Science.gov

Sample records for magnetic field optical

  1. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  2. Magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Papoyan, Aram; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Alen; Khanbekyan, Karen; Marinelli, Carmela; Mariotti, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    A concept for an optical magnetometer used for the measurement of magnitude and direction of a magnetic field (B-field) in two orthogonal directions is developed based on double scanning of a B-field to compensate the measured field to zero value, which is monitored by a resonant magneto-optical process in an unshielded atomic vapor cell. Implementation of the technique using the nonlinear Hanle effect on the D2 line of rubidium demonstrates viability and efficiency of the proposed concept. The ways to enhance characteristics of the suggested technique and optimize its performance, as well as the possible extension to three-axis magnetometry, are discussed.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Beggs, D. M.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale has advanced fields such as quantum optics, photovoltaics and telecommunications. These advances are driven by an improved understanding of the nanoscale behaviour of light, enabled by direct observations of the local electric fields near photonic nanostructures. With the advent of metamaterials that respond to the magnetic component of light, schemes have been developed to measure the nanoscale magnetic field. However, these structures interact not only with the magnetic field, but also with the electric field of light. Here, we demonstrate the essential simultaneous detection of both electric and magnetic fields with subwavelength resolution. By explaining our measurements through reciprocal considerations, we create a route towards designing probes sensitive to specific desired combinations of electric and magnetic field components. Simultaneous access to nanoscale electric and magnetic fields will pave the way for new designs of optical nanostructures and metamaterials.

  4. Fiber optical magnetic field sensor for power generator monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Villnow, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Inside of large electrical engines such as power generators and large drives, extreme electric and magnetic fields can occur which cannot be measured electrically. Novel fiber optical magnetic field sensors are being used to characterize the fields and recognize inner faults of large power generators.

  5. Magneto-optical micromechanical systems for magnetic field mapping

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Alain; Ortiz, Guillermo; Morcrette, Mélissa; Dietsch, Thomas; Sabon, Philippe; Joumard, Isabelle; Marty, Alain; Joisten, Hélène; Dieny, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A new method for magnetic field mapping based on the optical response of organized dense arrays of flexible magnetic cantilevers is explored. When subjected to the stray field of a magnetized material, the mobile parts of the cantilevers deviate from their initial positions, which locally changes the light reflectivity on the magneto-optical surface, thus allowing to visualize the field lines. While the final goal is to be able to map and quantify non-uniform fields, calibrating and testing the device can be done with uniform fields. Under a uniform field, the device can be assimilated to a magnetic-field-sensitive diffraction grating, and therefore, can be analyzed by coherent light diffraction. A theoretical model for the diffraction patterns, which accounts for both magnetic and mechanical interactions within each cantilever, is proposed and confronted to the experimental data. PMID:27531037

  6. Magnetic liquids under high electric fields as broadband optical diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.

    2016-10-01

    We show that unidirectional propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics could arise in some magnetic fluids due to the magnetoelectric effect under weak DC magnetic fields and strong DC electric fields around half of their dielectric breakdown. For such liquids as kerosene and transformer oils, one-way propagation of light may occur for 30-nm-diameter magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., cobalt) and concentrations of 2 % or larger.

  7. Novel concepts in near-field optics: from magnetic near-field to optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Honghua

    Driven by the progress in nanotechnology, imaging and spectroscopy tools with nanometer spatial resolution are needed for in situ material characterizations. Near-field optics provides a unique way to selectively excite and detect elementary electronic and vibrational interactions at the nanometer scale, through interactions of light with matter in the near-field region. This dissertation discusses the development and applications of near-field optical imaging techniques, including plasmonic material characterization, optical spectral nano-imaging and magnetic field detection using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), and exploring new modalities of optical spectroscopy based on optical gradient force detection. Firstly, the optical dielectric functions of one of the most common plasmonic materials---silver is measured with ellipsometry, and analyzed with the Drude model over a broad spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. This work was motivated by the conflicting results of previous measurements, and the need for accurate values for a wide range of applications of silver in plasmonics, optical antennas, and metamaterials. This measurement provides a reference for dielectric functions of silver used in metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanophotonics. Secondly, I implemented an infrared s-SNOM instrument for spectroscopic nano-imaging at both room temperature and low temperature. As one of the first cryogenic s-SNOM instruments, the novel design concept and key specifications are discussed. Initial low-temperature and high-temperature performances of the instrument are examined by imaging of optical conductivity of vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O 3) across their phase transitions. The spectroscopic imaging capability is demonstrated on chemical vibrational resonances of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other samples. The third part of this dissertation explores imaging of optical magnetic fields. As a proof-of-principle, the magnetic

  8. Distributed optical fiber dynamic magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, Ali; Newson, Trevor P

    2014-05-01

    A distributed optical fiber sensor is introduced which is capable of quantifying multiple magnetic fields along a 1 km sensing fiber with a spatial resolution of 1 m. The operation of the proposed sensor is based on measuring the magnetorestrictive induced strain of a nickel wire attached to an optical fiber. The strain coupled to the optical fiber was detected by measuring the strain-induced phase variation between the backscattered Rayleigh light from two segments of the sensing fiber. A magnetic field intensity resolution of 0.3 G over a bandwidth of 50-5000 Hz was demonstrated.

  9. Measurement of magnetic field using Rayleigh backscattering in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Wuilpart, M.; Caucheteur, C.; Goussarov, A.; Aerssens, M.; Massaut, V.; Megret, P.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of optical reflectometry in optical fibres for the measurement of magnetic field. The dedicated application concerns the measurement of plasma current in the fusion reactor. The measurement is based on the rotation of the polarization state of the Rayleigh backscattered signal when an optical pulse is launched in the fibre. Particular care has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of linear birefringence on the measurement performance. (authors)

  10. Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinping; Wu, Jixuan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Kailiang; Yuan, Yujie; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2013-12-02

    Optical microfiber taper has unique propagation properties, which provides versatile waveguide structure to design the tunable photonic devices. In this paper, the S-tapered microfiber is fabricated by using simple fusion spicing. The spectral characteristics of microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid under different magnetic-field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum are both found to become highly magnetic-field-dependent. The results indicate the transmission and wavelength of the dips are adjustable by changing magnetic field intensity. The response of this device to the magnetic field intensity exhibits a Langvin function. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the transmission loss and magnetic field intensity for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 to 200Oe, and the sensitivities as high as 0.13056dB/Oe and 0.056nm/Oe have been achieved, respectively. This suggests a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber photonic device, such as magneto-optic modulator, filter, and sensing element.

  11. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-05-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δ n) and figure of merit of optical properties ( Q = Δ n/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of Q R exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field.

  12. Solar magnetic fields measurements with a magneto-optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacciani, A.; Ricci, D.; Rosati, P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Smith, E.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of a magnetic field at different levels inside the sun has crucial implications for helioseismology. The solar oscillation observing program carried out since 1983 at Mt. Wilson with Cacciani magneto-optical filter has recently been modified to acquire full-disk magnetograms with 2 arcsec spatial resolution. A method for the correct determination of magnetic maps which are free of contamination by velocity signal is presented. It is shown that no cross-talk exists between the Doppler and Zeeman shifts of the Na D lines, provided that instrumental polarization effects are taken into account. The observed line-of-sight photospheric field was used to map the vector field in the inner corona, above active regions, in the current free approximation.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-07-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified.

  14. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  15. Proposal for generating synthetic magnetic fields in hexagonal optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binbin; Endres, Manuel; Pekker, David

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new approach to generating synthetic magnetic fields in ultra cold atom systems that does not rely on either Raman transitions nor periodic drive. Instead, we consider a hexagonal optical lattice produced by the intersection of three laser beams at 120 degree angles, where the intensity of one or more of the beams is spatially non-uniform. The resulting optical lattice remains hexagonal, but has spatially varying hopping matrix elements. For atoms near the Dirac points, these spatial variations appear as a gauge field, similar to the fictitious gauge field that is induced for for electrons in strained graphene. We suggest that a robust way to generate a gauge field that corresponds to a uniform flux is to aligning three gaussian beams to intersect in an equilateral triangle. Using realistic experimental parameters, we show how the proposed setup can be used to observe cyclotron motion of an atom cloud - the conventional Hall effect and distinct Landau levels - the integer quantum Hall effect.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of novel semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Jonathan

    Understanding new quantum phenomena and properties of new materials is the foundation of condensed matter physics. One can mention celebrated examples of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, Aharonov-Bohm quantum interference effects, inventions of heterostructures and superlattices, and a recent discover of Dirac-like quasiparticles in atomically thin 2D crystals. Here we employ optical spectroscopy combined with large magnetic field and low temperatures to probe the electronic structure of several novel semiconductor materials. The discovery of graphene has opened the door to the study of other 2D materials. Here we focus on a new family of semiconducting layered 2D materials known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which have recently emerged as a new class of direct bandgap 2D semiconductors with two degenerate, but non-equality valleys at the +K and -K points in the Brillouin zone. Due to the broken inversion symmetry in monolayer TMDs, this valley degree of freedom can be selectively addressed by optical helicity, opening the possibility for valleytronic and optoelectronic applications. By performing valley selective photoluminescence measurements on TMDs we demonstrate the lifting of the valley degeneracy and valley polarization in an applied perpendicular magnetic field. One of the most remarkable properties of graphene is its linear dispersion. Once relegated only to the realm of theoretical exploration, the past ten years has seen an explosion in the realization of new Dirac-like materials in condensed matter systems. One of the most important of these new Dirac-like materials is HgTe quantum wells (QWs). Here, we report on Landau level spectroscopy studies of a series of HgTe QWs grown near or at the critical well thickness, where the band gap ?vanishes. We observe a square root B dependence for the energy of the dominant cyclotron resonance (CR) transition over the broad range of magnetic fields, characteristic of Dirac fermions. While

  17. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui

    2010-05-15

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hui

    2010-05-01

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  19. Optical pumping magnetic resonance in high magnetic fields: characterization of the optical properties of Rb-Xe mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Matthew P.

    The spectroscopic characteristics of the polarization of 129Xe nuclei in Xe gas by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb atoms is examined in high magnetic field. The high field Zeeman effect provides the spectral dispersion necessary to separate the effects of different light polarizations and incident wavelengths on the pumping cycle. Indirect detection of the D1 line in Rb using 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance in combination with direct optical detection indicates that conventional container construction significantly decreases the efficiency of the 129Xe polarization. The decreased pumping efficiency is due to randomly polarized photons that can be eliminated by using containers with good optical quality windows. Study of these effects is facilitated by the large Zeeman shifts obtained with multi-tesla fields which resolve the D1 multiplet structure even in the presence of the significant pressure-broadening incells with typical gas pressures of 0ṡ1-1 atm.

  20. Magnetic field-aligned electric field acceleration and the characteristics of the optical aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Lyons, L. R.; Hecht, J. H.; Sivjee, G. G.; Meier, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    The long-recognized association of brighter aurora with more deeply penetrating, and hence more energetic, electrons is examined. Using the Knight (1973) relation between the magnetic-field-aligned current density and potential drop (derived from the theory of single-particle motion in the presence of a magnetic-field-aligned electric field), an approximate expression relating the energy flux of the precipitating electrons over discrete aurora and the mean particle energy is derived. This expression is used in conjunction with an auroral optical excitation and emission model to specify the dependence of the red/blue ratio of auroral optical emissions on the brightness of the aurora. It is shown that the quantitative predictions of the discrete auroral theory are in accord with observations of the aurora.

  1. Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on the TbDyFe rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Jiang, Yi

    2014-08-01

    We present, and experimentally demonstrate, a fiber optic magnetic field sensor for the measurement of a weak alternating magnetic field, based on a TbDyFe rod. The fiber optic magnetic field sensor is constructed in a Michelson interferometer configuration, and the phase-generated carrier demodulation is used to obtain the time-varying phase shift induced by the applied magnetic field. A high sensitivity of up to 3.6 × 10-2 V μT - 1 (rms) with a resolution of 23 pT/√Hz (rms) at 50 Hz is achieved. Experimental results show that the sensor exhibits excellent linearity and reversibility.

  2. An effective magnetic field from optically driven phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nova, T. F.; Cartella, A.; Cantaluppi, A.; Först, M.; Bossini, D.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Kimel, A. V.; Merlin, R.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-10-01

    Light fields at terahertz and mid-infrared frequencies allow for the direct excitation of collective modes in condensed matter, which can be driven to large amplitudes. For example, excitation of the crystal lattice has been shown to stimulate insulator-metal transitions, melt magnetic order or enhance superconductivity. Here, we generalize these ideas and explore the simultaneous excitation of more than one lattice mode, which are driven with controlled relative phases. This nonlinear mode mixing drives rotations as well as displacements of the crystal-field atoms, mimicking the application of a magnetic field and resulting in the excitation of spin precession in the rare-earth orthoferrite ErFeO3. Coherent control of lattice rotations may become applicable to other interesting problems in materials research--for example, as a way to affect the topology of electronic phases.

  3. A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Candiani, A.; Argyros, A.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lwin, R.; Selleri, S.; Pissadakis, S.

    2014-03-17

    We report an in-fiber magnetic field sensor based on magneto-driven optical loss effects, while being implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber. We demonstrate that magnetic field flux changes up to 2000 gauss can be detected when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the fiber axis. In addition, the sensor exhibits high polarization sensitivity for the interrogated wavelengths, providing the possibility of both field flux and direction measurements. The underlying physical and guidance mechanisms of this sensing transduction are further investigated using spectrophotometric, light scattering measurements, and numerical simulations, suggesting photonic Hall effect as the dominant physical, transducing mechanism.

  4. Simultaneous imaging of magnetic field and temperature distributions by magneto optical indicator microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanju; Jeon, Sunghoon; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2017-03-02

    We report a simultaneous imaging method of the temperature and the magnetic field distributions based on the magneto optical indicator microscopy. The present method utilizes an optical indicator composed of a bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet thin film, and visualizes the magnetic field and temperature distributions through the magneto-optical effect and the temperature dependent optical absorption of the garnet thin film. By using a printed circuit board that carries an electric current as a device under test, we showed that the present method can visualize the magnetic field and temperature distribution simultaneously with a comparable temperature sensitivity (0.2 K) to that of existing conventional thermal imagers. The present technique provides a practical way to get a high resolution magnetic and thermal image at the same time, which is valuable in investigating how thermal variation results in a change of the operation state of a micrometer sized electronic device or material.

  5. Simultaneous imaging of magnetic field and temperature distributions by magneto optical indicator microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanju; Jeon, Sunghoon; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2017-01-01

    We report a simultaneous imaging method of the temperature and the magnetic field distributions based on the magneto optical indicator microscopy. The present method utilizes an optical indicator composed of a bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet thin film, and visualizes the magnetic field and temperature distributions through the magneto-optical effect and the temperature dependent optical absorption of the garnet thin film. By using a printed circuit board that carries an electric current as a device under test, we showed that the present method can visualize the magnetic field and temperature distribution simultaneously with a comparable temperature sensitivity (0.2 K) to that of existing conventional thermal imagers. The present technique provides a practical way to get a high resolution magnetic and thermal image at the same time, which is valuable in investigating how thermal variation results in a change of the operation state of a micrometer sized electronic device or material. PMID:28252018

  6. Simultaneous imaging of magnetic field and temperature distributions by magneto optical indicator microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanju; Jeon, Sunghoon; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2017-03-01

    We report a simultaneous imaging method of the temperature and the magnetic field distributions based on the magneto optical indicator microscopy. The present method utilizes an optical indicator composed of a bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet thin film, and visualizes the magnetic field and temperature distributions through the magneto-optical effect and the temperature dependent optical absorption of the garnet thin film. By using a printed circuit board that carries an electric current as a device under test, we showed that the present method can visualize the magnetic field and temperature distribution simultaneously with a comparable temperature sensitivity (0.2 K) to that of existing conventional thermal imagers. The present technique provides a practical way to get a high resolution magnetic and thermal image at the same time, which is valuable in investigating how thermal variation results in a change of the operation state of a micrometer sized electronic device or material.

  7. Rashba spin orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical properties of quantum dot with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pradip Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Lahon, Siddhartha; Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man

    2014-01-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external magnetic field on the optical absorption and refractive index changes of a parabolically confined quantum dot in the presence of Rashba spin orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum confinement potential, magnetic field, Rashba spin orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate the important influence of magnetic field on the peak positions of absorption coefficient and refractive index changes. The role of confinement strength and spin orbit interaction strength as control parameters on the linear and nonlinear properties have been demonstrated.

  8. Optical fiber magnetic field sensors with TbDyFe magnetostrictive thin films as sensing materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Zhou, Ciming; Jiang, Desheng

    2009-11-09

    Different from usually-used bulk magnetostrictive materials, magnetostrictive TbDyFe thin films were firstly proposed as sensing materials for fiber-optic magnetic field sensing characterization. By magnetron sputtering process, TbDyFe thin films were deposited on etched side circle of a fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) as sensing element. There exists more than 45pm change of FBG wavelength when magnet field increase up to 50 mT. The response to magnetic field is reversible, and could be applicable for magnetic and current sensing.

  9. All fiber magnetic field sensor with Ferrofluid-filled tapered microstructured optical fiber interferometer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming; Huang, Can; Liu, Danhui; Jin, Wei; Zhu, Tao

    2015-08-10

    An ultra-compact optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) modal interference and ferrofluid (FF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic field sensor was fabricated by splicing a tapered germanium-doped index guided MOF with six big holes injected with FF to two conventional single-mode fibers. The transmission spectra of the proposed sensor under different magnetic field intensities have been measured and theoretically analyzed. Due to an efficient interaction between the magnetic nanoparticles in FF and the excited cladding mode, the magnetic field sensitivity reaches up to117.9pm/mT with a linear range from 0mT to 30mT. Moreover, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is simple, easy and cost-effective. Therefore, it will be a promising candidate for military, aviation industry, and biomedical applications, especially, for the applications where the space is limited.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenfang

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot in a magnetic field. Based on the computed energies and wave functions, the linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes have been examined. The results are presented as a function of the incident photon energy for the different cases of anisotropy, dot size and external magnetic field. The results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic quantum dots are strongly affected by the degree of anisotropy, the dot size, the external magnetic field and the polarized direction of the incident electromagnetic wave. The result also shows that the size effect of anisotropy quantum dots on the optical absorptions is different from that of isotropic quantum dots.

  11. Magnetic field induced optical gain in a dilute nitride quaternary semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mageshwari, P. Uma; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2016-10-01

    Effects of magnetic field strength on the electronic and optical properties are brought out in a Ga0.661In0.339N0.0554As0.9446/GaAs quantum dot for the applications of desired wavelength in opto-electronic devices. The band alignment is obtained using band anticrossing model and the model solid theory. The magnetic field dependent electron-heavy hole transition energies with the dot radius in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are investigated. The magnetic field induced oscillator strength as a function of dot radius is studied. The resonant peak values of optical absorption coefficients and the changes of refractive index with the application of magnetic field strength in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are obtained. The magnetic field induced threshold current density and the maximum optical gain are found in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot. The results show that the optimum wavelength for fibre optical communication networks can be obtained with the variation of applied magnetic field strength and the outcomes may be useful for the design of efficient lasers based on the group III-N-V semiconductors.

  12. Ultralong time response of magnetic fluid based on fiber-optic evanescent field.

    PubMed

    Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Bai, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yajun; Wang, Meirong

    2016-07-20

    The ultralong time (a few hours) response properties of magnetic fluid using etched optical fiber are visualized and investigated experimentally. The operating structure is made by injecting magnetic fluid into a capillary tube that contains etched single-mode fiber. An interesting extreme asymmetry is observed, in which the transmitted light intensity after the etched optical fiber cannot reach the final steady value when the external magnetic field is turned on (referred to as the falling process), while it can reach the stable state quickly once the magnetic field is turned off (referred to as the rising process). The relationship between the response times/loss rates of the transmitted light and the strength of the applied magnetic field is obtained. The physical mechanisms of two different processes are discussed qualitatively.

  13. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; Riboli, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Schuck, P. James; Cabrini, Stefano; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Gurioli, Massimo; Intonti, Francesca

    2015-06-05

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magnetic intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the “campanile tip”, a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. In conclusion, by exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions.

  14. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; Riboli, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Schuck, P. James; Cabrini, Stefano; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Gurioli, Massimo; Intonti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magnetic intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the “campanile tip”, a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. By exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions. PMID:26045401

  15. Effect of laser radiation on optical properties of disk shaped quantum dot in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Vinod; Silotia, Poonam

    2011-10-01

    The optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs, disk shaped quantum dots (DSQD) with simultaneously applied laser and magnetic field are studied in detail. The use of the density matrix formalism is made to study the variations in linear and non-linear polarizability with the frequency of the electric field. It is found that the absorption coefficient and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave but also on the strength of the static magnetic field.

  16. Optical Photometry of BY Cam Modeled Using a Multipolar Magnetic Field Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, John; Mason, P. A.; Zhilkin, A.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Robinson, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present new high-speed broad-band optical photometry of the asynchronous polar (magnetic cataclysmic variable) BY Cam. Observations were obtained at the 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald observatory with 3s integration times. In an attempt to understand the complex changes in accretion flow geometry, we performed full 3D MHD simulations assuming a variety of white dwarf magnetic field structures including both aligned and non-aligned dipole plus quadrupole field components. We compare model predictions with photometry and various phases of the beat cycle and find that synthetic light curves derived from a multipolar field structure are consistent with the optical photometry.

  17. Optical multichannel room temperature magnetic field imaging system for clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, G.; Erné, S. N.; Nowak, H.; Menhorn, B.; Pasquarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) are a very promising alternative to the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) used nowadays for Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI), a new method of diagnosis based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the human heart. We present a first measurement combining a multichannel OPM-sensor with an existing MFI-system resulting in a fully functional room temperature MFI-system. PMID:24688820

  18. Parametric distortion of the optical absorption edge of a magnetic semiconductor by a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O.A.C.

    1985-09-15

    The influence of a strong laser field on the optical absorption edge of a direct-gap magnetic semiconductor is considered. It is shown that as the strong laser intensity increases the absorption coefficient is modified so as to give rise to an absorption tail below the free-field forbidden gap. An application is made for the case of the EuO.

  19. Magneto-optic imaging: Normal and parallel field components of in-plane magnetized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, H.; Bekeris, V.; Thibeault, M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2007-06-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) imaging has become a powerful tool for determining magnetic properties of materials by detecting the stray magnetic fields. The technique consists in measuring the Faraday rotation, θF, in the light polarization plane when light travels through a transparent sensitive garnet (ferrite garnet film, FGF) placed in close contact to the sample. For in-plane magnetized samples, the MO image is not trivially related to the sample magnetization, and to contribute to this understanding we have imaged commercial audio tapes in which computer-generated functions were recorded. We present MO images of periodically in-plane magnetized tapes with square, sawtooth, triangular and sinusoidal waveforms, for which we analytically calculate the perpendicular and parallel stray magnetic field components generated by the tape. As a first approach we correlate the measured light intensity with the perpendicular magnetic field component at the FGF, and we show that it can be approximated to the gradient of the sample magnetization. A more detailed calculation, taking into account the effect of both field components in the Faraday rotation, is presented and satisfactorily compared with the obtained MO images. The presence of magnetic domains in the garnet is shown to be related to the change in sign of the parallel component of the stray magnetic field, which can be approximated to the second derivative of the sample magnetization.

  20. Intrinsic magnetic field sensitivities of sensor head housing for all-fiber optic current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Chang, Min; Mao, Chenfei; Lu, Dunke; Kamagara, Abel

    2014-10-01

    Full-fiber optical current sensors utilize the effects of magnetic-field imposed on the change of polarization azimuth of light in the fibers. Due to the sensitivities to external perturbations, the sensing fiber head in practical applications is usually packed in a fixed metallic housing majorly for protection purposes. However, the housing material itself tends to influence the magnetic field distributions of the current carrying wire in question. In this paper, the intrinsic effect and influence of fiber sensor head housing made of different magnetic materials on the magnetic field distributions around the current-carrying wire have been investigated. Simulation and virtual experimentation was carried out in the COMSOL environment. From the results, the housings made of single magnetic material are found to have magnetic disturbances on the magnetic field distribution around the wire. Housing made of some alloy materials has no influence on the magnetic distributions outside the wire. After experimenting with several materials, the former materials inclusive, steel is preferred as the protective housing and/or casing of fiber sensor head in optical fiber current sensors. This is on the basis of both technical and non-technical consideration of low cost of material though biased toward technical aspect of little or no influence on magnetic distribution around the wire.

  1. Vortex Formation of Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates in Synthetic Magnetic Field with Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.

  2. Magnetic field-induced spectroscopy of forbidden optical transitions with application to lattice-based optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L

    2006-03-03

    We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes.

  3. Interferometric optical isolator employing a nonreciprocal phase shift operated in a unidirectional magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hideki; Shoji, Yuya; Shin, Etsu; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2004-08-20

    An interferometric optical isolator that employs a nonreciprocal phase shift was studied. The optical isolator consisted of an interferometer with distinct layer structures. A traveling light wave underwent distinct nonreciprocal phase shifts such that the optical isolator could be operated in a unidirectional magnetic field. The optical isolator, in which the waveguide had a HfO2 cladding layer in one of the arms, was designed at a wavelength of 1.55 microm. The propagation distance of the nonreciprocal phase shifter required for the isolator's operation was less than 1.5 mm. The device's total length was less than 2 mm. An optical isolator with distinct layer structures was fabricated and evaluated. An isolation ratio of approximately 9.9 dB was obtained in the unidirectional magnetic field.

  4. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna

    DOE PAGES

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; ...

    2015-06-05

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magneticmore » intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the “campanile tip”, a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. In conclusion, by exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions.« less

  5. Magneto-optical circular birefringence of a chiral medium in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surma, M.

    Measurements are reported of the magneto-optical circular birefringence of an intracentrifuged blood. The blood plasma is optically active. Under the influence of external magnetic field magnetooptical circular birefri2ngence of the in 3vestigated medium is observed as a superposition of linear (B), quadratic (B ) and cubic (B ) field dependence. The quantitative result of the observed effect is different for parallel ( ) and antiparallel ( ) light propagation k, to the direction of the magneti2c field B 3 acting on the medium. These results are the first experimental observation of the B and B effects and the different circular birefringence for a chiral medium in a magnetic field parallel and antiparallel to the light beam propagation. The parallel (k,B) and antiparallel (k,- B) effects are obse2rved clea 3rly for a magnetic field of induction B above 10T acting on the plasma. The B and B dependent effects are unambiguously recorded for B values above 20T. For different sources of human plasma the magneto-optical data differ slightly. The magneto-optical circular birefringence of the plasma investigated has been measured in high magnetic fields of up to 30T and with a 488nm wavelength laser beam.

  6. Ferrofluid-based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Yuan, Lei; Hua, Liwei; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Jincheng; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Optofluid system has been more and more attractive in optical sensing applications such as chemical and biological analysis as it incorporates the unique features from both integrated optics and microfluidics. In recent years, various optofluid based structures have been investigated in/on an optical fiber platform which is referred to as "lab in/on a fiber". Among those integrated structures, femto-second laser micromaching technique plays an important role due to its high precision fabrication, flexible design, 3D capability, and compatible with other methods. Here we present a ferrofluid based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation .With the help of fs laser micromaching technique, a micro-reservoir made by capillary tube assembled in a single mode optical fiber could be fabricated. The micro-reservoir functions as a fiber inline Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity which is filled by ferrofluid liquid. The refractive index of the ferrofluid varies as the surrounding magnetic field strength changes, which can be optically probed by the FP interferometer. A fringe visibility of up to 30 dB can be achieved with a detection limit of around 0.4 Gausses. Due to the fabrication, micro-reservoirs can be assembled with optical fiber and distinguished through a microwave-photonic interrogation system. A quasi-distributed magnetic field sensing application has been demonstrated with a high spatial resolution of around 10 cm.

  7. Experimental Realization of Strong Effective Magnetic Fields in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Aidelsburger, M.; Atala, M.; Trotzky, S.; Chen, Y.-A.; Bloch, I.; Nascimbene, S.

    2011-12-16

    We use Raman-assisted tunneling in an optical superlattice to generate large tunable effective magnetic fields for ultracold atoms. When hopping in the lattice, the accumulated phase shift by an atom is equivalent to the Aharonov-Bohm phase of a charged particle exposed to a staggered magnetic field of large magnitude, on the order of 1 flux quantum per plaquette. We study the ground state of this system and observe that the frustration induced by the magnetic field can lead to a degenerate ground state for noninteracting particles. We provide a measurement of the local phase acquired from Raman-induced tunneling, demonstrating time-reversal symmetry breaking of the underlying Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the quantum cyclotron orbit of single atoms in the lattice exposed to the magnetic field is directly revealed.

  8. Optical fiber magnetic field sensors with peanut-shape structure cascaded with LPFG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Zheng-rong; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    An optical fiber magnetic field sensor for the dual-parameter simultaneous measurement is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor head is constructed by a peanut-shape structure and long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated by magnetic fluid (MF). The external magnetic field intensity can be measured by the variation of characteristic wavelength (Dip1 and Dip2) in interference spectrum since the effective refractive index of MF changes with external magnetic field intensity. When the external magnetic field intensity changes from 0 mT to 20 mT, the magnetic field sensitivities of Dip1 and Dip2 are -0.064 nm/mT and -0.041 nm/mT, respectively. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivities of the Dip1 and Dip2 are 0.233 nm/°C and 0.186 nm/°C, respectively. Therefore, the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field intensity and temperature is demonstrated based on the sensitive matrix. It has some potential applications in aerospace, environmental monitoring and medical sensing fields.

  9. Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings

    SciTech Connect

    Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.

    2014-02-28

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.

  10. Magnetic Field Measurements in Wire-Array Z-Pinches using Magneto-Optically Active Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Wasif; Hammer, David; Lipson, Michal

    2007-11-01

    Understanding the magnetic field topology in wire-array Z-pinches as a function of time is of great significance to understanding these high-energy density plasmas. We are developing techniques to measure magnetic fields as a function of space and time using Faraday rotation of a single longitudinal mode (SLM) laser through a magneto-optically active bulk waveguide (terbium borate glass) placed adjacent to, or within, the wire array in experiments on the COBRA pulsed power generator [1]. We have measured fields >10 T with 100 ns rise times outside of a wire-array for the entire duration of the current pulse and as much as ˜2 T inside a wire-array for ˜40 ns from the start of current. This is the first time that such rapidly varying and large fields have been measured using these materials. We will also present our progress on field measurements using an optical fiber sensor and a very small ``thin film waveguide'' coupled to a fiber optic system. In a dense Z-pinch, these sensing devices may not survive for long but may provide the magnetic field at the position of the sensor for a greater fraction of the current pulse than magnetic probes, with which we compare our results. This research was sponsored by NNSA under SSAA program via DOE Coop Agreement DE-F03-02NA00057. [1] W. Syed, D. A. Hammer, & M. Lipson, 34^th ICOPS & 16^th PPPS, Albuquerque, NM, June 2007.

  11. All-Fiber Optical Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Faraday Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.; Jiang, S.; Marciante, J.R.

    2010-06-18

    An all-fiber optical magnetic field sensor with a sensitivity of 0.49 rad/T is demonstrated. It consists of a fiber Faraday rotator (56-wt.%-terbium–doped silica fiber) and a fiber polarizer (Corning SP1060 fiber).

  12. Generation of uniform synthetic magnetic fields by split driving of an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creffield, C. E.; Sols, F.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a method to generate a synthetic gauge potential for ultracold atoms held in an optical lattice. Our approach uses a time-periodic driving potential based on quickly alternating two Hamiltonians to engineer the appropriate Aharonov-Bohm phases, and permits the simulation of a uniform tunable magnetic field. We explicitly demonstrate that our split-driving scheme reproduces the behavior of a charged quantum particle in a magnetic field over the complete range of field strengths, and obtain the Hofstadter butterfly band structure for the Floquet quasienergies.

  13. Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaofei; Han, Qun; Liu, Tiegen; Lan, Xinwei; Xiao, Hai

    2013-10-15

    An optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) structure and magnetic fluid (MF) is proposed and demonstrated. By using a piece of no-core fiber as the multimode waveguide in the SMS structure and MF sealed in a capillary tube as the magnetic sensitive media, which totally immersing the no-core fiber, an all-fiber magnetic sensor was fabricated. Interrogation of the magnetic field strength can be achieved either by measuring the dip wavelength shift of the transmission spectrum or by detecting the transmission loss at a specific wavelength. A demonstration sensor with sensitivities up to 905 pm/mT and 0.748 dB/mT was fabricated and investigated. A theoretical model for the design of the proposed device was developed and numerical simulations were performed.

  14. Electric- and magnetic-field dependence of the electronic and optical properties of phosphorene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. L.; Moldovan, D.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, black phosphorus quantum dots were fabricated experimentally. Motivated by these experiments, we theoretically investigate the electronic and optical properties of rectangular phosphorene quantum dots (RPQDs) in the presence of an in-plane electric field and a perpendicular magnetic field. The energy spectra and wave functions of RPQDs are obtained numerically using the tight-binding approach. We find edge states within the band gap of the RPQD which are well separated from the bulk states. In an undoped RPQD and for in-plane polarized light, due to the presence of well-defined edge states, we find three types of optical transitions which are between the bulk states, between the edge and bulk states, and between the edge states. The electric and magnetic fields influence the bulk-to-bulk, edge-to-bulk, and edge-to-edge transitions differently due to the different responses of bulk and edge states to these fields.

  15. Electric- and magnetic-field dependence of the electronic and optical properties of phosphorene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Li, L L; Moldovan, D; Xu, W; Peeters, F M

    2017-02-24

    Recently, black phosphorus quantum dots were fabricated experimentally. Motivated by these experiments, we theoretically investigate the electronic and optical properties of rectangular phosphorene quantum dots (RPQDs) in the presence of an in-plane electric field and a perpendicular magnetic field. The energy spectra and wave functions of RPQDs are obtained numerically using the tight-binding approach. We find edge states within the band gap of the RPQD which are well separated from the bulk states. In an undoped RPQD and for in-plane polarized light, due to the presence of well-defined edge states, we find three types of optical transitions which are between the bulk states, between the edge and bulk states, and between the edge states. The electric and magnetic fields influence the bulk-to-bulk, edge-to-bulk, and edge-to-edge transitions differently due to the different responses of bulk and edge states to these fields.

  16. Magnetic-field-induced nonlinear optical responses in inversion symmetric Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortijo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    We show that under the effect of an external magnetic field, a photogalvanic effect and the generation of a second harmonic wave can be induced in inversion symmetric and time-reversal invariant Dirac semimetals and it is linear with the magnetic field. The mechanisms responsible for these nonlinear optical responses are the magnetochiral effect and the chiral magnetic effect. What makes possible that these two effects give rise to the discussed nonlinear optical effects is the presence of band bending effects in the dispersion relation in real Dirac semimetals. Some observable consequences of this phenomenon are the appearance of a dc current on the surface of the system when it is irradiated with linearly polarized light or a rotation of the polarization plane of the reflected second harmonic wave.

  17. Direct measurements of the magnetic field induced by optically polarized sup 3 He atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gudoshnikov, S.A.; Snigirev, O.V. ); Kozlov, A.N.; Maslennikov, Y.V.; Serebrjakov, A.Y. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on an alternative magnetic field induced by the standard cell of the optically pumped {sup 3}He magnetometer directly measured by the SQUID-based second-order gradiometer with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 6. The magnitude of the measured field equal to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} T at the 5-cm distance from the cell axis and transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} equal to 7 minutes have been found.

  18. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  19. Strain of optic-fiber/giant magnetostrictive film structure in magnetic field by finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiafei; Pan, Mengchun; Xin, Jianguang; Chen, Dixiang

    2008-12-01

    The magnetostrictive transducer is the most important part of the optic-fiber magnetic field sensor, and the optic-fiber/giant magnetostrictive(GMS) film coupled structure is a novel coupling form of the magnetostrictive transducer. Always we analyze the coupled structure based on the entire coupled structure being sputtered GMS material without tail-fibers. In practical application, the coupled structure has tail-fibers without films at two ends. When the entire coupled structure is immersed in the detected magnetic field, the detected magnetic field causes the GMS film strain then causing optic-fiber strain. This strain transmission process is different from it in the coupled structure entirely with GMS films without tail-fibers. The strain transmission relationship can be calculated theoretically in the coupled structure without tail-fibers, but it's complicated to theoretically calculate the strain transmission relationship in the coupled structure with tail-fibers. After large numbers of calculations and analyses by ANSYS software, we figure out some relationships of the two strain transmission processes in the respective structures and the stress distribution in the tail-fibers. These results are helpful to the practical application of the optic-fiber/ GMS film coupled structure.

  20. Fiber-Optic Magnetic-Field-Strength Measurement System for Lightning Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurecki, Jay; Scully, Robert; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Bucholtz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system is designed to measure magnetic fields associated with a lightning stroke. Field vector magnitudes are detected and processed for multiple locations. Since physical limitations prevent the sensor elements from being located in close proximity to highly conductive materials such as aluminum, the copper wire sensor elements (3) are located inside a 4-cubic-in. (.66-cubic-cm) plastic housing sensor head and connected to a fiber-optic conversion module by shielded cabling, which is limited to the shortest length feasible. The signal path between the conversion module and the avionics unit which processes the signals are fiber optic, providing enhanced immunity from electromagnetic radiation incident in the vicinity of the measurements. The sensors are passive, lightweight, and much smaller than commercial B-dot sensors in the configuration which measures a three-dimensional magnetic field. The system is expandable, and provides a standard-format output signal for downstream processing. Inside of the sensor head, three small search coils, each having a few turns on a circular form, are mounted orthogonally inside the non-metallic housing. The fiber-optic conversion module comprises three interferometers, one for each search coil. Each interferometer has a high bandwidth optical phase modulator that impresses the signal received from its search coil onto its output. The output of each interferometer travels by fiber optic cable to the avionics unit, and the search coil signal is recovered by an optical phase demodulator. The output of each demodulator is fed to an analog-to-digital converter, whose sampling rate is determined by the maximum expected rate of rise and peak signal magnitude. The output of the digital processor is a faithful reproduction of the coil response to the incident magnetic field. This information is provided in a standard output format on a 50-ohm port that can be connected to any number of data collection and processing

  1. Electronic and optical properties of core-shell nanowires in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kishore, V V; Partoens, B; Peeters, F M

    2014-03-05

    The electronic and optical properties of zincblende nanowires are investigated in the presence of a uniform magnetic field directed along the [001] growth direction within the k · p method. We focus our numerical study on core-shell nanowires consisting of the III-V materials GaAs, Al(x)Ga(1-x)As and (Al(y)Ga(1-y))₀.₅₁In₀.₄₉P. Nanowires with electrons confined in the core exhibit a Fock-Darwin-like spectrum, whereas nanowires with electrons confined in the shell show Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. Thus, by properly choosing the core and the shell materials of the nanowire, the optical properties in a magnetic field can be tuned in very different ways.

  2. Controllable optical activity of non-spherical Ag and Co SERS substrate with different magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chun-Zhen; Zhu, Shuang-Mei; Xin, Hao-Yi

    2017-02-01

    We experimentally fabricate a non-spherical Ag and Co surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, which not only retains the metallic plasmon resonant effect, but also possesses the magnetic field controllable characteristics. Raman detections are carried out with the test crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules with the initiation of different magnitudes of external magnetic field. Experimental results indicate that our prepared substrate shows a higher SERS activity and magnetic controllability, where non-spherical Ag nanoparticles are driven to aggregate effectively by the magnetized Co and plenty of hot-spots are built around the metallic Ag nanoparticles, thereby leading to the enhancement of local electromagnetic field. Moreover, when the external magnetic field is increased, our prepared substrate demonstrates excellent SERS enhancement. With the 2500 Gs and 3500 Gs (1 Gs = 10‑4 T) magnetic fields, SERS signal can also be obtained with the detection limit lowering down to 10‑9 M. These results indicate that our proposed magnetic field controlled substrate enables us to freely achieve the enhanced and controllable SERS effect, which can be widely used in the optical sensing, single molecule detection and bio-medical applications. Project supported by the Key Science and Technology Research Project of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 162102210164), the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Educational Committee, China (Grant No. 17A140002), the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 11574276, 11404291, and 11604079), and the Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 17HASTIT0).

  3. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW`s as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H {yields} {infinity}. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed.

  4. Fiber optic quench detection via optimized Rayleigh Scattering in high-field YBCO accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Gene

    2016-02-17

    Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are known for their ability to operate in the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures, even above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). When these same conductors are operated at lower temperatures, they are able to operate in much higher magnetic fields than traditional superconductors like NiTi or Nb3Sn. Thus, YBCO superconducting magnets are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This project has studied, theoretically and experimentally, YBCO magnets and Rayleigh scattering quench detection systems to demonstrate feasibility of the systems for YBCO quench protection systems. Under this grant an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation model was used to accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets and to evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering required the development of a high performance fiber optic based quench detection/data acquisition system and its integration with an existing voltage tap/thermo-couple based system. In this project, optical fibers are tightly co-wound into YBCO magnet coils, with the fiber on top of the conductor as turn-to-turn insulation. Local changes in the temperature or strain of the conductor are sensed by the optical fiber, which is in close thermal and mechanical contact with the conductor. Intrinsic imperfections in the fiber reflect Rayleigh

  5. Magnetic Field Measurements in Wire-Array Z-Pinches using Magneto-Optically Active Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Wasif; Blesener, Isaac; Hammer, David A.; Lipson, Michal

    2009-01-21

    Understanding the magnetic field topology in wire-array Z-pinches as a function of time is of great significance to understanding these high-energy density plasmas especially for their ultimate application to stockpile stewardship and inertial confinement fusion. We are developing techniques to measure magnetic fields as a function of space and time using Faraday rotation of a single longitudinal mode (SLM) laser through a magneto-optically active bulk waveguide (multicomponent terbium borate glass) placed adjacent to, or within, the wire array in 1 MA experiments. We have measured fields >10 T with 100 ns rise times outside of a wire-array for the entire duration of the current pulse and as much as {approx}2 T inside a wire-array for {approx}40 ns from the start of current. This is the first time that such rapidly varying and large fields have been measured using these materials. In a dense Z-pinch, these sensing devices may not survive for long but may provide the magnetic field at the position of the sensor that can be used to corroborate magnetic probes, with which we compare our results.

  6. Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

    2016-06-01

    Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.

  7. Compact magnetic-field sensor based on optical microfiber Michelson interferometer and Fe3O4 nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming; Sun, Xiaokang; Han, Meng; Li, Decai

    2013-02-01

    We report a magnetic-field sensor by merging the advantages of optical fiber Michelson interferometers with that of magnetic fluid. Compact and low-cost optical fiber Michelson interferometers were first fabricated by a high-frequency CO(2) laser, and then they were inserted into glass capillaries with water-based Fe(3)O(4) magnetic fluid as sensing elements. The sensing characteristics have been investigated and the experimental results show that the reflective spectrum of the fiber-magnetic sensor linearly shifted with the change of the magnetic-field strength that is perpendicular to the axial of the devices. The fiber-magnetic sensor with interference arm's diameter of 50 μm is most sensitive to the external magnetic field, and the sensitivity is up to 64.9 pm/mT, which is 20 times higher than that of 125 μm diameter.

  8. Constraining Large-Scale Solar Magnetic Field Models with Optical Coronal Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.; Jones, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific success of the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and Solar Orbiter (SO) missions will depend to a large extent on the accuracy of the available coronal magnetic field models describing the connectivity of plasma disturbances in the inner heliosphere with their source regions. We argue that ground based and satellite coronagraph images can provide robust geometric constraints for the next generation of improved coronal magnetic field extrapolation models. In contrast to the previously proposed loop segmentation codes designed for detecting compact closed-field structures above solar active regions, we focus on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal regions located at significant radial distances from the solar surface. Details on the new feature detection algorithms will be presented. By applying the developed image processing methodology to high-resolution Mauna Loa Solar Observatory images, we perform an optimized 3D B-line tracing for a full Carrington rotation using the magnetic field extrapolation code presented in a companion talk by S.Jones at al. Tracing results are shown to be in a good qualitative agreement with the large-scalie configuration of the optical corona. Subsequent phases of the project and the related data products for SSP and SO missions as wwll as the supporting global heliospheric simulations will be discussed.

  9. Optical pumping and spectroscopy of Cs vapor at high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, B. A.; Patton, B.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2011-12-15

    We have measured changes in the ground-state populations of Cs vapor induced by optical pumping at high magnetic field. The 2.7-T field of our experiments is strong enough to decouple the nuclear and electronic spins, allowing us to independently measure each population. The spatial dependence of the Cs populations in small amounts of buffer gas obeys a simple coupled diffusion model and the relative populations reveal the details of relaxation within the vapor cell. Optical pumping can produce high nuclear polarization in the Cs vapor due to perturbations of the hyperfine interaction during collisions with buffer-gas particles and depending on the pumping transition, radiation trapping can strongly influence the electronic and nuclear polarizations in the vapor.

  10. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M. Haris Bin Md; Hamid, Nor Hisham Bin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT. PMID:26225972

  11. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  12. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) or Faraday...Squids are those based upon the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) effect in ferrimagnetic materials or YIG garnets and the giant magneto-resistance (GMR...effect in manganese based compounds. The development of the GMO material was mostly motivated by the need for compact, in-line fiber optical

  13. Optical, electrical, and magnetic field studies of organic materials for light emitting diodes and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basel, Tek Prasad

    We studied optical, electrical, and magnetic field responses of films and devices based on organic semiconductors that are used for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic (OPV) solar cell applications. Our studies show that the hyperfine interaction (HFI)-mediated spin mixing is the key process underlying various magnetic field effects (MFE) and spin transport in aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)[Alq3]-based OLEDs and organic spin-valve (OSV). Conductivity-detected magnetic resonance in OLEDs and magneto-resistance (MR) in OSVs show substantial isotope dependence. In contrast, isotope-insensitive behavior in the magneto-conductance (MC) of same devices is explained by the collision of spin ½ carriers with triplet polaron pairs. We used steady state optical spectroscopy for studying the energy transfer dynamics in films and OLEDs based on host-guest blends of the fluorescent polymer and phosphorescent molecule. We have also studied the magnetic-field controlled color manipulation in these devices, which provide a strong proof for the `polaron-pair' mechanism underlying the MFE in organic devices. The critical issue that hampers organic spintronics device applications is significant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature (RT). Whereas inorganic spin valves (ISVs) show RT magneto-resistance, MR>80%, however, the devices do not exhibit electroluminescence (EL). In contrast, OLEDs show substantive EL emission, and are particularly attractive because of their flexibility, low cost, and potential for multicolor display. We report a conceptual novel hybrid organic/inorganic spintronics device (h-OLED), where we employ both ISV with large MR at RT, and OLED that has efficient EL emission. We investigated the charge transfer process in an OPV solar cell through optical, electrical, and magnetic field measurements of thin films and devices based on a low bandgap polymer, PTB7 (fluorinated poly-thienothiophene-benzodithiophene). We found that

  14. Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements in High Energy Electron Beam Diode Plasmas using Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark; Patel, Sonal; Kiefer, Mark; Biswas, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2016-10-01

    The RITS accelerator (5-11MV, 100-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories is being used to evaluate the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode as a potential flash x-ray radiography source. This diode consists of a small, hollowed metal cathode and a planar, high atomic mass anode, with a small vacuum gap of approximately one centimeter. The electron beam is focused, due to its self-field, to a few millimeters at the target, generating bremsstrahlung x-rays. During this process, plasmas form on the electrode surfaces and propagate into the vacuum gap, with a velocity of a 1-10 cm's/microseconds. These plasmas are measured spectroscopically using a Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a gated, ICCD detector, and input optical fiber array. Local magnetic and electric fields of several Tesla and several MV/cm were measured through Zeeman splitting and Stark shifting of spectral lines. Specific transitions susceptible to quantum magnetic and electric field effects were utilized through the application of dopants. Data was analyzed using detailed, time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modeling. Recent results will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2015-06-01

    Damping of magnetic fields via ambipolar diffusion and decay of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in the post decoupling era heats the intergalactic medium (IGM). Delayed recombination of hydrogen atoms in the IGM yields an optical depth to scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The optical depth generated at z >> 10 does not affect the ''reionization bump'' of the CMB polarization power spectrum at low multipoles, but affects the temperature and polarization power spectra at high multipoles. Writing the present-day energy density of fields smoothed over the damping scale at the decoupling epoch as ρ{sub B,0}=B{sub 0}{sup 2}/2, we constrain B{sub 0} as a function of the spectral index, n{sub B}. Using the Planck 2013 likelihood code that uses the Planck temperature and lensing data together with the WMAP 9-year polarization data, we find the 95% upper bounds of B{sub 0}<0.63, 0.39, and 0.18 nG for n{sub B}=−2.9, −2.5, and −1.5, respectively. For these spectral indices, the optical depth is dominated by dissipation of the decaying MHD turbulence that occurs shortly after the decoupling epoch. Our limits are stronger than the previous limits ignoring the effects of the fields on ionization history. Inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons off electrons in the heated IGM distorts the thermal spectrum of CMB. Our limits on B{sub 0} imply that the y-type distortion from dissipation of fields in the post decoupling era should be smaller than 10{sup −9}, 4×10{sup −9}, and 10{sup −9}, respectively.

  16. Effects of crossed electric and magnetic fields on the interband optical absorption spectra of variably spaced semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuleta, J. N.; Reyes-Gómez, E.

    2016-05-01

    The interband optical absorption spectra of a GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs variably spaced semiconductor superlattice under crossed in-plane magnetic and growth-direction applied electric fields are theoretically investigated. The electronic structure, transition strengths and interband absorption coefficients are analyzed within the weak and strong magnetic-field regimes. A dramatic quenching of the absorption coefficient is observed, in the weak magnetic-field regime, as the applied electric field is increased, in good agreement with previous experimental measurements performed in a similar system under growth-direction applied electric fields. A decrease of the resonant tunneling in the superlattice is also theoretically obtained in the strong magnetic-field regime. Moreover, in this case, we found an interband absorption coefficient weakly dependent on the applied electric field. Present theoretical results suggest that an in-plane magnetic field may be used to tune the optical properties of variably spaced semiconductor superlattices, with possible future applications in solar cells and magneto-optical devices.

  17. Diffusion-mediated 129Xe gas depolarization in magnetic field gradients during continuous-flow optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burant, Alex; Branca, Rosa Tamara

    2016-12-01

    The production of large volumes of highly polarized noble gases like helium and xenon is vital to applications of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with hyperpolarized (HP) gas in humans. In the past ten years, 129Xe has become the gas of choice due to its lower cost, higher availability, relatively high tissue solubility, and wide range of chemical shift values. Though near unity levels of xenon polarization have been achieved in-cell using stopped-flow Spin Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP), these levels are currently unmatched by continuous-flow SEOP methods. Among the various mechanisms that cause xenon relaxation, such as persistent and transient xenon dimers, wall collisions, and interactions with oxygen, relaxation due to diffusion in magnetic field gradients, caused by rapidly changing magnetic field strength and direction, is often ignored. However, during continuous-flow SEOP production, magnetic field gradients may not have a negligible contribution, especially considering that this methodology requires the combined use of magnets with very different characteristics (low field for spin exchange optical pumping and high field for the reduction of xenon depolarization in the solid state during the freeze out phase) that, when placed together, inevitably create magnetic field gradients along the gas-flow-path. Here, a combination of finite element analysis and Monte Carlo simulations is used to determine the effect of such magnetic field gradients on xenon gas polarization with applications to a specific, continuous-flow hyperpolarization system.

  18. Diffusion-mediated (129)Xe gas depolarization in magnetic field gradients during continuous-flow optical pumping.

    PubMed

    Burant, Alex; Branca, Rosa Tamara

    2016-12-01

    The production of large volumes of highly polarized noble gases like helium and xenon is vital to applications of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with hyperpolarized (HP) gas in humans. In the past ten years, (129)Xe has become the gas of choice due to its lower cost, higher availability, relatively high tissue solubility, and wide range of chemical shift values. Though near unity levels of xenon polarization have been achieved in-cell using stopped-flow Spin Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP), these levels are currently unmatched by continuous-flow SEOP methods. Among the various mechanisms that cause xenon relaxation, such as persistent and transient xenon dimers, wall collisions, and interactions with oxygen, relaxation due to diffusion in magnetic field gradients, caused by rapidly changing magnetic field strength and direction, is often ignored. However, during continuous-flow SEOP production, magnetic field gradients may not have a negligible contribution, especially considering that this methodology requires the combined use of magnets with very different characteristics (low field for spin exchange optical pumping and high field for the reduction of xenon depolarization in the solid state during the freeze out phase) that, when placed together, inevitably create magnetic field gradients along the gas-flow-path. Here, a combination of finite element analysis and Monte Carlo simulations is used to determine the effect of such magnetic field gradients on xenon gas polarization with applications to a specific, continuous-flow hyperpolarization system.

  19. Optical response of magnetic fluorescent microspheres used for force spectroscopy in the evanescent field.

    PubMed

    Bijamov, Alex; Shubitidze, Fridon; Oliver, Piercen M; Vezenov, Dmitri V

    2010-07-20

    Force spectroscopy based on magnetic tweezers is a powerful technique for manipulating single biomolecules and studying their interactions. The resolution in magnetic probe displacement, however, needs to be commensurate with molecular sizes. To achieve the desirable sensitivity in tracking displacements of the magnetic probe, some recent approaches have combined magnetic tweezers with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In this situation, a typical force probe is a polymer microsphere containing two types of optically active components: a pure absorber (magnetic nanoparticles for providing the pulling force) and a luminophore (semiconducting nanoparticles or organic dyes for fluorescent imaging). To assess the system's capability fully with regard to tracking the position of the force probe with subnanometer accuracy, we developed a body-of-revolution formulation of the method of auxiliary sources (BOR-MAS) to simulate the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence of microscopic spheres in an evanescent electromagnetic field. The theoretical formulation uses the axial symmetry of the system to reduce the dimensionality of the modeling problem and produces excellent agreement with the reported experimental data on forward scattering intensity. Using the BOR-MAS numerical model, we investigated the probe detection sensitivity for a high numerical aperture objective. The analysis of both backscattering and fluorescence observation modes shows that the total intensity of the bead image decays exponentially with the distance from the surface (or the length of a biomolecule). Our investigations demonstrate that the decay lengths of observable optical power are smaller than the penetration depth of the unperturbed excitation evanescent wave. In addition, our numerical modeling results illustrate that the expected sensitivity for the decay length changes with the angle of incidence, tracking the theoretical penetration depth for a two-media model, and is

  20. Magneto-optical bismuth-substituted bubble garnet films for magnetic field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randoshkin, Vladimir V.

    1990-10-01

    In the present paper it is shown that the magneto-optical (MO) bismuth-substituted bubble garnet films are attractive for Paraday magnetic field (current) sensors with the rise time about 10 ns. This problem can be solved if the sensors are based on the films with domain wall velocity up to 1000 rn/s and. domain wall mobility about 10 rn/Cs Oe) or more. Using high-speed photography method the two kinds of materials with the high dynamical parameters were studied: 1) (111)-oriented (Tm,Gd,BiL(Pe,Ga)O10 films with high gy- romagnetic ratio ; 2) (21O)-oriente (Y, Lu,r,i) 3(Pe, Ga) 512 films with orthorhombic anisotropy.

  1. Dynamically tuning the optical properties of Europium-doped sodium niobate nano-crystals through magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Quanlan; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhang, Junpei; Zhang, Han; Dong, Guoping; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-11-01

    We have fabricated high quality NaNbO3:Eu3+ nano-crystals based on the Pechini sol-gel method and realized its magneto-optical effect under external pulsed magnetic field. Our results show that magnetic field can induce the suppression of luminescence, the splitting of peaks, and shifting of peak locations due to the expansion of electric dipole emission in Europium ions, and further demonstrate that the magnetic dipole emission plays an insignificant role in effect on the magnetic dipole emission for Eu3+:5 D 0 → 7 F 1, 5 D 0 → 7 F 3 transitions in NaNbO3:Eu3+ nano-crystals. These magnetic-optical interactions are attributed to the results of the Zeeman effect by high magnetic field that could result in the change of the symmetry of Eu3+ ions, and there is different sensitivity to changes of symmetry for Eu3+:5 D 0 → 7 F J (J = 1-4) transitions in NaNbO3 nano-crystals. This work might provide a viable magneto-optical approach in tuning the optical properties (luminescence intensity, peak location, profile, etc) of the rare-earth ions doped nano-particles.

  2. Optical Magnetism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-15

    anisotropic and exhibit chirality , and investigated the dispersion relations of plane wave propagation in chiral (bi-isotropic) and the more general...tensor components of ǫr, µr, and in addition the chirality parameter tensor κ. II. MAGNETISM FROM CARBON NANOTUBE COIL ARRAYS Our preliminary studies...nanocoils, it is important to pay attention to the subtle issue of chirality . Most meta- materials exhibit only simple constitutive relations of the form D

  3. Fictitious magnetic-field gradients in optical microtraps as an experimental tool for interrogating and manipulating cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, B.; Meng, Y.; Clausen, C.; Dareau, A.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical microtraps provide a strong spatial confinement for laser-cooled atoms. They can, e.g., be realized with strongly focused trapping light beams or the optical near fields of nanoscale waveguides and photonic nanostructures. Atoms in such traps often experience strongly spatially varying ac Stark shifts which are proportional to the magnetic quantum number of the respective energy level. These inhomogeneous fictitious magnetic fields can cause a displacement of the trapping potential that depends on the Zeeman state. Hitherto, this effect was mainly perceived as detrimental in optical microtraps. However, it also provides a means to probe and to manipulate the motional state of the atoms in the trap by driving transitions between Zeeman states. Furthermore, by applying additional real or fictitious magnetic fields, the state dependence of the trapping potential can be controlled. Here, using laser-cooled atoms that are confined in a nanofiber-based optical dipole trap, we employ this control in order to tune the microwave coupling of motional quantum states. We record corresponding microwave spectra which allow us to infer the trap parameters as well as the temperature of the atoms. Finally, we reduce the mean number of motional quanta in one spatial dimension to =0.3 (1 ) by microwave sideband cooling. Our work shows that the inherent fictitious magnetic fields in optical microtraps expand the experimental toolbox for interrogating and manipulating cold atoms.

  4. Magnetic field effects on mitochondrion-activity-related optical properties in slime mold and bone forming cells.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Yuri; Iwasaka, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a cellular level response of Cyto-aa3 oxidation was investigated in real time under both time-varying and strong static magnetic fields of 5 T. Two kinds of cells, a slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, and bone forming cells, MC-3T3-E1, were used for the experiments. The oxidation level of the Cyto-aa3 was calculated by optical absorptions at 690 nm, 780 nm and 830 nm. The sample, fiber-optics and an additional optical fiber for light stimulation were set in a solenoidal coil or the bore of a 5-T superconducting magnet. The solenoidal coil for time-varying magnetic fields produced sinusoidal magnetic fields of 6 mT. The slime mold showed a periodic change in Cyto-aa3 oxidation, and the oxidation-reduction cycle of Cyto-aa3 was apparently changed when visible-light irradiated the slime mold. Similarly to the case with light, time-varying magnetic stimulations changed the oxidation-reduction cycle during and after the stimulation for 10 minutes. The same phenomena were observed in the MC-3T3-E1 cell assembly, although their cycle rhythm was comparatively random. Finally, magnetic field exposure of up to 5 T exhibited a distinct suppression of Cyto-aa3 oscillation in the bone forming cells. Exposure up to 5 T was repeated five times, and the change in Cyto-aa3 oxidation reproducibly occurred.

  5. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of rare -earth ↔iron exchange resonance mode in a magnetic oxide studied with femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Marwan; Molho, Pierre; Barbara, Bernard; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2016-08-01

    In magnetic materials, the exchange is the strongest quantum interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle. For that reason it can induce high-frequency modes fexch of the magnetization precession. In this work we investigate these modes over a wide range of temperatures (50 -300 K ) and magnetic fields up to 10 T in a bismuth-doped garnet with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by performing femtosecond magneto-optical pump-probe experiments. Near the compensation temperature TM the divergence of 1 /fexch(T ) allows identifying unambiguously fexch with the rare-earth ↔ iron exchange mode. In addition, at low temperature fexch is independent of the field as usually observed. In contrast, we find that near TM,fexch decreases linearly with an increasing magnetic field. This behavior is explained in the context of the ferromagnetic resonance theory by including the perturbation term linear in the external applied field Hext.

  6. a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope with Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect Contrast for the Imaging of Magnetic Domains with 200 Angstrom Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Thomas Joseph

    We describe the development of a scanning near -field optical microscope for magnetic domain imaging in thin-film materials. The near-field probe is a 20-40 nm Ag particle which is optically excited near the surface plasmon resonance frequency. The plasmon resonance in individual Ag particles is characterized by optical spectroscopy for light scattered from single Ag particles. The existence of a near-field form of the magneto-optic Kerr effect is confirmed. In the final form of the microscope, the Ag particle is mounted on a hemispherical glass substrate and brought to within near-field proximity of a flat sample surface. The separation of the probe and sample is regulated by a Newton ring interferometer in closed loop feedback control of a piezoelectric translator. Separation stability can be kept to less than one nanometer. Near-field magneto -optic interactions are measured with a shot-noise limited modulating ellipsometer. We measured the dependence of the near-field Kerr signal on the separation of the probe and sample for longitudinal magnetization, and suggest a potential resolution of 20-40 nm. Two-dimensional images are presented of thermo-magnetically recorded domains in a Co/Pt multilayer material, with less than 100 nm resolution. Domains with a 0.5 micron diameter and one micron spacing are clearly resolved. We discuss future improvements of the instrument and propose an ultimate resolution of 140 A.

  7. Zero and Ultra-Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Via Optical Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, John Woodland

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is among the most powerful analytical tools available to the chemical and biological sciences for chemical detection, characterization, and structure elucidation. NMR experiments are usually performed in large magnetic fields in order to maximize sensitivity and increase chemical shift resolution. However, the high magnetic fields required for conventional NMR necessitate large, immobile, and expensive superconducting magnets, limiting the use of the technique. New hyperpolarization and non-inductive detection methods have recently allowed for NMR measurements in the inverse regime of extremely low magnetic fields. Whereas a substantial body of research has been conducted in the high-field regime, taking advantage of the efficient coherent control afforded by a spectroscopy dominated by coupling to the spectrometer, the zero- and ultra-low-field (ZULF) regime has remained mostly unexplored. In this dissertation, we investigate the applicability of ZULF-NMR as a novel spectroscopic technique complimentary to high-field NMR. In particular, we consider various aspects of the ZULF-NMR experiment and the dynamics of nuclear spins under various local spin coupling Hamiltonians. We first survey zero-field NMR experiments on systems dominated by the electron-mediated indirect spin-spin coupling (J-coupling). The resulting J-spectra permit precision measurement of chemically relevant information due to the exquisite sensitivity of J-couplings to subtle changes in molecular geometry and electronic structure. We also consider the effects of weak magnetic fields and residual dipolar couplings in anisotropic media, which encode information about nuclear magnetic moments and geometry, and further resolve topological ambiguities by lifting degeneracies. By extending the understanding of the interactions that contribute to ZULF-NMR spectra, this work represents a significant advancement towards a complete description of zero- and ultra-low-field

  8. All-Fiber Optical Magnetic-Field Sensor Based on Faraday Rotation in Highly Terbium-Doped Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.; Jiang, S.; Marciante, J.R.

    2010-03-03

    An all-fiber optical magnetic field sensor is demonstrated. It consists of a fiber Faraday rotator and a fiber polarizer. The fiber Faraday rotator uses a 2-cm-long section of 56-wt.%-terbium–doped silicate fiber with a Verdet constant of –24.5 rad/(Tm) at 1053 nm. The fiber polarizer is Corning SP1060 single-polarization fiber. The sensor has a sensitivity of 0.49 rad/T and can measure magnetic fields from 0.02 to 3.2 T.

  9. All-fiber optical magnetic-field sensor based on Faraday rotation in highly terbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Jiang, S; Marciante, J R

    2010-03-15

    An all-fiber optical magnetic field sensor is demonstrated. It consists of a fiber Faraday rotator and a fiber polarizer. The fiber Faraday rotator uses a 2-cm-long section of 56-wt.%-terbium-doped silicate fiber with a Verdet constant of -24.5 rad/(Tm) at 1053 nm. The fiber polarizer is Corning SP1060 single-polarization fiber. The sensor has a sensitivity of 0.49 rad/T and can measure magnetic fields from 0.02 to 3.2 T.

  10. Optical soliton in dielectric fibers and self-organization of turbulence in plasmas in magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Akira

    2009-01-01

    One important discovery in the twentieth century physics is the natural formation of a coherent or a well-ordered structure in continuous media, in contrary to degradation of the state as predicted earlier from the second law of thermodynamics. Here nonlinearity plays the essential role in its process. The discovery of soliton, a localized stable wave in a nonlinear and dispersive medium and the self-organization of fluid turbulence are of the major examples. A soliton is formed primarily in one-dimensional medium where the dispersion and nonlinearity play the essential role. Here the temporal evolution can be described by an infinite dimensional Hamiltonian system that is integrable. While a self-organization appears in an infinite dimensional non-Hamiltonian (or dissipative) system where more than two conservative quantities exist in the limit of no dissipation. In this manuscript, by showing examples of the optical soliton in dielectric fibers and self-organization of turbulence in a toroidal plasma in a magnetic field, we demonstrate these interesting discoveries. The manuscript is intended to describe these discoveries more on philosophical basis with some sacrifice on mathematical details so that the idea is conveyed to those in the wide area of sciences. PMID:19145067

  11. Studying the reversal mode of the magnetization vector versus applied field angle using generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pufall, M. R.; Berger, A.

    1999-10-26

    The authors used the technique of vector Generalized Magneto-optical Ellipsometry to study the behavior of the magnetization vector of a 50 Co thin film as a function of external field magnitude and direction. With this method, which determines the both the direction and magnitude of the magnetization, averaged over the 1 mm incident laser beam, they were able to determine the relative contributions of magnetization rotation and domain formation to the reversal of M. The Co sample had a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. The authors found that when the angle between the applied field and the easy axis was greater than {approximately} 40 degrees, the reversal occurred primarily by rotation of the magnetization, accompanied by a small reduction of the magnitude of M. In this angular region, the critical field-the field at which there is a large jump in the angle of M -- as a function of applied field angle followed a coherent rotation model. However, at applied field angles less than 40 degrees to the easy axis, they found a larger reduction in {vert_bar}M{vert_bar} occurring before and during the jump in the magnetization angle. The jump also occurred at fields much lower than those predicted by the coherent rotation model, indicating a reversal mode initiated by domain formation.

  12. Three-dimensional extremely-short optical pulses in carbon nanotube arrays in the presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Belonenko, Mikhail B.; Galkina, Elena N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we study the behavior of three-dimensional extremely-short optical pulses propagating in a system made of carbon nanotubes in the presence of an external magnetic field applied perpendicular both to the nanotube axis and to the direction of propagation of the pulse. The evolution of the electromagnetic field is classically derived on the basis of the Maxwell’s equations. The electronic system of carbon nanotubes is considered in the low-temperature approximation. Our analysis reveals the novel and unique ability of controlling the shape of propagating short optical pulses by tuning the intensity of the applied magnetic field. This effect paves the way for the possible development of innovative applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Research on optical fiber magnetic field sensors based on multi-mode fiber and spherical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Tong, Zheng-rong; Zhang, Wei-hua; Luan, Pan-pan; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Li-fang

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor with a magnetic fluid (MF)-coated intermodal interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The interferometer is formed by sandwiching a segment of single mode fiber (SMF) between a segment of multi-mode fiber (MMF) and a spherical structure. It can be considered as a cascade of the traditional SMF-MMF-SMF structure and MMF-SMF-sphere structure. The transmission spectral characteristics change with the variation of applied magnetic field. The experimental results exhibit that the magnetic field sensitivities for wavelength and transmission loss are 0.047 nm/mT and 0.215 dB/mT for the interference dip around 1 535.36 nm. For the interference dip around 1548.41nm, the sensitivities are 0.077 nm/mT and 0.243 dB/mT. Simultaneous measurement can be realized according to the different spectral responses.

  14. Non-linear optical response of an impurity in a cylindrical quantum dot under the action of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portacio, Alfonso A.; Rodríguez, Boris A.; Villamil, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical response in a cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs / Ga0.6Al0.4 As with a donor impurity in a uniform magnetic field applied in the axial direction of the cylinder is studied theoretically. The calculations were carried out in approximations of effective mass and two-level quantum systems. Using the variational method, the binding energies and the wave functions of the 1s-like y 2pz-like states for different positions of the impurity inside the CQD were found. It was found that the binding energy is greatest in the center of the CQD and diminishes as the impurity moves radially and/or axially. The optical rectification, the change in the refractive index, and the optical absorption were studied as functions of the energy of a photon incident on the CQD and different intensities of the magnetic field, with an impurity located at various positions. It was found that in a CDQ with an impurity inside, the effect of the variation of the intensity of the magnetic field on the optical response is much less than the effect produced by the variation of the position of the impurity. The physical reason for this behavior is that in nanostructures with impurities the Coulomb confinement is stronger than the magnetic confinement. It was also found that when the impurity is in the center of the quantum dot, the optical rectification coefficient is zero, due to the symmetry that the wave function of the impurity exhibits at this geometric point. When the impurity moves in the axial direction, the symmetry is broken and the optical rectification coefficient is different from zero, and its value increases as the impurity moves away from the center of the CQD.

  15. Electronic and optical properties of a circular graphene quantum dot in a magnetic field: Influence of the boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, M.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, A.; Tadić, M.; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2011-11-01

    An analytical approach, using the Dirac-Weyl equation, is implemented to obtain the energy spectrum and optical absorption of a circular graphene quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field. Results are obtained for the infinite-mass and zigzag boundary conditions. We found that the energy spectrum of a dot with the zigzag boundary condition exhibits a zero-energy band regardless of the value of the magnetic field, while for the infinite-mass boundary condition, the zero-energy states appear only for high magnetic fields. The analytical results are compared to those obtained from the tight-binding model: (i) we show the validity range of the continuum model and (ii) we find that the continuum model with the infinite-mass boundary condition describes rather well its tight-binding analog, which can be partially attributed to the blurring of the mixed edges by the staggered potential.

  16. Coherence of interacting bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with a large number of subbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygiel, B.; Patucha, K.; Zaleski, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the behavior of interacting ultracold bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with wide range of in-cell fluxes α =p /q . The problem is similar to the one of an electron moving in a tight-binding scheme in the magnetic field and becomes difficult to tackle for a growing number of magnetic subbands, q . To overcome this, we focus on the interplay of the width, shape, and number of the subbands on the formation of the coherent state of cold bosons. Using the quantum rotor approach, which goes beyond the mean-field approximation, we are able to pinpoint the elements of the band structure, which are the most significant in a proper theoretical description of the synthetic magnetic field in a bosonic lattice system. As a result, we propose a method of reconstruction of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum by replacing the magnetic subbands with renormalized bands of a square lattice. This allows us to effectively investigate the properties of the studied system for a wide range of magnetic fluxes and their impact on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition.

  17. Optically pumped quantum Mx-MR magnetometer with high oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhi-Chao; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Kai-Yong; Luo, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A dip of the transverse component of the magnetic moment as a function of resonance frequency-detuning will emerge when the intensity of oscillating magnetic field exceeds a specific value, which is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. The linewidth of magnetic-resonance signal can be much smaller than when the Mx-MR magnetometer operates on condition that the intensity of oscillating magnetic field is smaller than this specific value, and the Mx-MR magnetometer can possess a much higher signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental result shows that the sensitivity of Mx-MR magnetometer can be improved by an order of magnitude under this condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475192) and the Science Research Program of National University of Defense Technology, China (Grant No. JC140702).

  18. Fractal diabolo antenna for enhancing and confining the optical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Dai, H. T.; Sun, X. W.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce fractal geometry to diabolo nanoantenna for higher magnetic field intensity enhancement, i.e. the Sierpiński triangle diabolo antenna (STDA). Numerical results show that higher iteration of the STDA is responsible for the higher enhancement and the red shift of the resonant wavelength. Further investigation demonstrates the enhancement can be improved by increasing the length of the antenna or its central strip. By designing diabolo antennas with fractal geometry, improving the magnetic field intensity enhancement and varying the resonance conditions can be achieved while keeping the constant antenna dimensions.

  19. Fractal diabolo antenna for enhancing and confining the optical magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Dai, H. T.; Sun, X. W.

    2014-01-15

    We introduce fractal geometry to diabolo nanoantenna for higher magnetic field intensity enhancement, i.e. the Sierpiński triangle diabolo antenna (STDA). Numerical results show that higher iteration of the STDA is responsible for the higher enhancement and the red shift of the resonant wavelength. Further investigation demonstrates the enhancement can be improved by increasing the length of the antenna or its central strip. By designing diabolo antennas with fractal geometry, improving the magnetic field intensity enhancement and varying the resonance conditions can be achieved while keeping the constant antenna dimensions.

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Kondo Resonance Splitting in a Quantum Dot with Perpendicular Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ju; Yu, Hua-Ling; Wang, Xia-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Gao

    2009-12-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the Kondo effect in the quantum dot with perpendicular magnetic fields, in which one is the Zeeman splitting lies in the z-direction and the other is the spin flip points at the x-direction. It is found whatever one or two magnetic fields are applied, the local density of states (LDOS) will split into two peaks. The positions of two Kondo resonance peaks are determined by Zeeman energy Δ when J = 0, and by when J ≠ 0.

  1. Optical visualisation of the flow around a cylinder in electrolyte under strong axial magnetic field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O.; Kobzev, A.; Kolesnikov, Yu.; Thess, A.

    Flows around obstacles are among the most common problems encountered in the fluid mechanics literature, and cylindrical obstacles definitely received the most extensive attention. The reason for this is that this relatively simple geometry already encompasses most of the important physical effects likely to play a role in flow around more complicated obstacles. This means that understanding the cylinder problem provides relevant insight on a wide variety of problem ranging from aerodynamics, with the flow around a wing or a vehicle, to pollutant dispersion around building, flows in turbines … When the working fluid conducts electricity additional effects are involved. In particular, the presence of a magnetic field tends to homogenise the flow in the direction of the magnetic field lines which leads to strong alterations of the flow patterns known from the classical nonconducting case. This configuration is also a very generic one as Magnetohydrodynamic flows around obstacle also occur in a wide variety of applications: for instance, the space vehicle re-entry problem features the flow of a conducting plasma around an obstacle: [1] and [2] have shown that it could be influenced by a strong magnetic field in order to reduce heat transfer. The cooling blanket of the future nuclear fusion reactor ITER soon to be built in France, features a complex flow of liquid metal in a very high magnetic field (typically 10 T), in which the occurrence of obstacles cannot be avoided.

  2. Effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation within the framework of effective mass approximation. The analytic expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The numerical results are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1- x Al x As quantum well. The results show that the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation coefficients are considerably affected by the electromagnetic fields and intense laser field.

  3. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    PubMed

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  4. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  5. Analyze and experiment on AC magnetic field's effect to fiber optic gyroscopes in compact stabilization control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Mao, Yao; Tian, Jing; Li, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOG) are getting more and more attention in areas such as stabilization control systems as they are all solid state and have a wide bandwidth. In stabilization systems that require wide bandwidth control, motors are usually used as actuating mechanism for active disturbance restrain. Voice coil motors (VCMs) are usually used in compact stabilization systems that require large torque and fast response. However, AC magnetic field, which can affect the output of FOG due to Faraday effect, will be generated during operation of VCMs. The frequency range affected by the AC magnetic field to the FOG's output is the same as VCMs drive signal frequency range, which is also exactly the stabilization system's working range. Therefore the effect of the AC magnetic field to FOGs must be evaluated to verify the feasibility of a stable system design that uses both FOGs and VCMs. In this article, the basic structure and operating principle of stabilization system is introduced. The influence of AC magnetic field to FOG is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field generated by VCMs is numerically simulated based on the theory deduction of the magnetic field near energized wires. To verify the influence of the VCM generated magnetic field to the FOGs in practical designs, a simplified random fiber coil model is built for it's hard to accurately test the exact polarize axis's twisting rate in a fiber coil. The influence to the FOG's output of different random coil model is simulated and the result shows a same trend that the influence of the VCM's magnetic field to the FOG is reduced as the distance between the VCM and the FOG increasing. The influence of a VCM to a FOG with the same parameters is experimentally tested. In the Fourier transformed FOG data the same frequency point as the VCM drive signal frequency can be read. The result fit simulated result that as the distance increases, the influence decreases. The amplitude of the frequency point is just

  6. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  7. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-01

    Semiconducting quantum dots - more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms - are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement - or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) - in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen

  8. Imaging of the magnetic field structure in megagauss plasmas by combining pulsed polarimetry with an optical Kerr effect shutter technique

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. J.

    2010-10-15

    Pulsed polarimetry in combination with a high speed photographic technique based on the optical Kerr effect is described. The backscatter in a pulsed polarimeter is directed through a scattering cell and photographed using an {approx}1 ps shutter, essentially freezing the intensity pattern. The image provides both the local electron density and magnetic field distributions along and transverse to the laser sightline. Submillimeter spatial resolution is possible for probing wavelengths in the visible due to the high densities and strong optical activity. Pulsed polarimetry is thereby extended to centimeter-sized plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and B>20-100 T (MG) produced by multiterawatt, multimega-ampere electrical drivers, wire Z pinches, and liner imploded magnetized plasmas.

  9. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  10. Optical detection of nanoparticle agglomeration in a living system under the influence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Robert; Stranik, Ondrej; Schlenk, Florian; Werner, Sebastian; Malsch, Daniéll; Fischer, Dagmar; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles are important in diagnosis and therapy. In order to apply their potential, an understanding of the behavior of particles in the body is crucial. However, in vitro experiments usually do not mimic the dynamic conditions of the in vivo situation. The aim of our work was an in vivo observation of particle transport in chicken egg vessels in the presence of a magnetic field by particle tracking. For that we demonstrate the spatial resolution of our observations in a vein and a temporal resolution by observation of the cardiac cycle in an artery. Microscopic images were recorded in dark field reflection and fluorescence mode.

  11. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  12. Cosmological magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  13. Theory and compensation method of axial magnetic error induced by axial magnetic field in a polarization-maintaining fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanru; Zhao, Yuxiang; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Dengwei; Huang, Tengchao; Miao, Lijun; Shu, Xiaowu; Che, Shuangliang; Liu, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    In an axial magnetic field (AMF), which is vertical to the plane of the fiber coil, a polarization-maintaining fiber optic gyro (PM-FOG) appears as an axial magnetic error. This error is linearly related to the intensity of an AMF, the radius of the fiber coil, and the light wavelength, and also influenced by the distribution of fiber twist. When a PM-FOG is manufactured completely, this error only appears a linear correlation with the AMF. A real-time compensation model is established to eliminate the error, and the experimental results show that the axial magnetic error of the PM-FOG is decreased from 5.83 to 0.09 deg/h in 12G AMF with 18-dB suppression.

  14. Nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a semi-parabolic quantum well under intense laser field: Effects of electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second harmonic generation coefficients related with intersubband transitions in a semi-parabolic quantum well under intense laser field are theoretically studied. The energy levels and corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving the conduction band Schrödinger-like equation in the parabolic approximation and the envelope function approach. Numerical calculations are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum well. The results show that both the non-resonant intense laser field and the static external fields have significant influences on the magnitude and resonant peak energy positions of the coefficients under study.

  15. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  16. Optically encoded nanoprobes using single walled carbon nanotube as the building scaffold for magnetic field guided cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Ye, Minglang; Zong, Shenfei; Li, Mingyue; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xueqin; Cui, Yiping

    2014-02-01

    We construct a novel fluorescent, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) encoded and magnetic nanoprobe for live cell imaging. To fabricate this nanoprobe, single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is used as the building scaffold while gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and quantum dots (QDs) are employed as the building blocks. Here, Au NPs serve as the SERS substrate and QDs act as the fluorescent agent. Au NPs and SPIONs are first adsorbed on the SWNT via electrostatic interactions. Then a silica layer is coated on the SWNT. Finally, QDs are attached on the silica shell. With such a structure, various optical signals can be readily encoded to the nanoprobe simply by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results show that the as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits well fluorescence and SERS performance. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can fulfill magnetic field guided fluorescence and SERS dual mode imaging of live cells. As a fascinating optical encoding material and a multifunctional nanoplatform, the presented nanoprobe holds genuine potential in future biosensing applications.

  17. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  18. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Sergey S; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-13

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  19. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  20. SU-E-T-590: Optimizing Magnetic Field Strengths with Matlab for An Ion-Optic System in Particle Therapy Consisting of Two Quadrupole Magnets for Subsequent Simulations with the Monte-Carlo Code FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, K; Weber, U; Simeonov, Y; Zink, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Aim of this study was to optimize the magnetic field strengths of two quadrupole magnets in a particle therapy facility in order to obtain a beam quality suitable for spot beam scanning. Methods: The particle transport through an ion-optic system of a particle therapy facility consisting of the beam tube, two quadrupole magnets and a beam monitor system was calculated with the help of Matlab by using matrices that solve the equation of motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field and field-free region, respectively. The magnetic field strengths were optimized in order to obtain a circular and thin beam spot at the iso-center of the therapy facility. These optimized field strengths were subsequently transferred to the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA and the transport of 80 MeV/u C12-ions through this ion-optic system was calculated by using a user-routine to implement magnetic fields. The fluence along the beam-axis and at the iso-center was evaluated. Results: The magnetic field strengths could be optimized by using Matlab and transferred to the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA. The implementation via a user-routine was successful. Analyzing the fluence-pattern along the beam-axis the characteristic focusing and de-focusing effects of the quadrupole magnets could be reproduced. Furthermore the beam spot at the iso-center was circular and significantly thinner compared to an unfocused beam. Conclusion: In this study a Matlab tool was developed to optimize magnetic field strengths for an ion-optic system consisting of two quadrupole magnets as part of a particle therapy facility. These magnetic field strengths could subsequently be transferred to and implemented in the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the particle transport through this optimized ion-optic system.

  1. Organic magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  2. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  3. Optical magnetic shift of a directed assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and Fe3O4 nanopaticles in soft matter at low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Jose; Rodarte, A. L.; Wan, J.; Quint, M. T.; Scheibner, M.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-03-01

    We are investigating the ensemble behavior of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) when dispersed in an electro-optically active liquid crystalline (LC) matrix. The directed assembly of NPs in the matrix is driven by the temperature-induced transition of the LC from the isotropic to the nematic phase as the NPs are mostly expelled into the isotropic regions, finally ending up clustered around LC defect points when the transition is complete. Using high-resolution scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), we characterize the spatial distribution and magnetic behavior of Fe3O4 MNPs in a room temperature nematic LC, 5CB. Our results show a two-fold intensity increase of QD photoluminescence (PL) intensity with applied fields lower than 200 G. We speculate this increase is due to a reorientation of LC molecules at the edge of the NP clusters causing QDs to coalesce toward the center of the cluster. This work was funded by NSF. This work was funded by NSF.

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Magnetization of two-dimensional heavy holes with boundaries in a perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Shu-Shen; Zhang, Ping

    2009-10-01

    The magnetisation of heavy holes in III-V semiconductor quantum wells with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in an external perpendicular magnetic field is studied theoretically. We concentrate on the effects on the magnetisation induced by the system boundary, the Rashba SOC and the temperature. It is found that the sawtooth-like de Haasvan Alphen (dHvA) oscillations of the magnetisation will change dramatically in the presence of such three factors. Especially, the effects of the edge states and Rashba SOC on the magnetisation are more evident when the magnetic field is smaller. The oscillation center will shift when the boundary effect is considered and the Rashba SOC will bring beating patterns to the dHvA oscillations. These effects on the dHvA oscillations are preferably observed at low temperatures. With increasing temperature, the dHvA oscillations turn to be blurred and eventually disappear.

  5. The nonlinear optical rectification and second harmonic generation in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zou, LiLi; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Yuan, Jian-Hui

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification (OR) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well (QW) have been investigated theoretically. Here, the expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Simultaneously, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions have been obtained by using the finite difference method. The energy eigenvalues and the shape of the confined potential are modulated by the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. So the results of a number of numerical experiments indicate that the nonlinear OR and SHG strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. This gives a new degree of freedom in various device applications based on the intersubband transitions of electrons.

  6. Controlling the Goos-Hänchen shift with external electric and magnetic fields in an electro-optic/magneto-electric heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Bentivegna, F. F. L.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Petrov, R. V.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.; Bichurin, M. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the Goos-Hänchen effect upon light reflection from a heterostructure consisting of an electro-optic film deposited on a magneto-electric film grown on a nonmagnetic dielectric substrate. It is shown that the linear magneto-electric interaction leads to an increase of the lateral shift even in the absence of any applied electric field. The presence of the electro-optic layer enables the control of the Goos-Hänchen shift and of the position of its maximum (with respect to the angle of incidence) through a variation of the magnitude and orientation of an applied electric field. It is also demonstrated that applying an external magnetic field in order to reverse the magnetization in the magnetic layer results (under the influence of the magneto-electric interaction in the system) in a sign reversal of the lateral shift but a nonreciprocal change of its amplitude.

  7. Polaron effects on the optical rectification and the second harmonic generation in cylindrical quantum dots with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Wu, Qingjie; Wu, Jing-He

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the optical rectification (OR) and the second harmonic generation (SHG) in cylindrical quantum dots (CQDs) with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential in the presence of the magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The expressions for both the OR and the SHG are obtained within the framework of the compact-density-matrix approach and the iterative method. After considering the electron-LO-phonon interaction (ELOPI) as perturbation, the energy levels and the wave functions of an electron confined in CQD are obtained by perturbation theory. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that when we consider the ELOPI, the resonant peak of the OR χ0(2) is enhanced, whereas the magnitude of the SHG χ2ω(2) is greatly enhanced. It is also found that when we ignore the ELOPI, with the increase of the radial confinement frequency ωρ and the magnetic field B, respectively, the resonant peak of the OR χ0(2) remains constant, whereas the magnitude of the SHG χ2ω(2) becomes small. However, when we consider the ELOPI, with the increase of ωρ,B and V respectively, both the resonant peak of the OR χ0(2) and the magnitude of the SHG χ2ω(2) become small. Our results also find that whether the ELOPI is considered or not, with the increase of ωρ, B and V, respectively, both χ0(2) and χ2ω(2) exhibit a blue shift.

  8. The effect of line damping, magneto-optics and parasitic light on the derivation of sunspot vector magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skumanich, A.; Lites, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    The least square fitting of Stokes observations of sunspots using a Milne-Eddington-Unno model appears to lead, in many circumstances, to various inconsistencies such as anomalously large doppler widths and, hence, small magnetic fields which are significantly below those inferred solely from the Zeeman splitting in the intensity profile. It is found that the introduction of additional physics into the model such as the inclusion of damping wings and magneto-optic birefrigence significantly improves the fit to Stokes parameters. Model fits excluding the intensity profile, i.e., of both magnitude as well as spectral shape of the polarization parameters alone, suggest that parasitic light in the intensity profile may also be a source of inconsistencies. The consequences of the physical changes on the vector properties of the field derived from the Fe I lambda 6173 line for the 17 November 1975 spot as well as on the thermodynamic state are discussed. A Doppler width delta lambda (D) - 25mA is bound to be consistent with a low spot temperature and microturbulence, and a damping constant of a = 0.2.

  9. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electronic States of Elliptical Quantum Rings Subjected to a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li-Zhe; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the energy states and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of an electron in elliptical quantum rings in the presence of a uniform magnetic Geld by using an exact numerical diagonalization. The calculated results show that the elliptical quantum rings are flatter, larger amplitudes and periods of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are observed. In addition, in the limits of a circular quantum ring, the results of our approach are in good agreement with those of earlier theories.

  10. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-02-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  11. Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with taper-like and lateral-offset fusion splicing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shaohua; Pu, Shengli; Wang, Haotian

    2014-08-11

    A kind of magnetic field sensor composed of magnetic fluid surrounding a segment of singlemode fiber is proposed. The taper-like and lateral-offset fusion splicing techniques are employed. The sensing principle is based on cladding mode interference. The interference valley wavelength or transmission loss of the sensing structure is sensitive to the external magnetic field, which is utilized for magnetic field sensing. The linear response regions are obtained in the range of 38-225 Oe and 250-475 Oe. For the valley-wavelength-shift-type sensing, the sensitivities are 14.1 pm/Oe and 26 pm/Oe at low and high field ranges, respectively. For the transmission-loss-variation-type sensing, the sensitivity of -0.024 dB/Oe is achieved for the magnetic field strength ranging from 250 to 475 Oe.

  12. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno E-mail: bruno.ullrich@yahoo.com

    2014-12-15

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  13. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  14. Magnetosheath magnetic field variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.

  15. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  16. Magnetic field sensing with an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer based on capillary optical fiber and Terfenol-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouvêa, Paula M. P.; Costa, Greice K. B.; Soares, Larissa M. B.; Pereira, João. M. B.; Fávero, Fernando C.; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Bruno, Antonio C.; Carvalho, Isabel C. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we discuss results obtained with an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) built by splicing a small section of capillary fiber between two pieces of standard single mode fiber, resulting in a rectangular air cavity. The FPIs were characterized regarding sensitivity to temperature and longitudinal strain. The FPIs were bonded to pieces of Terfenol-D, a magnetostrictive alloy, to be used as magnetic field sensors. Fiber Bragg Gratings were also bonded to Terfenol-D for comparison. The FPI based on capillary optical fiber and Terfenol-D showed a higher sensitivity to an applied magnetic field when compared to an FBG.

  17. Magneto-Optic Field Coupling in Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Gregory P. (Inventor); Mohanchandra, Panduranga K. (Inventor); Emmons, Michael C. (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is a magneto-optic coupled magnetic sensor that comprises a standard optical fiber Bragg grating system. The system includes an optical fiber with at least one Bragg grating therein. The optical fiber has at least an inner core and a cladding that surrounds the inner core. The optical fiber is part of an optical system that includes an interrogation device that provides a light wave through the optical fiber and a system to determine the change in the index of refraction of the optical fiber. The cladding of the optical fiber comprises at least a portion of which is made up of ferromagnetic particles so that the ferromagnetic particles are subject to the light wave provided by the interrogation system. When a magnetic field is present, the ferromagnetic particles change the optical properties of the sensor directly.

  18. Ultrafast optical excitation of magnetic skyrmions

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, N.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions in an insulating chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 were studied by all-optical spin wave spectroscopy. The spins in the conical and skyrmion phases were excited by the impulsive magnetic field from the inverse-Faraday effect, and resultant spin dynamics were detected by using time-resolved magneto-optics. Clear dispersions of the helimagnon were observed, which is accompanied by a distinct transition into the skyrmion phase, by sweeping temperature and magnetic field. In addition to the collective excitations of skyrmions, i.e., rotation and breathing modes, several spin precession modes were identified, which would be specific to optical excitation. The ultrafast, nonthermal, and local excitation of the spin systems by photons would lead to the efficient manipulation of nano-magnetic structures. PMID:25897634

  19. Effects of high magnetic field assisted annealing on structure and optical, electric properties of electrodeposited ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Guojian; Wu, Chun; Sui, Xudong; Du, Jiaojiao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Electrodeposited ZnO films have been annealed at 300 °C for 2 h under 12 T high magnetic field (HMF) with the directions of parallel and perpendicular to the films, respectively. The structural, optical and electric properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Seebeck coefficient/electrical resistance measuring system. The results show that HMF has a significant effect on the growth of ZnO films along c-axis and leads to hexagonal platelets of ZnO growing parallel to the direction of HMF. Furthermore, the hexagonal platelets become bulky platelets with an obvious trendy rotating their c-axis parallel to the substrate. The PL spectra of all the films exhibits the UV and blue emission, moreover, the blue emission plays the main role. The resistivity of ZnO films increases with the increase of measure temperature, which shows a typical degenerate semiconductor characteristic. HMF reduces significantly the intensity of whole emission peaks and the resistivity of ZnO films. These may be attribute to the significant changes of the structure and morphology of ZnO films, leading to various amounts of the defects in the ZnO crystal.

  20. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  1. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  2. Optical peak gain in a PbSe/CdSe core-shell quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field for mid-infrared laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanamoorthy, S. N.; John Peter, A.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic field induced electronic properties and some nonlinear optical properties of an exciton are investigated taking into account the geometrical confinement effects in a PbSe/CdSe core-shell heterostructure. The effects of dielectric mismatch between the inner and outer materials, built-in internal electric fields and the self-polarization potential are included in the calculation of obtaining these properties. Self-polarization charges are incorporated at the interface of the core-shell materials. The magnetic field dependent exciton binding energies are found with the ratio of core-shell radii of the dot using variational formulism within the single band effective mass approximation. The magnetic field induced oscillator strength and the radiative life time of the exciton are studied for a constant dot radius. The absorption coefficients and the optical gain as a function of photon energy, the peak gain with the current density are investigated in the PbSe/CdSe core-shell dot for various values of magnetic field strength.

  3. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  4. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, B. F.; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Beck, M.; Bartels, A.; Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J.; Graham, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 1012 cm-2 and 9000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m0.

  5. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-04

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  6. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  7. Note: Fiber optic transport probe for Hall measurements under light and magnetic field at low temperatures: Case study of a two dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.

    2015-05-15

    A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360–800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8–300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0–7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.

  8. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jing-Min; Tian, Li-Jim

    2010-03-01

    We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum.

  9. Effect of magnetic ordering of Dy2BaNiO5 on the crystal-field levels of dysprosium: optical spectroscopy of f-f transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, A. S.; Klimin, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical transmission spectroscopy study of the Haldane magnet Dy2BaNiO5 was performed in the region of f-f transitions of the Dy3+ ion in a wide range of temperatures (5-300 K). At temperatures lower than TN (59 K), Kramers doublets of the rare-earth ion split. Spectroscopic data obtained were used to calculate the Schottky-type anomaly in the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Dy2BaNiO5 and to model the experimental data available in literature. Anomalous behavior of crystal-field energies of the Dy3+ ion was attributed to the magnetoelectric interactions.

  10. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands.

  11. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Song, Justin C. W.; Rudner, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron–electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090

  12. Magnetic fields from inflation?

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.

  13. Supersolid phases in the magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Guo; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2017-02-01

    We study the ground state phases of the ultracold atomic condensates loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice with the magnetic fields. Apart from uniform superfluid (SF) phase, four types of supersolid (SS) phases in the presence of the uniform magnetic fluxes and two types of SS phases in the presence of the staggered magnetic fluxes are found. For the system without magnetic flux, except for a certain unit phase factor ϕ x (y) = π, the magnetic field has no effect on the system.

  14. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells. PMID:27254771

  15. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells.

  16. PHOTOSPHERIC FLOW FIELD RELATED TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE SUN'S POLAR MAGNETIC PATCHES OBSERVED BY HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kaithakkal, Anjali John; Suematsu, Y.; Kubo, M.; Iida, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Shiota, D.

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the role of photospheric plasma motions in the formation and evolution of polar magnetic patches using time-sequence observations with high spatial resolution. The observations were obtained with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite. From the statistical analysis using 75 magnetic patches, we found that they are surrounded by strong converging, supergranulation associated flows during their apparent lifetime and that the converging flow around the patch boundary is better observed in the Doppler velocity profile in the deeper photosphere. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the like-polarity magnetic fragments in the polar region are advected and clustered by photospheric converging flows, thereby resulting in the formation of polar magnetic patches. Our observations show that, in addition to direct cancellation, magnetic patches decay by fragmentation followed by unipolar disappearance or unipolar disappearance without fragmentation. It is possible that the magnetic patches of existing polarity fragment or diffuse away into smaller elements and eventually cancel out with opposite polarity fragments that reach the polar region around the solar cycle maximum. This could be one of the possible mechanisms by which the existing polarity decays during the reversal of the polar magnetic field.

  17. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  18. The interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

  19. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  20. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  1. Magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.

    1993-10-01

    This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

  2. Magnetic field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, W. I.

    The fundamental principles of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in cosmic plasmas are reviewed. The history of reconnection models is traced, and consideration is given to the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem, the frozen-field theorem, the application of the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem to a collisionless plasma, solutions to specific reconnection problems, and configurational instability. Diagrams and graphs are provided, and the objections raised by critics of the reconnection theory and/or its astrophysical applications are discussed.

  3. Cascaded fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometers with Vernier effect for highly sensitive measurement of axial strain and magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tang, Ming; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Benpeng; Fu, Songnian; Ouyang, Jun; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-08-11

    We report a highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor based on two cascaded intrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (IFFPIs). The cascaded IFFPIs have different free spectral ranges (FSRs) and are formed by a short section of hollow core photonic crystal fiber sandwiched by two single mode fibers. With the superposition of reflective spectrum with different FSRs, the Vernier effect will be generated in the proposed sensor and we found that the strain sensitivity of the proposed sensor can be improved from 1.6 pm/με for a single IFFPI sensor to 47.14 pm/με by employing the Vernier effect. The sensor embed with a metglas ribbon can be also used to measure the magnetic field according to the similar principle. The sensitivity of the magnetic field measurement is achieved to be 71.57 pm/Oe that is significantly larger than the 2.5 pm/Oe for a single IFFPI sensor.

  4. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  5. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  6. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  7. Selectively driving optical magnetism (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Norbert F.; Manna, Uttam; Parker, John A.; lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tiansong; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossef

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that one can create a magnetic field by passing a DC or AC electric current through a coil of conductor (i.e., a wire); a phenomenon described by the Maxwell-Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. NMR or ESR (nuclear magnetic resonance or electron spin resonance) spectroscopies involve the interaction of a spin (nuclear or electron, respectively) with a magnetic field. Mathematically, these phenomena can be understood as the curl of the electric field (i.e., the current or spin) producing a (time varying) magnetic field or vise versa. Thus, one should also be able to induce a magnetic response in nano- and meso-scale materials by exploiting Maxwell-Faraday's law of induction through the design of the structure, by employing an electric field with instantaneous curl or do both to produce an instantaneous circulating (or displacement) current. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create an angular (cylindrical) electric field, and selectively induce a magnetic response in metal nanoparticle-based nanomaterials at optical frequencies. This time-varying magnetic field at optical frequencies is induced in systems that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Moreover, with the vector beam spectroscopy we also selectively drive electric dipole modes by excitation with a radially polarized light, and show that the strength of the electric and magnetic modes can be equal in magnitude in individual metal nano-structures. This work opens new opportunities for selective spectroscopic investigation of "dark modes" and Fano resonances in nanomaterials, metamaterials and control of nanomaterial excitations and dynamics.

  8. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  9. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  10. Graphene in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlita, Milan; Escoffier, Walter; Plochocka, Paulina; Raquet, Bertrand; Zeitler, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-based nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, represent a fascinating research area aiming at exploring their remarkable physical and electronic properties. These materials not only constitute a playground for physicists, they are also very promising for practical applications and are envisioned as elementary bricks of the future of the nano-electronics. As for graphene, its potential already lies in the domain of opto-electronics where its unique electronic and optical properties can be fully exploited. Indeed, recent technological advances have demonstrated its effectiveness in the fabrication of solar cells and ultra-fast lasers, as well as touch-screens and sensitive photo-detectors. Although the photo-voltaic technology is now dominated by silicon-based devices, the use of graphene could very well provide higher efficiency. However, before the applied research to take place, one must first demonstrates the operativeness of carbon-based nano-materials, and this is where the fundamental research comes into play. In this context, the use of magnetic field has been proven extremely useful for addressing their fundamental properties as it provides an external and adjustable parameter which drastically modifies their electronic band structure. In order to induce some significant changes, very high magnetic fields are required and can be provided using both DC and pulsed technology, depending of the experimental constraints. In this article, we review some of the challenging experiments on single nano-objects performed in high magnetic and low temperature. We shall mainly focus on the high-field magneto-optical and magneto-transport experiments which provided comprehensive understanding of the peculiar Landau level quantization of the Dirac-type charge carriers in graphene and thin graphite.

  11. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  12. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  13. Linear polarization of resonance lines in the absence of magnetic fields. I - Slabs of finite optical thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, M.

    1987-05-01

    Effects of partial frequency redistribution on resonance polarization of spectral lines in the absence of magnetic fields are studied for resonance lines formed in finite slabs. The emphasis is on testing the validity (for polarization calculations) of various approximate forms of the so-called RII frequency redistribution function which describes the formation of resonance lines formed in dilute media. Polarization profiles obtained with the angle-dependent RII are compared to profiles calculated with the angle-averaged form of RII and its approximate versions proposed by Kneer and Ayres. A comparison with complete frequency redistribution polarization profiles is also presented.

  14. Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spacecraft observations of steady and nonsteady reconnection at the magnetopause are reviewed. Computer simulations of three-dimensional reconnection in the geomagnetic tail are discussed. Theoretical aspects of the energization of particles in current sheets and of the microprocesses in the diffusion region are presented. Terrella experiments in which magnetospheric reconnection is simulated at both the magnetopause and in the tail are described. The possible role of reconnection in the evolution of solar magnetic fields and solar flares is discussed. A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation of turbulent reconnection is examined. Results concerning reconnection in Tokamak devices are also presented.

  15. A microfabricated optically-pumped magnetic gradiometer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D; Perry, A R; Krzyzewski, S P; Geller, S; Kitching, J; Knappe, S

    2017-01-16

    We report on the development of a microfabricated atomic magnetic gradiometer based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms in the vapor phase. The gradiometer, which operates in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, has a length of 60 mm and cross sectional diameter of 12 mm, and consists of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers which are interrogated by a common laser light. The sensor can measure differences in magnetic fields, over a 20 mm baseline, of 10 fT/[Formula: see text] at frequencies above 20 Hz. The maximum rejection of magnetic field noise is 1000 at 10 Hz. By use of a set of compensation coils wrapped around the sensor, we also measure the sensor sensitivity at several external bias field strengths up to 150 mG. This device is useful for applications that require both sensitive gradient field information and high common-mode noise cancellation.

  16. A microfabricated optically-pumped magnetic gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, D.; Perry, A. R.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Geller, S.; Kitching, J.; Knappe, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development of a microfabricated atomic magnetic gradiometer based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms in the vapor phase. The gradiometer, which operates in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, has a length of 60 mm and cross sectional diameter of 12 mm, and consists of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers which are interrogated by a common laser light. The sensor can measure differences in magnetic fields, over a 20 mm baseline, of 10 fT/ Hz1 /2 at frequencies above 20 Hz. The maximum rejection of magnetic field noise is 1000 at 10 Hz. By use of a set of compensation coils wrapped around the sensor, we also measure the sensor sensitivity at several external bias field strengths up to 150 mG. This device is useful for applications that require both sensitive gradient field information and high common-mode noise cancellation.

  17. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  18. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  19. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  20. Optical magnetic plasma in artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Thylen, Lars; Bratkovsky, Alexander; Wang, Shiy-Yuan; Williams, R Stanley

    2009-06-22

    We report the design of an artificial flower-like structure that supports a magnetic plasma in the optical domain. The structure is composed of alternating "petals" of conventional dielectrics (epsilon > 0) and plasmonic materials (Re(epsilon ) < 0). The induced effective magnetic current on such a structure possesses a phase lag with respect to the incident TE-mode magnetic field, similar to the phase lag between the induced electric current and the incident TM-mode electric field on a metal wire. An analogy is thus drawn with an artificial electric plasma composed of metal wires driven by a radio frequency excitation. The effective medium of an array of flowers has a negative permeability within a certain wavelength range, thus behaving as a magnetic plasma.

  1. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  2. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  3. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  4. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  5. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  6. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  7. All-optical magnetic recording with circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Stanciu, C D; Hansteen, F; Kimel, A V; Kirilyuk, A; Tsukamoto, A; Itoh, A; Rasing, Th

    2007-07-27

    We experimentally demonstrate that the magnetization can be reversed in a reproducible manner by a single 40 femtosecond circularly polarized laser pulse, without any applied magnetic field. This optically induced ultrafast magnetization reversal previously believed impossible is the combined result of femtosecond laser heating of the magnetic system to just below the Curie point and circularly polarized light simultaneously acting as a magnetic field. The direction of this opto-magnetic switching is determined only by the helicity of light. This finding reveals an ultrafast and efficient pathway for writing magnetic bits at record-breaking speeds.

  8. Probing magnetic and electric optical responses of silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakov, Dmitry; Sinev, Ivan; Markovich, Dmitry; Samusev, Anton; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Luk'yanchuk, Boris S.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-04-27

    We study experimentally both magnetic and electric optically induced resonances of silicon nanoparticles by combining polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy and near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. We reveal that the scattering spectra exhibit strong sensitivity of electric dipole response to the probing beam polarization and attribute the characteristic asymmetry of measured near-field patterns to the excitation of a magnetic dipole mode. The proposed experimental approach can serve as a powerful tool for the study of photonic nanostructures possessing both electric and magnetic optical responses.

  9. Optical Isolators With Transverse Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Yuan X.; Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    New design for isolator includes zigzag, forward-and-backward-pass beam path and use of transverse rather than longitudinal magnetic field. Design choices produce isolator with as large an aperture as desired using low-Verdet-constant glass rather than more expensive crystals. Uses commercially available permanent magnets in Faraday rotator. More compact and less expensive. Designed to transmit rectangular beam. Square cross section of beam extended to rectangular shape by increasing one dimension of glass without having to increase magnetic field. Potentially useful in laser systems involving slab lasers and amplifiers. Has applications to study of very-high-power lasers for fusion research.

  10. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-09-03

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability.

  11. Infrared array measurements of sunspot magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, M. R.; Lin, H.; Kuhn, J. R.

    1992-06-01

    A 128 x 128 format HgCdTl IR array has been used with the Sacramento Peak Observatory Vacuum Telescope (VTT) and echelle spectrograph to obtain two-dimensional observations of the true magnetic field strength in a sunspot. All of the spectral information contained in the unpolarized IR Fraunhofer line profile, with time resolution of about a minute is retained. Unlike previous optical observations (cf. Adam, 1990), observations readily allow direct field strength measurements out to the outer edge of the penumbra. The magnetic flux density in the outer penumbra is not well described by an extrapolation of the quadratic polynomial, in normalized central distance, that describes the umbral field.

  12. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  13. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  14. Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sophia E; Mui, Stacy; Ramaswamy, Kannan

    2008-02-07

    Optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) of direct gap and indirect gap semiconductors has been an area of active research interest, motivated by both basic science and technological perspectives. Proposals to enhance and to spatially localize nuclear polarization have stimulated interest in this area. Recent progress in OPNMR has focused on exploring the experimental parameter space in order to elucidate details of the underlying photophysics of optical pumping phenomena. The focus of this review is on recent studies of bulk samples of GaAs and InP, namely, the photon energy dependence, the magnetic field dependence, and the phase dependence of OPNMR resonances. Models for the development of nuclear polarization are discussed.

  15. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  16. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  17. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  18. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  19. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  20. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 < Ø < 56, 45 < Ø < 50, 40 < Ø < 45 and Ø < 40micron of nanocrystalline alloy of brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  1. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  2. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  3. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  4. Inference of magnetic fields in inhomogeneous prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.; Atanacković, O.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Most of the quantitative information about the magnetic field vector in solar prominences comes from the analysis of the Hanle effect acting on lines formed by scattering. As these lines can be of non-negligible optical thickness, it is of interest to study the line formation process further. Aims: We investigate the multidimensional effects on the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations, particularly on the inference of the magnetic field vector. We do this by analyzing the differences between multidimensional models, which involve fully self-consistent radiative transfer computations in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities and velocity fields, and those which rely on simple one-dimensional geometry. Methods: We study the formation of a prototype line in ad hoc inhomogeneous, isothermal 2D prominence models. We solve the NLTE polarized line formation problem in the presence of a large-scale oriented magnetic field. The resulting polarized line profiles are then interpreted (i.e. inverted) assuming a simple 1D slab model. Results: We find that differences between input and the inferred magnetic field vector are non-negligible. Namely, we almost universally find that the inferred field is weaker and more horizontal than the input field. Conclusions: Spatial inhomogeneities and radiative transfer have a strong effect on scattering line polarization in the optically thick lines. In real-life situations, ignoring these effects could lead to a serious misinterpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of chromospheric objects such as prominences.

  5. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  6. Optical/near-infrared polarization survey of Sh 2-29: Magnetic fields, dense cloud fragmentations, and anomalous dust grain sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Fábio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; Reis, Wilson; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G. E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br E-mail: roman@dfuls.cl

    2014-03-01

    Sh 2-29 is a conspicuous star-forming region marked by the presence of massive embedded stars as well as several notable interstellar structures. In this research, our goals were to determine the role of magnetic fields and to study the size distribution of interstellar dust particles within this turbulent environment. We have used a set of optical and near-infrared polarimetric data obtained at OPD/LNA (Brazil) and CTIO (Chile), correlated with extinction maps, Two Micron All Sky Survey data, and images from the Digitized Sky Survey and Spitzer. The region's most striking feature is a swept out interstellar cavity whose polarimetric maps indicate that magnetic field lines were dragged outward, piling up along its borders. This led to a higher magnetic strength value (≈400 μG) and an abrupt increase in polarization degree, probably due to an enhancement in alignment efficiency. Furthermore, dense cloud fragmentations with peak A{sub V} between 20 and 37 mag were probably triggered by its expansion. The presence of 24 μm point-like sources indicates possible newborn stars inside this dense environment. A statistical analysis of the angular dispersion function revealed areas where field lines are aligned in a well-ordered pattern, seemingly due to compression effects from the H II region expansion. Finally, Serkowski function fits were used to study the ratio of the total-to-selective extinction, revealing a dual population of anomalous grain particle sizes. This trend suggests that both effects of coagulation and fragmentation of interstellar grains are present in the region.

  7. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  8. Anisotropic magnetic particles in a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Martchenko, Ilya; Mihut, Adriana M.; Bialik, Erik; Hirt, Ann M.; Rufier, Chantal; Menzel, Andreas; Dietsch, Hervé; Linse, Per

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the structural properties of magnetic ellipsoidal hematite colloids with an aspect ratio ρ ≈ 2.3 using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and computer simulations. The evolution of the phase diagram with packing fraction φ and the strength of an applied magnetic field B is described, and the coupling between orientational order of magnetic ellipsoids and the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension addressed. We establish quantitative structural criteria for the different phase and arrest transitions and map distinct isotropic, polarized non-nematic, and nematic phases over an extended range in the φ–B coordinates. We show that upon a rotational arrest of the ellipsoids around φ = 0.59, the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension switches from superparamagnetic to ordered weakly ferromagnetic. If densely packed and arrested, these magnetic particles thus provide persisting remanent magnetization of the suspension. By exploring structural and magnetic properties together, we extend the often used colloid-atom analogy to the case of magnetic spins. PMID:27722439

  9. Calibrated Faraday Current And Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyer, B. T.; Chang, J.; Ruggles, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a calibrated optical fiber Faraday rotation current sensor. A strong magnetic field in an optical fiber introduces circular birefringence, causing the plane of polarization of light to rotate by an amount proportional to the magnetic field. Faraday loops used in the past were nonlinear due to the stress-induced linear birefringence caused by bending the loop. This linear birefringence interfered with the Faraday rotation, yielding a complicated relationship between the current and detected light signal. We have found a way to overcome the effects of the unwanted linear birefringence and produce a calibrated current waveform. The calibration is limited only by the accurate knowledge of the Verdet constant of the optical fiber. Results of recent experiments as well as planned measurements will be presented.

  10. Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid.

    PubMed

    Zu, Peng; Chan, Chi Chiu; Lew, Wen Siang; Jin, Yongxing; Zhang, Yifan; Liew, Hwi Fen; Chen, Li Han; Wong, Wei Chang; Dong, Xinyong

    2012-02-01

    A novel magnetic field fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid is proposed. The sensor is configured as a Sagnac interferometer structure with a magnetic fluid film and a section of polarization maintaining fiber inserted into the fiber loop to produce a sinusoidal interference spectrum for measurement. The output interference spectrum is shifted as the change of the applied magnetic field strength with a sensitivity of 16.7 pm/Oe and a resolution of 0.60 Oe. The output optical power is varied with the change of the applied magnetic field strength with a sensitivity of 0.3998 dB/Oe.

  11. Magnetic field synthesis for microwave magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1982-04-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group of the M.I.T. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science undertook a two-year research program directed at developing synthesis procedures that allow magnetostatic and/or magnetoelastic modes to be specially tailored for microwave signal processing applications that include magnetically tunable filters and limiters as well as delay lines that are either linearly dispersive or nondispersive over prescribed bandwidths. Special emphasis was given to devices employing thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) that are blessed with spatially nonuniform dc magnetic fields.

  12. A high-field 3He metastability exchange optical pumping polarizer operating in a 1.5 T medical scanner for lung magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, G.; Pałasz, T.; Wojna, A.; Głowacz, B.; Suchanek, M.; Olejniczak, Z.; Dohnalik, T.

    2013-05-01

    After being hyperpolarized using the technique of Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping (MEOP), 3He can be used as a contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEOP is usually performed at low magnetic field (˜1 mT) and low pressure (˜1 mbar), which results in a low magnetization production rate. Polarization preserving compression with a compression ratio of order 1000 is also required. It was demonstrated in sealed cells that high nuclear polarization values can be obtained at higher pressures with MEOP, if performed at high magnetic field (non-standard conditions). In this work, the feasibility of building a high-field polarizer that operates within a commercial 1.5 T scanner was evaluated. Preliminary measurements of nuclear polarization with sealed cells filled at different 3He gas pressures (1.33 to 267 mbar) were performed. The use of an annular shape for the laser beam increased by 25% the achievable nuclear polarization equilibrium value (Meq) at 32 and 67 mbar as compared to a Gaussian beam shape. Meq values of 66.4% and 31% were obtained at 32 and 267 mbar, respectively, and the magnetization production rate was increased by a factor of 10 compared to the best results obtained under standard conditions. To study the reproducibility of the method in a polarizing system, the same experiments were performed with small cells connected to a gas handling system. Despite careful cleaning procedure, the purity of the 3He gas could not be matched to that of the sealed cells. Consequently, the polarization build-up times were approximately 3 times longer in the 20-30 mbar range of pressure than those obtained for the 32 mbar sealed cell. However, reasonable Meq values of 40%-60% were achieved in a 90 ml open cell. Based on these findings, a novel compact polarizing system was designed and built. Its typical output is a 3He gas flow rate of 15 sccm with a polarization of 33%. In-vivo lung MRI ventilation images (Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of

  13. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  14. Zero-field optical detection of magnetic resonance on a metastable sulfur-pair-related defect in silicon: Evidence for a Cu constituent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frens, A. M.; Bennebroek, M. T.; Schmidt, J.; Chen, W. M.; Monemar, B.

    1992-11-01

    A metastable complex defect in S-doped silicon has been studied with zero-field optically-detected magnetic-resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy. The defect shows two characteristic photoluminescence (PL) spectra SA and SB, corresponding to two different geometric configurations 1 and 2. The PL spectra in both cases originate from excited-state triplet bound excitons in the neutral charge state of the defect. Previous X-band ODMR studies for SA and SB show broad spectra with unresolved hyperfine interaction. In zero-field ODMR the linewidth is reduced to about 50 MHz for SA (100 MHz for SB), and the second-order hyperfine structure of an I=32 nucleus is resolved, partly with the help of a double-resonance technique. The zero-field splitting parameters of the triplet states (i.e., the principal D-tensor components) are determined as Dxx=-2905, Dyy=-705, and Dzz=3610 MHz for SA, and Dxx=-1295, Dyy=-180, and Dzz=1475 MHz for SB. The hyperfine splitting is determined as A=175 MHz for both SA and SB, whereas the quadrupole constant Pz'z' has a value 10-20 MHz for SA and a substantially larger value, 30-40 MHz for SB. The I=32 nucleus at the core of the defect is tentatively identified as Cu. The conclusion about the different quadrupole interaction for SA and SB from these data agrees with previous ODMR X-band data in a magnetic field, which also show a different configuration (of the Cu atom) in the excited triplet states of SA and SB. It is tentatively concluded from these data that the metastability of this defect is connected to a change of the site of the Cu atom with respect to its surroundings in the silicon lattice.

  15. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  16. Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.

  17. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  18. Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.

    2008-10-15

    The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.

  19. Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

  20. Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenbeck, Kai; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies and may have a strong effect on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employed a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc, and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength previously reported in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is most likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, the magnetic field within the central ~5 kpc is physically enhanced, which reflects the enhancement in density that is due to efficient angular momentum transport. We conclude that high-resolution observations of the central regions will be particularly relevant for probing the evolution of magnetic field structures during merger events.

  1. Ultrafast time domain demonstration of bulk magnetization precession at zero magnetic field ferromagnetic resonance induced by terahertz magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Namai, A; Ohkoshi, S; Suemoto, T

    2010-08-16

    We report the first observation of sub-terahertz bulk-magnetization precession, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetization precession in gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets under zero magnetic field is induced by the impulsive magnetic field of the THz wave through the gyromagnetic effect. Just at the resonance frequency, the linear to circular polarized wave conversion is realized. This is understood as the free induction decay signal radiated from a rotating magnetic dipole corresponding to the natural resonance. Furthermore, this demonstration reveals that the series of gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets is very prospective for magneto-optic devices, which work at room temperature without external magnetic field, in next-generation wireless communication.

  2. Magnetic fields from phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Everett, Allen

    1998-11-01

    The generation of primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions is discussed, paying particular attention to the electroweak transition and to the various definitions of the ``average'' field that have been put forward. It is emphasized that only the volume average has dynamical significance as a seed for galactic dynamos. On rather general grounds of causality and energy conservation, it is shown that, in the absence of MHD effects that transfer power in the magnetic field from small to large scales, processes occurring at the electroweak transition cannot generate fields stronger than 10-20 G on a scale of 0.5 Mpc. However, it is implausible that this upper bound could ever be reached, as it would require all the energy in the Universe to be turned into a magnetic field coherent at the horizon scale. Non-linear MHD effects seem therefore to be necessary if the electroweak transition is to create a primordial seed field.

  3. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  4. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  5. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  6. Magnetic-Field Hazards Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Puchalska, I. B., Influence of magnetic fields on frog sciatic nerve , Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 91:118 (1979). 35. Fardon, 3. C., "Effect of magnetic...fields, Bioelectromagnetic 2:357 (1981). 41. Gaffey, C. T. and Tenforde, T. S., Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to...available from: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon 97208 (1982). 29. Levy , R. H., and Jones, G. S., "Plasma

  7. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.

  8. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329

  9. The Magnetic Field in Tapia's Globule 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Carretti, Ettore; Bhat, Ramesh; Robishaw, Timothy; Crutcher, Richard; Vaillancourt, John

    2014-04-01

    We propose to measure the magnetic field in the Southern Coalsack using the Zeeman effect in OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz. This is motivated by (1) the measurement of a large magnetic field (B~90 uG) in the Coalsack region from optical and near infrared polarimetry and (2) a very low magnetic field (B~1 uG) measured ~30' from the cloud edge using pulsar Faraday rotation measurements. While the derived field strength in the cloud is significantly larger than usually seen in the interstellar medium, the existence of an X-ray emitting envelope around the cloud that contains significant amounts of O VI ions puts the magnetic pressure at approximate equipartition with the thermal pressure of such gas. A chain of observational results indicate that the Coalsack might be a unique, nearby example of externally triggered star formation. This chain starts with the passage of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus super bubble over the cloud, eventually causing triggered star formation. Probing the high magnetic field strength and providing accurate constraints for the interpretation of the observations of the cloud is therefore of great importance for testing this hypothesis.

  10. The Magnetic Field in Tapia's Globule 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Carretti, Ettore; Bhat, Ramesh; Crutcher, Richard; Vaillancourt, John

    2011-10-01

    We propose to measure the magnetic field in the Southern Coalsack using the Zeeman effect in OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz. This is motivated by (1) the measurement of a large magnetic field (B~90 uG) in the Coalsack region from optical and near infrared polarimetry and (2) a very low magnetic field (B~1 uG) measured ~30' from the cloud edge using pulsar Faraday rotation measurements. While the derived field strength in the cloud is significantly larger than usually seen in the interstellar medium, the existence of an X-ray emitting envelope around the cloud that contains significant amounts of O VI ions puts the magnetic pressure at approximate equipartition with the thermal pressure of such gas. A chain of observational results indicate that the Coalsack might be a unique, nearby example of externally triggered star formation. This chain starts with the passage of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus super bubble over the cloud, eventually causing triggered star formation. Probing the high magnetic field strength and providing accurate constraints for the interpretation of the observations of the cloud is therefore of great importance for testing this hypothesis.

  11. The Magnetic Field in Tapia's Globule 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Bhat, Ramesh; Crutcher, Richard; Vaillancourt, John

    2011-04-01

    We propose to measure the magnetic field in the Southern Coalsack using the Zeeman effect in OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz. This is motivated by (1) the measurement of a large magnetic field (B~90 uG) in the Coalsack region from optical and near infrared polarimetry and (2) a very low magnetic field (B~1 uG) measured ~30' from the cloud edge using pulsar Faraday rotation measurements. While the derived field strength in the cloud is significantly larger than usually seen in the interstellar medium, the existence of an X-ray emitting envelope around the cloud that contains significant amounts of O VI ions puts the magnetic pressure at approximate equipartition with the thermal pressure of such gas. A chain of observational results indicate that the Coalsack might be a unique, nearby example of externally triggered star formation. This chain starts with the passage of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus super bubble over the cloud, eventually causing triggered star formation. Probing the high magnetic field strength and providing accurate constraints for the interpretation of the observations of the cloud is therefore of great importance for testing this hypothesis.

  12. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnilica, Jaroslav; Slapanska, Marta; Klein, Peter; Vasina, Petr

    2016-09-01

    The investigations of the non-reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using high-speed camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probes showed that plasma is not homogeneously distributed over the target surface, but it is concentrated in regions of higher local plasma density called spokes rotating above the erosion racetrack. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour was studied by high-speed camera imaging in HiPIMS discharge using 3 inch titanium target. An employed camera enabled us to record two successive images in the same pulse with time delay of 3 μs between them, which allowed us to determine the number of spokes, spoke rotation velocity and spoke rotation frequency. The experimental conditions covered pressure range from 0.15 to 5 Pa, discharge current up to 350 A and magnetic fields of 37, 72 and 91 mT. Increase of the magnetic field influenced the number of spokes observed at the same pressure and at the same discharge current. Moreover, the investigation revealed different characteristic spoke shapes depending on the magnetic field strength - both diffusive and triangular shapes were observed for the same target material. The spoke rotation velocity was independent on the magnetic field strength. This research has been financially supported by the Czech Science Foundation in frame of the project 15-00863S.

  13. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices.

  14. Quantum oscillations without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.

    2017-01-01

    When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .

  15. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Longitudinal-Random-Field Mixed Ising Model with Arbitrary Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ya-Qiu; Wei, Guo-Zhu; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Song, Guo-Li

    2010-05-01

    The longitudinal-random-field mixed Ising model consisting of arbitrary spin values has been studied by the use of an effective field theory with correlations (EFT). The phase diagrams of systems with mixed spins: σ = 1/2, S = 1; σ = 1/2, S = 3/2 are plotted. Not only the discontinuity at T = 0 K, is found when both longitudinal fields are trimodal distributed, but also the tricritical behavior is observed in these phase diagrams between the bimodal and trimodal distributions of longitudinal fields, which is different from the single-spin one. The appearance of tricritical point is independent of the coordination number and spin values.

  16. Magnetic fields in relativistic collisionless shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Santana, Rodolfo; Kumar, Pawan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo E-mail: pk@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2014-04-10

    We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) external forward shocks (FSs). There are 60 (35) GRBs in our X-ray (optical) sample, mostly from Swift. We use two methods to study ε {sub B} (fraction of energy in magnetic field in the FS): (1) for the X-ray sample, we use the constraint that the observed flux at the end of the steep decline is ≥ X-ray FS flux; (2) for the optical sample, we use the condition that the observed flux arises from the FS (optical sample light curves decline as ∼t {sup –1}, as expected for the FS). Making a reasonable assumption on E (jet isotropic equivalent kinetic energy), we converted these conditions into an upper limit (measurement) on ε {sub B} n {sup 2/(p+1)} for our X-ray (optical) sample, where n is the circumburst density and p is the electron index. Taking n = 1 cm{sup –3}, the distribution of ε {sub B} measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample has a range of ∼10{sup –8}-10{sup –3} (∼10{sup –6}-10{sup –3}) and median of ∼few × 10{sup –5} (∼few × 10{sup –5}). To characterize how much amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of a seed magnetic field ∼10 μG, we expressed our results in terms of an amplification factor, AF, which is very weakly dependent on n (AF∝n {sup 0.21}). The range of AF measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample is ∼1-1000 (∼10-300) with a median of ∼50 (∼50). These results suggest that some amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations.

  17. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with

  18. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    coils were driven by a pulsed-power system to generate the fields. All the sources were characterised through a series of measurements and modelling... generated for the coils. Options for further investigation were provided. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED This...investigation. The desired field strength was based on assessments [1] from preliminary magnetohydrodynamic ( MHD ) modelling and while not achievable by

  19. Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect in a Magnetized Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Benjamin; Grames, Joseph; CenterInjectors; Sources Team

    2016-09-01

    Magnetized electron sources have the potential to improve ion beam cooling efficiency. At the Gun Test Stand at Jefferson Lab, a solenoid magnet will be installed adjacent to the photogun to magnetize the electron beam. Due to the photocathode operating in a vacuum chamber, measuring and monitoring the magnetic field at the beam source location with conventional probes is impractical. The Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) describes the change on polarized light by reflection from a magnetized surface. The reflection from the surface may alter the polarization direction, ellipticity, or intensity, and depends linearly upon the surface magnetization of the sample. By replacing the photocathode with a magnetized sample and reflecting polarized light from the sample surface, the magnetic field at the beam source is inferred. A controlled MOKE system has been assembled to test the magnetic field. Calibration of the solenoid magnet is performed by comparing the MOKE signal with magnetic field measurements. The apparatus will provide a description of the field at electron beam source. The report summarizes the method and results of controlled tests and calibration of the MOKE sample with the solenoid magnet field measurements. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Research Experience for Undergraduates Award 1359026 and the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  20. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

    2004-10-03

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

  1. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  2. Charge and current reservoirs for electric and magnetic field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxing; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2010-05-10

    Two optical antenna designs incorporating structures termed charge and current reservoirs are proposed to realize localized high electric and magnetic field enhancement, respectively. Simulation results show that the fan-rod electric antenna design combines the advantages of the rod antenna and the bowtie antenna, and has higher field enhancement than either. The performance of a loop shaped magnetic antenna consisting of a pair of metallic strips with offsets is also verified numerically, with high magnetic field enhancement being observed in the simulation. In both of the designs, the concepts of charge and current reservoirs contribute to high electric and magnetic field enhancement.

  3. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  5. Mixing Dynamics Induced by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Mazuruk, Konstantin; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural and compositional homogeneity in metals and alloys can only be achieved if the initial melt is homogeneous prior to the onset of solidification processing. Naturally induced convection may initially facilitate this requirement but upon the onset of solidification significant compositional variations generally arise leading to undesired segregation. Application of alternating magnetic fields to promote a uniform bulk liquid concentration during solidification processing has been suggested. To investigate such possibilities an initial study of using traveling magnetic fields (TMF) to promote melt homogenization is reported in this work. Theoretically, the effect of TMF-induced convection on mixing phenomena is studied in the laminar regime of flow. Experimentally, with and without applied fields, both 1) mixing dynamics by optically monitoring the spreading of an initially localized dye in transparent fluids and, 2) compositional variations in metal alloys have been investigated.

  6. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  7. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.

  8. Optical and transport studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shaoping

    In this thesis, various studies of magneto-transport and magneto-optical effects in III-V and II-V magnetic semiconductors are presented. The magneo-transport study involved the investigation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in (Ga,Mn)As epilayers with low Mn concentration, grown in ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy (UHV MBE) chamber. Experiments were carried out in National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) on a series of samples with same Mn concentrations (x = 1.4%) but with various Be co-doping levels. We observed a sublinear relationship between the transverse resistivity rhoxy and the longitudinal resistivity rhoxx with a scaling factor n = 0.5, which has not been predicted theoretically. We also investigated the magneto-optical and magnetic properties of two quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) alloys, Cd1- x-yMnxCryTe and Cd1-x-yMnxCo yTe grown by the vertical Bridgman method, with a fixed Mn concentration x ˜ 0.37 and, respectively, with concentrations of Cr in the range 0 < y < 0.07 and Co in the range 0 < y < 0.009. The introduction of Cr and Co leads to very different behaviors, including the occurrence of ferromagnetic order in the case of Cd1-x-yMn xCryTe and several interesting optical transitions for Cd1-x-yMn xCoyTe. We discuss the possible origins of these observed behaviors. Last, we focused on DMS based nano-structures. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies have been carried out on a series of 1.4 nm thick CdSe:Mn nano-ribbons synthesized via colloidal chemical route. MCD spectra have been used for investigating the Zeeman splitting in these one-dimensional (1D) quantum confined diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures. In all samples, a strong MCD signal was found at about 2.9 eV due to a large Zeeman splitting of the exciton confined in the nano-ribbon. The Zeeman splitting is a result of strong sp-d exchange interaction between the electronic holes of the nano-ribbons and localized magnetic moment of Mn2

  9. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Schöller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; Castelli, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Briquet, M.; Dall, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15 G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims: We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods: We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. Out of this sample, three HgMn stars belong to spectroscopic double-lined systems. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field, the crossover effect, and quadratic magnetic fields. Results for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the PGa star HD 19400 are based on a linear regression analysis of low-resolution spectra obtained with FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. Results: Our measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using spectral lines of several elements separately reveal the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field, a quadratic magnetic field, and the

  10. Vector magneto-optical sensor based on transparent magnetic films with cubic crystallographic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, A. E.; Vetoshko, P. M.; Gusev, N. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Prokopov, A. R.; Popov, V. V.; Dodonov, D. V.; Shumilov, A. G.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The concept of vector magneto-optical magnetometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key element of the vector magnetometer is a transparent high Faraday activity magnetic film with a cubic crystal lattice. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the film leads to the three dimensional trajectory of the film magnetization when the magnetization is rotated by the control magnetic field. It makes the magnetization sensitive to all three components of the external magnetic field. This field can be found from the harmonic composition of the Faraday rotation dependence on the azimuth angle of the control magnetic field. The demonstrated vector magnetometer is promising for mapping and visualization of ultra small magnetic fields.

  11. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermak, Helen; Mundell, Carole; Steele, Iain; Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho; Lindfors, Elina; Nilsson, Kari; Barres de Almeida, Ulisses

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world's largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  12. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  13. Observations of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, R.; Heiles, C.; Troland, T.

    This article describes how interstellar magnetic fields are detected, measured, and mapped, the results of such observations, and the role played by interstellar magnetic fields in the physics of the interstellar medium. A goal of the observations is the measurement of the morphology and strengths of the uniform (Bu) and random (Br) components of magnetic fields. Observational techniques probe either the component of B parallel to the line of sight (B_parallel) or in the plane of the sky (B_⊥). Tracers of B_parallel are Faraday rotation of the position angle of linearly polarized radiation and Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. Tracers of B_⊥ are the strength of synchrotron radiation and linear polarization of syn chrotron radiation and of emission or absorption from dust and spectral lines. Starlight polarization shows that on large spatial scales the Galactic magnetic field is not heavily tangled (B_u/B_r ≈ 0.7 - 1.0), that the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane near the plane, that the local field points approximately along the local spiral arm (pitch angle 9.4(°) , center of curvature 7.8 kpc distant towards ℓ ≈ -15.4(°) ), and that off the Galactic plane there is considerable small-scale structure to the field. Galactic synchrotron emission shows magnetic spiral arms with a total strength B_t ≈ 6 #55G and B_u ≈ 4 #55G. Pulsar data show evidence for reversals of the field direction with Galactic radius and yield B_r ≈ 5 #55G and B_u ≈ 1.5 #55G; the morphology of the large-scale mean field is consistent with dynamo generation. H I Zeeman detections for diffuse clouds yield B_parallel char 126 5 - 20 #55G with many limits B_parallel #55G. A recent survey of Galactic H I in absorption against extragalactic sources confirms the result that the fields in diffuse clouds are often quite weak. The critical parameter for evaluating the importance of magnetic fields in star formation is the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux, M

  14. Magnetic fields around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  15. Majorana neutrinos and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, J.; Valle, J. W. F.

    1981-10-01

    It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of "Majorana" type. This implies that their magnetic-moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to take place. We point out that Majorana neutrinos can, however, have transition moments. This enables an inhomogeneous magnetic field to rotate both spin and "flavor" of a neutrino. In this case the spin rotation changes particle to antiparticle. The spin-flavor-rotation effect is worked out in detail. We also discuss the parametrization and calculation of the electromagnetic form factors of Majorana neutrinos. Our discussion takes into account the somewhat unusual quantum theory of massive Majorana particles.

  16. Two-dimensional polaron in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoguang, Wu; Peeters, F. M.; Devreese, J. T.

    1985-12-01

    The ground-state energy of a Fröhlich optical polaron confined to two dimensions, placed in a perpendicular magnetic field is calculated within the Feynman path-integral approach. The Feynman-model mass, the magnetization and the susceptibility are calculated as a function of the magnetic field strength for different values of the electron-phonon coupling. We find that within the generalized Feynman approximation the polaron exhibits a discontinuous transition from a dressed state to a stripped state if the electron-phonon constant α is larger than 1.60. For α<1.60, the transition occurs continuously with increasing magnetic field.

  17. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  18. Optical lattice polarization effects on magnetically induced optical atomic clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Oates, C. W.

    2007-08-15

    We derive the frequency shift for a forbidden optical transition J=0{yields}J{sup '}=0 caused by the simultaneous actions of an elliptically polarized lattice field and a static magnetic field. We find that a simple configuration of lattice and magnetic fields leads to a cancellation of this shift to first order in lattice intensity and magnetic field. In this geometry, the second-order lattice intensity shift can be minimized as well by use of optimal lattice polarization. Suppression of these shifts could considerably enhance the performance of the next generation of atomic clocks.

  19. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marita

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

  20. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  1. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  2. Ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy with an optically pumped magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). Additionally, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  3. Ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy with an optically pumped magnetometer

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized devicemore » can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). Additionally, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.« less

  4. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  5. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience. PMID:27103463

  6. The magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned mainly with the intrinsic planetary field which dominates the inner magnetosphere up to a distance of 10 to 12 Jovian radii where other phenomena, such as ring currents and diamagnetic effects of trapped charged particles, become significant. The main magnetic field of Jupiter as determined by in-situ observations by Pioner 10 and 11 is found to be relatively more complex than a simple offset tilted dipole. Deviations from a simple dipole geometry lead to distortions of the charged particle L shells and warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Io and Amalthea are predicted. The results are consistent with the conclusions derived from extensive radio observations at decimetric and decametric wavelengths for the planetary field.

  7. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  8. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  9. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-04-29

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas.

  10. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Effects of Transverse Field on Internal Energy and Specific Heat of a Molecular-Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Yu, Gui-Hong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Yuan

    2009-11-01

    The molecular-based magnetic materials AFeIIFeIII (C2O4)3 have a honeycomb structure in which FeII (S = 2) and FeIII (S = 5/2) occupy sites alternately. They can be described as mixed spin-2 and spin-5/2 Ising model with ferrimagnetic interlayer coupling. The influences of the transverse field on the internal energy and the specific heat of the molecular-based magnetic system have been studied numerically by using the effective-field theory with self-spin correlations and the differential operator technique.

  12. Electro-Optic Surface Field Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    ELECTRO - OPTIC SURFACE FIELD IMAGING SYSTEM L. E. Kingsley and W. R. Donaldson LABORATORY FOR LASER ENERGETICS University of Rochester 250 East...surface electric fields present during switch operation. The electro - optic , or Pockel’s effect, provides an extremely useful probe of surface electric...fields. Using the electro - optic effect, surface fields can be measured with an optical probe. This paper describes an electro - optic probe which is

  13. Optical rectification in a strained GaAs{sub 0.9}P{sub 0.1}/GaAs{sub 0.6}P{sub 0.4} quantum dot: Simultaneous effects of electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vinolin, Ada; Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    Simultaneous effects of electric field and magnetic field on exciton binding energy as a function of dot radius in a cylindrical GaAs{sub 0.9}P{sub 0.1}/GaAs{sub 0.6}P{sub 0.4} strained quantum dot are investigated. The strain contribution includes the strong built-in electric field induced by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. Numerical calculations are performed using variational procedure within the single band effective mass approximation. Optical rectification in the GaAs{sub 0.9}P{sub 0.1}/GaAs{sub 0.6}P{sub 0.4} quantum dot is computed in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.

  14. The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

    2009-05-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

  15. Optical protein detection based on magnetic clusters rotation.

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, Donatien; Brient-Litzler, Elodie; Daynes, Aurélien; Compain, Eric; Bibette, Jérôme; Baudry, Jean

    2015-09-25

    In this paper we present a simple method to quantify aggregates of 200nm magnetic particles. This method relies on the optical and magnetic anisotropy of particle aggregates, whereas dispersed particles are optically isotropic. We orientate aggregates by applying short pulses of a magnetic field, and we measure optical density variation directly linked to this reorientation. By computing the scattering efficiency of doublets and singlets, we demonstrate the absolute quantification of a few % of doublets in a well dispersed suspension. More generally, these optical variations are related to the aggregation state of the sample. This method can be easily applied to an agglutination assay, where target proteins induce aggregation of colloidal particles. By observing only aligned clusters, we increase sensitivity and we reduce the background noise as compared to a classical agglutination assay: we obtain a detection limit on the C-reactive protein of less than 3pM for a total assay time of 10min.

  16. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken

  17. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Thushara

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom-made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  18. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, G. S. Thushara

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom--made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  19. Magnetic multi-lens focusing optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejbal, Z.; Bejšovec, V.; S̆tursa, J.; Hanc̆l, P.

    1996-02-01

    A magnetic focusing system called B-channel is introduced. Three methods of ion optical calculation are presented and a comparison with experimental results is shown. The properties of B-channel are discussed in comparison with a classical solenoid.

  20. Field errors in superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.

  1. High-Field Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.N.; Jaksch, D.

    2006-05-12

    We consider interacting bosonic atoms in an optical lattice subject to a large simulated magnetic field. We develop a model similar to a bilayer fractional quantum Hall system valid near simple rational numbers of magnetic flux quanta per lattice cell. Then we calculate its ground state, magnetic lengths, fractional fillings, and find unexpected sign changes in the Hall current. Finally we study methods for detecting these novel features via shot noise and Hall current measurements.

  2. Production and detection of atomic hexadecapole at Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Acosta, V M; Auzinsh, M; Gawlik, W; Grisins, P; Higbie, J M; Jackson Kimball, D F; Krzemien, L; Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V; Budker, D

    2008-07-21

    Optical magnetometers measure magnetic fields with extremely high precision and without cryogenics. However, at geomagnetic fields, important for applications from landmine removal to archaeology, they suffer from nonlinear Zeeman splitting, leading to systematic dependence on sensor orientation. We present experimental results on a method of eliminating this systematic error, using the hexadecapole atomic polarization moment. In particular, we demonstrate selective production of the atomic hexadecapole moment at Earth's magnetic field and verify its immunity to nonlinear Zeeman splitting. This technique promises to eliminate directional errors in all-optical atomic magnetometers, potentially improving their measurement accuracy by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

  4. Field quality aspects of CBA superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S.; Engelmann, R.; Fernow, R.; Greene, A.F.; Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1983-01-01

    A series of superconducting dipole magnets for the BNL Colliding Beam Accelerator which were manufactured to have the proper field quality characteristics has been tested. This report presents the analysis of the field harmonics of these magnets.

  5. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  6. Minireview: Biological effects of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Mustarelli, P. ); Caprotti, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The literature about the biological effects of magnetic fields is reviewed. The authors begin by discussing the weak and/or time variable fields, responsible for subtle changes in the circadian rhythms of superior animals, which are believed to be induced by same sort of resonant mechanism. The safety issues related with the strong magnetic fields and gradients generated by clinical NMR magnets are then considered. The last portion summarizes the debate about the biological effects of strong and uniform magnetic fields.

  7. Dust properties and magnetic field geometry towards LDN 1570

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswaraiah, C.; Maheswar, G.; Pandey, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    We have performed both optical linear polarimetric and photometric observations of an isolated dark globule LDN 1570 aim to study the dust polarizing and extinction properties and to map the magnetic field geometry so as to understand not only the importance of magnetic fields in formation and evolution of clouds but also the correlation of the inferred magnetic field structure with the cloud structure and its dynamics. Dust size indicators (R V and λ max ) reveal for the presence of slightly bigger dust grains towards the cloud region. The inferred magnetic field geometry, which closely follows the cloud structure revealed by Herschel images, suggest that the cloud could have been formed due to converging material flows along the magnetic field lines.

  8. Nanoaperture optical tweezer with magnetic force characterization of magnetic nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitian; Jones, Steven; Choi, Byoung-Chul; Gordon, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    Double nanohole optical tweezers allow for trapping of nanoparticles down to single digit nanometer range, including individual proteins, viruses, DNA fragments and quantum dots. Here we demonstrate dual magnetic force / optical force analysis for the characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. From this single platform we can isolate individual nanoparticles and determine their size, permeability, remanence and permittivity. This is of interest for characterizing magnetic nanoparticles in mixtures, isolating ones of desired characteristics and pick-and-place assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in nanoscale magnetic devices. The magnetic nanoparticle is characterized by analysis of the optical transmission through a double-nanohole aperture with an applied magnetic gradient force. The optical transmission step at trapping, autocorrelation of transmission intensity, distribution of transmission values and variations with applied magnetic field amplitude provide information of individual magnetic nanoparticles that allows for determining their individual material characteristics. The values obtained agree well with past published values for iron oxide, and the size distribution over repeated measurements matches well with scanning electron microscope characterization (and manufacturer specifications).

  9. Reconfiguring photonic metamaterials with currents and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, João Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Youngs, Ian J.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate that spatial arrangement and optical properties of metamaterial nanostructures can be controlled dynamically using currents and magnetic fields. Mechanical deformation of metamaterial arrays is driven by both resistive heating of bimorph nanostructures and the Lorentz force that acts on charges moving in a magnetic field. With electrically controlled transmission changes of up to 50% at sub-mW power levels, our approaches offer high contrast solutions for dynamic control of metamaterial functionalities in optoelectronic devices.

  10. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  11. Hybrid Shielding for Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David; Royal, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Precision symmetry measurements such as the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron require magnetic shielding rooms to reduce the ambient field to the pT scale. The massive mu-metal sheets and large separation between layers make these shield rooms bulky and expensive. Active field cancellation systems used to reduce the surrounding field are limited in uniformity of cancellation. A novel approach to reducing the space between shield layers and increasing the effectiveness of active cancellation is to combine the two systems into a hybrid system, with active and passive layers interspersed. We demonstrate this idea in a prototype with an active layer sandwiched between two passive layers of shielding.

  12. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  13. Static magnetic fields: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Various experimental studies carried out over the last 30-40 years have examined the effects of the chronic or acute exposure of laboratory animals to static magnetic fields. Many of the earlier studies have been adequately reviewed elsewhere; few adverse effects were identified. This review focuses on studies carried out more recently, mostly those using vertebrates, particularly mammals. Four main areas of investigation have been covered, viz., nervous system and behavioural studies, cardiovascular system responses, reproduction and development, and genotoxicity and cancer. Work on the role of the natural geomagnetic field in animal orientation and migration has been omitted. Generally, the acute responses found during exposure to static fields above about 4 T are consistent with those found in volunteer studies, namely the induction of flow potentials around the heart and the development of aversive/avoidance behaviour resulting from body movement in such fields. No consistently demonstrable effects of exposure to fields of approximately 1T and above have been seen on other behavioural or cardiovascular endpoints. In addition, no adverse effects of such fields on reproduction and development or on the growth and development of tumours have been firmly established. Overall, however, far too few animal studies have been carried out to reach any firm conclusions.

  14. Saturn's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Davis, L; Jones, D E; Coleman, P J; Colburn, D S; Dyal, P; Sonett, C P

    1980-01-25

    The Pioneer Saturn vector helium magnetometer has detected a bow shock and magnetopause at Saturn and has provided an accurate characterization of the planetary field. The equatorial surface field is 0.20 gauss, a factor of 3 to 5 times smaller than anticipated on the basis of attempted scalings from Earth and Jupiter. The tilt angle between the magnetic dipole axis and Saturn's rotation axis is < 1 degrees , a surprisingly small value. Spherical harmonic analysis of the measurements shows that the ratio of quadrupole to dipole moments is < 10 percent, indicating that the field is more uniform than those of the Earth or Jupiter and consistent with Saturn having a relatively small core. The field in the outer magnetosphere shows systematic departures from the dipole field, principally a compression of the field near noon and an equatorial orientation associated with a current sheet near dawn. A hydromagnetic wake resulting from the interaction of Titan with the rotating magnetosphere appears to have been observed.

  15. Optical physics: Magnetic appeal in strained lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepetit, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Using strain to induce a pseudomagnetic field in a photonic lattice at optical frequencies might bring improvements to fields such as photonic crystal fibres, supercontinuum generation and frequency combs.

  16. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.

    1988-10-01

    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  17. Harmonic undulator radiations with constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevakhan, Hussain; Mishra, G.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic undulators has been analysed in the presence of constant magnetic field along the direction of main undulator field. The spectrum modifications in harmonic undulator radiations and intensity degradation as a function of constant magnetic field magnitude at fundamental and third harmonics have been evaluated with a numerical integration method and generalised Bessel function. The role of harmonic field to overcome the intensity reduction due to constant magnetic field and energy spread in electron beam has also been demonstrated.

  18. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Frank C.; Spencer, John E.

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  19. Optical Magnetic Induction Tomography of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) affects a significant fraction of the ageing population, causing a high level of morbidity and mortality. Despite its significance, the causes of AF are still not uniquely identified. This, combined with the lack of precise diagnostic and guiding tools, makes the clinical treatment of AF sub-optimal. We identify magnetic induction tomography as the most promising technique for the investigation of the causes of fibrillation and for its clinical practice. We therefore propose a novel optical instrument based on optical atomic magnetometers, fulfilling the requirements for diagnostic mapping of the heart’s conductivity. The feasibility of the device is here discussed in view of the final application. Thanks to the potential of atomic magnetometers for miniaturisation and extreme sensitivity at room temperature, a new generation of compact and non-invasive diagnostic instrumentation, with both bedside and intra-operative operation capability, is envisioned. Possible scenarios both in clinical practice and biomedical research are then discussed. The flexibility of the system makes it promising also for application in other fields, such as neurology and oncology. PMID:27040727

  20. Optical Magnetic Induction Tomography of the Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-04-01

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) affects a significant fraction of the ageing population, causing a high level of morbidity and mortality. Despite its significance, the causes of AF are still not uniquely identified. This, combined with the lack of precise diagnostic and guiding tools, makes the clinical treatment of AF sub-optimal. We identify magnetic induction tomography as the most promising technique for the investigation of the causes of fibrillation and for its clinical practice. We therefore propose a novel optical instrument based on optical atomic magnetometers, fulfilling the requirements for diagnostic mapping of the heart’s conductivity. The feasibility of the device is here discussed in view of the final application. Thanks to the potential of atomic magnetometers for miniaturisation and extreme sensitivity at room temperature, a new generation of compact and non-invasive diagnostic instrumentation, with both bedside and intra-operative operation capability, is envisioned. Possible scenarios both in clinical practice and biomedical research are then discussed. The flexibility of the system makes it promising also for application in other fields, such as neurology and oncology.

  1. Magnetic field geometry of the large globule CB 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.; Wolf, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report the results of optical polarimetric observations of a Bok globule CB34 to study magnetic field structure on large scales (105-106 AU), which is combined with archival sub-mm observations to characterize the magnetic field structure of CB34 on small scales (104-105 AU). The optical polarization measurements indicate that the magnetic field in the globule is constrained to a maximum radius of 105 AU around the core, out to densities not smaller than 104 cm^{-3}. Our study is mainly concentrated on two submillimeter cores C1 and C2 of CB34. The direction of magnetic field of core C2 is found to be nearly perpendicular to the CO outflow direction of the globule. The magnetic field of core C1 is almost aligned with the minor axis of the core which is typical for magnetically dominated star formation models. The mean value of offset between the minor axis of core C2 and the outflow direction is found to be 14° which suggests that the direct ion of the outflow is almost aligned with the minor axis of core C2. The magnetic field strength in the plane-of-sky for cores C1 and C2 is estimated to be ≈ 34 μG and ≈ 70 μG.

  2. Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

  3. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Oskinova, L. M.; Langer, N.; González, J. F.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Briquet, M.; Magori Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Context. Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. Additional observations are of utmost importance to constrain the conditions that are conducive to magnetic fields and to determine first trends about their occurrence rate and field strength distribution. Aims: To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS 2) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and HARPS mounted at the ESO 3.6 m between 2008 and 2011. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. Results: The presence of a magnetic field is confirmed in nine stars previously observed with FORS 1/2: HD 36879, HD 47839, CPD-28 2561, CPD-47 2963, HD 93843, HD 148937, HD 149757, HD 328856, and HD 164794. New magnetic field detections at a significance level of at least 3σ were achieved in five stars: HD 92206c, HD 93521, HD 93632, CPD-46 8221, and HD 157857. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, five stars belong to open clusters with high membership probability. According to

  4. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  5. A 7 T Pulsed Magnetic Field Generator for Magnetized Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangyue; Liang, Yihan; Song, Falun; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Yulin; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A pulsed magnetic field generator was developed to study the effect of a magnetic field on the evolution of a laser-generated plasma. A 40 kV pulsed power system delivered a fast (~230 ns), 55 kA current pulse into a single-turn coil surrounding the laser target, using a capacitor bank of 200 nF, a laser-triggered switch and a low-impedance strip transmission line. A one-dimensional uniform 7 T pulsed magnetic field was created using a Helmholtz coil pair with a 6 mm diameter. The pulsed magnetic field was controlled to take effect synchronously with a nanosecond heating laser beam, a femtosecond probing laser beam and an optical Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) detector. The preliminary experiments demonstrate bifurcation and focusing of plasma expansion in a transverse magnetic field.

  6. Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-05-01

    During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

  7. Magnetic iron oxide nanoclusters with tunable optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Lappas, Alexandros

    2011-04-01

    We have developed a modified synthetic protocol for the growth of monodispersed, superparamagnetic, flower-like colloidal nanoclusters (CNCs), which are consisted of smaller iron oxide nanocrystals with adjustable size. We show that their optical properties can be tuned by applying an external magnetic field. The latter controls the subtle balance of the CNCs’ mutual interactions (magnetic versus electrostatic) and drives their assembly in aqueous media. Spectrophotometric measurements reveal that a diffuse reflectance maximum, in the visible range, is related to the CNCs organization. As the strength of the external magnetic field increases, in the range 160-600 G, the spectral weight of this feature shifts towards the blue region of the spectrum. The induced photonic crystal-like response entails a remarkable magneto-optical behavior, closely associated with the size-dependent characteristics of the CNCs ensemble. Such materials pave the way for promising technological implementations in photonics.

  8. Thermomagnetic recording and magnetic-optic playback system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Guisinger, J. E. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A magnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system is disclosed wherein thermomagnetic recording is employed. A transparent isotropic film is heated along a continuous path by a focused laser beam. As each successive area of the path is heated locally to the vicinity of its Curie point in the presence of an applied magnetic field, a magneto-optic density is established proportional to the magnetic field and fixed in place as the area cools once the laser beam moves on to an adjacent area. To play back the recorded data, the intensity of the laser beam is reduced to avoid reaching the vicinity of the Curie point of the film as it is scanned by the laser beam in the same manner as for recording. A Faraday effect analyzer and photo detector are employed as a transducer for producing an output signal.

  9. The flexible magnetic field thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The thruster is designed so that ion currents to various internal surfaces can be measured directly; these measurements facilitate calculations of the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber. Experiments are described suggesting that the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber is strongly dependent on the shape and strength of the magnetic field but independent of the discharge current, discharge voltage, and neutral flow rate. Measurements of the energy cost per plasma ion suggest that this cost decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as a consequence of increased anode shielding from the primary electrons. Energy costs per argon plasma ion as low as 50 eV are measured. The energy cost per beam ion is found to be a function of the energy cost per plasma ion, extracted ion fraction, and discharge voltage. Part of the energy cost per beam ion has to do with creating many ions in the plasma and then extracting only a fraction of them into the beam. The balance of the energy goes into accelerating the remaining plasma ions into the walls of the discharge chamber.

  10. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1994-01-01

    The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

  11. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  12. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  13. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-{ell}. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz.

  14. Baryon onset in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Alexander; Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2016-01-22

    The critical baryon chemical potential for the onset of nuclear matter is a function of the vacuum mass and the binding energy. Both quantities are affected by an external magnetic field. We show within two relativistic mean-field models – including magnetic catalysis, but omitting the anomalous magnetic moment – that a magnetic field increases both the vacuum mass and the binding energy. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the effect on the vacuum mass dominates and as a result the critical baryon chemical potential is increased.

  15. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  16. Magnetic field gradiometer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser-Smith, A.C.

    1983-02-01

    This report has two principal goals. First, to present a general review of magnetic field gradiometers and, second, to provide new data concerning these gradiometers, including new information about their response to magnetic dipole fields. A system of nomenclature is introduced that is consistent with the mathematical concept of gradient and which provides a basis for discussions of the different functions of magnetic field gradiometers and differential magnetometers. The distinction between component gradiometers and total field gradiometers is also stressed.

  17. Transient magnetic field and temperature modeling in large magnet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, H.; Hardy, G.E.; Peck, S.D.; Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1989-07-01

    This paper discusses a coupled magnetic/thermal model developed to study heat and magnetic field diffusion in conducting materials subject to time-varying external fields. There are numerous applications, both military and commercial. These include: energy storage devices, pulsed power transformers, and electromagnetic launchers. The time scales of interest may range from a magnetic field pulse of a microsecond in an electromagnetic launcher, to hundreds of seconds in an energy storage magnet. The problem can be dominated by either the magnetic field or heat diffusion, depending on the temperature and the material properties of the conductor. In general, heat diffuses much more rapidly in high electrical conductivity materials of cryogenic temperatures. The magnetic field takes longer to diffuse, since screening currents can be rapidly set up which shield the interior of the material from further magnetic field penetration. Conversely, in high resistivity materials, the magnetic field diffuses much more rapidly. A coupled two-dimensional thermal/magnetic model has been developed. The results of this model, showing the time and spatial variation of the magnetic field and temperature, are discussed for the projectile of an electromagnetic launcher.

  18. Optical trapping and manipulation of magnetic holes dispersed in a magnetic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Ting; Fu Zhicheng; Deng Haidong; Dai Qiaofeng; Wu Lijun; Lan Sheng; Zhao Weiren; Gopal, Achanta Venu

    2010-05-15

    The optical trapping and manipulation of magnetic holes (MHs) dispersed in a magnetic fluid is systematically investigated. It is found that the gradient force, which tends to attract MHs to the beam center, can be completely counteracted by the repulsive force between MHs induced by a magnetic field. As a result, a depletion region is created at the laser beam spot for a sufficiently strong magnetic field. This phenomenon can be easily observed for large MHs with a diameter of 11 {mu}m. However, it does not appear for MHs with a smaller diameter of 4.3 {mu}m. It is revealed that the enhancement in the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles in the laser spot region as well as the clustering of these nanoparticles leads to a much stronger interaction between MHs when a magnetic field is applied. Consequently, the magnetic field strength necessary to create the depletion region is significantly reduced. We also find that the trapping behavior of MHs depends strongly on the thickness of the sample cells. For thin sample cells in which only one layer (or a two-dimensional distribution) of MHs is allowed, we can observe the creation of depletion region. In sharp contrast, MHs can be stably trapped at the center of the laser beam in thick sample cells even if a strong magnetic field is imposed. This phenomenon can be explained by the existence of a gradient in magnetic field strength along the direction perpendicular to the sample cells. Apart from individual MHs, we also investigate the movement of MH chains under the scattering force of the laser beam. It is observed that MH chains always move along the direction parallel to the magnetic field. This behavior can be easily understood when the anisotropy in viscosity caused by the applied magnetic field is considered.

  19. Persistent optically induced magnetism in oxygen-deficient strontium titanate.

    PubMed

    Rice, W D; Ambwani, P; Bombeck, M; Thompson, J D; Haugstad, G; Leighton, C; Crooker, S A

    2014-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a foundational material in the emerging field of complex oxide electronics. Although its bulk electronic and optical properties are rich and have been studied for decades, SrTiO3 has recently become a renewed focus of materials research catalysed in part by the discovery of superconductivity and magnetism at interfaces between SrTiO3 and other non-magnetic oxides. Here we illustrate a new aspect to the phenomenology of magnetism in SrTiO3 by reporting the observation of an optically induced and persistent magnetization in slightly oxygen-deficient bulk SrTiO3-δ crystals using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. This zero-field magnetization appears below ~18 K, persists for hours below 10 K, and is tunable by means of the polarization and wavelength of sub-bandgap (400-500 nm) light. These effects occur only in crystals containing oxygen vacancies, revealing a detailed interplay between magnetism, lattice defects, and light in an archetypal complex oxide material.

  20. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  1. Application peculiarities of magnetic materials for protection from magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, P.; Dmitrenko, V.; Grabchikov, S.; Vlasik, K.; Novikov, A.; Petrenko, D.; Trukhanov, V.; Ulin, S.; Uteshev, Z.; Chernysheva, V.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    In different materials for magnetic shields, the maximum permeability is achieved for different values of the magnetic field. This determines the choice of material. So for protection from magnetic fields strength of 10 - 150 A/m it is advisable to apply the amorphous ribbon 84KXCP. For stronger fields (more than 400 A/m) it is recommended to use MFS based on Ni20Fe80. Use of these materials allows creating an effective shield working in a wide range of magnetic field strengths.

  2. Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

    2013-01-15

    We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

  3. Magnetic Field Synthesis for Microwave Magnetics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Ferromianetic Spheroids," J. Appl. Pl)v, . Vol. 29, (1958), p. 318. 12. II. Suhl, "The Nonlinear Behavior of Ferrites at Hiqh Microwave Sinnal Leveis," Proc...uniformly magnetized ferrite with the effects of exchange included. Using this method , a number of solutions (both exact and approximate) to the linearized...1969). 28. D. D. Stancil, "Magnetostatic Wave Precursors in Ferrite Thin Films Part I: Theory," Memorandum to Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group

  4. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  5. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  6. Strong intrinsic mixing in vortex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Shea-Rohwer, Lauren; Solis, Kyle J

    2009-07-01

    We report a method of magnetic mixing wherein a "vortex" magnetic field applied to a suspension of magnetic particles creates strong homogeneous mixing throughout the fluid volume. Experiments designed to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of mixing show that the torque is quadratic in the field, decreases with field frequency, and is optimized at a vortex field angle of approximately 55 degrees . Theory and simulations indicate that the field-induced formation of volatile particle chains is responsible for these phenomena. This technique has applications in microfluidic devices and is ideally suited to applications such as accelerating the binding of target biomolecules to biofunctionalized magnetic microbeads.

  7. Alkali-vapor magnetic resonance driven by fictitious radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhivun, Elena; Wickenbrock, Arne; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate an all-optical {sup 133}Cs scalar magnetometer, operating in nonzero magnetic field, in which the magnetic resonance is driven by an effective oscillating magnetic field provided by the AC Stark shift of an intensity-modulated laser beam. We achieve a projected shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1.7fT/√(Hz) and measure a technical noise floor of 40fT/√(Hz). These results are essentially identical to a coil-driven scalar magnetometer using the same setup. This all-optical scheme offers advantages over traditional coil-driven magnetometers for use in arrays and in magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, e.g., searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  8. Optical Potential Field Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical system for creating a potential field map of a bounded two dimensional region containing a goal location and an arbitrary number of obstacles. The potential field mapping system has an imaging device and a processor. Two image writing modes are used by the imaging device, electron deposition and electron depletion. Patterns written in electron deposition mode appear black and expand. Patterns written in electron depletion mode are sharp and appear white. The generated image represents a robot's workspace. The imaging device under processor control then writes a goal location in the work-space using the electron deposition mode. The black image of the goal expands in the workspace. The processor stores the generated images, and uses them to generate a feedback pattern. The feedback pattern is written in the workspace by the imaging device in the electron deposition mode to enhance the expansion of the original goal pattern. After the feedback pattern is written, an obstacle pattern is written by the imaging device in the electron depletion mode to represent the obstacles in the robot's workspace. The processor compares a stored image to a previously stored image to determine a change therebetween. When no change occurs, the processor averages the stored images to produce the potential field map.

  9. Magnetic field fiber sensor based on the magneto-birefringence effect of magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xueqin; Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Fuquan; Chen, Daru; Ren, Zhijun; Peng, Baojin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the magneto-birefringence effect of magnetic fluid (MF) is adopted to form an innovative fiber optic magnetic field sensor. The sensitive section is fabricated via a D-shaped microstructure inscribed in a high-birefringence fiber Sagnac loop with a femtosecond laser. The D-shaped microstructure facilitates good combination of the optical-fiber Sagnac interferometer with the magneto-birefringence effect of MF without suffering from absorption loss and manual alignment. Experimental results show the good performance of the magnetic field fiver sensor, particularly its high stable extinction ratio. Preliminary results are provided, and the magnetic field sensitivity of 0.0823 nm/mT can be further improved by increasing the depth and length of the D-shaped microstructure.

  10. Highly sensitive magnetic field sensor based on microfiber coupler with magnetic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Longfeng; Pu, Shengli Tang, Jiali; Zeng, Xianglong; Lahoubi, Mahieddine

    2015-05-11

    A kind of magnetic field sensor using a microfiber coupler (MFC) surrounded with magnetic fluid (MF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. As the MFC is strongly sensitive to the surrounding refractive index (RI) and MF's RI is sensitive to magnetic field, the magnetic field sensing function of the proposed structure is realized. Interrogation of magnetic field strength is achieved by measuring the dip wavelength shift and transmission loss change of the transmission spectrum. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the sensor is wavelength-dependent. The maximum sensitivity of 191.8 pm/Oe is achieved at wavelength of around 1537 nm in this work. In addition, a sensitivity of −0.037 dB/Oe is achieved by monitoring variation of the fringe visibility. These suggest the potential applications of the proposed structure in tunable all-in-fiber photonic devices such as magneto-optical modulator, filter, and sensing.

  11. Electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion and local magnetization reversal

    PubMed Central

    Lahtinen, Tuomas H. E.; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetic switching or controlled motion of domain walls by an external magnetic field or spin-polarized current. Achieving the same degree of magnetic controllability using an electric field has potential advantages including enhanced functionality and low power consumption. Here we report on an approach to electrically control local magnetic properties, including the writing and erasure of regular ferromagnetic domain patterns and the motion of magnetic domain walls, in CoFe-BaTiO3 heterostructures. Our method is based on recurrent strain transfer from ferroelastic domains in ferroelectric media to continuous magnetostrictive films with negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Optical polarization microscopy of both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain structures reveals that domain correlations and strong inter-ferroic domain wall pinning persist in an applied electric field. This leads to an unprecedented electric controllability over the ferromagnetic microstructure, an accomplishment that produces giant magnetoelectric coupling effects and opens the way to electric-field driven spintronics. PMID:22355770

  12. Fiber Optic Magnetic Sensor Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    interferometer It is shown that single-mode fibres mane to the response of the sensor to variations in the tern- offer the possibility of high-speed, high...qualitative study of the response of a fibre of millidegrees Kelvin. was etimated by mean, of a thermo- interferometer to impulse heating has recently been...8217 The interferometer was composed en- tirely of single-mode optical fibre (liT. 5 pm core diameter) dT/dt C 1(I2R - HT) (I) with an optical path

  13. Spin-Induced Optical Phenomena in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Shojiro

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * GENERAL FEATURES * Materials * Crystal Structures * Band Structure at ěc{k}≃ 0 * sp-d Exchange Interaction * Magnetic Properties and Parameters * Magnetization Steps due to Nearest-Neighbor Spin Pairs * The Physical Origin of the sp-d Exchange Constants * OPTICAL RESPONSE OF THE LOW-DIMENSIONAL DMSs * Anisotropy of the Zeeman Effect in Two-Dimensional DMSs * Magneto-Optical Method of Interface Characterization * MAGNETIC POLARONS * Bound Magnetic Polarons * Free Magnetic Polarons * OPTICAL OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC POLARONS * A Selective Excitation Photoluminescence Study * Optical Survey of Free Magnetic Polarons * Two-Dimensional Exciton Free Magnetic Polarons * SUMMARY * REFERENCES

  14. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  15. Representation of magnetic fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

  16. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  17. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  18. Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

  19. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  20. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  1. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  2. Magnetically modified bioсells in constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. G.; Panina, L. K.; Kolikov, V. A.; Bogomolova, E. V.; Snetov, V. N.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Kiselev, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell' size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomicmagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-05-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive andversatile methodology that has been applied in many disciplines1,2. Thedetection sensitivity of conventional Faraday detection of MRI depends onthe strength of the static magnetic field and the sample "fillingfactor." Under circumstances where only low magnetic fields can be used,and for samples with low spin density or filling factor, the conventionaldetection sensitivity is compromised. Alternative detection methods withhigh sensitivity in low magnetic fields are thus required. Here we showthe first use of a laser-based atomic magnetometer for MRI detection inlow fields. Our technique also employs remote detection which physicallyseparates the encoding and detection steps3-5, to improve the fillingfactor of the sample. Potentially inexpensive and using a compactapparatus, our technique provides a novel alternative for MRI detectionwith substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution whileavoiding the need for cryogenics.

  4. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  5. Effect on FOG caused by non-uniform distribute magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jianling; Lu, Jun; Mao, Shaojuan; Chen, Yudan

    2016-10-01

    Using matrix optics and optical propagation theory, a model for bias errors of an optical fiber gyroscope (FOG) caused by the nonuniform distribute magnetic field has been deduced. Based on the above model, the effect on the FOG caused by the nonuniform distribute magnetic field and common circuit board is also analyzed. Results indicate that, ⅰ) the nearer of distance between the center of magnetic field and the fiber loop, the bigger of the bias errors of FOG will be; ⅱ) relationship between bias and magnetic field direction is a inclined sine, which becomes more gradient when the distance between the center of magnetic field and the fiber loop is nearer; ⅲ) the bias error caused by the nonuniform magnetic field is bigger than that caused by uniform magnetic field of equal intensity, when R < 5r ( center of nonuniform magnetic field in fiber loop) or R < 0.5r ( center of nonuniform magnetic field out of fiber loop); ⅳ) the direction of magnetic axis is changed by the exit of nonuniform magnetic field; ⅴ) the common circuit board which radiate intensity is very weak can also cause unstable and direction related of the FOG's output. Above conclusions may be useful for understanding the effect of actual magnetic field.

  6. Motion field and optical flow: Qualitative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verri, Alessandro; Poggio, Tomaso

    1986-12-01

    The optical flow, a 2-D field that can be associated with the variation of the image brightness pattern, and the 2-D motion field, the projection on the image plane of the 3-D velocity field of a moving scene, are in general different, unless very special conditions are satisfied. The optical flow, therefore, is ill suited for computing structure from motion, and for reconstructing the 3-D velocity field, problems that require an accurate estimate of the 2-D motion field. A different use of the optical flow is suggested. Stable field and the 3-D structure of the scene, and they can usually be obtained from the optical flow. The smoothed optical flow and 2-D motion field, interpreted as vector fields tangent to flows of planar dynamical systems, may have the same qualitative properties from the point of view of the theory of structural stability of dynamical systems.

  7. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  8. Helmholtz Hodge decomposition of scalar optical fields.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Monika; Senthilkumaran, P

    2012-11-01

    It is shown that the vector field decomposition method, namely, the Helmholtz Hodge decomposition, can also be applied to analyze scalar optical fields that are ubiquitously present in interference and diffraction optics. A phase gradient field that depicts the propagation and Poynting vector directions can hence be separated into solenoidal and irrotational components.

  9. Free oscillations of magnetic fluid in strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.; Kuz'ko, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the esults of measuring the elastic parameters of an oscillatory system (coefficient of pondermotive elasticity, damping factor, and oscillation frequency) whose viscous inertial element is represented by a magnetic fluid confined in a tube by magnetic levitation in a strong magnetic field. The role of elasticity is played by the pondermotive force acting on thin layers at the upper and lower ends of the fluid column. It is shown that, by measuring the elastic oscillation frequencies of the magnetic fluid column, it is possible to develop a fundamentally new absolute method for determining the saturation magnetization of a magnetic colloid.

  10. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamaru, Y. ); Amemiya, Y. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method.

  11. Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béché, Armand; van Boxem, Ruben; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The experimental search for magnetic monopole particles has, so far, been in vain. Nevertheless, these elusive particles of magnetic charge have fuelled a rich field of theoretical study. Here, we created an approximation of a magnetic monopole in free space at the end of a long, nanoscopically thin magnetic needle. We experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of this approximate magnetic monopole field with a beam of electrons produces an electron vortex state, as theoretically predicted for a true magnetic monopole. This fundamental quantum mechanical scattering experiment is independent of the speed of the electrons and has consequences for all situations where electrons meet such monopole magnetic fields, as, for example, in solids. The set-up not only shows an attractive way to produce electron vortex states but also provides a unique insight into monopole fields and shows that electron vortices might well occur in unexplored solid-state physics situations.

  12. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  14. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  15. Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-06-01

    If vector type perturbations are present in the primordial plasma before recombination, the generation of magnetic fields is known to be inevitable through the Harrison mechanism. In the context of the standard cosmological perturbation theory, nonlinear couplings of first-order scalar perturbations create second-order vector perturbations, which generate magnetic fields. Here we reinvestigate the generation of magnetic fields at second-order in cosmological perturbations on the basis of our previous study, and extend it by newly taking into account the time evolution of purely second-order vector perturbations with a newly developed second-order Boltzmann code. We confirm that the amplitude of magnetic fields from the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes is consistent with the result in our previous study. However, we find, both numerically and analytically, that the magnetic fields from the purely second-order vector perturbations partially cancel out the magnetic fields from one of the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes, in the tight coupling regime in the radiation dominated era. Therefore, the amplitude of the magnetic fields on small scales, k ≳10 h Mpc-1 , is smaller than the previous estimates. The amplitude of the generated magnetic fields at cosmological recombination is about Brec=5.0 ×10-24 Gauss on k =5.0 ×10-1 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we discuss the reason for the discrepancies that exist in estimates of the amplitude of magnetic fields among other authors.

  16. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  17. Simulation of Magnetic Field Guided Plasma Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersohn, Frans; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec; Shebalin, John

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic field guided expansion of a radio-frequency plasma was simulated with a quasi-one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Two-dimensional effects were included in a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code by varying the cross-sectional area of the one dimensional domain and including forces due to the magnetic field. Acceleration of electrons by the magnetic field forces leads to the formation of potential structures which then accelerate the ions into a beam. Density changes due to the plasma expansion only weakly affect the ion acceleration. Rapidly diverging magnetic fields lead to more rapid acceleration and the electrons cool as they expand.

  18. Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.

  19. Zener tunneling in superlattices in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, D.; Leo, K.; Fromer, N.A.; Chemla, D.S.; Glutsch, S.; Bechstedt, F.; Kohler, K.

    2002-04-15

    We present a study of the Zener effect in the optical absorption of strongly coupled superlattices with both a magnetic and an electric field in growth direction. The in-plane continuum of electron states is discretized due to Landau quantization, which allows to directly observe the transition from discrete to continuum states due to Zener tunneling in a true 1D system.

  20. Coherent Magnetic Response at Optical Frequencies Using Atomic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Nicholas R.; Buckholtz, Zachary N.; Simmons, Zachary J.; Mueller, Eli A.; Yavuz, Deniz D.

    2017-01-01

    In optics, the interaction of atoms with the magnetic field of light is almost always ignored since its strength is many orders of magnitude weaker compared to the interaction with the electric field. In this article, by using a magnetic-dipole transition within the 4 f shell of europium ions, we show a strong interaction between a green laser and an ensemble of atomic ions. The electrons move coherently between the ground and excited ionic levels (Rabi flopping) by interacting with the magnetic field of the laser. By measuring the Rabi flopping frequency as the laser intensity is varied, we report the first direct measurement of a magnetic-dipole matrix element in the optical region of the spectrum. Using density-matrix simulations of the ensemble, we infer the generation of coherent magnetization with magnitude 5.5 ×10-3 A /m , which is capable of generating left-handed electromagnetic waves of intensity 1 nW /cm2 . These results open up the prospect of constructing left-handed materials using sharp transitions of atoms.

  1. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  2. Magnetic field evolution in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzazga, R. T.; Chyży, K. T.; Jurusik, W.; Wiórkiewicz, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: Violent gravitational interactions can change the morphologies of galaxies and, by means of merging, transform them into elliptical galaxies. We aim to investigate how they affect the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Methods: We selected 16 systems of interacting galaxies with available VLA archive radio data at 4.86 and 1.4 GHz and compared their radio emission and estimated magnetic field strengths with their star-forming activity, far-infrared emission, and the stage of tidal interaction. Results: The estimated mean of total magnetic field strength for our sample of interacting galaxies is 14 ± 5 μG, which is larger than for the non-interacting objects. The field regularity (of 0.27 ± 0.09) is lower than in typical spirals and indicates enhanced production of random magnetic fields in the interacting objects. We find a general evolution of magnetic fields: for weak interactions the strength of magnetic field is almost constant (10-15 μG) as interaction advances, then it increases up to 2× , peaks at the nuclear coalescence (25 μG), and decreases again, down to 5-6 μG, for the post-merger remnants. The main production of magnetic fields in colliding galaxies thus terminates somewhere close to the nuclear coalescence, after which magnetic field diffuses. The magnetic field strength for whole galaxies is weakly affected by the star formation rate (SFR), while the dependence is higher for galactic centres. We show that the morphological distortions visible in the radio total and polarized emission do not depend statistically on the global or local SFRs, while they do increase (especially in the polarization) with the advance of interaction. The constructed radio-far-infrared relations for interacting and non-interacting galaxies display a similar balance between the generation of cosmic rays, magnetic fields, and the production of the thermal energy and dust radiation. Conclusions: The regular magnetic fields are much more sensitive to

  3. Vertical magnetic field gradient in the photospheric layers of sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant; Lagg, Andreas; Hirzberger, Johann; Solanki, Sami K.; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the vertical gradient of the magnetic field of sunspots in the photospheric layer. Methods: Independent observations were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP) on board the Hinode spacecraft and with the Tenrife Infrared Polarimeter-2 (TIP-2) mounted at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). We apply state-of-the-art inversion techniques to both data sets to retrieve the magnetic field and the corresponding vertical gradient along with other atmospheric parameters in the solar photosphere. Results: In the sunspot penumbrae we detected patches of negative vertical gradients of the magnetic field strength, i.e., the magnetic field strength decreases with optical depth in the photosphere. The negative gradient patches are located in the inner and partly in the middle penumbrae in both data sets. From the SOT/SP observations we found that the negative gradient patches are restricted mainly to the deep photospheric layers and are concentrated near the edges of the penumbral filaments. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations also show negative gradients in the inner penumbrae, also at the locations of filaments. In the observations and the simulation negative gradients of the magnetic field vs. optical depth dominate at some radial distances in the penumbra. The negative gradient with respect to optical depth in the inner penumbrae persists even after averaging in the azimuthal direction in the observations and, to a lesser extent, in the MHD simulations. If the gradients in the MHD simulations are determined with respect to geometrical height, then the azimuthal averages are always positive within the sunspot (above log τ = 0), corresponding to magnetic field increasing with depth, as generally expected. Conclusions: We interpret the observed localized presence of negative vertical gradient of the magnetic field strength in the observations as a consequence of stronger field from spines expanding with height and

  4. Ultracold Fermions in a Cavity-Induced Artificial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollath, Corinna; Sheikhan, Ameneh; Wolff, Stefan; Brennecke, Ferdinand

    2016-02-01

    We propose how a fermionic quantum gas confined to an optical lattice and coupled to an optical cavity can self-organize into a state where the spontaneously emerging cavity field amplitude induces an artificial magnetic field. The fermions form either a chiral insulator or a chiral liquid carrying chiral currents. The feedback mechanism via the dynamical cavity field enables robust and fast switching in time of the chiral phases, and the cavity output can be employed for a direct nondestructive measurement of the chiral current.

  5. Magnetic field strength in solar coronal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-03-01

    We applied Bayesian techniques to the problem of inferring the magnetic field strength in transversely oscillating solar coronal loops from observed periods and damping times. This was done by computing the marginal posterior probability density for parameters such as the waveguide density, the density contrast, the transverse inhomogeneity length scale, and the magnetic field strength under the assumption that the observed waves can be modelled as standing or propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink modes of magnetic flux tubes. Our results indicate that the magnetic field strength can be inferred, even if the densities inside and outside the structure are largely unknown. When information on plasma density is available, the method enables to self-consistently include this knowledge to further constrain the inferred magnetic field strength. The inclusion of the observed oscillation damping enables to obtain information on the transverse density structuring and considerably alters the obtained posterior for the magnetic field strength.

  6. Magneto-optical imaging of thin magnetic films using spins in diamond.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David A; Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; McCoey, Julia M; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Hall, Liam T; Petrou, Steven; Scholten, Robert E; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2016-03-14

    Imaging the fields of magnetic materials provides crucial insight into the physical and chemical processes surrounding magnetism, and has been a key ingredient in the spectacular development of magnetic data storage. Existing approaches using the magneto-optic Kerr effect, x-ray and electron microscopy have limitations that constrain further development, and there is increasing demand for imaging and characterisation of magnetic phenomena in real time with high spatial resolution. Here we show how the magneto-optical response of an array of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond can be used to image and map the sub-micron stray magnetic field patterns from thin ferromagnetic films. Using optically detected magnetic resonance, we demonstrate wide-field magnetic imaging over 100 × 100 μm(2) with sub-micron spatial resolution at video frame rates, under ambient conditions. We demonstrate an all-optical spin relaxation contrast imaging approach which can image magnetic structures in the absence of an applied microwave field. Straightforward extensions promise imaging with sub-μT sensitivity and sub-optical spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. This work establishes practical diamond-based wide-field microscopy for rapid high-sensitivity characterisation and imaging of magnetic samples, with the capability for investigating magnetic phenomena such as domain wall and skyrmion dynamics and the spin Hall effect in metals.

  7. Magneto-optical imaging of thin magnetic films using spins in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, David A.; Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; McCoey, Julia M.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Hall, Liam T.; Petrou, Steven; Scholten, Robert E.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging the fields of magnetic materials provides crucial insight into the physical and chemical processes surrounding magnetism, and has been a key ingredient in the spectacular development of magnetic data storage. Existing approaches using the magneto-optic Kerr effect, x-ray and electron microscopy have limitations that constrain further development, and there is increasing demand for imaging and characterisation of magnetic phenomena in real time with high spatial resolution. Here we show how the magneto-optical response of an array of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond can be used to image and map the sub-micron stray magnetic field patterns from thin ferromagnetic films. Using optically detected magnetic resonance, we demonstrate wide-field magnetic imaging over 100 × 100 μm2 with sub-micron spatial resolution at video frame rates, under ambient conditions. We demonstrate an all-optical spin relaxation contrast imaging approach which can image magnetic structures in the absence of an applied microwave field. Straightforward extensions promise imaging with sub-μT sensitivity and sub-optical spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. This work establishes practical diamond-based wide-field microscopy for rapid high-sensitivity characterisation and imaging of magnetic samples, with the capability for investigating magnetic phenomena such as domain wall and skyrmion dynamics and the spin Hall effect in metals. PMID:26972730

  8. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light–matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  9. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  10. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  11. Atomic magnetic gradiometer for room temperature high sensitivity magnetic field detection

    DOEpatents

    Xu,Shoujun; Lowery, Thomas L.; Budker, Dmitry; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander

    2009-08-11

    A laser-based atomic magnetometer (LBAM) apparatus measures magnetic fields, comprising: a plurality of polarization detector cells to detect magnetic fields; a laser source optically coupled to the polarization detector cells; and a signal detector that measures the laser source after being coupled to the polarization detector cells, which may be alkali cells. A single polarization cell may be used for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by prepolarizing the nuclear spins of an analyte, encoding spectroscopic and/or spatial information, and detecting NMR signals from the analyte with a laser-based atomic magnetometer to form NMR spectra and/or magnetic resonance images (MRI). There is no need of a magnetic field or cryogenics in the detection step, as it is detected through the LBAM.

  12. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

    2009-05-01

    During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

  14. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  15. Assembly of magnetic spheres in strong homogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, René; Stanković, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The assembly in two dimensions of spherical magnets in strong magnetic field is addressed theoretically. It is shown that the attraction and assembly of parallel magnetic chains is the result of a delicate interplay of dipole-dipole interactions and short ranged excluded volume correlations. Minimal energy structures are obtained by numerical optimization procedure as well as analytical considerations. For a small number of constitutive magnets Ntot ≤ 26, a straight chain is found to be the ground state. In the regime of larger Ntot ≥ 27, the magnets form two touching chains with equally long tails at both ends. We succeed to identify the transition from two to three touching chains at Ntot = 129. Overall, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of the recently experimentally observed ribbon formation of superparamagnetic colloids via lateral aggregation of magnetic chains in magnetic field (Darras et al., 2016).

  16. Magnetization of disclinated graphene in nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshanzamir-Nikou, M.; Goudarzi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional disclinated atomic graphene layer in curved space-time is exactly discussed, and the explicit dependence of Landau levels on the topological defect and external magnetic field are obtained in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field. It is worth mentioning that the presence of topological defect reduces the degeneracy of energy levels. The persistent current, magnetization, susceptibility and the magnetoresistance of structure are investigated. It can be shown that the curvature of the conical surface affects the pattern of oscillations of persistent current and, of course, corresponding magnetoresistance. The behavior of the above physical quantities as a function of magnetic flux is explicitly found for various defects. We observe that increasing magnetic field leads to a aperiodic oscillation. The large Aharonov-Bohm flux gives rise to vanish the magnetization oscillations.

  17. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  18. Magnetic-field sensing coil embedded in ceramic for measuring ambient magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Takahashi, Hironori

    2004-02-10

    A magnetic pick-up coil for measuring magnetic field with high specific sensitivity, optionally with an electrostatic shield (24), having coupling elements (22) with high winding packing ratio, oriented in multiple directions, and embedded in ceramic material for structural support and electrical insulation. Elements of the coil are constructed from green ceramic sheets (200) and metallic ink deposited on surfaces and in via holes of the ceramic sheets. The ceramic sheets and the metallic ink are co-fired to create a monolithic hard ceramic body (20) with metallized traces embedded in, and placed on exterior surfaces of, the hard ceramic body. The compact and rugged coil can be used in a variety of environments, including hostile conditions involving ultra-high vacuum, high temperatures, nuclear and optical radiation, chemical reactions, and physically demanding surroundings, occurring either individually or in combinations.

  19. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Y. N.; Semerikov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting on to a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the superconducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of r width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density ρ, r ∝ ρ-1/4. Accordingly, the magnetic field B in the tube increases with the depth, B∝ρ1/2, and reaches the value of about 1017 Gauss in the core. It destroys superconducting vortices in the core of a star in the narrow region of the size of the order of 10 cm. Because of generated density gradient of vortices, they constantly flow into this dead zone and the number of vortices decreases, the magnetic field of a star decreases as well. The attenuation of the magnetic field is exponential, B = B0(1 + t/τ)-1. The characteristic time of decreasing of the magnetic field τ is equal to τ ≃ 103 yr. Thus, the magnetic field of accreted neutron stars decreases to values of 108-109 Gauss during 107-106 yr.

  20. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  1. Two-axis magnetic field sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

  2. Beginning stages of local magnetic field formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.

    Based on a study of the initial stages of local magnetic field formation, the appearance of a new magnetic flux in the photosphere is studied. This magnetic flux is found to occur both under the influence of different modes of convective motion as well as under the action of Paleomagnetic fields. Waldmeier's Heliographic Maps of the Photosphere and Mt. Wilson Observatory daily magnetic maps were used in the analysis. Observed regularities could not be explained by a model of magnetic flux tubes emerging on the photospheric surface. This model can not account for the practically simultaneous development of separate active regions, belonging to different solar hemispheres and different cycles of solar activity in one, relatively narrow, 'unipolar' sector of the background field. It is also difficult to explain the different roles and velocities of negative and positive polarities during the formation of new magnetic fields. The importance of velocity measurements and maps for solving the observed phenomenon is stressed.

  3. Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

    1994-01-01

    The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

  4. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  5. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

  6. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  7. Modeling the evolution of galactic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yar-Mukhamedov, D.

    2015-04-15

    An analytic model for evolution of galactic magnetic fields in hierarchical galaxy formation frameworks is introduced. Its major innovative components include explicit and detailed treatment of the physics of merger events, mass gains and losses, gravitational energy sources and delays associated with formation of large-scale magnetic fields. This paper describes the model, its implementation, and core results obtained by its means.

  8. Paramagnetic ellipsoidal microswimmer in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Fan, Louis; Pak, On Shun

    We study the two-dimensional Brownian dynamics of an ellipsoidal paramagnetic microswimmer moving at low-Reynolds-number and subject to a magnetic field. Its corresponding mean-square displacement tensor showing the effect of particles's shape, activity and magnetic field, on the microswimmer's diffusion is analytically obtained. A comparison among analytical and computational results is also made and we obtain excellent agreement.

  9. Solar Magnetic Field: Zeeman and Hanle Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-10-01

    An external magnetic field causes the atomic energy levels to split into different sublevels, and the emitted radiation becomes polarized. This phenomenon is called the ZEEMAN EFFECT. When atoms in a magnetic field scatter radiation via bound-bound transitions, the phase relations or quantum interferences between the Zeeman-split sublevels give rise to POLARIZATION phenomena that go under the nam...

  10. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  11. In vivo heating of magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Babincová, M; Altanerová, V; Altaner, C; Cicmanec, P; Babinec, P

    2004-08-01

    We have evaluated heating capabilities of new magnetic nanoparticles. In in vitro experiments they were exposed to an alternating magnetic field with frequency 3.5 MHz and induction 1.5 mT produced in three turn pancake coil. In in vivo experiments rats with injected magnetic nanoparticles were also exposed to an ac field. An optimal increase of temperature of the tumor to 44 degrees C was achieved after 10 minutes of exposure. Obtained results showed that magnetic nanoparticles may be easily heated in vitro as well as in vivo, and may be therefore useful for hyperthermic therapy of cancer.

  12. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  13. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    65 4.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.1.1 Measurements only in the Body Frame . . . . 65 4.1.2 Changes in the Earth’s...existing information to determine position. Examples include terrain navigation, celestial navigation (astronavigation), inertial navigation, magnetic...tion when the magnetic field measurements are resolved with the body axis, high- lighting magnetic field measurements from magnetometers which do not

  14. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  15. The magnetic fields of forming solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, S. G.; Jardine, M.; Gray, C. G.; Donati, J.-F.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role at all stages of the formation of low-mass stars and planetary systems. In the final stages, in particular, they control the kinematics of in-falling gas from circumstellar discs, and the launching and collimation of spectacular outflows. The magnetic coupling with the disc is thought to influence the rotational evolution of the star, while magnetized stellar winds control the braking of more evolved stars and may influence the migration of planets. Magnetic reconnection events trigger energetic flares which irradiate circumstellar discs with high energy particles that influence the disc chemistry and set the initial conditions for planet formation. However, it is only in the past few years that the current generation of optical spectropolarimeters has allowed the magnetic fields of forming solar-like stars to be probed in unprecedented detail. In order to do justice to the recent extensive observational programs new theoretical models are being developed that incorporate magnetic fields with an observed degree of complexity. In this review we draw together disparate results from the classical electromagnetism, molecular physics/chemistry and the geophysics literature, and demonstrate how they can be adapted to construct models of the large scale magnetospheres of stars and planets. We conclude by examining how the incorporation of multipolar magnetic fields into new theoretical models will drive future progress in the field through the elucidation of several observational conundrums.

  16. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  17. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín L; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  18. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  19. Magnetic Or Optical Surface Layer Would Indicate Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    In proposed method of obtaining information on strain at surface of material specimen, magnetic coat (like that on magnetic tape) or optical coat (like that on compact disk) applied to all or part of surface monitored. Coating layer and associated measuring equipment, taken together, constitute system called "material strain monitor" (MSM). MSM important in research in materials and mechanics; in particular, expected to compete strongly with systems based on image-analysis and laser techniques now being developed to obtain information on strain fields.

  20. Tracing magnetic field orientation in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    It is now well understood that stars are formed in the interiors of dense, gravitationally bound molecular cloud cores that are both magnetized and turbulent. But the relative role played by the magnetic field and the turbulence in cloud formation and evolution and in the subsequent star formation is a matter of debate. In a magnetically dominated scenario, the magnetic field geometry of the cores is expected to be inherited unchanged from their low-density envelope, even for an hour glass geometry of the field, unless the action of turbulence disturbs it. We carried out polarimetry of stars projected on starless molecular clouds, LDN 183 and LDN 1544, in R-filter. The comparison of these fields with those in the interiors of the cloud cores inferred from the sub-mm polarization shows that both magnetic field and turbulence are important in the cloud formation and evolution of star formation.

  1. Superfluorescence from dense electron hole plasmas under high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jho, Y. D.; Wang, X.; Kono, J.; Reitze, D. H.; Wei, X.; Belyanin, A. A.; Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Solomon, G. S.

    Ultrafast optical excitation of a dense electron hole plasma in InxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells in high magnetic fields (>20T) produces cooperative radiative recombination between conduction and valence band Landau levels (LL). Above a critical threshold, the emission is characterized by very narrow LL line widths, superlinear increase with increasing field and laser excitation fluence, and stochastic directionality from shot to shot. Here, we investigate the effects of temperature and excitation geometry on the emission properties.

  2. Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Ram, Abhay K.; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaocan

    2014-02-11

    Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

  3. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  4. Revealing giant internal magnetic fields due to spin fluctuations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, William D.; Liu, Wenyong; Baker, Thomas A.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Klimov, Victor I.; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-02-01

    Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn2+, Co2+ and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp-d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impact carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. Here we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300-600 GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff ˜ 15 -30 T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. These signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn2+ moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials.

  5. Revealing giant internal magnetic fields due to spin fluctuations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Rice, William D.; Liu, Wenyong; Baker, Thomas A.; ...

    2015-11-23

    Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn2+, Co2+ and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp–d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical √N fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impactmore » carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. In this paper, we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300–600 GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff ~ 15-30 T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. Finally, these signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn2+ moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials.« less

  6. Revealing giant internal magnetic fields due to spin fluctuations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, William D.; Liu, Wenyong; Baker, Thomas A.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Klimov, Victor Ivanovich; Crooker, Scott A.

    2015-11-23

    Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn2+, Co2+ and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp–d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical √N fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impact carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. In this paper, we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300–600 GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff ~ 15-30 T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. Finally, these signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn2+ moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials.

  7. Formation of magnetically anisotropic composite films at low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi Zahedi, Maryam; Ennen, Inga; Marchi, Sophie; Barthel, Markus J.; Hütten, Andreas; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-04-01

    We present a straightforward two-step technique for the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) composites with embedded aligned magnetic chains. First, ferromagnetic microwires are realized in a poly (methyl methacrylate) solution by assembling iron nanoparticles in a methyl methacrylate solution under heat in an external magnetic field of 160 mT. The simultaneous thermal polymerization of the monomer throughout the wires is responsible for their permanent linkage and stability. Next, the polymer solution containing the randomly dispersed microwires is casted on a solid substrate in the presence of a low magnetic field (20–40 mT) which induces the final alignment of the microwires into long magnetic chains upon evaporation of the solvent. We prove that the presence of the nanoparticles assembled in the form of microwires is a key factor for the formation of the anisotropic films under low magnetic fields. In fact, such low fields are not capable of driving and assembling dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in the same type of polymer solutions. Hence, this innovative approach can be utilized for the synthesis of magnetically anisotropic nanocomposite films at low magnetic fields.

  8. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  9. Inference of magnetic fields in the very quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Lagg, A.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Denker, C.; Doerr, H. P.; Feller, A.; Franz, M.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Kuckein, C.; Louis, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco, D.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Verma, M.; Waldman, T.; Volkmer, R.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Over the past 20 yr, the quietest areas of the solar surface have revealed a weak but extremely dynamic magnetism occurring at small scales (<500 km), which may provide an important contribution to the dynamics and energetics of the outer layers of the atmosphere. Understanding this magnetism requires the inference of physical quantities from high-sensitivity spectro-polarimetric data with high spatio-temporal resolution. Aims: We present high-precision spectro-polarimetric data with high spatial resolution (0.4'') of the very quiet Sun at 1.56 μm obtained with the GREGOR telescope to shed some light on this complex magnetism. Methods: We used inversion techniques in two main approaches. First, we assumed that the observed profiles can be reproduced with a constant magnetic field atmosphere embedded in a field-free medium. Second, we assumed that the resolution element has a substructure with either two constant magnetic atmospheres or a single magnetic atmosphere with gradients of the physical quantities along the optical depth, both coexisting with a global stray-light component. Results: Half of our observed quiet-Sun region is better explained by magnetic substructure within the resolution element. However, we cannot distinguish whether this substructure comes from gradients of the physical parameters along the line of sight or from horizontal gradients (across the surface). In these pixels, a model with two magnetic components is preferred, and we find two distinct magnetic field populations. The population with the larger filling factor has very weak ( 150 G) horizontal fields similar to those obtained in previous works. We demonstrate that the field vector of this population is not constrained by the observations, given the spatial resolution and polarimetric accuracy of our data. The topology of the other component with the smaller filling factor is constrained by the observations for field strengths above 250 G: we infer hG fields with

  10. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.

  11. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  12. Magnetic Field Structure in Molecular Clouds by Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. P.; Su, B. H.; Eswaraiah, C.; Pandey, A. K.; Wang, C. W.; Lai, S. P.; Tamura, M.; Sato, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.

  13. The magnetic field of ζ Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ζ Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ζ Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ζ Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ζ Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ζ Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Intense ionospheric electric and magnetic field pulses generated by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ding, J. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field measurements have been made in the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm and an optical detector onboard the same rocket yielded an excellent time base for the study of waves radiated into space from the discharge. In addition to detection of intense, but generally well understood whistler mode waves, very unusual electric and magnetic field pulses preceded the 1-10 kHz component of the radiated signal. These pulses lasted several ms and had a significant electric field component parallel to the magnetic field. No known propagating wave mode has this polarization nor a signal propagation velocity as high as those measured here. This study investigated and rejected an explanation based on an anomalous skin depth effect. Although only a hypothesis at this time, a more promising explanation involving the generation of the pulse via a nonlinear decay of whistler mode waves in the frequency range 10-80 kHz is being investigated.

  15. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  16. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  17. Dynamics of magnetic particles suspended in Newtonian fluids under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Mingyang; Walker, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic structures are commonly found in natural materials. Researchers are committed to developing meta-materials that mimic natural materials by introducing anisotropic filler particles. These materials can exhibit enhanced magnetic, mechanical, optical, and diffusive properties. In this study, a magnetic field is used to align magnetic oblate spheroids. We present an analytic solution based on a single-particle Stokes-flow model that describes the planar alignment of the particle in a rotating magnetic field. The analytic solution covers the full range of the magnetic field frequency agreeing well with our experimental results. Asymptotic solutions are also developed at both the high-frequency and the low-frequency limits of the field. The induced dipole of each particle can create its own magnetic field that can interact with neighboring particles, causing particles to aggregate. Different structures of particles are formed depending on the characteristics of the field, i.e., one-dimensional columns of particles in a constant field and two-dimensional sheets of particles in a rotating field. To simulate the realistic dynamics of the phenomena, we include hydrodynamic interactions between the particles via Stokesian dynamics.

  18. Measurement of time series variation of thermal diffusivity of magnetic fluid under magnetic field by forced Rayleigh scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motozawa, Masaaki; Muraoka, Takashi; Motosuke, Masahiro; Fukuta, Mitsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    It can be expected that the thermal diffusivity of a magnetic fluid varies from time to time after applying a magnetic field because of the growth of the inner structure of a magnetic fluid such as chain-like clusters. In this study, time series variation of the thermal diffusivity of a magnetic fluid caused by applying a magnetic field was investigated experimentally. For the measurement of time series variation of thermal diffusivity, we attempted to apply the forced Rayleigh scattering method (FRSM), which has high temporal and high spatial resolution. We set up an optical system for the FRSM and measured the thermal diffusivity. A magnetic field was applied to a magnetic fluid in parallel and perpendicular to the heat flux direction, and the magnetic field intensity was 70 mT. The FRSM was successfully applied to measurement of the time series variation of the magnetic fluid from applying a magnetic field. The results show that a characteristic configuration in the time series variation of the thermal diffusivity of magnetic fluid was obtained in the case of applying a magnetic field parallel to the heat flux direction. In contrast, in the case of applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the heat flux, the thermal diffusivity of the magnetic fluid hardly changed during measurement.

  19. Sensitivity of magnetic field gradients over Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykiev, Eldar; Ebbing, Jörg; Brönner, Marco; Fabian, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields from forward calculations of global crustal or lithospheric models cannot be compared easily with spherical harmonic (SH) crustal field models derived from the satellite observations. The reason for this is, that the lithospheric field has a significant part in the low-degree spherical harmonics (n<14) that are dominated by the core field. These low-degree harmonics are commonly zeroed out to retrieve the lithospheric magnetic field. In addition, at satellite height far-field effects from sources outside a regional study affect the long-wavelength part of the magnetic field. Because magnetic field gradients are less sensitive to the long wavelength anomalies, they are also less affected by the far field. However, the gradients still contain information about deep lithospheric structures. We present sensitivity tests based on a synthetic model of the Fennoscandian lithosphere to validate the influence of induced and remanent magnetization in magnetic data at the height of airborne surveys and satellite missions. The use of airborne data and satellite data is complementary because, due to their different height, they are sensitive to different depth domains. To correctly account for global and local aspects of the lithospheric field, our analysis is based on surface discretization by tesseroids (spherical prisms).

  20. Magneto-optical studies of magnetization processes in high-Tc superconductors structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasox, V. K.

    1998-12-02

    Magneto-optical imaging is a powerful tool for nondestructive quality control and scientific research through visualization of magnetic fields around any magnetic flux or current carrying sample. It allows real time observations of domain structures and their transformations in magnetics, static and dynamic field patterns due to inhomogeneous currents in electric circuits and superconductors, and reveals distortions of the fields due to defects. In addition to qualitative pictures showing different details in the intensities of the magneto-optical images, one can obtain quantitative maps of field distributions and retrieve values of the underlying currents or magnetization variations. In this review we discuss the advantages of magneto-optics for studies of superconductors, show its place among other techniques, and report recent results in magneto-optical investigations of high temperature superconductors (HTS).

  1. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-02-20

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma beta-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  2. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  3. Transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    We present spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. Long indirect exciton lifetimes give the opportunity to measure magnetoexciton transport by optical imaging. Indirect excitons formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels (0e-0h indirect magnetoexcitons) travel over large distances and form a ring emission pattern around the excitation spot. In contrast, the spatial profiles of 1e-1h and 2e-2h indirect magnetoexciton emission closely follow the laser excitation profile. The 0e-0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. These effects are explained in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement.

  4. Protein detection with magnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckhoff, Jan; Lak, Aidin; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A detection scheme based on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) dynamics in a rotating magnetic field for a quantitative and easy-to-perform detection of proteins is illustrated. For the measurements, a fluxgate-based setup was applied, which measures the MNP dynamics, while a rotating magnetic field is generated. The MNPs exhibit single iron oxide cores of 25 nm and 40 nm diameter, respectively, as well as a protein G functionalized shell. IgG antibodies were utilized as binding target molecules for the physical proof-of-concept. The measurement results were fitted with a theoretical model describing the magnetization dynamics in a rotating magnetic field. The established detection scheme allows quantitative determination of proteins even at a concentration lower than of the particles. The observed differences between the two MNP types are discussed on the basis of logistic functions.

  5. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  6. The Measurement of Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, H. J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

  7. Decay of Resonaces in Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We suggest that decay properties (branching ratios) of hadronic resonances may become modified in strong external magnetic field. The behavior of K±*, K0* vector mesons as well as Λ* (1520) and Ξ0* baryonic states is considered in static fields 1013-1015 T. In particular, n = 0 Landau level energy increase of charged particles in the external magnetic field, and the interaction of hadron magnetic moments with the field is taken into account. We suggest that enhanced yield of dileptons and photons from ρ0(770) mesons may occur if strong decay channel ρ0 → π+π- is significantly suppressed. CP - violating π+π- decays of pseudoscalar ηc and η(547) mesons in the magnetic field are discussed, and superpositions of quarkonium states ηc,b and χc,b(nP) with Ψ(nS), ϒ(nS) mesons in the external field are considered.

  8. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  9. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-11-01

    Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

  10. Comparative numerical analysis of magnetic and optical radiation propagation in adult human head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    In this work, magnetic and optical propagation in human head are modeled by FDTD and Monte Carlo methods. Both of them use a realistic high-resolution three-dimensional human head mesh. The numerical methods are applied to the analysis of magnetic and optical radiation distribution in the brain using different sources. The results show the characteristics of both types of stimulation, and highlight the spatial selectivity achieved by optical sources, which entails a high potential for illuminating specific brain regions. The presented approach can be applied for predictive purposes in magnetic stimulation techniques and in the emerging field of optical brain stimulation.

  11. Scattering in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Carey

    2002-08-19

    The fixed target program at Fermilab has come to an end. New projects are in the planning stage. Among them is a muon storage ring. Up to the present, all storage rings in high-energy physics have carried stable particles, namely the electron and proton and their antiparticles. The muon is unstable and decays with a mean lifetime of 2.0 x 10{sup -6} sec. Two types of cooling have been used in the past. One is stochastic cooling where an electrode is used to detect the positions of the particles and send a signal to another position across the ring. Through successive applications of this technique, the phase space is ultimately greatly reduced and beams can be made to collide with a useful event rate. The second type of cooling is electron cooling. Here protons and electrons are made to travel together for a short distance. Equipartition causes transfer of transverse energy of the protons to that of the electrons. Neither of these methods is fast enough to allow acceleration of a sufficient number of muons up to maximum energy before they decay. A new method known as ionization cooling has been proposed.[1] The muons are cooled by passing them through a container of liquid hydrogen. The energy loss reduces both transverse and longitudinal momentum. The longitudinal momentum is restored with RF cavities. The net result is to maintain the longitudinal momentum while cooling the transverse momentum. To minimize the total travel distance of the muons the liquid hydrogen is placed inside the focusing solenoids. The question arises as to whether the presence of the solenoids influences the phase space occupied by the muons. After the muon scatters it has transverse momentum. In a constant longitudinal magnetic field the trajectory wraps around the field lines and coincides in momentum and position with a particle which scatters one cycle later. Here we calculate the change in emittance for both a drift space and a solenoid. We find that the presence of the solenoid does

  12. Magnetic field homogeneity perturbations in finite Halbach dipole magnets.

    PubMed

    Turek, Krzysztof; Liszkowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Halbach hollow cylinder dipole magnets of a low or relatively low aspect ratio attract considerable attention due to their applications, among others, in compact NMR and MRI systems for investigating small objects. However, a complete mathematical framework for the analysis of magnetic fields in these magnets has been developed only for their infinitely long precursors. In such a case the analysis is reduced to two-dimensions (2D). The paper details the analysis of the 3D magnetic field in the Halbach dipole cylinders of a finite length. The analysis is based on three equations in which the components of the magnetic flux density Bx, By and Bz are expanded to infinite power series of the radial coordinate r. The zeroth term in the series corresponds to a homogeneous magnetic field Bc, which is perturbed by the higher order terms due to a finite magnet length. This set of equations is supplemented with an equation for the field profile B(z) along the magnet axis, presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the geometrical factors in the coefficients of particular powers of r, defined by intricate integrals are the coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the homogeneity profile (B(z)-Bc)/Bc. As a consequence, the components of B can be easily calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. In order to describe perturbations of the field due to segmentation, two additional equations are borrowed from the 2D theory. It is shown that the 2D approach to the perturbations generated by the segmentation can be applied to the 3D Halbach structures unless r is not too close to the inner radius of the cylinder ri. The mathematical framework presented in the paper was verified with great precision by computations of B by a highly accurate integration of the magnetostatic Coulomb law and utilized to analyze the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the magnet with the accuracy better than 1 ppm.

  13. Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1981-06-01

    The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction processes, and are therefore potentially sensitive to electrodynamic interactions with an applied magnetic field. In the specific case of the visual system, magnetic interactions could also arise through orientational effects on the magnetically anisotropic photopigment molecules within retinal photoreceptor cells. In addition to studies with potentially sensitive target tissues, an evaluation is being made of magnetic field effects on a broad range of other physiological functions in laboratory mammals, including the measurement of circadian rhythms using noninvasive recording techniques. Results of investigations of magnetic field effects on the conformation of DNA, and on the growth and development of plants and insects are also reported. Figures and tables provide a brief summary of some representative observations in each of the research areas described. No significant alterations were observed in any of the physiological parameters examined to date, with the exception of major changes that occur in the electrocardiogram during magnetic field exposure. Studies with several species of animals have provided evidence that this phenomenon is attributable to electrical potentials that are induced during pulsatile blood flow in the aorta and in other major vessels of the circulatory system.

  14. Creating superfluid vortex rings in artificial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Rashi; Busch, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Artificial gauge fields are versatile tools that allow the dynamics of ultracold atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates to be influenced. Here we discuss a method of artificial gauge field generation stemming from the evanescent fields of the curved surface of an optical nanofiber. The exponential decay of the evanescent fields leads to large gradients in the generalized Rabi frequency and therefore to the presence of geometric vector and scalar potentials. By solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of the artificial gauge fields originating from the fundamental Hybrid mode (HE11) mode of the fiber, we show that vortex rings can be created in a controlled manner. We also calculate the magnetic fields resulting from the higher order HE21, Transverse electric mode (TE01), and Transverse magnetic mode (TM01) and compare them to the fundamental HE11 mode.

  15. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  16. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  17. Surface magnetic fields across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, John D.

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen remarkable advances in spectropolarimetric instrumentation that have allowed us, for the first time, to identify some magnetic stars in most major stages of stellar evolution. We are beginning to see the broad outline of how such fields change during stellar evolution, to confront theoretical hypotheses and models of magnetic field structure and evolution with detailed data, and to understand more of the ways in which the presence of a field in turn affects stellar structure and evolution.

  18. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzózka, K.; Sovák, P.; Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B.

    2016-12-01

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  19. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

  20. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  1. Magnetic fields near Mars - First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Moehlmann, D.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Eroshenko, E.; Slavin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Mars have been measured from Phobos 2 with high temporal resolution in the tail and down to an 850-km altitude. During four successive highly elliptical orbits, the position of the bow shock as well as that of a transition layer, the 'planetopause', were identified. Subsequent circular orbits at 6000-km altitude provided the first high-resolution data in the planetary tail and indicate that the interplanetary magnetic field mainly controls the magnetic tail. Magnetic turbulence was also detected when the spacecraft crossed the orbit of Phobos, indicating the possible existence of a torus near the orbit of this moon.

  2. Foucault imaging and small-angle electron diffraction in controlled external magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kotani, Atsuhiro; Harada, Ken; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3, in order to visualize magnetic domains and their magnetic responses to external magnetic fields. In rhombohedral-structured LSMO, pinning of magnetic domain walls at crystallographic twin boundaries was found to have a strong influence on the generation of new magnetic domains in external applied magnetic fields.

  3. Magnetic field reconstruction based on sunspot oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Bello González, N.; Schmidt, W.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic field of a sunspot guides magnetohydrodynamic waves toward higher atmospheric layers. In the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere, wave modes with periods longer than the acoustic cut-off period become evanescent. The cut-off period essentially changes due to the atmospheric properties, e.g., increases for larger zenith inclinations of the magnetic field. In this work, we aim at introducing a novel technique of reconstructing the magnetic field inclination on the basis of the dominating wave periods in the sunspot chromosphere and upper photosphere. On 2013 August 21, we observed an isolated, circular sunspot (NOAA11823) for 58 min in a purely spectroscopic multi-wavelength mode with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectro-polarimeter (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. By means of a wavelet power analysis, we retrieved the dominating wave periods and reconstructed the zenith inclinations in the chromosphere and upper photosphere. The results are in good agreement with the lower photospheric HMI magnetograms. The sunspot's magnetic field in the chromosphere inclines from almost vertical (0°) in the umbra to around 60° in the outer penumbra. With increasing altitude in the sunspot atmosphere, the magnetic field of the penumbra becomes less inclined. We conclude that the reconstruction of the magnetic field topology on the basis of sunspot oscillations yields consistent and conclusive results. The technique opens up a new possibility to infer the magnetic field inclination in the solar chromosphere.

  4. Nonintrusive electro-optic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Walter L.

    1990-08-01

    This invention utilizes the property of an electro-optic crystal which changes its index of refraction in the presence of electric field. Such a crystal is placed inside the resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot type interferometer. Laser light travelling through the cavity and the crystal experiences modified optical path length in the presence of electric field. The fringe pattern at the focal plan is observed and used to detect and measures the ambient electric field.

  5. Optical transmission versus ac magnetization measurements for monitoring colloidal Ni nanorod rotational dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, M.; Tschöpe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ni nanorods with an average length < 250 nm and diameter < 30 nm were synthesized using the AAO template method. The magnetization and optical transmission of nanorod colloidal dispersions in alternating magnetic fields were measured and analyzed with the objective of comparing the intrinsic Brownian relaxation times obtained with the two methods. The different physical origin of the measured signal, related to different moments of the orientation distribution function, and the non-linear effects expected for the large magnetic moments of the Ni nanorods at common field amplitudes required a comprehensive modelling. The time-dependent magnetization and optical transmission in ac magnetic fields was derived by numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The simulated time-dependent magnetization and optical transmission at a given frequency and field amplitude were analyzed analogous to experimental data to determine characteristic relaxation frequencies. Empirical relationships were derived which enabled extraction of the intrinsic Brownian relaxation time from the characteristic frequencies measured in the non-linear regime. Despite large differences in the characteristic frequencies obtained from magnetization and optical transmission measurements, the retrieved intrinsic Brownian relaxation times were found to agree well. The potential of ac magnetic field-dependent optical transmission for biosensing applications was demonstrated by monitoring the adsorption of the protein gelatine on the nanorod labels.

  6. Magnetic induction-induced resistive heating of optical fibers and gratings.

    PubMed

    Canning, John; Naqshbandi, Masood; Cook, Kevin; Huyang, George

    2013-03-15

    Magnetic induction heating of optical fibers packaged with a steel plate is studied using a fiber Bragg grating. The dependence on the induced wavelength shift with magnetic field is obtained for a commercially available induction heater. More than a 300°C temperature rise is observed within seconds. The potential of magnetic induction as an efficient and rapid means of modulating devices and as a novel approach to potential optical based magnetic field and current sensing is proposed and discussed. The extension of the ideas into micro and nanophotonics is described.

  7. Nuclear Spin Maser at Highly Stabilized Low Magnetic Field and Search for Atomic EDM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, A.; Asahi, K.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kagami, S.

    2009-08-04

    A nuclear spin maser is operated at a low static field through an active feedback scheme based on an optical nuclear spin detection and succeeding spin control by a transverse field application. The frequency stability of this optical-coupling spin maser is improved by installation of a low-noise current source for a solenoid magnet producing a static magnetic field in the maser operation. Experimental devices for application of the maser to EDM experiment are being developed.

  8. Magnetic field aberration induced by cycle stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Yang; luming, Li; Xing, Chen

    2007-05-01

    Magneto-mechanical effect has been causing people's growing interest because of its relevance to several technology problems. One of them is the variation of surface magnetic field induced by stress concentration under the geomagnetic field. It can be used as an innovative, simple and convenient potential NDE method, called as magnetic memory method. However, whether and how this can be used as a quantitative measurement method, is still a virginal research field where nobody sets foot in. In this paper, circle tensile stress within the elastic region was applied to ferromagnetic sample under geomagnetic field. Experiment results on the relation between surface magnetic field and elastic stress were presented, and a simple model was derived. Simulation of the model was reconciled with the experimental results. This can be of great importance for it provides a brighter future for the promising Magnetic Memory NDE method—the potential possibility of quantitative measurement.

  9. Generation of solar magnetic fields. I. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    Attention is given to those magnetic field properties which allow the fields to destroy themselves rapidly, thereby producing solar, stellar and geomagnetic activity. Magnetic fields actively figure in the production of flares, plages, eruptions and streamers. The existence of magnetic fields in other stars is inferred from the X-rays that can be observed to radiate from them. In the second part of this paper, the discussion in the first part of the generation of magnetic fields from the motion of conducting fluids is further developed through the proposal of the 'short, sudden' idealization, and quick bursts of turbulence during which any degree of twisting and rotation can be accomplished are introduced. After these quick bursts of motion, the fluid is held motionless so that small scale irregularities subside, leaving a smooth, average and large scale state. This cycle is repeated at time intervals tau, producing the dynamo equations for the mean vector potential.

  10. How are static magnetic fields detected biologically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that life, from bacteria to birds to bats, detects magnetic fields, using the fields for orientation or navigation. Indeed there are recent reports (based on Google Earth imagery) that cattle and deer align themselves with the earth's magnetic field. [1]. The development of frog and insect eggs are changed by high magnetic fields, probably through known physical mechanisms. However, the mechanisms for eukaryotic navigation and alignment are not clear. Persuasive published models will be discussed. Evidence, that static magnetic fields might produce therapeutic effects, will be updated [2]. [4pt] [1] S. Begall, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105:13451 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. Finegold and B.L. Flamm, BMJ, 332:4 (2006).

  11. The Magnetic Field Geometry of Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Victor; Jardine, Moira; Vidotto, Aline; Donati, Jean-Francois; Folsom, Colin; Boro Saikia, Sudeshna; Bouvier, Jerome; Fares, Rim; Gregory, Scott; Hussain, Gaitee; Jeffers, Sandra; Marsden, Stephen; Morin, Julien; Moutou, Claire; do Nascimento, Jose-Dias, Jr.; Petit, Pascal; Rosen, Lisa; Waite, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging has been used to map the large-scale surface magnetic fields of cool stars across a wide range of stellar masses and rotation periods. The derived field geometries are surprising, with many stars showing strong azimuthal fields that are not observed on the Sun. In this poster, using 100 magnetic maps of over 50 stars, we present results showing how the magnetic field geometry of cool stars varies as a function of fundamental parameters. The stellar mass, and hence internal structure, critically influences the field geometry, although this is modified by the stellar rotation rate. We discuss the implications of these results for dynamo theory and the nature of stellar magnetic activity.

  12. ASYMMETRIC DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2013-04-20

    Stochasticity of magnetic field lines is important for particle transport properties. Magnetic field lines separate faster than diffusively in turbulent plasma, which is called superdiffusion. We discovered that this superdiffusion is pronouncedly asymmetric, so that the separation of field lines along the magnetic field direction is different from the separation in the opposite direction. While the symmetry of the flow is broken by the so-called imbalance or cross-helicity, the difference between forward and backward diffusion is not directly due to imbalance, but a non-trivial consequence of both imbalance and non-reversibility of turbulence. The asymmetric diffusion perpendicular to the mean magnetic field entails a variety of new physical phenomena, such as the production of parallel particle streaming in the presence of perpendicular particle gradients. Such streaming and associated instabilities could be significant for particle transport in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas.

  13. Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.

  14. The magnetic field of Mercury, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1974-01-01

    An updated analysis and interpretation is presented of the magnetic field observations obtained during the Mariner 10 encounter with the planet Mercury. The combination of data relating to position of the detached bow shock wave and magnetopause, and the geometry and magnitude of the magnetic field within the magnetosphere-like region surrounding Mercury, lead to the conclusion that an internal planetary field exists with dipole moment approximately 5.1 x 10 the 22nd power Gauss sq cm. The dipole axis has a polarity sense similar to earth's and is tilted 7 deg from the normal to Mercury's orbital plane. The magnetic field observations reveal a significant distortion of the modest Hermean field (350 Gamma at the equator) by the solar wind flow and the formation of a magnetic tail and neutral sheet which begins close to the planet on the night side. The composite data is not consistent with a complex induction process driven by the solar wind flow.

  15. Polymeric variable optical attenuators based on magnetic sensitive stimuli materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pedro, S.; Cadarso, V. J.; Ackermann, T. N.; Muñoz-Berbel, X.; Plaza, J. A.; Brugger, J.; Büttgenbach, S.; Llobera, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetically-actuable, polymer-based variable optical attenuators (VOA) are presented in this paper. The design comprises a cantilever which also plays the role of a waveguide and the input/output alignment elements for simple alignment, yet still rendering an efficient coupling. Magnetic properties have been conferred to these micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) by implementing two different strategies: in the first case, a magnetic sensitive stimuli material (M-SSM) is obtained by a combination of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and ferrofluid (FF) in ratios between 14.9 wt % and 29.9 wt %. An M-SSM strip under the waveguide-cantilever, defined with soft lithography (SLT), provides the required actuation capability. In the second case, specific volumes of FF are dispensed at the end of the cantilever tip (outside the waveguide) by means of inkjet printing (IJP), obtaining the required magnetic response while holding the optical transparency of the waveguide-cantilever. In the absence of a magnetic field, the waveguide-cantilever is aligned with the output fiber optics and thus the intrinsic optical losses can be obtained. Numerical simulations, validated experimentally, have shown that, for any cantilever length, the VOAs defined by IJP present lower intrinsic optical losses than their SLT counterparts. Under an applied magnetic field (Bapp), both VOA configurations experience a misalignment between the waveguide-cantilever and the output fiber optics. Thus, the proposed VOAs modulate the output power as a function of the cantilever displacement, which is proportional to Bapp. The experimental results for the three different waveguide-cantilever lengths and six different FF concentrations (three per technology) show maximum deflections of 220 µm at 29.9 wt % of FF for VOASLT and 250 µm at 22.3 wt % FF for VOAIJP, at 0.57 kG for both. These deflections provide maximum actuation losses of 16.1 dB and 18.9 dB for the VOASLT and VOAIJP

  16. Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Orco, D.; Chen, Y.

    1991-03-01

    The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results show that the ANSYS solution converges toward the analytical solution and that the error on the multipole coefficients depends linearly on the square of the mesh size. This shows the good accuracy of ANSYS in computing the multipole coefficients. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ultracold atoms in strong synthetic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The Harper Hofstadter Hamiltonian describes charged particles in the lowest band of a lattice at high magnetic fields. This Hamiltonian can be realized with ultracold atoms using laser assisted tunneling which imprints the same phase into the wavefunction of neutral atoms as a magnetic field dose for electrons. I will describe our observation of a bosonic superfluid in a magnetic field with half a flux quantum per lattice unit cell, and discuss new possibilities for implementing spin-orbit coupling. Work done in collaboration with C.J. Kennedy, G.A. Siviloglou, H. Miyake, W.C. Burton, and Woo Chang Chung.

  18. Relativistic electron in curved magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, S.

    1985-01-01

    Making use of the perturbation method based on the nonlinear differential equation theory, the author investigates the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a class of curved magnetic fields which may be written as B=B(O,B sub phi, O) in cylindrical coordinates (R. phi, Z). Under general astrophysical conditions the author derives the analytical expressions of the motion orbit, pitch angle, etc., of the electron in their dependence upon parameters characterizing the magnetic field and electron. The effects of non-zero curvature of magnetic field lines on the motion of electrons and applicabilities of these results to astrophysics are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic-field induced critical endpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechenberger, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is analyzed utilizing the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Special emphasis is placed on its dependence on an external magnetic field and isospin chemical potential. Using flavor mixing induced by instanton effects the influence of isospin breaking due to the magnetic field and the isospin chemical potential is compared. It is found that at low temperatures and large quark chemical potential the magnetic field, depending on its strength, induces a new critical endpoint or a triple point.

  20. Oscillations of Magnetic Fluid Column in Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Storozhenko, A. M.; Platonov, V. B.; Lobova, O. V.; Ryapolov, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the results of measuring the elastic parameters (ponderomotive elasticity coefficient, oscillation frequency, attenuation coefficient) of the oscillatory system with an inertial element that is a magnetic fluid column retained in a tube due to magnetic levitation in a strong magnetic field. Elasticity is provided by the ponderomotive force which affects the upper and lower thin layers of the fluid column. Measurement results of vibration parameters of the oscillatory system can be useful for the investigations of magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids.

  1. Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Winters, W.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. Studies about the effects of 50- to 100-Hz electromagnetic fields on various species of animal embryos (fish, chick, fly, sea urchin, rat, and mouse) indicate that early stages of embryonic development are responsive to fluctuating magnetic fields. Chick, sea urchin, and mouse embryos are responsive to magnetic field intensities of 10-100 mG. Results from studies on sea urchin embryos indicate that exposure to conditions of rotating 60-Hz magnetic fields, e.g., similar to those in our environment, interferes with cell proliferation at the morula stage in a manner dependent on field intensity. The cleavage stages, prior to the 64-cell stage, were not delayed by this rotating 60-Hz magnetic field suggesting that the ionic surges, DNA replication, and translational events essential for early cleavage stages were not significantly altered. Studies of histone synthesis in early sea urchin embryos indicated that the rotating 60-Hz magnetic field decreased zygotic expression of early histone genes at the morula stage and suggests that this decrease in early histone production was limiting to cell proliferation. Whether these comparative observations from animal development studies will be paralleled by results from studies of human embryogenesis, as suggested by some epidemiology studies, has yet to be established. 38 refs.

  2. Magnetic Field in X-Ray Binary Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitskaya, E. A.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Hubrig, S.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Pogodin, M. A.; Yudin, R. V.; Agafonov, M. I.; Sharova, O. I.

    Our spectroscopic observations with FORS1 at 8.2-m VLT telescope (Paranal, Chile) lead to detection of magnetic field in the X-ray binary Cyg X-1. That is the first successful attempt of measuring magnetic field in a binary with a black hole. The value of the mean longitudinal magnetic field in optical component (O9.7 Iab supergiant) changes regularly with the orbital phase reaching its maximum of 130 G (σ≈20 G). The measurements based on Zeeman effect were carried through over all observed supergiant photosphere absorption spectral lines. Similar measurements over the emission line He II λ 4686 Å yielded a value of several hundreds Gauss of a smaller significance level. The system Doppler tomogram we build over the line profiles shows that He II λ 4686 Å originates in the outer regions of the accretion structure. The values measured correspond, in the frame of the disc accretion standard model, to a near-black-hole field of ˜ 10^8-10^9 G and may be responsible for the observed Cyg X-1 X-ray flickering. Also some consequences of such magnetic field existence in Cyg X-1 optical component photosphere were suggested.

  3. Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, Duene E.

    J.A. Jacobs of Cambridge University has written a concise, authoritative, and up-todate text on reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Chapter 1 is a concise summary of the basic attributes of the geomagnetic field and its behavior in different time frames. It explains spherical harmonic analysis of the field and presents the history of acquisition of the data that best represent the recent field. Lastly, it includes a short summary of the origin and electrodynamics of the magnetic field, outlining the current theoretical basis for its generation.

  4. Dynamo Models for Saturn's Axisymmetric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, S.; Tajdaran, K.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic field measurements by the Cassini mission have confirmed the earlier Pioneer 11 and Voyager missions' results that Saturn's observed magnetic field is extremely axisymmetric . For example, Saturn's dipole tilt is less than 0.06 degrees (Cao et al., 2011) . The nearly-perfect axisymmetry of Saturn's dipole is troubling because of Cowling's Theorem which states that an axisymmetric magnetic field cannot be maintained by a dynamo. However, Cowling's Theorem applies to the magnetic field generated inside the dynamo source region and we can avert any contradiction with Cowling's Theorem if we can find reason for a non-axisymmetric field generated inside the dynamo region to have an axisymmetrized potential field observed at satellite altitude. Stevenson (1980) proposed a mechanism for this axisymmetrization. He suggested that differential rotation in a stably-stratified electrically conducting layer (i.e. the helium rain-out layer) surrounding the dynamo could act to shear out the non-axisymmetry and hence produce an axisymmetric observed magnetic field. In previous work, we used three-dimensional self-consistent numerical dynamo models to demonstrate that a thin helium rain-out layer can produce a more axisymmetrized field (Stanley, 2010). We also found that the direction of the zonal flows in the layer is a crucial factor for magnetic field axisymmetry. Here we investigate the influence of the thickness of the helium rain-out layer and the intensity of the thermal winds on the axisymmetrization of the field. We search for optimal regions in parameter space for producing axisymmetric magnetic fields with similar spectral properties to the observed Saturnian field.

  5. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  6. Directed Plasma Flow across Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presura, R.; Stepanenko, Y.; Neff, S.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2008-04-01

    The Hall effect plays a significant role in the penetration of plasma flows across magnetic field. For example, its effect may become dominant in the solar wind penetration into the magnetosphere, in the magnetic field advection in wire array z-pinch precursors, or in the arcing of magnetically insulated transmission lines. An experiment performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility explored the penetration of plasma with large Hall parameter (˜10) across ambient magnetic field. The plasma was produced by ablation with the short pulse high intensity laser Leopard (0.35 ps, 10^17W/cm^2) and the magnetic field with the pulsed power generator Zebra (50 T). The expanding plasma assumed a jet configuration and propagated beyond a distance consistent with a diamagnetic bubble model. Without magnetic field, the plasma expansion was close to hemispherical. The ability to produce the plasma and the magnetic field with distinct generators allows a controlled, quasi-continuous variation of the Hall parameter and other plasma parameters making the experiments useful for benchmarking numerical simulations.

  7. Effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cyclotron motion coherence at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional code based on the particle-in-cell algorithm modified to account for the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field was applied to determine the effect of Z(1), Z(2), Z(3), Z(4), X, Y, ZX, ZY, XZ(2) YZ(2), XY and X(2)-Y(2) components of an orthogonal magnetic field expansion on ion motion during detection in an FT-ICR cell. Simulations were performed for magnetic field strengths of 4.7, 7, 14.5 and 21 Tesla, including experimentally determined magnetic field spatial distributions for existing 4.7 T and 14.5 T magnets. The effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cloud stabilization ("ion condensation") at high numbers of ions was investigated by direct simulations of individual ion trajectories. Z(1), Z(2), Z(3) and Z(4) components have the largest effect (especially Z(1)) on ion cloud stability. Higher magnetic field strength and lower m/z demand higher relative magnetic field homogeneity to maintain cloud coherence for a fixed time period. The dependence of mass resolving power upper limit on Z(1) inhomogeneity is evaluated for different magnetic fields and m/z. The results serve to set the homogeneity requirements for various orthogonal magnetic field components (shims) for future FT-ICR magnet design.

  8. Artificial magnetic field induced by an evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Mochol, Małgorzata; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Cold atomic gases are perfect laboratories for realization of quantum simulators. In order to simulate solid state systems in the presence of magnetic fields special effort has to be made because atoms are charge neutral. There are different methods for realization of artificial magnetic fields, that is the creation of specific conditions so that the motion of neutral particles mimics the dynamics of charged particles in an effective magnetic field. Here, we consider adiabatic motion of atoms in the presence of an evanescent wave. Theoretical description of the adiabatic motion involves artificial vector and scalar potentials related to the Berry phases. Due to the large gradient of the evanescent field amplitude, the potentials can be strong enough to induce measurable effects in cold atomic gases. We show that the resulting artificial magnetic field is able to induce vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped close to a surface of a prism where the evanescent wave is created. We also analyze motion of an atomic cloud released from a magneto-optical trap that falls down on the surface of the prism. The artificial magnetic field is able to reflect falling atoms that can be observed experimentally. PMID:25567430

  9. High Field Pulse Magnets with New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lesch, B.; Cochran, V. G.; Eyssa, Y.; Tozer, S.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2004-11-01

    High performance pulse magnets using the combination of CuNb conductor and Zylon fiber composite reinforcement with bore sizes of 24, 15 and 10 mm have been designed, manufactured and tested to destruction. The magnets successfully reached the peak fields of 64, 70 and 77.8 T respectively with no destruction. Failures occurred near the end flanges at the layer. The magnet design, manufacturing and testing, and the mode of the failure are described and analyzed.

  10. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems.

  11. Compact Electric- And Magnetic-Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Compact sensor measures both electric and magnetic fields. Includes both short electric-field dipole and search-coil magnetometer. Three mounted orthogonally providing triaxial measurements of electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from near 0 to about 10 kHz.

  12. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Kobayashi, Takeshi E-mail: takeshi.kobayashi@sissa.it

    2016-03-01

    We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T{sub reh} ∼< 10{sup 2} MeV can magnetic fields of 10{sup −15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

  13. MRS photodiode in strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Zutshi, v.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2004-12-01

    The experimental results on the performance of the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiode in the strong magnetic field of 4.4T, and the possible impact of the quench of the magnet at 4.5T on sensor's operation are reported.

  14. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  15. Field-Sensitive Materials for Optical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Little, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of investigation is to develop the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics that are essential for industry, NASA, and DOD (Department of Defense) applications such as: membrane optics, filters for LIDARs (Light Detection and Ranging), windows for sensors and probes, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, light valves, light switches, flat-panel displays, etc. The proposed idea is based on the quantum-dots (QD) array or thin-film of field-sensitive Stark and Zeeman materials and the bound excitonic state of organic crystals that will offer optical adaptability and reconfigurability. Major tasks are the development of concept demonstration article and test data of field-controlled spectrally smart active optics (FCSAO) for optical multi-functional capabilities on a selected spectral range.

  16. Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, Th.; van den Berg, H. A. M.; Hohlfeld, J.; Bär, L.; Rasing, Th.

    2002-08-01

    Since the invention of the first magnetic memory disk in 1954, much effort has been put into enhancing the speed, bit density and reliability of magnetic memory devices. In the case of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices, fast coherent magnetization rotation by precession of the entire memory cell is desired, because reversal by domain-wall motion is much too slow. In principle, the fundamental limit of the switching speed via precession is given by half of the precession period. However, under-critically damped systems exhibit severe ringing and simulations show that, as a consequence, undesired back-switching of magnetic elements of an MRAM can easily be initiated by subsequent write pulses, threatening data integrity. We present a method to reverse the magnetization in under-critically damped systems by coherent rotation of the magnetization while avoiding any ringing. This is achieved by applying specifically shaped magnetic field pulses that match the intrinsic properties of the magnetic elements. We demonstrate, by probing all three magnetization components, that reliable precessional reversal in lithographically structured micrometre-sized elliptical permalloy elements is possible at switching times of about 200ps, which is ten times faster than the natural damping time constant.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  18. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  19. Topology of Saturn's main magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-08-01

    The reported analysis of Saturn's main magnetic field takes into account the data obtained by Voyager 1 during its close flyby of Saturn in November 1980. A magnetic field model for the analysis of Saturn's main field in which the distributed ring currents are explicitly modelled is constructed. The considered internal field parameters constitute a first approximation to Saturn's main field. Several model current systems that might be expected on physical grounds to be active in Saturn's magnetosphere are considered. It is pointed out that certain aspects of Saturn's main magnetic field relevant to the planet's interior have been discussed by Stevenson (1980). In particular, the unexpectedly small dipole moment seems to be consistent with the gravitational settling of helium, which leads to a much smaller electrically conducting and convecting region than would be expected of a homogeneous distribution of hydrogen and helium.

  20. Effect of a magnetic field on sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yasui, K

    1999-08-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on single-bubble sonoluminescence in water reported experimentally by Young, Schmiedel, and Kang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996)] is studied theoretically. It is suggested that bubble dynamics is affected by the magnetic field because moving water molecules of the liquid suffer torque due to the Lorentz force acting on their electrical dipole moment, which results in the transformation of some of the kinetic energy into heat. It is shown that the magnetic field acts as if the ambient pressure of the liquid were increased. It is suggested that the effect increases as the amount of the liquid water increases. It is predicted that nonpolar liquid such as dodecane exhibits no effect of the magnetic field.

  1. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  2. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequencies correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic field used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for discerning changes in sensor s response kequency, resistance and amplitude is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminating the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  3. Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

  4. The Magnetic Field of Helmholtz Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, H. J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the magnetic field of Helmholtz coils qualitatively and then provides the basis for a quantitative expression. Since the mathematical calculations are very involved, a computer program for solving the mathematical expression is presented and explained. (GS)

  5. Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2011-07-13

    Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.

  6. High-Field Superconducting Magnets Supporting PTOLEMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Ann; Luo, Audrey; Osherson, Benjamin; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Cohen, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) is an experiment planned to collect data on Big Bang relic neutrinos, which are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Currently, a proof-of-principle prototype is being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test key technologies associated with the experiment. A prominent technology in the experiment is the Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation with an Electrostatic Filter (MAC-E filter), which guides tritium betas along magnetic field lines generated by superconducting magnets while deflecting those of lower energies. B field mapping is performed to ensure the magnets produce a minimum field at the midpoint of the configuration of the magnets and to verify accuracy of existing models. Preliminary tests indicate the required rapid decrease in B field strength from the bore of the more powerful 3.35 T magnet, with the field dropping to 0.18 T approximately 0.5 feet from the outermost surface of the magnet.

  7. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOEpatents

    Skaritka, John R.

    1987-12-01

    a method for manufacturing a magnet cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely positioned thereon, is accurately positioned at a precise location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator.

  8. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOEpatents

    Skaritka, J.R.

    1987-05-15

    A method for manufacturing a magnetic cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible substrate sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator. 1 fig.

  9. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time- independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  10. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time-independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  11. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kabakova, I. V.; de Hoogh, A.; van der Wel, R. E. C.; Wulf , M.; le Feber, B.; Kuipers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire’s evanescent field and the probe’s response function. As a result, we find that the probe’s sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments. PMID:26947124

  12. Growing Magnetic Fields in Central Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, C. G.; Page, D.

    2011-10-01

    We study the effects of growth models of magnetic fields in Central Compact Objects (CCOs). Such a field evolution is not a new idea (Blandford, Applegate, & Hernquist 1983) but the evolutionary implications not have been followed up completely (Michel 1994). We discussed the new class of neutron stars which belong to five main types that have mainly been recognized in the last ten years. The possibility that a rapid weakly magnetized pulsar might have formed in SN1987A is commented.

  13. The magnetic field investigation on Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Southwood, D. J.; Musmann, G.; Luhr, H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Riedler, W.; Heyn, M. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic field investigation of the Cluster four-spacecraft mission is designed to provide intercalibrated measurements of the B magnetic field vector. The instrumentation and data processing of the mission are discussed. The instrumentation is identical on the four spacecraft. It consists of two triaxial fluxgate sensors and of a failure tolerant data processing unit. The combined analysis of the four spacecraft data will yield such parameters as the current density vector, wave vectors, and the geometry and structure of discontinuities.

  14. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan; Qiu, Keping; Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Frau, Pau; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  15. Untwisting magnetic fields in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ramit; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr; Chye Low, Boon

    2012-07-01

    The solar corona is the tenuous atmosphere of the Sun characterized by a temperature of the order of million degrees Kelvin, an ambient magnetic field of 10 to 15 Gauss and a very high magnetic Reynolds number because of which it qualifies as a near-ideal magnetofluid system. It is well known that for such a system, the magnetic flux across every fluid surface remains effectively constant to a good approximation. Under this so called ``frozen-in'' condition then, it is possible to partition this magnetofluid into contiguous magnetic subvolumes each entrapping its own subsystem of magnetic flux. Thin magnetic flux tubes are an elementary example of such magnetic subvolumes evolving in time with no exchange of fluid among them. The internal twists and interweaving of these flux tubes, collectively referred as the magnetic topology, remains conserved under the frozen-in condition. Because of the dynamical evolution of the magnetofluid, two such subvolumes can come into direct contact with each other by expelling a third interstitial subvolume. In this process, the magnetic field may become discontinuous across the surface of contact by forming a current sheet there. Because of the small spatial scales generated by steepening of magnetic field gradient, the otherwise negligible resistivity becomes dominant and allows for reconnection of field lines which converts magnetic energy into heat. This phenomenon of spontaneous current sheet formation and its subsequent resistive decay is believed to be a possible mechanism for heating the solar corona to its million degree Kelvin temperature. In this work the dynamics of spontaneous current sheet formation is explored through numerical simulations and the results are presented.

  16. Cosmic Magnetic Fields: Observations and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2011-09-01

    Synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation at radio frequencies of 0.2-10 GHz are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of cosmic magnetic fields. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in galactic spiral arms and bars (20-30 μG) and in central starburst regions (50-100 μG). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular (uni-directional) or anisotropic random (generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear). Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. The strongest ordered (mostly regular) fields of 10-15 μG strength are generally found in galactic interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields probably generated by a mean-field dynamo. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns.--The strength of the total magnetic field in our Milky Way is about 6 μG near the solar radius, but several mG in dense clouds, pulsar wind nebulae, and filaments near the Galactic Center. Diffuse polarized radio emission and Faraday rotation data from pulsars and background sources show spiral fields with large-scale reversals, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still under debate.--Diffuse radio emission from the halos of galaxy clusters is mostly unpolarized because intracluster magnetic fields are turbulent, while cluster

  17. The magnetic field of a permanent hollow cylindrical magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Felix A.; Stahn, Oliver; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the rational version of M AXWELL's equations according to T RUESDELL and T OUPIN or KOVETZ, cf. (Kovetz in Electromagnetic theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000; Truesdell and Toupin in Handbuch der Physik, Bd. III/1, Springer, Berlin, pp 226-793; appendix, pp 794-858, 2000), we present, for stationary processes, a closed-form solution for the magnetic flux density of a hollow cylindrical magnet. Its magnetization is constant in axial direction. We consider M AXWELL's equations in regular and singular points that are obtained by rational electrodynamics, adapted to stationary processes. The magnetic flux density is calculated analytically by means of a vector potential. We obtain a solution in terms of complete elliptic integrals. Therefore, numerical evaluation can be performed in a computationally efficient manner. The solution is written in dimensionless form and can easily be applied to cylinders of arbitrary shape. The relation between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field is linear, and an explicit relation for the field is presented. With a slight modification the result can be used to obtain the field of a solid cylindrical magnet. The mathematical structure of the solution and, in particular, singularities are discussed.

  18. Biological systems in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, A.

    1990-12-01

    Diamagnetic orientation of biological systems have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Fibrinogen, one of blood proteins, were polymerized in static high magnetic fields up to 8 T. Clotted gels composed of oriented fibrin fibers were obtained even in a field as low as 1 T. Red blood cells (RBC) show full orientation with their plane parallel to the applied field of 4 T. It is confirmed experimentally that the magnetic orientation of RBC is caused by diamagnetic anisotropy. Full orientation is also obtained with blood platelet in a field of 3 T.

  19. Electric and magnetic fields in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wowk, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetic warming has a long history in cryobiology as a preferred method for recovering large tissue masses from cryopreservation, especially from cryopreservation by vitrification. It is less well-known that electromagnetic fields may be able to influence ice formation during cryopreservation by non-thermal mechanisms. Both theory and published data suggest that static and oscillating electric fields can respectively promote or inhibit ice formation under certain conditions. Evidence is less persuasive for magnetic fields. Recent claims that static magnetic fields smaller than 1 mT can improve cryopreservation by freezing are specifically questioned.

  20. Magnetic field transfer device and method

    DOEpatents

    Wipf, S.L.

    1990-02-13

    A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180[degree] from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180[degree] from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils. 16 figs.