-Marie; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Teyssier, Jérémie; Uher, Ctirad; van der Marel, Dirk; Kuzmenko, Alexey B

    2016-07-01

    We measure the far-infrared reflectivity and Kerr angle spectra on a high-quality crystal of pure semimetallic bismuth as a function of magnetic field, from which we extract the conductivity for left- and right-handed circular polarizations. The high spectral resolution allows us to separate the intraband Landau level transitions for electrons and holes. The hole transition exhibits 100% magnetic circular dichroism; it appears only for one polarization as expected for a circular cyclotron orbit. However, the dichroism for electron transitions is reduced to only 13±1%, which is quantitatively explained by the large effective mass anisotropy of the electron pockets of the Fermi surface. This observation is a signature of the mismatch between the metric experienced by the photons and the electrons. It allows for a contactless measurement of the effective mass anisotropy and provides a direction towards valley polarized magnetooptical pumping with elliptically polarized light. PMID:27419590

  9. Magnetic-field-modulated Kondo effect in a single-magnetic-ion molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Javier I.; Vernek, E.; Martins, G. B.; Mucciolo, E. R.

    2014-11-01

    We study numerically the low-temperature electronic transport properties of a single-ion magnet with uniaxial and transverse spin anisotropies. We find clear signatures of a Kondo effect caused by the presence of a transverse (zero-field) anisotropy in the molecule. This Kondo effect has an SU(2) pseudospin character, associated with a doublet ground state of the isolated molecule, which results from the transverse anisotropy. Upon applying a transverse magnetic field to the single-ion magnet, we observe oscillations of the Kondo effect due to the presence of diabolical points (degeneracies) of the energy spectrum of the molecule caused by geometrical phase interference effects, similar to those observed in the quantum tunneling of multi-ion molecular nanomagnets. The field-induced lifting of the ground-state degeneracy competes with the interference modulation, resulting in some cases in a suppression of the Kondo peak.

  10. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ≤ d ≤ 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of -0.46 erg/cm2 and 0.74 erg/cm2 for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin.

  11. Magnetic phase diagram of quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with XY anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fan; Landee, Christopher; Turnbull, Mark; Fortune, Nathanael; Hannahs, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic compound Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 [1] has been determined by experimental measurements; TN shows a strong field dependence. The data reveal the presence of a small (0.5%) amount of XY anisotropy. QMC simulations have been performed to examine the role of the anisotropy and the interlayer exchange (') upon the phase diagram [2,3]. Comparison of the QMC results with the experimental phase diagram will be presented. [4pt] [1] F. Xiao, F. M. Woodward, C. P. Landee, M. M. Turnbull, C. Mielke, N. Harrison, T. Lancaster, S. J. Blundell, P. J. Baker, P. Babkevich, and F. L. Pratt. Phys. Rev. B, 79(13): 134412 (2009) [0pt] [2] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. B, 68(6):060402 (2003). [0pt] [3] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. Lett., 90(16): 167205 (2003).

  12. Effect of magnetic field on Langmuir probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Jerome; Grondein, Pascaline; Chabert, Pascal; Godyak, Valery; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-09-01

    In the context of PEGASES thruster where an ion-ion plasma is formed across a localized magnetic field, a study to understand how magnetic field affects the Langmuir probe measurements has been made. Several theoretical works have predict that the plasma anisotropy created by a magnetic field will influence Langmuir probe measurement as a function of the orientation of the probe tip. The study has been made in an electropositive plasma of argon for a uniform magnetic field to avoid effects of magnetic field gradient. The electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) measured with various magnetic field show that the measurements with the probe tip along the magnetic field are depleted in the low energy range compared to the one perpendicular to the magnetic field. Comparison of the results obtained with different magnetic field and different probe orientations allows for evaluation the effect of magnetic field on accuracy of EEDF measurement in plasma with magnetic field. These results confirm the theory on Langmuir probes in magnetized plasma that predict a depletion of low electron energy for measurements along the magnetic field lines.

  13. Copper dusting effects on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt tri-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkat, Vineeth Mohanan; Ganesh, K. R.; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Cu dusting on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of sputter grown Pt/Co/Pt stack in which the Cu layer is in proximity with that of Co is investigated in this work. We used magneto optic Kerr effect microscopy measurements to study the variation in the reversal mechanisms in films with Co thicknesses below 0.8nm by systematically varying their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy using controlled Cu dusting. Cu dusting was done separately above and below the cobalt layer in order to understand the role of bottom and top Pt layers in magnetization reversal mechanisms of sputtered Pt/Co/Pt stack. The introduction of even 0.3nm thick Cu layer below the cobalt layer drastically affected the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as evident from the nucleation behavior. On the contrary, even a 4nm thick top Cu layer had little effect on the reversal mechanism. These observations along with magnetization data was used to estimate the role of top and bottom Pt in the origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as well as magnetization switching mechanism in Pt/Co/Pt thin films. Also, with an increase in the bottom Cu dusting from 0.2 to 0.4nm there was an increase in the number of nucleation sites resulting in the transformation of domain wall patterns from a smooth interface type to a finger like one and finally to maze type.

  14. Magnetization dynamics using ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosa, Ioan

    Very short and well shaped magnetic field pulses can be generated using ultra-relativistic electron bunches at Stanford Linear Accelerator. These fields of several Tesla with duration of several picoseconds are used to study the response of magnetic materials to a very short excitation. Precession of a magnetic moment by 90 degrees in a field of 1 Tesla takes about 10 picoseconds, so we explore the range of fast switching of the magnetization by precession. Our experiments are in a region of magnetic excitation that is not yet accessible by other methods. The current table top experiments can generate fields longer than 100 ps and with strength of 0.1 Tesla only. Two types of magnetic were used, magnetic recording media and model magnetic thin films. Information about the magnetization dynamics is extracted from the magnetic patterns generated by the magnetic field. The shape and size of these patterns are influenced by the dissipation of angular momentum involved in the switching process. The high-density recording media, both in-plane and perpendicular type, shows a pattern which indicates a high spin momentum dissipation. The perpendicular magnetic recording media was exposed to multiple magnetic field pulses. We observed an extended transition region between switched and non-switched areas indicating a stochastic switching behavior that cannot be explained by thermal fluctuations. The model films consist of very thin crystalline Fe films on GaAs. Even with these model films we see an enhanced dissipation compared to ferromagnetic resonance studies. The magnetic patterns show that damping increases with time and it is not a constant as usually assumed in the equation describing the magnetization dynamics. The simulation using the theory of spin-wave scattering explains only half of the observed damping. An important feature of this theory is that the spin dissipation is time dependent and depends on the large angle between the magnetization and the magnetic

  15. Magnetic anisotropy, unusual hysteresis and putative “up-up-down” magnetic structure in EuTAl4Si2 (T = Rh and Ir)

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Arvind; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Bonville, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed investigations on single crystals of quaternary EuRhAl4Si2 and EuIrAl4Si2. The two compounds order antiferromagnetically at TN1 = 11.7 and 14.7 K, respectively, each undergoing two magnetic transitions. The magnetic properties in the ordered state present a large anisotropy despite Eu2+being an S-state ion for which the single-ion anisotropy is expected to be weak. Two features in the magnetization measured along the c-axis are prominent. At 1.8 K, a ferromagnetic-like jump occurs at very low field to a value one third of the saturation magnetization (1/3 M0) followed by a wide plateau up to 2 T for Rh and 4 T for Ir-compound. At this field value, a sharp hysteretic spin-flop transition occurs to a fully saturated state (M0). Surprisingly, the magnetization does not return to origin when the field is reduced to zero in the return cycle, as expected in an antiferromagnet. Instead, a remnant magnetization 1/3 M0 is observed and the magnetic loop around the origin shows hysteresis. This suggests that the zero field magnetic structure has a ferromagnetic component, and we present a model with up to third neighbor exchange and dipolar interaction which reproduces the magnetization curves and hints to an “up-up-down” magnetic structure in zero field. PMID:26156410

  16. Asymptotic dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic particle on the anisotropy of the particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, C. N.; Cregg, P. J.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    1992-01-01

    It is known that the direction of the magnetization vector of very fine single-domain ferromagnetic particles fluctuates under the influence of thermal agitation. Perturbation theory is applied rigorously to a singular integral equation to derive an asymptotic formula for the relaxation time of the magnetization, for the case of uniaxial anisotropy and an applied magnetic field. The result agrees with that of Brown [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] as described succinctly by Aharoni [Phys. Rev. 177, 793 (1969)]. It should be emphasized that both Gilbert's equation and the earlier Landau-Lifshitz equation are merely phenomenological equations, which are used to explain the time decay of the average magnetization. Brown suggested that the Gilbert equation should be augmented by a white-noise driving term in order to explain the effect of thermal fluctuations of the surroundings on the magnetization.

  17. Crustal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Ravat, D.; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmos 49, Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO-2, 4 and 6)) and Magsat have been the only low-earth orbiting satellites to measure the crustal magnetic field on a global scale. These missions revealed the presence of long- wavelength (> 500 km) crustal anomalies predominantly located over continents. Ground based methods were, for the most part, unable to record these very large-scale features; no doubt due to the problems of assembling continental scale maps from numerous smaller surveys acquired over many years. Questions arose as to the source and nature of these long-wave length anomalies. As a result there was a great stimulant given to the study of the magnetic properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. Some indication as to the nature of these deep sources has been provided by the recent results from the deep crustal drilling programs. In addition, the mechanism of magnetization, induced or remanent, was largely unknown. For computational ease these anomalies were considered to result solely from induced magnetization. However, recent results from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), a magnetometer-bearing mission to Mars, have revealed crustal anomalies with dimensions similar to the largest anomalies on Earth. These Martian features could only have been produced by remanent magnetization, since Mars lacks an inducing field. The origin of long-wavelength crustal anomalies, however, has not been completely determined. Several large crustal magnetic anomalies (e.g., Bangui, Kursk, Kiruna and Central Europe) will be discussed and the role of future satellite magnetometer missions (Orsted, SUNSAT and Champ) in their interpretation evaluated.

  18. Experimental evidence of skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Stebliy, Maxim E. Kolesnikov, Alexander G.; Davydenko, Alexander V.; Ognev, Alexey V.; Samardak, Alexander S.; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A.

    2015-05-07

    Formation and existence of magnetic skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks (Ta(3 nm)/[Co(0.37 nm)/Ni(0.58 nm)]{sub 10}){sub 2} with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are shown experimentally at room temperature. Magnetization reversal through the skyrmion state is studied using magnetic hysteresis measurements. An evolution of skyrmion configurations in the nanodisk structure is analyzed. Experimental methods and micromagnetic simulations help to understand the magnetization reversal processes occurring through the stable skyrmion-like configurations. Formation of the intermediate C-states during magnetization reversal is demonstrated. The skyrmion number for all possible spin configurations is calculated.

  19. Influence of controlled surface oxidation on the magnetic anisotropy of Co ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Di, N.; Maroun, F. Allongue, P.; Kubal, J.; Zeng, Z.; Greeley, J.

    2015-03-23

    We studied the influence of controlled surface-limited oxidation of electrodeposited epitaxial Co(0001)/Au(111) films on their magnetic anisotropy energy using real time in situ magneto optical Kerr effect and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We investigated the Co first electrochemical oxidation step which we demonstrate to be completely reversible and determined the structure of this oxide layer. We show that the interface magnetic anisotropy of the Co film increases by 0.36 erg/cm{sup 2} upon Co surface oxidation. We performed DFT calculations to determine the different surface structures in a wide potential range as well as the charge transfer at the Co surface. Our results suggest that the magnetic anisotropy change is correlated with a positive charge increase of 0.54 e{sup −} for the Co surface atom upon oxidation.

  20. Control of the magnetic in-plane anisotropy in off-stoichiometric NiMnSb

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, F.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2014-03-07

    NiMnSb is a ferromagnetic half-metal which, because of its rich anisotropy and very low Gilbert damping, is a promising candidate for applications in information technologies. We have investigated the in-plane anisotropy properties of thin, molecular beam epitaxy-grown NiMnSb films as a function of their Mn concentration. Using ferromagnetic resonance to determine the uniaxial and four-fold anisotropy fields, (2K{sub U})/(M{sub s}) and (2K{sub 1})/(M{sub s}) , we find that a variation in composition can change the strength of the four-fold anisotropy by more than an order of magnitude and cause a complete 90° rotation of the uniaxial anisotropy. This provides valuable flexibility in designing new device geometries.

  1. Study of anisotropy in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of water protons in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kasturi, S R; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropy of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and the spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of water protons in skeletal muscle tissue have been studied by the spin-echo technique. Both T1 and T2 have been measured for the water protons of the tibialis anterior muscle of mature male rats for theta = 0, 55, and 90 degrees, where theta is the orientation of the muscle fiber with respect to the static field. The anisotropy in T1 and T2 has been measured at temperatures of 28, -5 and -10 degrees C. No significant anisotropy was observed in the T1 of the tissue water, while an average anisotropy of approximately 5% was observed in T2 at room temperature. The average anisotropy of T2 at -5 and -10 degrees C was found to be approximately 2 and 1.3%, respectively. PMID:6266530

  2. Magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Si(001) single-crystal films under rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Tetsuroh; Aida, Takuya; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are investigated for bcc(001) single-crystal films of Fe100-x-Six(x = 0, 6, 10 at. %). The magnetostriction observation directions are along bcc[100] and bcc[110] of the films. The magnetostriction waveform varies greatly depending on the observation direction. For the observation along [100], the magnetostriction waveform of all the films is bathtub-like and the amplitude stays at almost constant even when the magnetic field is increased up to the anisotropy field. On the other hand, the waveform along [110] is triangular and the amplitude increases with increasing magnetic field up to the anisotropy field and then saturates. In addition, the waveform of Fe90Si10 film is distorted triangular when the applied magnetic fields are less than its anisotropy field. These magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are well explained by employing a proposed modified coherent rotation model where the anisotropy field and the magnetization reversal field are determined by using measured magnetization curves. The results show that magnetocrystalline anisotropy plays important role on magnetostrictive behavior under rotating magnetic fields.

  3. Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Sethi, Shiv K.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: 6 < z < 10. We perform a comprehensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) physical analysis allowing the variation of parameters related to primordial magnetic fields (strength, B0, and power-spectrum index n_{B}), reionization and Λ cold dark matter cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: B0 ≃ 0.05-0.3 nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper limits on the magnetic field strength B0 < 0.358, 0.120 and 0.059 nG (95 per cent c.l.) for n_{B} = -2.95, -2.9 and -2.85, respectively. These represent the strongest magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

  4. Anisotropy of the sublattice magnetization and magnetoresistance in Co/Re superlattices on Al{sub 2}O(1120).

    SciTech Connect

    Charloton, T.

    1998-09-29

    [Co(20 {angstrom})/Re(6{angstrom})]{sub 20} superlattices were grown on a (11{bar 2}0) surface of a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, with the [0001] direction of their hcp structure in the plane of the film. The Co layers were found to be antiferromagnetically coupled (AF), with a saturating field of 6 kOe. Polarized neutron reflectivityy was used to determine the direction of the sublattice magnetization. In zero applied field, the AF moments are aligned along the Co [0001] axis. In a magnetic field H perpendicular to the Co [0001] axis, the sublattices moments evolve to a canted arrangement, with the AF component always perpendicular to the field. With H along the Co[0001] axis, the AF moments flop in a direction perpendicular to Co[0001] axis. The spin flop transition is not abrupt, but can be described as a gradual rotation that is completed at 2 kOe. The anisotropy of the sublattice magnetization is related to the anisotropy of the magnetoresistance. This has the conventional dumbbell behavior with the field applied perpendicular to the Co[0001] axis, but exhibits an extended plateau near H = 0, and a slight increase up to H {approximately} 2 kOe, when H is parallel to Co[0001] axis.

  5. Termination layer compensated tunnelling magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic Heusler compounds with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jaewoo; Ferrante, Yari; Faleev, Sergey V.; Samant, Mahesh G.; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Although high-tunnelling spin polarization has been observed in soft, ferromagnetic, and predicted for hard, ferrimagnetic Heusler materials, there has been no experimental observation to date of high-tunnelling magnetoresistance in the latter. Here we report the preparation of highly textured, polycrystalline Mn3Ge films on amorphous substrates, with very high magnetic anisotropy fields exceeding 7 T, making them technologically relevant. However, the small and negative tunnelling magnetoresistance that we find is attributed to predominant tunnelling from the lower moment Mn–Ge termination layers that are oppositely magnetized to the higher moment Mn–Mn layers. The net spin polarization of the current reflects the different proportions of the two distinct termination layers and their associated tunnelling matrix elements that result from inevitable atomic scale roughness. We show that by engineering the spin polarization of the two termination layers to be of the same sign, even though these layers are oppositely magnetized, high-tunnelling magnetoresistance is possible. PMID:26776829

  6. Anatomy and Giant Enhancement of the Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Cobalt-Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongxin; Vu, Anh Duc; Hallal, Ali; Rougemaille, Nicolas; Coraux, Johann; Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K.; Chshiev, Mairbek

    2016-01-01

    We report strongly enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Co films by graphene coating from both first-principles and experiments. Our calculations show that graphene can dramatically boost the surface anisotropy of Co films up to twice the value of its pristine counterpart and can extend the out-of-plane effective anisotropy up to unprecedented thickness of 25~\\AA. These findings are supported by our experiments on graphene coating on Co films grown on Ir substrate. Furthermore, we report layer-resolved and orbital-hybridization-resolved anisotropy analysis which help understanding the physical mechanisms of PMA and more practically can help design structures with giant PMA. As an example, we propose super-exchange stabilized Co-graphene heterostructures with a robust out-of-plane constant effective PMA and linearly increasing interfacial anisotropy as a function of film thickness. These findings point towards possibilities to engineer graphene/ferromagnetic metal heterostructures with giant magnetic anisotropy more than 20 times larger compared to conventional multilayers, which constitutes a hallmark for future graphene and traditional spintronic technologies.

  7. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of quasi-one-dimensional Fe chains on Pb/Si

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Da-li; Wang, De-yong; Du, Hai-Feng; Ning, Wei; Gao, Jian-Hua; Fang, Ya-Peng; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Sun, Young; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated quasi-one-dimensional Fe chains on a 4{sup o} miscut Si (111) substrate with a Pb film as a buffer layer. The magnetic properties and morphology of Fe chains were investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE). STM images show that Fe chains are formed by Fe random islands along the steps of the Pb film due to step decoration. SMOKE data indicate that the Fe chains exhibit in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the step direction. The effective in-plane uniaxial anisotropy constant at room temperature was determined by means of electron spin resonance.

  8. Engineering spin-orbit torque in Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Chih-Huang; Lin, Hsiu-Hau

    2015-12-07

    To address thermal stability issues for spintronic devices with a reduced size, we investigate spin-orbit torque in Co/Pt multilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Note that the spin-orbit torque arises from the global imbalance of the spin currents from the top and bottom interfaces for each Co layer. By inserting Ta or Cu layers to strengthen the top-down asymmetry, the spin-orbit torque efficiency can be greatly modified without compromised perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Above all, the efficiency builds up as the number of layers increases, realizing robust thermal stability and high spin-orbit-torque efficiency simultaneously in the multilayers structure.

  9. Measurement of magnetic anisotropy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in nematic host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtoaje, Cristina; Petrescu, Emil

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-s) is measured using their dispersion in nematic liquid crystal (NLC). Due to their ability to align themselves with inserted nano-particles, NLC are very useful for the study of the physical properties of MWCNT as well as for other micro or nano-particles. Thus an organized system is obtained from the beginning and the influence of initial random orientation is considerably reduced. The average magnetic anisotropy of MWCNT dispersed in NLC was calculated from the system relaxation time and the obtained value (6.61 ×10-5) was in good agreement with other reported results.

  10. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  11. Temperature dependence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Barsukov, I.; Li, Jing; Gonçalves, A. M.; Kuo, C. C.; Farle, M.; Krivorotov, I. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO by ferromagnetic resonance and find a linear temperature dependence for the first and second order uniaxial terms from 5 to 300 K. Our data suggest the possible hybridization of Fe-O orbitals at the CoFeB/MgO interface for the origin of the first order anisotropy. However, we also find that non-interfacial contributions to the anisotropy are present. An easy-cone anisotropy is found for the entire temperature range in the narrow region of film thicknesses around the spin reorientation transition 1.2-1.35 nm.

  12. Influence Of Nanoparticles Diameter On Structural Properties Of Magnetic Fluid In Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Hardoň, Štefan; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of magnetic fluids depend on the nanoparticle diameter, their concentration and the carrier liquid. The structural changes in magnetic fluids with different nanoparticle diameter based on transformer oils TECHNOL and MOGUL under the effect of a magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. At a linear and jump changes of the magnetic field at various temperatures a continuous change was observed of acoustic attenuation caused by aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles to structures. From the anisotropy of acoustic attenuation and using the Taketomi theory the basic parameters of the structures are calculated and the impact of nanoparticle diameters on the size of structures is confirmed.

  13. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  14. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  15. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  16. Strategies for Assessing Diffusion Anisotropy on the Basis of Magnetic Resonance Images: Comparison of Systematic Errors

    PubMed Central

    Boujraf, Saïd

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging uses the signal loss associated with the random thermal motion of water molecules in the presence of magnetic field gradients to derive a number of parameters that reflect the translational mobility of the water molecules in tissues. With a suitable experimental set-up, it is possible to calculate all the elements of the local diffusion tensor (DT) and derived parameters describing the behavior of the water molecules in each voxel. One of the emerging applications of the information obtained is an interpretation of the diffusion anisotropy in terms of the architecture of the underlying tissue. These interpretations can only be made provided the experimental data which are sufficiently accurate. However, the DT results are susceptible to two systematic error sources: On one hand, the presence of signal noise can lead to artificial divergence of the diffusivities. In contrast, the use of a simplified model for the interaction of the protons with the diffusion weighting and imaging field gradients (b matrix calculation), common in the clinical setting, also leads to deviation in the derived diffusion characteristics. In this paper, we study the importance of these two sources of error on the basis of experimental data obtained on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system for an isotropic phantom using a state of the art single-shot echo planar imaging sequence. Our results show that optimal diffusion imaging require combining a correct calculation of the b-matrix and a sufficiently large signal to noise ratio. PMID:24761372

  17. Hybrid simulations of magnetic reconnection with kinetic ions and fluid electron pressure anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Karimabadi, H.; Egedal, J.

    2016-03-16

    We present the first hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and recently developed equations of state for the electron fluid appropriate for reconnection with a guide field. The equations of state account for the main anisotropy of the electron pressure tensor.Magnetic reconnection is studied in two systems, an initially force-free current sheet and a Harris sheet. The hybrid model with the equations of state is compared to two other models, hybrid simulations with isothermal electrons and fully kinetic simulations. Including the anisotropicequations of state in the hybrid model provides a better match to the fully kinetic model. In agreement with fullymore » kinetic results, the main feature captured is the formation of an electron current sheet that extends several ion inertial lengths. This electron current sheet modifies the Hall magnetic field structure near the X-line, and it is not observed in the standard hybrid model with isotropic electrons. The saturated reconnection rate in this regime nevertheless remains similar in all three models. Here, implications for global modeling are discussed.« less

  18. The Martian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

  19. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  20. CoxC nanorod magnets: Highly magnetocrystalline anisotropy with lower Curie temperature for potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gendy, AA; Almugaiteeb, T; Carpenter, EE

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic CoxC nanorods with larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5 x 10(5) J/m(3) as well as larger coercivity and lower Curie temperature are introduced. The particles have an average diameter of 8 nm and shows three different magnetic behaviors. The sample shows ferromagnetism up to 400 K, superparamagnetism at temperature > 400 K and magnets, magnetic sensors and contract agent for magnetic resonance imaging. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  2. RKKY-like contributions to the magnetic anisotropy energy: 3 d adatoms on Pt(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhassoune, Mohammmed; Dias, Manuel dos Santos; Zimmermann, Bernd; Dederichs, Peter H.; Lounis, Samir

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy defines the energy barrier that stabilizes a magnetic moment. Utilizing density-functional-theory-based simulations and analytical formulations, we establish that this barrier is strongly modified by long-range contributions very similar to Friedel oscillations and Rudermann-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. Thus, oscillations are expected and observed, with different decaying factors and highly anisotropic in realistic materials, which can switch nontrivially the sign of the magnetic anisotropy energy. This behavior is general, and for illustration we address the transition-metal adatoms, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co deposited on a Pt(111) surface. We explain, in particular, the mechanisms leading to the strong site dependence of the magnetic anisotropy energy observed for Fe adatoms on a Pt(111) surface as revealed previously via first-principles-based simulations and inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy [A. A. Khajetoorians et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157204 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.157204]. The same mechanisms are probably active for the site dependence of the magnetic anisotropy energy obtained for Fe adatoms on Pd or Rh(111) surfaces and for Co adatoms on a Rh(111) surface [P. Blonski et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 104426 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.104426].

  3. Pulse electrodeposition and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance techniques for high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy cobalt nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursache, Andrei; Goldbach, James T.; Russell, Thomas P.; Tuominen, Mark T.

    2005-05-01

    This research is focused on the development of pulse electrodeposition techniques to fabricate a high-density array of vertically oriented, high-magnetic anisotropy cobalt nanowires using a porous polymer film template. This type of array is a competitive candidate for future perpendicular magnetic media capable of storage densities exceeding 1Terabit/in.2 The polymer template, derived from a self-assembling P(S-b-MMA) diblock copolymer film, provides precise control over the nanowire diameter (15nm) and interwire spacing (24nm), whereas nanowire length (typically 50to1000nm) is controlled accurately with the aid of real-time electrochemical quartz crystal monitoring. Pulse and pulse-reversed electrodeposition techniques, as compared to dc, are shown to significantly enhance the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic nanowire array and ultimately result in coercivity as large as 2.7kOe at 300K. Magnetic and structural characterizations suggest that these properties arise from an improved degree of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (due to c-axis oriented crystal growth and improvements in crystal quality) that strongly supplements the basic shape anisotropy of the nanowires. Low temperature magnetometry is used to investigate exchange bias effects due to the incorporation of CoO antiferromagnetic impurities during the electrodeposition process and subsequent Co oxidation in air.

  4. Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dileep; Singh, Sadhana; Vishawakarma, Pramod; Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress.

  5. Magnetic and structural anisotropies in laser ablated epitaxial thin films of full-Heusler alloy Co2MnSi on SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Himanshu; Rout, P. K.; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-03-01

    We present the thickness dependent magnetic properties of laser ablated epitaxial Co2MnSi (CMS)Heusler alloy thin films grown on (001) oriented SrTiO3 substrate. In order to study the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy, a highly ordered single crystal thin film of Heusler alloys is necessary. This provides a unique opportunity to determine the behavior of magnetization reversal, and affect important properties such as the coercive field and remanence. The two important sources of the magnetic anisotropy are the magnetic dipolar interaction and the spin-orbit interaction. The strain in films due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate affects the shape anisotropy while spin-orbit coupling changes magneto-crystalline anisotropy. We have observed an in-plane biaxial compressive strain in the films which relaxes with increasing film thickness. Although the hysteresis loops show an in-plane easy axis for all films, the single-domain phase diagram reveals a gradual transition from in-plane to out-of-plane transition of magnetization as the film thickness is decreased. The magnetization starts to cant as film thickness start to decrease and we found a canting angle of ~ 31.8° with respect to the film plane for our thinnest 5 nm CMS films. We acknowledge support from DIT, DST, CSIR and IIT Kanpur.

  6. Perpendicularizing magnetic anisotropy of full-Heusler Co2FeAl films by cosputtering with terbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Q.; Xu, X. G.; Zhang, D. L.; Miao, J.; Zhan, Q.; Jalil, M. B. A.; Yu, G. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this letter, we fabricated Co2FeAl films with perpendicular-to-plane magnetic anisotropy by cosputtering with terbium (Tb). The as-prepared (Tb+Co2FeAl) films (TCFA) consists of nanocrystalline L21 Co2FeAl and amorphous alloy of Tb(Co, Fe, and Al). The coercivity field (Hc) of the TCFA films is adjustable from 200 to 800 Oe. After annealing, the Hc decreases to 70 Oe. A perpendicularly magnetized spin valve with the TCFA films as free and reference layers shows a current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance of 1.8% at room temperature. Our result opens a way to fabricate perpendicularly magnetized full-Heusler alloys and makes it possible to realize faster and simple structured magnetic storage bits in the future.

  7. Induced magnetic anisotropy in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials: A transmission x-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, R. Suzuki, K.; Yanai, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Ohnuma, M.

    2015-05-07

    In order to better understand the origin of field-induced anisotropy (K{sub u}) in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys, the lattice spacing of the bcc-Fe phase in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94−x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} (x = 10, 12, 14) alloys annealed under an applied magnetic field has been investigated by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry (t-XRD) with the diffraction vector parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. The saturation magnetostriction (λ{sub s}) of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94−x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} was found to increase linearly with the volume fraction of the residual amorphous phase and is well described by taking into account the volume-weighted average of two local λ{sub s} values for the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites (−5 ± 2 ppm) and the residual amorphous matrix (+8 ± 2 ppm). The lattice distortion required to produce the measured K{sub u} values (∼100 J/m{sup 3}) was estimated via the inverse magnetostrictive effect using the measured λ{sub s} values and was compared to the lattice spacing estimations made by t-XRD. The lattice strain required to produce K{sub u} under the magnetoelastic model was not observed by the t-XRD experiments and so the findings of this study suggest that the origin of magnetic field induced K{sub u} cannot be explained through the magnetoelastic effect.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, H. K.; Barsukov, I.; Swartz, A. G.; Kim, B.; Yang, L.; Hwang, H. Y.; Krivorotov, I. N.

    2016-05-16

    In this paper, we report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO3 (001) substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1) × 10-3, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect inmore » Pt. Our research demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.« less

  9. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. K.; Barsukov, I.; Swartz, A. G.; Kim, B.; Yang, L.; Hwang, H. Y.; Krivorotov, I. N.

    2016-05-01

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO3 (001) substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1) × 10-3, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect in Pt. Our work demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.

  10. Constituents of magnetic anisotropy and a screening of spin-orbit coupling in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Antropov, Vladimir; Ke, Liqin; Aberg, Daniel

    2014-07-11

    Using quantum mechanical perturbation theory (PT) we analyze how the energy of perturbation of different orders is renormalized in solids. We test the validity of PT analysis by considering a specific case of spin-orbit coupling as a perturbation. We further compare the relativistic energy and the magnetic anisotropy from the PT approach with direct density functional calculations in FePt, CoPt, FePd, MnAl, MnGa, FeNi, and tetragonally strained FeCo. In addition using decomposition of anisotropy into contributions from individual sites and different spin components we explain the microscopic origin of high anisotropy in FePt and CoPt magnets.

  11. Anisotropy of complex magnetic susceptibility as an indicator of strain and petrofabric in rocks bearing sulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Puumala, M.; Stupavsky, M.

    1992-02-01

    A new method, anisotropy of complex magnetic susceptibility (ACMS), for determining the petrofabric of specimens with conductive minerals is developed. The method uses the same induction coil equipment and techniques that can be used for the measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). However, a higher (100 kHz) operating frequency emphasizes the electrical conductivity response and thus yields a measure of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity of the specimen. The method was tested on variably deformed plasticine samples containing aluminium fabric markers and on synthetic aggregates of pyrrhotite and talc-pyrrhotite mixtures deformed triaxially at a confining pressure of 200 MPa (2 kbar) by up to 35% homogeneous shortening. ACMS successfully defines the petrofabric and permits prediction of the principal directions of finite strain. The intensity of AMS and, to a lesser extent, of ACMS correlate with the strain ratio in these simple, coaxial, flattening plane strain experimental deformations on selected materials.

  12. Ultralow field magnetization reversal of two-body magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Lu, Jincheng; Lu, Xiaofeng; Tang, Rujun; Sun, Z. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Field induced magnetization reversal was investigated in a system of two magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropies and magnetostatic interaction. By using the micromagnetic simulation, ultralow switching field strength was found when the separation distance between the two particles reaches a critical small value (on nanometer scale) in the perpendicular configuration where the anisotropic axes of the two particles are perpendicular to the separation line. The switching field increases sharply when the separation is away from the critical distance. The ultralow field switching phenomenon was missed in the parallel configuration where both the anisotropic axes are aligned along the separation line of the two particles. The micromagnetic results are consistent with the previous theoretical prediction [J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104303 (2011)] where dipolar interaction between two single-domain magnetic particles was considered. Our present simulations offered further proofs and possibilities for the low-power applications of information storage as the two-body magnetic nanoparticles might be implemented as a composite information bit.

  13. Investigating the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties of the Beaver River Diabase in northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Samer H.

    The Beaver River Diabase (BRD) is a series of mafic dikes and sills within the Beaver Bay Complex (BBC) of northern Minnesota, which formed during the development of the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift (MCR). The BRD is one of the youngest and most extensive intrusive phases of the BBC. The BRD dikes and sills were emplaced into the medial levels of the 6-10 kilometer-thick North Shore Volcanic Group and occur over an arcuate area extending 120 by 20 kilometers. The BRD is composed of fine- to medium-grained ophitic olivine gabbro and does not display obvious foliation or lineation features and rarely displays modal layering. Without obvious magmatic internal structures, it is difficult to determine emplacement properties such as flow direction using standard geologic mapping or petrographic techniques. For this reason, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), in conjunction with other rock magnetic properties, to better understand the BRD's emplacement and deformation history in the context of the MCR. AMS measures the directional dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, and is used to infer a shape-preferred orientation of magnetic minerals within a rock, which can be related to specific emplacement mechanisms (e.g. directional flow or settling). Preliminary analysis of AMS at 20 sites within the southern half of the BRD (with 4-7 samples per site) shows maximum susceptibility values between 4.48 x 10-6 and 2.22 x 10-4 m 3/kg (1165 and 65400 μSI). Most specimens display nearly isotropic AMS ellipsoids (Pj < 1.15) with minor degrees of prolateness and oblateness. However, about 20% of specimens have higher anisotropies (Pj between 1.15 and 1.67) and higher degrees of oblateness and prolateness. Variations in AMS properties may reflect differences in concentration and composition of magnetic minerals, as well as emplacement mechanisms. Measurements of susceptibility as a function of temperature yield Curie points between 470 and 570

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy for assessment of magnetic anisotropy and magnetostatic interactions: A case study of mutant magnetotactic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Nash, Cody Z.; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    2006-12-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy (FMR) can be used to measure the effective magnetic field within a sample, including the contributions of both magnetic anisotropy and magnetostatic interactions. One particular use is in the detection of magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria. These bacteria produce single-domain particles with narrow size and shape distributions that are often elongated and generally arranged in chains. All of these features are detectable through FMR. Here, we examine their effects on the FMR spectra of magnetotactic bacteria strains MV-1 (which produces chains of elongate magnetite crystals), AMB-1 (which produces chains of nearly equidimensional magnetite crystals), and two novel mutants of AMB-1: mnm13 (which produces isolated, elongate crystals) and mnm18 (which produces nearly equidimensional crystals that are usually isolated). Comparison of their FMR spectra indicates that the positive magnetic anisotropy indicated by the spectra of almost all magnetotactic bacteria is a product of chain alignment and particle elongation. We also find correlations between FMR properties and magnetic measurements of coercivity and magnetostatic interactions. FMR thus provides a rapid method for assessing the magnetic properties of assemblages of particles, with applications including screening for samples likely to contain bacterial magnetofossils.

  15. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with an electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater than the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. Magnetic switches and particularly fast kicker magnets are used in the accelerator industry to quickly deflect particle beams into and out of various transport lines, storage rings, dumps, and specifically to differentially route individual bunches of particles from a train of bunches which are injected or ejected from a given ring.

  16. A large scale coherent magnetic field: interactions with free streaming particles and limits from the CMB

    SciTech Connect

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Fenu, Elisa; Vonlanthen, Marc E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch E-mail: marc.vonlanthen@unige.ch

    2011-06-01

    We study a homogeneous and nearly-isotropic Universe permeated by a homogeneous magnetic field. Together with an isotropic fluid, the homogeneous magnetic field, which is the primary source of anisotropy, leads to a plane-symmetric Bianchi I model of the Universe. However, when free-streaming relativistic particles are present, they generate an anisotropic pressure which counteracts the one from the magnetic field such that the Universe becomes isotropized. We show that due to this effect, the CMB temperature anisotropy from a homogeneous magnetic field is significantly suppressed if the neutrino masses are smaller than 0.3 eV.

  17. A mechanism of long-range order induced by random fields: Effective anisotropy created by defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzin, A. A.; Morosov, A. I.; Sigov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    A microscopic mechanism of the long-range order in two-dimensional space induced by random local fields of crystal defects has been found. The impurity-induced effective anisotropy has been shown to arise in the system due to anisotropic distribution of impurity-induced random local field directions in the n-dimensional space of vector order parameter with the O( n) symmetry. The expression for the effective anisotropy constant has been obtained. A weak anisotropy of the "easy axis" type transforms the X- Y model and the Heisenberg model to the class of Ising models, and brings into long-range order existence in the system.

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF DIPOLE METHOD TO MEASURE AQUIFER ANISOTROPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate size of a three-dimensional groundwater circulation cell surrounding a vertical circulation well (VCW) is a strong function of the aquifer hydraulic anisotropy, the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity in the horizontal direction to that in the vertical direction. In ...

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and first-principles calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Shun; Tsujikawa, Masahito; Shirai, Masafumi; Miura, Yoshio; Matsukura, Fumihiro Ohno, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    We study the spin and orbital magnetic moments in Ta/Co{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}B{sub 0.2}/MgO by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements as well as first-principles calculations, in order to clarify the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Both experimental and theoretical results show that orbital magnetic moment of Fe is more anisotropic than that of Co with respect to the magnetization direction. The anisotropy is larger for thinner CoFeB, indicating that Fe atoms at the interface with MgO contribute more than Co to the observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  20. Hyperfine interaction and tuning of magnetic anisotropy of Cu doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam; Salah, Dina; Kumar, Gagan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mahavir; Abd El-sadek, M.; Mir, Feroz Ahmad; Imran, Ahamad; Jameel, Daler Adil

    2016-08-01

    Ferrimagnetic oxides may contain single or multi domain particles which get converted into superparamagnetic state near a critical size. To explore the existence of these particles, we have made Mössbauer and magnetic studies of Cu2+ substitution effect in CoFe2-xO4 Ferrites (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5). All the samples have a cubic spinel structure with lattice parameters increasing linearly with increase in Cu content. The hysteresis loops yield a saturation magnetization, coercive field, and remanent magnetization that vary significantly with Cu content. The magnetic hysteresis curves shows a reduction in saturation magnetization and an increase in coercitivity with Cu2+ ion substitution. The anisotropy constant, K1, is found strongly dependent on the composition of Cu2+ ions. The variation of saturation magnetization with increasing Cu2+ ion content has been explained in the light of Neel's molecular field theory. Mössbauer spectra at room temperature shows two ferrimagnetically relaxed Zeeman sextets. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, line width and hyperfine magnetic field on Cu2+ ion concentration have been discussed.

  1. Room-temperature perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of MgO/Fe/MgO ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A.; Ślęzak, T.; Przewoźnik, J.; Skowroński, W.; Stobiecki, T.; Wilgocka-Ślęzak, D.; Qin, Q. H.; Dijken, S. van; Korecki, J.

    2013-12-14

    We used the anomalous Hall effect to study the magnetic properties of MgO/Fe(t)/MgO(001) structures in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 4 Å to 14 Å. For the iron deposited at 140 K, we obtained perpendicular magnetization at room temperature below the critical thickness of t{sub c} = (9 ± 1) Å. In the vicinity of t{sub c}, the easy magnetization axis switched from an out-of-plane orientation to an in-plane orientation, and the observed spin-reorientation transition was considered in terms of the competition among different anisotropies. The perpendicular magnetization direction was attributed to magnetoelastic anisotropy. Finally, the temperature-dependent spin-reorientation transition was analyzed for Fe thicknesses close to t{sub c}.

  2. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  3. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of anisotropic spin ladder in a longitudinal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, H.

    2015-08-01

    We address thermodynamic properties of quasi-one dimensional two leg antiferromagnetic ladder in the presence of magnetic field. A generalized bond operator formalism is used to transform the spin model to a hard core bosonic gas. We have implemented Green's function approach to obtain the temperature dependence of spin excitation spectrum in field induced spin polarized phase. The results show energy gap that vanishes at critical magnetic field for fixed values of temperatures. We have also found the temperature dependence of the specific heat and magnetization component in the magnetic field direction for various magnetic field strengths and anisotropies in the Heisenberg interactions on both leg and rung couplings. At low temperatures, the specific heat is found to be monotonically increasing with temperature for magnetic fields in the spin polarized phase region. Furthermore we studied the temperature dependence of the longitudinal magnetization for different magnetic field and anisotropy parameters.

  5. Growth induced magnetic anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.

    1998-07-20

    The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and Ni-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials. A brief summary of work done in each area is given.

  6. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  7. Magnetic field therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Markov, Marko S

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using permanent magnets for therapeutic purposes encouraged by basic science publications and clinical reports. Magnetotherapy provides a non invasive, safe, and easy method to directly treat the site of injury, the source of pain and inflammation, and other types of disease. The physiological bases for the use of magnetic fields for tissue repair as well as physical principles of dosimetry and application of various magnetic fields are subjects of this review. Analysis of the magnetic and electromagnetic stimulation is followed by a discussion of the advantage of magnetic field stimulation compared with electric current and electric field stimulation. PMID:17454079

  8. Search for giant magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal dimers on defected hexagonal boron nitride sheet.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wang, H; Hu, J; Wu, R Q

    2016-05-28

    Structural and magnetic properties of many transition-metal dimers embedded in a defected hexagonal boron nitride monolayer are investigated through density functional calculations to search for systems with magnetic anisotropy energies (MAEs) larger than 30meV. In particular, Ir-Ir@Dh-BN is found to have both large MAE (∼126 meV) and high structural stability against dissociation and diffusion, and it hence can serve as magnetic unit in spintronics and quantum computing devices. This giant MAE mainly results from the spin orbit coupling and the magnetization of the upper Ir atom, which is in a rather isolated environment. PMID:27250322

  9. Search for giant magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal dimers on defected hexagonal boron nitride sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wang, H.; Hu, J.; Wu, R. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of many transition-metal dimers embedded in a defected hexagonal boron nitride monolayer are investigated through density functional calculations to search for systems with magnetic anisotropy energies (MAEs) larger than 30meV. In particular, Ir-Ir@Dh-BN is found to have both large MAE (˜126 meV) and high structural stability against dissociation and diffusion, and it hence can serve as magnetic unit in spintronics and quantum computing devices. This giant MAE mainly results from the spin orbit coupling and the magnetization of the upper Ir atom, which is in a rather isolated environment.

  10. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous ~ N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from ~ E-W in the Patagonian Andes to ~ N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin

  11. Magnetic anisotropy peculiarities of high-temperature ferromagnetic MnxSi1-x (x ≈ 0.5) alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drovosekov, A. B.; Kreines, N. M.; Savitsky, A. O.; Kapelnitsky, S. V.; Rylkov, V. V.; Tugushev, V. V.; Prutskov, G. V.; Novodvorskii, O. A.; Cherebilo, E. A.; Kulatov, E. T.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, S.

    2016-08-01

    Thin films of Mn x Si1-x alloys with different Mn concentration x≈0.44\\text{--}0.63 grown by the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) method onto the Al2O3 (0001) substrate were investigated in the temperature range 4-300 K using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements in the wide range of frequencies (f = 7\\text{--}60 \\text{GHz}) and magnetic fields (H = 0\\text{--}30 \\text{kOe}) . For samples with x≈0.52\\text{--}0.55 , FMR data show clear evidence of ferromagnetism (FM) with high Curie temperatures TC ˜ 300 \\text{K} . These samples demonstrate the complex and unusual character of magnetic anisotropy described in the frame of phenomenological model as a combination of the essential second-order easy-plane anisotropy contribution and the additional fourth-order anisotropy contribution with the easy direction normal to the film plane. We explain the obtained results by a polycrystalline (mosaic) structure of the films caused by the film-substrate lattice mismatch.

  12. Characterization of Residual Stresses in Ferrous Components by Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements Using a Hall Effect Sensor Array Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.

    2011-06-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In situ measurements were conducted on a annealed steel plate under four-point bending stresses to evaluate the probe performance. The ratio of stray field signals measured along and perpendicular to the stress axis varies linearly with the surface stress, indicating the possibility of characterizing residual stresses in ferrous components using the sensor array probe.

  13. Spin Hall switching of the magnetization in Ta/TbFeCo structures with bulk perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; Smith, Angeline K.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-03-30

    Spin-orbit torques are studied in Ta/TbFeCo/MgO patterned structures, where the ferrimagnetic material TbFeCo provides a strong bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (bulk-PMA) independent of the interfaces. The current-induced magnetization switching in TbFeCo is investigated in the presence of a perpendicular, longitudinal, or transverse field. An unexpected partial-switching phenomenon is observed in the presence of a transverse field unique to our bulk-PMA material. It is found that the anti-damping torque related with spin Hall effect is very strong, and a spin Hall angle is determined to be 0.12. The field-like torque related with Rashba effect is unobservable, suggesting that the interface play a significant role in Rashba-like torque.

  14. Electric-field-driven magnetization reversal in square-shaped nanomagnet-based multiferroic heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Nan, Ce-Wen E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, J. J. E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Long-Qing; Hu, Jia-Mian

    2015-04-06

    Based on phase field modeling and thermodynamic analysis, purely electric-field-driven magnetization reversal was shown to be possible in a multiferroic heterostructure of a square-shaped amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} nanomagnet on top of a ferroelectric layer through electrostrain. The reversal is made possible by engineering the mutual interactions among the built-in uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the geometry-dependent magnetic configuration anisotropy, and the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Particularly, the incorporation of the built-in uniaxial anisotropy made it possible to reverse magnetization with one single unipolar electrostrain pulse, which is simpler than previous designs involving the use of bipolar electrostrains and may alleviate ferroelectric fatigue. Critical conditions for triggering the magnetization reversal are identified.

  15. Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Berger, Andreas; Kent, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies separated by a non-magnetic spacer is studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFeB layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. At a fixed frequency, we show that there is an avoided crossing of layer ferromagnetic resonance modes providing direct evidence for interlayer coupling. The mode dispersions for different Ru thicknesses are fit to a Heisenberg-type model to determine the interlayer exchange coupling strength and layer properties. The resulting interlayer exchange coupling varies continuously from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as a function of the Ru interlayer thickness. These results show that the magnetic layer single domain ground state consists of magnetizations that can be significantly canted with respect to the layer planes and the canting can be tuned by varying the Ru thickness and the layer magnetic characteristics, a capability of interest for applications in spin-transfer torque devices.

  16. Seismic anisotropy and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand schist in the Mojave region of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Hacker, B. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Chapman, A. D.; Saleeby, J.; Seward, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Our current interpretation of the composition and elastic properties of the middle and lower crust depends strongly on seismic observations. Advances in seismic methods are leading to more studies focused on seismic anisotropy in the lower crust. With increasing observations of lower crustal anisotropy, the need for a more comprehensive characterization of the seismic properties of candidate lower crustal materials is growing. In addition, links between seismic anisotropy and other geophysical parameters need to be investigated. This work combines measurements of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)-based calculations of seismic anisotropy in samples of the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand (POR) schist from the Mojave region of southern California. The POR schist is thought to comprise much of the lower crust of southern California, and is one of the archetypes for understanding shallow slab subduction and subduction erosion. The goals of this study are to characterize the: 1) seismic anisotropy of the POR schist and its relationship to observed crustal anisotropy in the region, and 2) relationship between seismic anisotropy and AMS. Velocity anisotropy in individual samples of the POR schist ranges from ~2-11% in VP and ~3-15% in VS, which is consistent with results of Porter et al. (2011) for lower crustal anisotropy in southern California from analysis of receiver functions. When all schist samples are averaged together to approximate the bulk schist, the velocity anisotropy is significantly reduced to ~6% in Vs and ~8% in Vs, lower than the average values inferred by Porter et al. (2011). AMS results indicate that the directions of maximum and minimum susceptibility are subparallel to Vp-max and Vp-min, respectively (Figure 1). The magnitude of anisotropy in AMS does not show as strong a correlation with magnitude of seismic anisotropy, and may have a stronger dependence on magnetic mineralogy. These results indicate that

  17. Magnetic state of pyrochlore Cd(2)Os(2)O(7) emerging from strong competition of ligand distortions and longer-range crystalline anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A; Maurice, Rémi; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu

    2013-03-22

    By many-body quantum-chemical calculations, we investigate the role of two structural effects--local ligand distortions and the anisotropic Cd-ion coordination--on the magnetic state of Cd(2)Os(2)O(7), a spin S = 3/2 pyrochlore. We find that these effects strongly compete, rendering the magnetic interactions and ordering crucially dependent on these geometrical features. Without trigonal distortions, a large easy-plane magnetic anisotropy develops. Their presence, however, reverses the sign of the zero-field splitting and causes a large easy-axis anisotropy (D ≃ -6.8 meV), which in conjunction with the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction (J ≃ 6.4 meV) stabilizes an all-in-all-out magnetic order. The competition uncovered here is a generic feature of pyrochlore magnets. PMID:25166841

  18. Investigating the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties of the Beaver River Diabase in northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, S. H.; Brownlee, S. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Jackson, M. J.; Miller, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Beaver River Diabase (BRD) is a series of mafic dikes and sills within the Beaver Bay Complex (BBC) of northern Minnesota, which formed during the development of the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift (MCR). The BRD is one of the youngest and most extensive intrusive phases of the BBC. The BRD dikes and sills were emplaced into the medial levels of the 6-10 kilometer-thick North Shore Volcanic Group and occur over an arcuate area extending 120 by 20 kilometers. The BRD is composed of fine- to medium-grained ophitic olivine gabbro and does not display obvious foliation or lineation features and rarely displays modal layering. Without obvious magmatic internal structures, it is difficult to determine emplacement properties such as flow direction using standard geologic mapping or petrographic techniques. For this reason, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), in conjunction with other rock magnetic properties, to better understand the BRD's emplacement and deformation history in the context of the MCR. AMS measures the directional dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, and is used to infer a shape-preferred orientation of magnetic minerals within a rock, which can be related to specific emplacement mechanisms (e.g. directional flow or settling). Preliminary analysis of AMS at 20 sites within the southern half of the BRD (with 4-7 samples per site) shows maximum susceptibility values between 4.48 x 10-6 and 2.22 x 10-4 m3/kg (1165 and 65400 μSI). Most specimens display nearly isotropic AMS ellipsoids (Pj < 1.15) with minor degrees of prolateness and oblateness. However, about 20% of specimens have higher anisotropies (Pj between 1.15 and 1.67) and higher degrees of oblateness and prolateness. Variations in AMS properties may reflect differences in concentration and composition, as well as emplacement mechanisms. Measurements of susceptibility as a function of temperature yield Curie points between 470 and 570 °C, indicating a presence of

  19. Magnetic properties of a Pt/Co2FeAl/MgO structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Qi; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Yong; Zhang, De-Lin; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Microstructures and magnetic properties of Ta/Pt/Co2FeAl (CFA)/MgO multilayers are studied to understand perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of half-metallic full-Heusler alloy films. PMA is realized in a 2.5-nm CFA film with B2-ordered structure observed by a high resolution transmission electron microscope. It is demonstrated that a high quality interface between the ferromagnetic layer and oxide layer is not essential for PMA. The conversions between in-plane anisotropy and PMA are investigated to study the dependence of magnetic moment on temperature. At the intersection points, the decreasing slope of the saturation magnetization (Ms) changes because of the conversions. The dependence of Ms on the annealing temperature and MgO thickness is also studied.

  20. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  1. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy engineering: Single-crystalline Fe films on ion eroded ripple surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedke, M. O.; Körner, M.; Lenz, K.; Grossmann, F.; Facsko, S.; Fassbender, J.

    2012-06-01

    We present a method to preselect the direction of an induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in thin single-crystalline Fe films on MgO(001). Ion beam irradiation is used to modulate the MgO(001) surface with periodic ripples on the nanoscale. The ripple direction determines the orientation of the UMA, whereas the intrinsic cubic anisotropy of the Fe film is not affected. Thus, it is possible to superimpose an in-plane UMA with a precision of a few degrees—a level of control not reported so far that can be relevant for example in spintronics.

  3. Spin-Fluctuation Mechanism of Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Itinerant Magnets.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I A; Antropov, V P; Belashchenko, K D

    2015-11-20

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit "hot spots" by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization due to these peculiar electronic mechanisms, which contrast starkly with those assumed in existing models. PMID:26636868

  4. Spin-fluctuation mechanism of anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in itinerant magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2015-11-16

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe1–xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit “hot spots” by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization. These peculiar electronic mechanisms are in stark contrast to the assumptions of the existing models.

  5. Spin-Fluctuation Mechanism of Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Itinerant Magnets.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I A; Antropov, V P; Belashchenko, K D

    2015-11-20

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit "hot spots" by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization due to these peculiar electronic mechanisms, which contrast starkly with those assumed in existing models.

  6. Spin-fluctuation mechanism of anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in itinerant magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2015-11-16

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe1–xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit “hot spots” by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization. These peculiar electronic mechanisms are in stark contrast to the assumptions of the existing models.

  7. Pressure anisotropy generation in a magnetized plasma configuration with a shear flow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Camillis, S.; Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the Kelvin Helmholtz instability in a magnetized plasma with a perpendicular flow close to, or in, the supermagnetosonic regime can produce a significant parallel-to-perpendicular pressure anisotropy. This anisotropy, localized inside the flow shear region, can make the configuration unstable either to the mirror or to the firehose instability and, in general, can affect the development of the KHI. The interface between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetospheric plasma at the magnetospheric equatorial flanks provides a relevant setting for the development of this complex nonlinear dynamics.

  8. On the energy losses of hot worked Nd-Fe-B magnets and ferrites in a small alternating magnetic field perpendicular to a bias field

    SciTech Connect

    Staa, F. von; Hempel, K.A.; Artz, H.

    1995-11-01

    Torsion pendulum magnetometer measurements on ferrites and on neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets are presented. The damping of the oscillation of the pendulum leads to information on the magnetic energy losses of the magnets in a small alternating magnetic field applied perpendicular to a bias field. The origin of the energy absorption is explained by the magnetization reversal of single-domain particles. It is shown experimentally that the energy absorption mechanism requires the ferromagnetic order of the sample, and that the magnetic field strength of maximal energy absorption coincides with the effective anisotropy field strength.

  9. Modification of structure and magnetic anisotropy of epitaxial CoFe₂O₄ films by hydrogen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Aiping; Poudyal, Narayan; Xiong, Jie; Liu, J. Ping; Jia, Quanxi

    2015-03-16

    Heteroepitaxial CoFe₂O₄ (CFO) thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on MgO (001) substrates. The as-deposited CFO films show a clear switching of magnetic anisotropy with increasing film thickness. The thinner films (<100 nm) show a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the out-of-plane compressive strain. The thicker films exhibit an in-plane easy axis owing to the dominating shape anisotropy effect. The magnetostriction coefficient of CFO films is estimated to be λ[001] =-188 × 10⁻⁶. Metallic CoFe₂ films were obtained by annealing the as-deposited CFO films in forming gas (Ar 93% + H₂ 7%) at 450 °C. XRD shows that CoFe₂ films are textured out-of-plane and aligned in-plane, owing to lattice matching between CoFe₂ and MgO substrate. TEM results indicate that as-deposited films are continuous while the annealed films exhibit a nanopore mushroom structure. The magnetic anisotropy of CoFe₂ films is dominated by the shape effect. The results demonstrate that hydrogen reduction can be effectively used to modify microstructures and physical properties of complex metal oxide materials.

  10. Modification of structure and magnetic anisotropy of epitaxial CoFe₂O₄ films by hydrogen reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Aiping; Poudyal, Narayan; Xiong, Jie; Liu, J. Ping; Jia, Quanxi

    2015-03-16

    Heteroepitaxial CoFe₂O₄ (CFO) thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on MgO (001) substrates. The as-deposited CFO films show a clear switching of magnetic anisotropy with increasing film thickness. The thinner films (<100 nm) show a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the out-of-plane compressive strain. The thicker films exhibit an in-plane easy axis owing to the dominating shape anisotropy effect. The magnetostriction coefficient of CFO films is estimated to be λ[001] =-188 × 10⁻⁶. Metallic CoFe₂ films were obtained by annealing the as-deposited CFO films in forming gas (Ar 93% + H₂ 7%) at 450 °C. XRD shows that CoFe₂more » films are textured out-of-plane and aligned in-plane, owing to lattice matching between CoFe₂ and MgO substrate. TEM results indicate that as-deposited films are continuous while the annealed films exhibit a nanopore mushroom structure. The magnetic anisotropy of CoFe₂ films is dominated by the shape effect. The results demonstrate that hydrogen reduction can be effectively used to modify microstructures and physical properties of complex metal oxide materials.« less

  11. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate. PMID:25646869

  12. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate.

  13. Cyclical magnetic field flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasci, T. O.; Johnson, W. P.; Gale, B. K.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a new magnetic field flow fractionation (FFF) system was designed and modeled by using finite element simulations. Other than current magnetic FFF systems, which use static magnetic fields, our system uses cyclical magnetic fields. Results of the simulations show that our cyclical magnetic FFF system can be used effectively for the separation of magnetic nanoparticles. Cyclical magnetic FFF system is composed of a microfluidic channel (length = 5 cm, height = 30 μm) and 2 coils. Square wave currents of 1 Hz (with 90 deg of phase difference) were applied to the coils. By using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a, magnetic field profile and corresponding magnetic force exerted on the magnetite nanoparticles were calculated. The magnetic force data were exported from Comsol to Matlab. In Matlab, a parabolic flow profile with maximum flow speed of 0.4 mL/h was defined. Particle trajectories were obtained by the calculation of the particle speeds resulted from both magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Particle trajectories of the particles with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm were simulated and elution times of the particles were calculated. Results show that there is a significant difference between the elution times of the particles so that baseline separation of the particles can be obtained. In this work, it is shown that by the application of cyclical magnetic fields, the separation of magnetic nanoparticles can be done efficiently.

  14. Influence of the upper critical-field anisotropy on the transport properties of polycrystalline MgB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Eisterer, M.; Krutzler, C.; Weber, H.W.

    2005-08-01

    The intrinsic properties of MgB{sub 2} form the basis for all applications of this superconductor. We wish to emphasize that the application range of polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} is limited by the upper critical field H{sub c2} and its anisotropy. In wires or tapes, the MgB{sub 2} grains are randomly oriented or only slightly textured and the anisotropy of the upper critical field leads to different transport properties in different grains, if a magnetic field is applied and the current transport becomes percolative. The irreversibility line is caused by the disappearance of a continuous superconducting current path and not by depinning as in high-temperature superconductors. Based on a percolation model, we demonstrate how the changes of the upper critical field and its anisotropy and how the changes of flux pinning will influence the critical currents of a wire or a tape. These predictions are compared to results of neutron irradiation experiments, where these parameters were changed systematically.

  15. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  16. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior.

  17. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25438567

  18. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25508098

  19. Magnetic fields in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-08-01

    Descriptive models for the dynamo processes that generate magnetic fields around celestial objects are reviewed. Magnetic fields are produced, along with an electric current, when a conductor is moved perpendicularly through a magnetic field, so long as the resulting current is fed back into the conductor to amplify the current and field. In MHD theory, the lines of force of the magnetic field travel with the conducting fluid. A weak current or field must be present initially to generate the field. Planets have molten cores and stars have ionized gases to act as the conductors, and all space has sufficient gas with free electrons. The rotations of the planets, stars, and galaxy enhance the magnetic fields. Convective patterns have been characterized in the earth's molten core because of anomalies observed in the magnetic field at the surface. It has been shown that the faster a planet rotates, the more powerful its magnetic field is. However, fluid motions will produce fields only if the fluid motion is helical. The exact mechanism in stars could be primordial magnetism trapped during formation. However, in galaxies, the Biermann battery effect, wherein free electrons move along the surfaces of stars, could create enough of a field for the amplification process to proceed.

  20. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  1. Manipulating magnetic anisotropies of Co/MgO(001) ultrathin films via oblique deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheraz Ahmad, Syed; He, Wei; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Hu, Bo; Ye, Jun; Gul, Qeemat; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    We present a systematic investigation of magnetic anisotropy induced by oblique deposition of Co thin films on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy at different deposition angles, i.e., 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° with respect to the surface normal. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), surface magneto–optical Kerr effect (SMOKE), and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) setups were employed to investigate the magnetic properties of cobalt films. The values of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) constant Ku and four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K1 were derived from magnetic torque curves on the base of AMR results. It was found that the value of Ku increases with increasing deposition angle with respect to the surface normal, while the value of K1 remains almost constant for all the samples. Furthermore, by using MOKE results, the Ku values of the films deposited obliquely were also derived from the magnetization curves along hard axis. The results of AMR method were then compared with that of hard axis fitting method (coherent rotation) and found that both methods have almost identical values of UMA constant for each sample. Project supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences–The World Academy of Sciences (CAS–TWAS) Fellowship Program, the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB921403 and 2012CB933102), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51427801, 11374350, and 11274361).

  2. Manipulating magnetic anisotropies of Co/MgO(001) ultrathin films via oblique deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheraz Ahmad, Syed; He, Wei; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Hu, Bo; Ye, Jun; Gul, Qeemat; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    We present a systematic investigation of magnetic anisotropy induced by oblique deposition of Co thin films on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy at different deposition angles, i.e., 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° with respect to the surface normal. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE), and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) setups were employed to investigate the magnetic properties of cobalt films. The values of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) constant Ku and four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K1 were derived from magnetic torque curves on the base of AMR results. It was found that the value of Ku increases with increasing deposition angle with respect to the surface normal, while the value of K1 remains almost constant for all the samples. Furthermore, by using MOKE results, the Ku values of the films deposited obliquely were also derived from the magnetization curves along hard axis. The results of AMR method were then compared with that of hard axis fitting method (coherent rotation) and found that both methods have almost identical values of UMA constant for each sample. Project supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences-The World Academy of Sciences (CAS-TWAS) Fellowship Program, the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB921403 and 2012CB933102), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51427801, 11374350, and 11274361).

  3. Magnetic and Ferroelectric Anisotropy in Multiferroic FeVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, Ehab; Dixit, Ambesh; Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Jayakumar, Onattu; Naik, Vaman; Naik, Ratna; Lawes, Gavin; Nadgorny, Boris

    FeVO4 has been studied as a model system for understanding the magnetoelectric interaction mechanisms in low symmetry multiferroics. Triclinic FeVO4 is characterized by two antiferromagnetic phase transitions, occurring at TN 1 = 22 K and TN 2 = 15 K, with the latter transition signaling a break in the space inversion symmetry, accompanied by the development of a non-collinear magnetic order which induces ferroelectricity. Earlier measurements on polycrystalline FeVO4 doped with magnetic (Cr and Mn) as well as non magnetic (Zn) dopants indicate the stability of the two antiferromagnetic transition temperatures. In this work, single crystals of both undoped and doped FeVO4 were grown from flux. To track the changes in lattice parameters induced by changing the doping concentration (measured by EDAX), XRD and Raman spectra were obtained. By recording the magnetization along two different crystal orientations, we were able to confirm the easy magnetic axis in this structure. Finally, we obtain the crystal's ferroelectric polarization along two different directions in an attempt to further understand the mechanism responsible for the ferroelectric transition. This work is supported by the NSF under DMR-1306449.

  4. Ab initio study on magnetic anisotropy change of SrCoxTixFe12-2xO19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Min; Shao, Bin; Wu, Jian; Zuo, Xu

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic anisotropy change of Co-Ti substituted Sr-M hexaferrite has been investigated by using general gradient approximation (GGA) with on-site coulomb repulsion added (GGA + U) and force theorem method. The calculated dependence of magnetic anisotropy energy on angles of SrFe12O19 fits very well with theoretical description, and anisotropy constant K1 agrees well with experimental value. The impact of occupancy of Co2+ and Ti4+ on magnetic anisotropy in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 has been studied. The results show that Co2+ in 4f2 site and Ti4+ in 12 k site both contribute to the reduction of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and as Co2+ and Ti4+ in their first preference of substitution site, magnetic anisotropy of SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 is weak, which would facilitate the formation of conical magnetic structure to induce electric polarization. As substitution rate x increases from 0 to 3, the magnetic anisotropy of SrCoxTixFe12-2xO19 is found to change from uniaxial to planar.

  5. Impact of pressure anisotropy on magnetic configuration and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, B.; Qu, Z. S.; Fitzgerald, M.; Hole, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    A number of tools have recently been developed to study equilibrium and stability in tokamaks with pressure anisotropy. Here we apply these tools to a Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) discharge to calculate equilibrium, Alfvén continua and eigenmodes, through to linear growth and nonlinear saturation of a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE); this is the first study of wave growth and saturation for anisotropic equilibria. Comparisons with the standard tools which assume an isotropic pressure reveal various differences in equilibrium and modes: the safety factor profile in the isotropic reconstruction is reversed shear while the anisotropic reconstruction gives normal shear; the isotropic TAE gap is much narrower than the anisotropic gap; and the TAE radial mode structure is wider in the anisotropic case. These lead to a modification in the resonant regions of fast-ion phase space, and produce a 35% larger linear growth rate and an 18% smaller saturation amplitude for the TAE in the anisotropic analysis compared to the isotropic analysis.

  6. Mars Observer magnetic fields investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Wasilewski, P.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J.; Curtis, D. W.; Reme, H.; Cros, A.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic fields experiment designed for the Mars Observer mission will provide definitive measurements of the Martian magnetic field from the transition and mapping orbits planned for the Mars Observer. The paper describes the instruments (which include a classical magnetometer and an electron reflection magnetometer) and techniques designed to investigate the nature of the Martian magnetic field and the Mars-solar wind interaction, the mapping of crustal magnetic fields, and studies of the Martian ionosphere, which are activities included in the Mars Observer mission objectives. Attention is also given to the flight software incorporated in the on-board data processor, and the procedures of data processing and analysis.

  7. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    SciTech Connect

    S. -H. Baek; Gu, G. D.; Utz, Y.; Hucker, M.; Buchner, B.; Grafe, H. -J.

    2015-10-26

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal → low-temperature orthorhombic → low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T–11 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO = 54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T–11 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ∥ [001], which are completely suppressed for large fields along the CuO2 planes. Lastly, our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.

  8. Thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and Thellier laws in single-domain particles with mixed anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) are two of the main components of remanence in rocks, and an understanding of their origins is essential for paleomagnetism. David Dunlop has made important experimental and theoretical contributions to almost every aspect of these phenomena. On the theoretical side he and his co-authors have applied Néel's single-domain (SD) theory to thermoviscous overprints and thermal fluctuation analysis; made numerous extensions to multidomain theories of TRM; and done micromagnetic modeling of TRM. Micromagnetic models of TRM face several challenges because of the inherent complexity of nonuniform magnetization. A lot of attention has been focussed on finding the height of the energy barrier between states, and significant progress has been made in this area. However, two other problems have mostly been overlooked. First, in Néel theory the energy barrier is a one-dimensional maximum, but in general it is a multidimensional saddle point. The shape of this saddle point affects relaxation rates between states. Second, there are several states and each state is connected to more than one other state. The combined effects of all these transitions must be determined somehow. These challenges are explored in a comparatively simple system, an SD particle with both cubic and uniaxial anisotropy. In such a particle there are up to eight remanent states and each state is connected to as many as four other states. Relaxation rates are calculated for saddle points using Kramers theory for high damping. The multiple connections are represented by a master equation. This equation is very difficult to solve for nonzero field. For small fields the master equation is reformulated using projection matrices and linear perturbation theory is used. The following results were obtained. In zero field there are two or three blocking temperatures depending on the geometry. A large field splits these blocking temperatures

  9. Magnetic field-induced transitions in geometrically frustrated Co3V2O8 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Diduszko, R.; Fink-Finowicki, J.; Gutowska, M.; Szewczyk, A.; Szymczak, H.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetization and specific heat of the S=3/2 antiferromagnet on a kagome staircase, Co3V2O8 , were investigated as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The low temperature magnetization data revealed unusual features related to the strongly frustrated spin lattice. Of particular interest were magnetic field induced phase transitions observed for various orientations of the magnetic field. Abrupt macroscopic magnetization jumps induced by a magnetic field directed along the c -axis have been observed below 6K . This effect was also observed for a high enough magnetic field applied in the a-c plane. It is suggested that the jump, observed for H∥c is due to a spin reorientation phase transition. It was shown that Co3V2O8 crystals are characterized by a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of an easy-plane type. This anisotropy is due to the presence of Co2+ ions in octahedral positions.

  10. Magnetic Field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

    2000-07-01

    bodies combined with later absolute dating of Martian geologic units could lead to a quantitative constraint on the thermal history of the planet, i.e. the time when convective dynamo generation ceased in the core. Determination of directions of magnetization of anomaly sources as a function of age combined with the expectation that the Martian dynamo field was roughly aligned with the rotation axis would lead to a means of investigating polar wandering for Mars. Preliminary analysis of two magnetic anomalies in the northern polar region has yielded paleomagnetic pole positions near 50 N, 135 W, about 30 degrees north of Olympus Mons. This location is roughly consistent with the orientation of the planet expected theoretically prior to the formation of the Tharsis region. In the future, more accurate observations of the vector field at the lowest possible altitudes would significantly improve our understanding of Martian thermal history, polar wandering, and upper crustal evolution. Mapping potential resources (e.g., iron-rich source bodies) for future practical use would also be a side benefit. Additional information is contained in the original abstract.

  11. Giant magnetic anisotropy in doped single layer molybdenum disulfide and fluorographene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivek, J.; Sahin, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-05-01

    Stable monolayer materials based on existing, well known and stable two-dimensional crystal fluorographene and molybdenum disulfide are predicted to exhibit a huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy when functionalized with adsorbed transition metal atoms at vacant sides. Ab initio calculations within the density-functional theory formalism were performed to investigate the adsorption of the transitional metals in a single S (or F) vacancy of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (or fluorographene). We found strong bonding of the transitional metal atoms to the vacant sites with binding energies ranging from 2.5 to 5.2 eV. Our calculations revealed that these systems with adsorbed metal atoms exhibit a magnetic anisotropy, specifically the structures including Os and Ir show a giant magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 31-101 meV. Our results demonstrate the possibility of obtaining stable monolayer materials with huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy based on preexisting, well known and stable two-dimensional crystals: fluorographene and molybdenum disulfide. We believe that the results obtained here are useful not only for deeper understanding of the origin of magnetocrystalline anisotropy but also for the design of monolayer optoelectronic devices with novel functionalities.

  12. Giant magnetic anisotropy in doped single layer molybdenum disulfide and fluorographene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivek, J.; Sahin, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-05-01

    Stable monolayer materials based on existing, well known and stable two-dimensional crystal fluorographene and molybdenum disulfide are predicted to exhibit a huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy when functionalized with adsorbed transition metal atoms at vacant sides. Ab initio calculations within the density-functional theory formalism were performed to investigate the adsorption of the transitional metals in a single S (or F) vacancy of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (or fluorographene). We found strong bonding of the transitional metal atoms to the vacant sites with binding energies ranging from 2.5 to 5.2 eV. Our calculations revealed that these systems with adsorbed metal atoms exhibit a magnetic anisotropy, specifically the structures including Os and Ir show a giant magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 31–101 meV. Our results demonstrate the possibility of obtaining stable monolayer materials with huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy based on preexisting, well known and stable two-dimensional crystals: fluorographene and molybdenum disulfide. We believe that the results obtained here are useful not only for deeper understanding of the origin of magnetocrystalline anisotropy but also for the design of monolayer optoelectronic devices with novel functionalities.

  13. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  14. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  15. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe Multilayers Studied with Torque Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ataur

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of multilayers critically depend on the magnetic and structural ordering of the interface. To study the effect of interface on PMA, Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with varying Fe (0.8-9.0 nm) and Gd (0.5-2.8 nm) or Tb (0.3-6.3 nm) layer thicknesses were fabricated by planar magnetron sputtering. The magnetometer results of spin orientation clearly reveals that samples with Gd or Tb layer thickness of more than 1.2 nm display no PMA, regardless of the Fe layer thickness. Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with thin (<1.2 nm) Tb or Gd layers display large PMA, but no PMA is observed when the Fe layer thickness is increased to 4.0 nm and higher. The bulk magnetization and anisotropy energy constant of the samples are found to increase with increasing Fe layer thickness. Torque measurement also reveals that there are two distinctly different axes of spin alignment at different energy. Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with similar composition reveal similar magnetic and structural characteristics, and it may imply that single-ion-anisotropy of rare-earth element, which is quite large for Tb ions and very small for Gd ions, may not be the dominating cause of PMA in Td/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers. A detailed explanation of the results will be provided based on exchange interaction at the interface.

  16. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-11-09

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  17. Exploration of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy material system for application in spin transfer torque - Random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajarathinam, Anusha

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials have unique advantages when used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) which are the most critical part of spin-torque transfer random access memory devices (STT-RAMs) that are being researched intensively as future non-volatile memory technology. They have high magnetoresistance which improves their sensitivity. The STT-RAM has several advantages over competing technologies, for instance, low power consumption, non-volatility, ultra-fast read and write speed and high endurance. In personal computers, it can replace SRAM for high-speed applications, Flash for non-volatility, and PSRAM and DRAM for high-speed program execution. The main aim of this research is to identify and optimize the best perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) material system for application to STT-RAM technology. Preliminary search for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials for pinned layer for MTJs started with the exploration and optimization of crystalline alloys such as Co50Pd50 alloy, Mn50Al50 and amorphous alloys such as Tb21Fe72Co7 and are first presented in this work. Further optimization includes the study of Co/[Pd/Pt]x multilayers (ML), and the development of perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnets (SAF) utilizing these multilayers. Focused work on capping and seed layers to evaluate interfacial perpendicular anisotropy in free layers for pMTJs is then discussed. Optimization of the full perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) includes the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer coupled to a pinned/pinning layer with perpendicular Co/[Pd/Pt]x SAF and a thin Ta seeded CoFeB free layer. Magnetometry, simulations, annealing studies, transport measurements and TEM analysis on these samples will then be presented.

  18. Consequences of magnetic anisotropy in realizing practical microwave hexaferrite devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiler, Anton; Daigle, Andrew; Wang, Jianwei; Chen, Yajie; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vince

    2012-10-01

    With the rapidly growing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems and increasing frequencies of operation of electronic devices, in recent years resurgence in scientific interest in highly anisotropic hexagonal ferrites has been noted. This interest stems in part from a number of emerging applications that pose significant materials challenges that cannot be addressed using traditional rf and microwave ferrite materials. In this manuscript, several specific applications that could benefit from the unique properties of hexagonal ferrites are discussed. Fundamental principles of operation, materials requirements, as well as unique device design and modeling challenges are reviewed. Applications of textured magnetically uniaxial hexagonal ferrite composites in microwave and mm-wave non-reciprocal ferrite control devices are discussed. Applications of textured magnetically planar hexagonal ferrite composites as antenna and electronic bandgap metamaterial substrates, rf inductors and transformers, and electromagnetic interference suppression devices are reviewed. Suggestions on directions for future research and development are provided.

  19. MHD Simulation Heliospheric Magnetic Fields and Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. Aaron

    2005-01-01

    This talk will present a summary of our results on simulations of heliospheric structure and dynamics. We use a three-dimensional MHD code in spherical coordinates to produce a solar wind containing a rotating, tilted heliospheric current sheet, fast-slow stream and microstream shear layers, waves, 2-D turbulence, and pressure balanced structures that are input to the inner (superAlfvenic) boundary. The evolution of various combinations of these has led to a deeper understanding of sector structure, magnetic holes, fluctuation anisotropies, and general turbulent evolution. We show how the sectors are likely to be connected, how spiral fields can arise, and how field line diffusion can be caused by waves with transverse structure and microstream shears.

  20. Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)  G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)  GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556